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Experiment Instructions

TM150 Universal Vibration


System
TM 150 Universal Vibration System
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Experiment Instructions

Publication No.: 914.000 00A 150 12 02/09


TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Table of contents
1 Teaching objective. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Technical description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2.1 Description of components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


2.1.1 Bench with frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.2 Pendulum experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.3 Spring-mass system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
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2.1.4 Beam oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


2.2 Commissioning and upkeep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.1 Filling damper cylinder with oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.2 Testing exciter unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.3 Upkeep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.1 Bench with frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.2 Pendulum experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.3 Spring-mass system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.4 Beam oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.4 Control unit TM 150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

3 Experiments with pendulums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.1 Mathematical pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


3.2 Physical pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.3 Reduced pendulum length and centre of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.4 Reversible pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.5 Wooden pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.6 Pendulum with bifilar suspension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

4 Experiments with spring-mass system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.1 Set-up of spring-mass system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28


4.2 Determination of spring constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2.1 Performing the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2.2 Evaluation of experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5 Natural oscillation -bar oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

5.1 Set-up of beam oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


5.3 Non-damped oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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5.3.1 Equation of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


5.3.2 Performing the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.3.3 Results of experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.4 Damped oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.4.1 Equation of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.4.2 Damper installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.4.3 Performing experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.4.5 Evaluation of experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

6 Forced oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

6.1 Equation of motion - beam oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


6.2 Set-up of beam oscillator with exciter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.3 Undamped resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.3.1 Installing pen for circular plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.3.2 Performing the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.4 Plotting of resonance curves with damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.4.1 Set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.4.2 Performing the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.4.3 Evaluation of experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.4.4 Amplitude measuring using the contact unit . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6.5 Absorber experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


6.5.1 Set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.5.2 Performing the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

7 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

7.1 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.2 Control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.3 Worksheet circular plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.4 Symbols and formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.4.1 List of symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
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7.4.2 List of formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64


7.5 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

1 Teaching objective

Vibration theory is an extremely difficult subject


which makes exacting demands of the basic ma-
thematical/physical knowledge of trainees. The
fundamental principles of oscillation are however
an absolute prerequisite in the engineering sector.

Use can be made of illustrative experiments to


simplify the understanding of this branch of phy-
sics.
The Vibration Training System TM 150 specially
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developed for this exacting field provides for expe-


rimental treatment of a wide range of oscillation-
related topics such as
- Pendulum oscillation
- Spring-mass systems
- Natural and forced oscillation
- Damped oscillation
- Beam oscillation
- 2-mass systems and absorber effects
All experiments are suitable for both demonstra-
tion and practical purposes.
Two plotters are available for recording oscillation
processes.
Each Section is preceded by a brief theoretical
introduction, where the most important terms in
vibration theory, such as equation of motion, sol-
ving methods, natural frequency, degree of dam-
ping, inertial force excitation and absorber effects
are explained before being consolidated by the
subsequent experiment.
This provides the correlation between theory
and experiment required for mastery of this com-
plex field.

1
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

The experiments presented do not claim to be


exhaustive; they are merely intended to give the
instructor an outline of the possibilities afforded
by the Vibration Training System TM 150.
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2
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

2 Technical description

2.1 Description of components

2.1.1 Bench with frame

The Oscillation Training System is housed on a


laboratory trolley.
- Mobility thanks to four castors
- Rigidity by virtue of two braked castors
- Large cabinet for storing individual compo-
nents
- Rigid sectional frame for setting up the various
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experiments
- Rapid attachment and simple adjustment of
components by way of T-slots, T-slot blocks
and clamping levers

2.1.2 Pendulum experiments

The equipment for the pendulum experiments con-


1 sists of various types of pendulumand a pendulum-
mount (1) for a knife-edge bearing witth a rope
clamping device.
- Two thread pendulums (2) with steel and woo-
2
den ball
3

- Two rod pendulums (3) with adjustable additio-


nal weights and knife-edge bearings

- Wooden pendulum (4) with adjustable additio-


nal mass made of steel and knife-edge bearing

4 - Pendulum (5) with bifilar suspension and


5
various additional masses

3
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

2.1.3 Spring-mass system


1 The spring-mass system consists of
- Height-adjustable spring mount (1)
- Holder (2) for accommodating various additio-
nal masses
6 4
- Guide (3) to avoid pendulum movement of
mass
5
- Helical springs (4) with different constants
2 - Various additional masses (5)
3
- Vernier depth gauge (6) for measuring deflection
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2.1.4 Beam oscillator

There are two types of beam oscillator available

- Rigid beam (1) as discrete torsional oscillator


3 supported by a locating bearing (2) and sus-
1
pended on a helical spring (3). A system of
holes makes it possible to attach springs, exci-
2 ter and damper (4) in a wide range of reproduci-
4 ble configurations
- Flexible beam (5) as oscillating continuum sup-
ported by one locating and one non-locating
5 bearing (2,6)
- Locating and non-locating bearing mounted on
2 6 ball bearings to minimize system damping

Extensive accessories for investigating natural and


forced oscillation

- Forced oscillation by way of exciter unit (7) with


7 adjustable frequency and force amplitude

4
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

- Damped oscillation by way of adjustable vi-


1 scous damper (1) with minimal coulomb friction

- Adjustable vibration absorber (2) for investiga -


ting absorber effects

The following are provided for plotting oscillation


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processes
- Mechanical plotter ( drum recorder, 3) for recor-
3 ding oscillation processes versus time

4
- Plotter (4) at exciter unit for determining phase
and amplitude with forced oscillation

- Contact (5) adjustable by way of micrometer (6)


5
for amplitude measurement and triggering of
stroboscopes
6

Control unit featuring precise regulation and dis-


7 8 play of excitation frequency.
- Ten-turn potentiometer (6) for setting frequency
- Digital counter (7) for displaying excitation fre-
quency in Hz
- Contact display (8) and TTL compatible output
6 9 (5V) for triggering stroboscopes
- Plotter actuation via button or switch (9)

5
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

2.2 Commissioning and upkeep

Place bench on a flat surface and secure with


brakes.
Check tightness of all screws whenever conversi-
on work has been performed.

2.2.1 Filling damper cylinder with oil

- Clamp damper (1) to stand (2)


- Attach stand and damper with clamping levers
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(3) to lower frame cross-member


4
- Screw out needle valve (4)
1 - Loosen 3 cap nuts of outer housing bolts and
2 remove cover (5)
- Pour in supplied oil until upper edge of damper
3
insert is covered to a height of 5 mm
- Move plunger rod (6) back and forth until cylin-
der has been completely bled ( no ascending
air bubbles)
- Top up oil if necessary
- Close cover
6
- Screw in needle valve as far as it will go and
5 check function:
Uniform resistance must be felt on moving
plunger rod back and forth.
- Jerking is an indication that there is still air in
the cylinder:
Screw out needle valve and actuate rod several
times

IMPORTANT: Oil emerges.


To minimize friction losses, the damper has no rod seal.
It should be transported and stored in an
upright position.

6
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

2.2.2 Testing exciter unit

Only operate exciter unit when it is firmly in


position
1
2
- Prior to switch-on, secure exciter unit in position
4 on beam (2) next to locating bearing with hex-
3
agon bolt M6 (1) (refer to Section 5.1, Design
of beam oscillator)

- Tighten knurled nut (3) for securing paper


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- Set unbalance mass to minimum unbalance.


Carefully retighten hexagon socket-head bolt.
Minimal
unbalance
- Use connecting cable to hook up exciter to socket
on back of control unit

- Prior to switch-on, set frequency potentiometer


on control unit to zero

- Slowly run up exciter.


It must reach the maximum frequency of 50 Hz

CAUTION: Rotating parts (external-rotor mo-


tor, belt drive and unbalance mass)
Do not hold exciter unit in hand when it is running!

7
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

2.2.3 Upkeep

- Protect anti-friction bearings (locating bearing,


non-locating bearing, unbalancer, guide bea-
ring - spring-mass oscillator) against dust and
dirt
- Apply low-viscosity mineral oil to all anti-friction
bearings and non-locating bearings from time
to time
- Lightly grease beams made of tool steel after
use to prevent corrosion
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8
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

2.3 Technical data

2.3.1 Bench with frame

Main dimensions L x W x H:
1000 x 800 x1800 mm
Frame opening L x H: 870 x 680 mm
Weight: 200 kg

2.3.2 Pendulum experiments

Support element with two vees and


two rope clamps
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Thread pendulums
Thread pendulum with steel ball
mass m: 520 g
max. length L: 1000 mm
Thread pendulum with wooden ball
mass m: 50 g
max. length L: 1000 mm

Rod pendulums
Rod pendulum, short
mass m: 316 g
length L: 800 mm
Rod pendulum, long
mass m: 395 g
length L: 1000 mm
2 additional weights, adjustable, steel
mass m: 492 g
2 knife-edge bearings, adjustable
mass m: 200 g

Wooden pendulum
mass m: 600 g
length L: 800 mm
Additional mass, steel
mass m: 481 g

9
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Clamping range, additional mass


x: 250 - 700 mm

Bifilar pendulum with suspension ropes


mass m: 432 g
max. length L: 1000 mm
For additional weights, see spring-mass system

2.3.3 Spring-mass system

Spring mount, adjustable


adjustment range: 130 mm
Guide plate with linear ball bearing
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Tension/compression springs with retaining


screws
1st constant c: 0.75 N/mm
2nd constant c: 1.50 N/mm
3rd constant c: 3.00 N/mm
Mass holder with guide rod
mass m: 1010 g
Additional masses
4 x mass m: 500 g
4 x mass m: 2000 g
Vernier depth gauge with holder
measuring range:200 mm

2.3.4 Beam oscillators

Beam, rigid W x H: 25 x 12 mm
mass m: 1680 g
length L: 700 mm
Beam, flexible W x H: 25 x 4 mm
mass m: 620 g
length L: 700 mm

For springs refer to spring-mass system

For spring mount refer to spring-mass system


Locating bearing for flexible and rigid beam

10
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Non-locating bearing for flexible beam

Damper
oscillating mass m: 130 g
damper constant b: 5 - 15 Ns/m
damper medium: hydraulic test fluid
viscosity at 20°C : 22 mm 2/s
Amplitude meter with contact
measuring range: 20 mm
Stand with base plate
height: 500 mm
Plotter, mechanical
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Chart width: 100 mm


Feed rate: 20 mm/s
Pen holder
for plotter, installation on beam
for circular plot, installation on frame

Exciter unit
Frequency range f: 0 - 50 Hz
Unbalance mass: 100 g
Eccentricity ε: 0 -10 mm
Unbalance m⋅ε: 0-1000 mmg
Total mass m: 772 g
Drive: d.c. servo-motor, brushless
ratio i: 3.2
Circular plot surface
Diameter: 100 mm
Absorber, adjustable
Frequency range f: 5 - 50 Hz
Weights: 368 g
Leaf springs: W x H: 20 x 1.5 mm
Total mass m 1100 g
Additional masses for attachment to exciter
2 x mass m: 50 g
1 x mass m: 100 g
2 x mass m: 200 g
1 x mass m: 400 g

11
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

2.3.4 Control unit TM 150

Frequency control, exciter motor


Infinitely variable frequency adjustment:
10-turn potentiometer
Frequency display f: 0 - 50 Hz
Amplitude measurement and stroboscope trig-
gering via contact
Display: LED
Output: 5 V TTL
Plotter control
Start-stop: button or latching
Power supply: 230V, 50 Hz
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Alternatives optional, see type plate

12
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

3 Experiments with pendulums

3.1 Mathematical pendulum

The simplest pendulum model is the mathematical


pendulum consisting of a concentrated mass
suspended on a thread of negligible weight.
The pendulum oscillates in one plane in the earth’s
field of gravity. The differential equation (equation
of motion) describing the movement of the pendu-
lum is to be derived from the adjacent diagram.
The solution to this equation of motion makes it
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possible to determine the period of oscillation of


the pendulum.
Length L
The pendulum is deflected about the angle ϕ, thus
ϕ raising the centre of gravity of the concentrated
mass by the quantity h. If the pendulum is relea-
Mass
h m sed, the restoring force FR - as a component of the
force due to weight - attempts to return the pendu-
Mathematical pendulum in lum to its initial position.
deflected position Application of the centre of gravity principle in the
x-direction with acceleration of the centre of gravity
.. ..
FS x,x x and restoring force FR = m ⋅ g ⋅ sin ϕ results in
..
FR m ⋅ x = − m ⋅ g ⋅ sin ϕ .
ϕ
Angular acceleration is then substitued for accele-
Force due to ..
ration x
weight
.. ..
x = L ⋅ ϕ, x=L⋅ϕ
Forces at concentrated mass
and the equation normalized
.. g
ϕ + sin ϕ = 0 .
L

13
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

This non-linear differential equation can be lineari-


zed for small deflections
sin ϕ = ϕ ,ϕ << π.

The equation of motion for the mathematical pen-


dulum is thus
.. g
ϕ+ ϕ=0.
L
^
Amplitude ϕ
The solution is a harmonic oscillation expressed as
Time t ^ sin ω t where ω is the frequency of the
ϕ (t) = ϕ
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oscillation.
Two differentiation operations and insertion of this
Periodic time T result in the equation of motion give

Harmonic oscillation ^ ω2 sin ω t + g ϕ


−ϕ ^ sin ω t = 0.
L

Solving to find the unknown frequency gives



g
ω= ,
L


T= ω =2π

 g
L
.

This is the natural frequency and period of oscilla-


tion of the pendulum. The sole governing factors
are the length L and the gravitation constant g. The
mass of the pendulum and the material of which it
is made in no way influence the natural frequency
and period of oscillation of the system.
Wood Steel

Mass / material has no effect on


period of oscillation

14
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Experiment: Thread pendulum with 1.5 s period of oscillation

Calculation of length (applies from suspension po-


int to centre of gravity of mass)

T2 1.5 2
L= g = 9.81 =0.559 m.
Rope clamps (2 π) 2 (2 π) 2

Both pendulums ( steel ball and wooden ball ) are


secured with a thread length of 0.559 m.
Despite the differences in mass (steel m= 520 g ,
wood m = 50 g) the periods of oscillation are
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virtually identical. Timing with a stopwatch results


in values of between 29.91 and 30.10 s for twenty
oscillations, with the mean value being
Steel Wood
T20 = 30.01 s .

Hence for one period


T = 1.50 s.

This value coincides well with the calculated result.


The experiment is then to be repeated with other
lengths L.
How long must a "seconds pendulum" be (periodic
time 2s )?

15
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

3.2 Physical pendulum

A physical pendulum is a pendulum where the


pendulum mass is not concentrated at one
point. Strictly speaking, in reality all pendulums are
physical, since it is not possible to achieve the ideal
concentration of mass at a single point.
A moment equilibrium is formed about the suspen-
O
sion point to establish the equation of motion.
Distance rso
Here again the pendulum is deflected about the
ϕ
angle ϕ. The component FR = m ⋅ g ⋅ sin ϕ of the
S force due to weight applied with the lever arm r so
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h
at the centre of gravity S likewise attempts to return
mg
the pendulum to its initial position. Given the mass
moment of inertia (MMI) Jo about the suspension
Physical pendulum with extensive point O this results in
mass distribution ..
Jo ⋅ ϕ = − rso ⋅ m g sin ϕ.

Substitution, linearization and normalization then


produce the equation of motion for the physical
pendulum
.. r m g
ϕ + so ϕ = 0.
Jo

Calculation of the natural frequency and period of


O oscillation is analogous to the mathematical pen-
L/2 dulum
L



m g rso
S ω= ,
ϕ Jo




Jo
T= ω =2π .
m g rso
Thin rod as pendulum
The MMI Jo about the suspension point O is deter-
mined from the MMI Js about the centre of gravity

16
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

and the Steiner component with a centre of gravity


distance rso.
By way of a simple example, consideration should
first be given to a thin, homogeneous rod of mass
m, where the centre of gravity distance r so = L/2

m ⋅ L2 L2 m ⋅ L2
Jo = Js + m ⋅ rso 2 = +m⋅ = .
12 4 3

The equation of motion is thus


.. 3 g
ϕ+ ϕ = 0,
2L
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with the natural frequency and the period of oscil-


lation being



3g
ω= ,
2L

T=

ω
=2π

√ 2 L
3 g
.

Experiment: Rod pendulum with a length of 800 mm

Calculation of periodic time


Vee

 g
√ =2π√

2L 2 0.8
T=2π = 1.465 s.
3 3 g

One end of the 800mm long pendulum rod is


provided with a knife edge and the rod then placed
in the vees of the pendulum mount.
Rod 800 mm The pendulum is gently set in motion (deflection at
bottom end roughly 10 cm) and the time taken for
twenty oscillations measured with a stopwatch.
Average reading

T20 = 29.33 s .

17
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Hence for one period


T = 1.4665 s.

This value coincides well with the calculated result.

Experiment: Comparison of rod and thread pendulum with same centre


of gravity distance

As the centre of gravity distance with the rod


pendulum is rso = L/2 = 400 mm, the thread pen-
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dulum is set to a length of 400 mm, thus resulting


in the following periodic time
S


√ 

L 0.4
L = 800 mm L = 400 mm T=2π =2π = 1.268 s.
g 9.81

A stopwatch is used to measure the time taken for


twenty oscillations.
Average reading:
T20 = 25.39 s .

Hence for one period


T = 1.2695 s.

Despite the fact that the centre of gravity is the


same distance from the suspension point, this
value is far smaller than for the rod pendulum,
which can be attributed to the greater mass mo-
ment of inertia of the latter.

18
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

3.3 Reduced pendulum length and centre of mass

The reduced pendulum length Lred of a physical


pendulum is the pendulum length of a mathemati-
cal pendulum with the same period of oscillation.
O The two periods are equated
L/2


√ 

Lred = 2/3 L Lred Jo
T=2π =2π ,
g m g rso
S
T
L Jo
Lred = .
m rso
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For the given rod pendulum, the reduced pendu-


Reduced pendulum lenght with lum length is
rod pendulum
2 m L2 2
Lred = = L = 0.533 m.
3mL 3

The reduced pendulum length describes the cen-


tre of mass T of the pendulum.
Experiment: Centre of mass

Impact on a pendulum at the centre of mass T does


not produce any support reactions at point O.
This can be demonstrated by suspending the rod
pendulum next to the vees and knocking the pen-
O dulum with a piece of wood.
Whereas the support is dislodged above and be-
1 low the centre of mass T (impacts 1 and 3), the
support O remains at rest when the point of impact
is at the centre of mass (2).
T 2
This only applies to the moment of impact, not to
the subsequent oscillation

Centre of mass

19
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Experiment: Comparison of rod and thread pendulum with same reduced


pendulum length Lred

The thread pendulum is set to a length of 533 mm.

If the two pendulums are set in motion at the same


L = 800 mm L = 533 mm
time, they oscillate virtually in parallel and have the
T same period of oscillation.

Same period od oscillation with the


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same reduced pendulum lengtht

Experiment: Pendulum with periodic time of 2 s ,"seconds pendulum"

The rod pendulum is to be given a periodic time of


2 s by shifting the support.
To do so, the pendulum must have the following
reduced pendulum length
2
.Lred =   g = 0.993 m
T
 2 π
rso
The reduced length of the rod pendulum is
O
S m L2
L Jo + m rso2
12
Lred Lred = = .
m rso m rso

Shortening the mass m and rearrangement give a


quadratic equation for the distance rso between sup-
port and centre of gravity

L2
T rso −rso Lred +
2
= 0.
12
Seconds pendulum

20
TM 150 Universal Vibration System



3 L2red − L2
rso1,2 = Lred⁄2 ± .
12

Of the two solutions, only rso = 0.0569 m can be


realized, with the result that the bearing is 0.3431m
from the end.
This setting produces a periodic time of T= 2.101s
in the experiment. The excessively long period can
be attributed to the additional MMI of the knife
edge. The exact value for rso of 0.064 m is ob-
tained by way of experiment.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

21
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

3.4 Reversible pendulum

This type of pendulum has two suspension points.


The special feature of such a pendulum is that the
period of oscillation at the two suspension points
is the same when the distance between the sus-
pension points is equal to the reduced pendulum
length. This effect is utilized to simulate an ideal
O1 O2 mathematical pendulum.
With a mathematical pendulum the distance be-
x = Lred tween the support and the centre of gravity of the
mass is equal to the reduced pendulum length. The
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

periodic time is governed solely by the reduced


O1
O2 pendulum length and the gravitation constant.
In view of the fact that mathematical determination
of the reduced pendulum length is relatively com-
T1 = T2 plex, it is established by way of experiment. The
distance x between the two supports is adjusted
until the periodic time T at both supports is the
same. The distance x then precisely corresponds
to the reduced pendulum length Lred.
Experiment: Reversible pendulum

For the purposes of this experiment the support O2


a0 is moved until the two periodic times are equal.
O1
For this purpose, the long rod pendulum ( L = 1000
mm) is provided with the two additional masses m1
a1 and m2 as well as two knife-edge bearings. The
x
positions can be seen from the adjacent diagram.
m1 a2

Starting from a bearing distance of x = 500 mm the


O2
figure is increased in 10 mm increments and the
m2 periods of oscillation measured at both bearings.
Rod lenght
L = 1000 mm
a0 = 150 mm
a1 = 350 mm
a2 = 600 mm
x = variable

22
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

To increase measurement accuracy, a stopwatch


is used to measure the time taken for 20 oscillati-
ons.

Measured values for reversible pendulum


Periodic times for 20 oscillations
Distance x Time, support O1 Time, support O2
500 mm 29.47 31.27
510 mm 29.34 30.48
520 mm 29.25 29.88
530 mm 29.32 29.30
540 mm 29.38 28.83
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In the grey field the periodic times are almost


identical and the reduced pendulum length is thus
Lred=530 mm.

Experiment: Determination of acceleration due to gravity

The acceleration due to gravity can be simply calcu-


lated from the periodic time of the mathematical pen-
dulum
T1,20 + T2,20
T= = 1.465s,
40

2 2
 2 π  2π  −2
g =   Lred = 
T 1.465  0.530 = 9.75 m s .
   

There is a deviation of - 0.6% as compared to


the acceleration due to gravity quoted in literatu-
re of g = 9.81 ms -1.

23
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

3.5 Wooden pendulum

The wooden pendulum serves as an example of


an inhomogeneous pendulum with a complicated
geometry. The period of oscillation can be set by
way of the attachable steel additional mass.
Experiment: Determination of mass moment of inertia

This pendulum is used to show how the MMI of an


unknown body can be determined by way of oscil-
O1 O2
lation. For this purpose, the pendulum is allowed
to oscillate about two different suspension points
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O1 and O2 ( for O2 a 6mm pin is placed through


x the slot) and the periods of oscillation T1 and T2
are measured
T1 = 1.438 s, T 2 = 1.558 s.

This makes it possible to establish the respective


reduced pendulum lengths
T1= 1.438 s T2 = 1.558 s 2
 T1 
Lred 1 =   g = 0.513 m,
2 π
2
 T2 
Lred 2 =   g = 0.603 m.
2 π

The following applies to a physical pendulum with


distance x between the two suspension points:
suspension point O1

Jo Js + m r2so
Lred 1 = =
m rso m rso

suspension point O2

Jo Js + m (x − rso)2
Lred 2 = = .
m (x − rso) m (x − rso)

24
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

If the two lengths are expressed as a ratio and then


solved to find rso, this gives
x (Lred 2 − x)
rso = = 0.2424 m.
Lred 1 + Lred 2 − 2x

Hence for the MMI about the centre of gravity S


and the suspension point O1

Js = m rso (Lred 1 − rso) = 0.0393 kgm2,

Jo1 = Js + m rso2 = 0.0745 kgm2.


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Experiment: Setting period of oscillation with additional mass

This experiment is designed to provide the wooden


pendulum with a period of oscillation of T = 1.5 s
O1
by attaching an additional mass. The position x of
the additional mass m z is to be calculated.
rso
The period of oscillation for the entire pendulum is
S, m



x JG
T=2π = 1.500 s.
mG g rsG
mz
The total MMI, the total mass and the joint centre
of gravity distance are made up as follows
Attachment of additional mass mz JG = Jo + mz x2,

mG = m + mz,

m rso + mz x
rsG = .
m + mz

Substitution in the equation for the period of oscil-


lation gives a quadratic equation for the distance x
sought

25
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

The solution is



2 24 2
x1,2 =  
T g
±  T  g − Jo +  T  g m r
 2 π  4 m  2 π mz so
 2 π
2
  z  

The two solutions are


x1 = 0.582 m, x2 = - 0.024 m.

The second solution cannot be realized, since in


this case the additional mass would have to be
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

fitted above the suspension point. The solution x1


produces values between 29.96 and 30.04 s for 20
oscillations. The mean value is therefore T= 1.500 s.
The measurement result coincides very well with
the required value.

3.6 Pendulum with bifilar suspension

A pendulum with bifilar suspension, i.e. one which


is hanging from two threads, corresponds in terms
of the equation of motion to an ideal mathematical
pendulum.
In view of the fact that in this case the mass only
exhibits translatory movement without rotation, it
L corresponds to the concentrated mass with the
ϕ ideal mathematical pendulum.
Mass m
The period of oscillation is governed solely by the
h
length of the suspension threads and the accele-
S
ration due to gravity
Bifilar suspension

T= ω =2π

√ L
g
.

The size and shape of the pendulum mass have


no influence.

26
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Experiment: Comparison of bifilar suspension with thread pendulum

Both pendulums are set to a pendulum length of L


= 0.559 m ( periodic time T = 1.5 s ).
L = 559 mm L = 559 mm

The resultant periodic times of 1.476 and 1.482 s


are virtually identical.

T = 1.476 s T = 1.482 s
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Experiment: Influence of mass

The periods of oscillation are measured for various


masses.

L = 559 mm Periods of oscillation with various pendulum


masses
0.432 kg
without additional mass Mass Time T 20 Time T
0.432 kg (no 29.52 s 1.476 s
additional mass)
2.432 kg 29.54 s 1.477 s
(2 x 2 x 0.5 kg)
4.432 kg 29.88 s 1.494 s
(2 x 2kg)

2.432kg
The measured periods of oscillation are virtually
independent of the size of the mass.

The influence of increasing rope expansion ( from


559 mm to 561 mm) is negligible.
The bifilar suspension can also be used to investi-
gate the radius of gyration. In this case the
4.432 kg
torsional oscillation of the pendulum is used.

27
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

4 Experiments with spring-mass system

4.1 Set-up of spring-mass system

The spring-mass system is mounted between the


upper and lower cross members of the frame.
- Insert adjustable spring mount (1) from above
through upper cross member; to do so, remove
1
3
lower handwheel (2) from threaded stem
- Screw lower handwheel (2) back on again
- Secure spring mount with clamping lever (3)
- Place guide plate (4) with guide bushing on
2
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lower cross member


11 6 - Screw required spring (5) with retaining screw
5 into threaded stem of spring mount and secure
10
9 with lock nut (6)
- Insert guide rod (7) into guide bushing
7
- Align base plate (4) such that spring and guide
rod coincide and secure with clamping lever (8)
8 - Screw spring (5) with measurement plate (9)
4
into guide rod (7) and secure with lock nut (10)
- Fit bracket with depth gauge (11) on side of
upper cross member

28
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

4.2 Determination of spring constant

The spring constant is a characteristic variable of


springs. It reflects the relationship between spring
force and spring deflection. This relationship is
linear for the helical springs normally used, i.e.
double the force will likewise double the spring
deflection.
The following equation indicates the relationship
between spring force F and spring travel x

x1 F=c⋅x
x2

where c is the spring constant.


All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

For the purposes of experimental determination, the


m1 g
spring is loaded by adding weights m and the elon-
gation x is measured
m2g
(m2 − m1) g
c= .
F x2 − x1

Force F As a check on linearity, the measured values can


also be plotted in a force-elongation graph.

Elongation x

29
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

4.2.1 Performing the experiment

- Set measurement plate with threaded stem of


spring mount to 100 mm (caliper gauge rea-
ding)
- Load spring by adding weights to guide rod
- Use caliper gauge to measure deflection at
measurement plate and note down value

IMPORTANT: Do not overload spring


Max. perm. deflection: 35 mm
Overloading the spring will cause permanent de-
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

formation

Determination of spring constants


Mass in kg Force in N Deflection in mm Elongation in mm
Spring type1 0 0 100.0 0
1 9.81 112.0 12.0
2 19.62 124.0 24.0
3 29.43 135.0 35.0
Spring type 2 0 0 100.0 0
2 19.62 114.0 14.0
4 39.24 127.0 27.0
5 49.05 134.0 34.0
Spring type 3 0 0 100.0 0
2 19.62 106.3 6.3
4 39.24 112.5 12.5
6 58.86 119.0 19

30
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

4.2.2 Evaluation of experiment

The following constants result for the springs ref-


erenced to maximum force (theoretical stiffness in
brackets)
29.43
c1 = = 0.84 N/mm (0.75 N/mm),
35.0

49.05
c2 = = 1.44 N/mm (1.50 N/mm),
34.0

58.86
c3 = = 3.09 N/mm (3.00 N/mm).
19.0
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

The results of the experiment coincide fairly well


with the theoretical values.
The measured values are plotted on a graph to
check linearity

60
c = 3.09 N/mm

50
c = 1.44 N/mm
Spring force F in N

40

30
c = 0.84 N/mm
20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Elongation x in mm

Force-elongation diagram

31
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5 Natural oscillation -bar oscillator

Natural oscillation is taken to mean the non-influ-


enced oscillation of an oscillatory system in its
natural state. The system is initially deflected out
of its equilibrium position and then oscillates about
this position until it is brought to rest by any external
or internal damping which may be present.
The advantages of the beam oscillator used are as
follows:
- A system of holes makes it possible to attach
various ancillary devices such as exciter, ab-
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

sorber, additional masses and dampers


Spring - Mounting the fulcrum point on anti-friction bea-
rings provides for virtually undamped oscillati-
on
Beam - Three different spring characteristics and varia-
tion of the hinge point enable the natural fre-
quency to be set over a wide range
- System damping can likewise be set over a
wide range thanks to an adjustable, viscous
damper with different hinge points
- The oscillation processes can be directly recor-
ded on a plotting drum using a stylus

32
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5.1 Set-up of beam oscillator

Fitting beam

3
- Install locating bearing (1) at perpendicular fra-
me section
4 - Fasten beam (2) with cheese-head bolt M6 (5)
to bearing shaft

1 2
- Attach adjustable spring mount (3) as descri-
bed under 4.1
- Insert spring (4) required between threaded
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

5 2 stem of spring mount and beam and secure


1
- Horizontally align beam over spring mount

Fitting plotter
6 - Install plotter (6) opposite locating bearing at
perpendicular frame section

- Insert chart paper (7); to do so bend back spring


7
8
(8) (metal strip)
Insert paper

- Insert paper as shown in take-up drum and


Secure
tension

Tension
- Screw pen holder (9) with cheese-head bolt M6
to outer end of beam (2)

- Vertically align plotter such that pen (10) faces


10 9 centre of paper

33
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

- Hook up plotter to control unit


(plotter can either operate continuously or with
pushbutton control)
Plotting rate constant 20 mm/s

- Insert pen in holder

IMPORTANT: Pen must only make slight contact


with paper, as otherwise oscillator will be excessi-
vely damped.
If necessary, laterally adjust beam in locating be-
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

aring

34
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5.3 Non-damped oscillation

5.3.1 Equation of motion

Establishment of the equation of motion involves


forming the moment equilibrium about the fulcrum
point O of the beam
..
Σ Mo = Jo ϕ = − Fc a.
Spring
constant c The spring force Fc results from the deflection x
x and the spring constant c. For a small angle, the
deflection can be formed from torsion ϕ and lever
Fc arm a
Beam,
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

mass m
Fc
O Fc = c x = c ϕ a.
ϕ x

The MMI of the beam about the fulcrum point is


a
m L2
Jo = .
3

The equation of motion is thus the following homo-


geneous differential equation
.. 3 c a2
ϕ+ ϕ = 0.
m L2

The solution produces harmonic oscillations with


L/2
ϕ the natural angular frequency ω0 or the natural
frequency f
a S

mL

3 c a2 1 3 c a2
ω2o = ,f= .
mL 2
2π 2

35
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

The periodic time is

T=2π


m L2
3 c a2
.

As can be seen, the periodic time/natural frequen-


cy can easily be set by way of the lever arm a of
the spring.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

36
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5.3.2 Performing the experiment

This experiment is designed to compare the natu-


ral frequency calculated theoretically for various
constants and lever arms to measurement results.
Mass of beam m= 1.680 kg
Length of beam L = 732 mm

Testing involves the following combinations:

Influence of spring constant


Calculated frequences
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Experiment Spring no., Lever arm a Natural


constant c in mm frequency
in N/mm f in Hz
1 1, 0.75 350 2.78
2 1, 0.75 650 5.17
3 2, 1.50 350 3.94
4 2, 1.50 650 7.31
5 3, 3.00 650 10.34

- Mount spring accordingly and secure with lock


nuts
- Horizontally align beam
- Insert pen
- Start plotter
- Deflect beam by hand and let it oscillate
- Stop plotter
Repeat experiment with other springs and lever
arms

37
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5.3.3 Results of experiment

The oscillation process is indicated by the following


original plots
The pen friction damps the oscillation. The linear
decline in amplitude over time is typical of friction
effects in oscillating systems.
The time taken for 5 - 10 oscillations was extracted
from the plot.
1
The corresponding frequencies are compared in
the table to the theoretical results.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Frequencies of non-damped oscillation


Experiment Experiment Theoretical
No. Periodic Frequency frequency
10T = 2s 2
time in s in Hz in Hz

1 0.38 2.63 2.78


2 0.20 4.88 5.17
3 0.26 3.85 3.94
4 0.13 7.69 7.31
5 0.10 10.00 10.34

38
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5.4 Damped oscillation

5.4.1 Equation of motion

Establishment of the equation of motion again


involves forming the moment equilibrium about the
fulcrum point O of the beam. Allowance is additio-
nally made here for a damper force with the lever
Spring
constant c arm b
ϕa ..
Σ Mo = Jo ϕ = − Fc a − Fd b.
Fc
b .
Fc The damper force Fd results from the speed x and
O . the damper constant d. For small angles the speed
ϕ,ϕ .
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

a can be formed from angular velocity ϕ and lever


Fd arm b
Fd
. .
ϕb Fd = d x = d ϕ b.
Damper
constant d The resultant equation of motion is thus the follo-
wing homogeneous differential equation

.. d b2 . c a2
ϕ+ ϕ+ ϕ = 0.
J0 J0
No damping
D=0
The solution produces decaying harmonic oscilla-
Slight damping tions
D = 0.4

ω0 ^ −Dω0t
Considerable damping ϕ(t) = ϕe sin (ωd t + ψ)
Limit case ωd
D=1

Severe damping with natural angular frequency


D>1
c a2
ωd = ω0 √
1 − D and ω2o =
J0

and degree of damping


b
D= .
2 J0 ω0

39
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

As can be seen, oscillation is no longer possible


with D ≥ 1. The natural angular frequency ωd ap-
proaches zero.
Damper The damper itself consists of a cylinder (1) with a
Adjusting
screw force Fd plunger (2). The plunger displaces the damper
medium - in this case oil - and forces it through a
restrictor (3). The flow resistance in the restrictor
is proportional to the oil velocity.
3
1 A small restrictor cross-section produces a high oil
speed with a considerable drop in pressure, whe-
2 reas a large cross-section results in a low oil speed
with a slight drop in pressure. The drop in pressure
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

acts on the surface of the plunger and thus gene-


rates the damper force Fd. The restrictor cross-
section can be adjusted.

The detailed design of the damper is shown by the


adjacent diagram.
- The actual damper unit (1) is located in an
oil-filled vessel (2).
5 - The design of the rod (6) makes for equal
plunger surface areas at the top and bottom
4
and thus guarantees a constant volume of oil
2 in the damper circuit.

1 - To minimize coulomb friction, the rod has two


3 linear ball bearing (3) and there is no rod seal.
6 - A needle valve (4) makes for precise setting of
the damper constant.
- The rod is connected to the beam by way of a
double joint (5).

40
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5.4.2 Damper installation

The damper is clamped to the stand on the lower


cross member.
Align
- Secure damper by way of joint with M6 chee-
se-head bolt at desired position on beam.
Pay attention to lateral alignment of rod and
beam.
If necessary, align damper at stand rod.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

- Set height of damper at stand clamp such that


centre mark is just visible on rod (centre posi-
tion of plunger)

IMPORTANT: Oil emerges.


To minimize friction losses, the damper has no rod
seal.
It should be transported and stored in an
upright position.

41
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5.4.3 Performing experiment

This experiment is designed to show the effect of


damping on the oscillation behaviour.
The damper effect can be varied on the one hand
a = 650 mm with the needle valve and on the other with the lever
b
c = 0.75 N/mm arm b.

- Fit spring 1, c= 0.75 N/mm with a = 650 mm,


and secure with lock nuts
- Horizontally align beam
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Testing involves the following combinations:

Influence of damping
Experiment Needle valve Lever arm b
position in mm
1 open 150
2 close 150
3 open 600
4 close 600

- Fit damper as per table and set needle valve


- Insert pen
- Start plotter
- Deflect beam by hand and let it oscillate
- Stop plotter
Repeat experiment with different damper setting
and lever arm.

42
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

5.4.5 Evaluation of experiment

The following pictures illustrate the effect of the


damper.

- The system is slightly damped in fig. 1. It oscil-


lates 20 times before it comes to rest. The
stylus friction gives the impression of additional
damping.

1
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

- Fig. 2 shows moderate damping corresponding


to a degree of damping of roughly D = 0.1 .

- In fig. 3 the system is subject to relatively high


damping. Oscillation has decayed after 3 peri-
ods. The degree of damping is D = 0.25.

- The system is subject to aperiodic damping in


fig. 4. There are no oscillations to be seen,
merely once-only overswing. The degree of
damping is D = 1.

43
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6 Forced oscillation

With forced oscillation, an oscillatory system is


caused to oscillate by external means. Leaving
aside non-steady state transient response, oscilla-
tion takes place over the course of time at the
excitation frequency. If excitation and natural fre-
quency coincide, this is referred to as resonance.
Resonance
The oscillation then becomes very pronounced
and can result in destruction of the machine. The
Amplitude

calculation and avoidance of resonance is one of


the most important tasks in the field of engineering.
The following methods can be employed to avoid
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

0 1 2

or reduce resonance:
Exitation/natural frequency
ω0
- additional damping
- shift in natural frequency (biasing)
- attachment of absorber

6.1 Equation of motion - beam oscillator

Use is made as exciter in the training system of an


unbalance system. This can be fitted on the two
beam oscillators and provides a harmonic excita -
tion force of adjustable frequency and amplitude

Fe = mu ε Ω2 sin Ωt.
F = mu ε Ω2
Fe = F sin Ωt Ωt where mu is the unbalance mass with eccentricity
ε and Ω the excitation frequency/speed of the
ε
mu unbalance mass. The exciter is attached to the
centre of the beam at L/2. Substitution in the
moment equilibrium about the fulcrum point O of
the beam oscillator gives

.. . L
Jo ϕ + d b2 ϕ + c a2 ϕ =mu ε Ω2 sin Ω t
2

or with y = ϕ L

44
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

.. . mu L2
2
y + 2 D ω0 y + ω0 y = ε Ω2 sin Ω t
J0 2

with the known degree of damping and natural


angular frequency.
Neglecting the natural oscillation which decays
over the course of time, the solution to this inho-
mogeneous differential equation results in the
forced oscillations

Ω2
y(t) = y^ sin (Ωt + ψ)

√ [1−(Ω⁄ω0) 2]2 + [2 D Ω⁄ω0]2
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

^ mu ε L2
y= .
2 Jo

The phase shift ψ between exciter and system


oscillation is calculated as follows
2 D Ω ω0
ψ = arctan .
ω20 − Ω2

To obtain an initial impression of the behaviour with


forced oscillation, it is assumed that the damping
D = 0. This results for the oscillation in

Ω2
y(t) = y^ sin (Ωt + ψ) .
1−(Ω⁄ω0) 2

It can be seen that, for the frequency ratio


Ω⁄ω = 1, there is no longer any denominator, i.e.
0

the expression tends towards ∞. There is resonan-


ce with infinitely large amplitude. As soon as dam-
ping is provided, the amplitude becomes smaller.

45
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Ω=0 results in a value of zero for the phase shift


Fu ψ, i.e. oscillator and exciter are synchronized. This
Fu applies for non-damped systems to the entire sub-
critical range as far as Ω = ω0.
y(t)
y(t)
With Ω >> ω0, i.e. supercritical, there is a phase
shift of 180°. The oscillator is half a period behind
the exciter (push-pull). The quotient becomes the
Ω < ω0 Ω > ω0
Subcritical Supercritical
value 1. The oscillation has an amplitude of y^.

10
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

8 The profile of the oscillation response as a function


D=0
of the ratio Ω⁄ω0 is shown in the form of a graph in
6 the adjacent enlargement function (resonance cur-
Amplitude

ve).
0.1 The influence of damping can be seen in addition
4
to the non-damped situation.
0.2 The amplitudes are normalized to the value of y^.
2
0.5

D=1
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 Ω⁄ω0 2
Enlargement funktion
180°
D=0
Phase shift

D=1
90°


0 0.5 1 1.5 Ω⁄ω0 2

46
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6.2 Set-up of beam oscillator with exciter

Fitting beam

- Attach locating bearing (1) to perpendicular


3 frame section
- Screw beam (2) with cheese-head bolt M6 (5)
to shaft of locating bearing
4

- Attach adjustable spring mount (3) as descri-


bed under 4.1
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

1 2
- Insert spring 1, c=3.00 N/mm (4), between
threaded stem of spring mount and beam and
secure
5 2

1
- Horizontally align beam over spring mount (3)

Fitting exciter unit

1 - Secure exciter unit in centre of beam (2) with


2 hexagon bolt M6 x 20 (1)

- Connect up exciter unit to control unit with cable

- Loosen locking screw (3) of unbalancer (4) with


3 5 hexagon socket 3 and set to maximum by
turning on shaft (5). Retighten locking screw.

4 Fitting limiter
max

47
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

- Remove lower stop of limiter and slip limiter


over beam
- Attach limiter to upper frame cross-member in
vicinity of spring
25 mm - Reattach lower stop and set clearance between
beam and limiter to 25 mm
25 mm
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

48
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6.3 Undamped resonance

A circular plot is produced to examine the amplitu-


de and phase shift. This involves plotting a path
curve on a chart rotating with the unbalance mass
Amplitude

using a fixed pen.


Resonance In view of the fact that the chart describes a
Subcritical Supercritical superimposed motion made up of the movement
of the oscillator and the rotation of the unbalance
90° mass, the pen plots eccentric circles
- The eccentricity of the circle is an indication
of the amplitude of the oscillator
- The angular position of the eccentricity re-
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Phase

90°
flects the phase shift between unbalance
mass and oscillator.

Resonance
circle
Phase shift ψ A circular plot is shown on the left.
Amplitudes

Mark for unbalance


position

Supercritical Subcritical
circle circle

49
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6.3.1 Installing pen for circular plot

Attach pen holder (1) from underneath to upper


1 cross-member

Aligning pen holder


- horizontal: pen with centre of excitation axis
30 mm - vertical: pen with half disc radius (30 mm)
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Adjust height of beam if necessary

Attaching chart paper


1 2 4 - Loosen knurled nut (1) on stem of unbalance
mass and remove black pressure plate (2).
Place chart paper (3) on disc (4) and secure
with pressure plate and knurled nut.
3 (Chart of paper please see appendix, 7.3:
worksheet circular plot)

Mark unbalance po-


- Mark position of unbalance mass on chart pa-
sition here per ( with max. unbalance this corresponds to
the position of the locking screw)

50
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6.3.2 Performing the experiment

- Insert pen (1) in holder (2) and lift holder off


paper
- Activate exciter on control unit and approach
1 2
subcritical range (6 -7 Hz)
- Lower pen onto disc for several revolutions and
make plot
- Raise pen again
Approach resonance (8 - 9 Hz) and supercritical
range (9 - 10 Hz) and likewise make plots.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Set resonance (maximum amplitude) as precisely


as possible. If amplitudes become excessive, break
off experiment and move exciter in direction of loca-
ting bearing. Repeat experiment.
- Assess chart

ψ3
x2 ψ2

x3
x1

Readings
Frequency in Hz Amplitude y in Phase ψ in deg.
mm
6.0 6.0 0
8.4 18.0 80
10.0 7.0 175

51
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6.4 Plotting of resonance curves with damping

6.4.1 Set-up

Use is made of the beam oscillator with exciter


from experiment 6.3. The amplitudes of the forced
oscillations are recorded with the drum plotter. The
650 mm
350 mm damper makes for differing degrees of damping.
b c=3.00
N/mm - Disassemble pen holder from experiment 6.3
- Assemble drum plotter and damper as per
Sections 5.1 and 5.4.
- The spacing b is to be taken from the following
table
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Damper settings for resonance curves


Spring setting: c=3.00 N/mm, a = 650 mm
Experiment No.: Needle valve Lever arm b
position in mm
1 No damper No damper
2 open 150
3 closed 150
4 closed 550

- Set unbalance to 50%

6.4.2 Performing the experiment

The deflections are plotted for the various damper


settings in 2 Hz increments.
1 Hz increments are appropriate in the range be-
tween 6 and 10 Hz, whereas 0.2 - 0.5 Hz incre-
ments are to be used in the immediate vicinity of
the resonance level.
The set frequency is to be noted down on the plot next
to the plotted oscillation.

52
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6.4.3 Evaluation of experiment

The plotted oscillations are measured and recor-


ded in tabular form

Resonance curve for damper setting no.1:


No damping,
c=3.00 N/mm, a = 650 mm
Frequency 4 5 6 7 8 8.4 8.5 8.7 9 10 12 14 16 20
Amplitude 0.5 0.6 1.2 5 15 26 42 11.5 7 2.5 1.2 0.6 0.5 0.4

Resonance curve for damper setting no.2:


All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Slight damping,
c=3.00 N/mm, a = 650 mm
Frequency 4 6 8 8.25 8.5 8.75 9 10 12 14 16 20
Amplitude 0.5 0.8 3.5 9.5 18 8.5 5 1.5 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.4

Resonance curve for damper setting no.3:


Moderate damping,
c=3.00 N/mm, a = 650 mm
Frequency 4 5.5 7 8 8.4 8.53 8.9 9.3 10 12 14 16 20
Amplitude 0.4 0.5 0.8 3.5 7.5 8.0 6.0 3.5 1.5 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.5

Resonance curve for damper setting no.4:


Considerable damping,
c=3.00 N/mm, a = 650 mm
Frequency 6 7.5 8.3 8.9 10.9 14 20
Amplitude 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.2

53
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

The measured values can then be presented on a


graph in the form of resonance curves.

30

1. No damping

2. Slight damping
20
Amplitude in mm

3. Moderate damping
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

4. Considerable damping
10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Exiter frequency Ω in Hz
Resonance curves for damper settings (c = 3.00 N/mm, a = 650mm)

6.4.4 Amplitude measuring using the contact unit

If there is the need of a very accurate amplitude


measument the contact unit can be used.
3
To measure the amplitude the contactor (1) is
brought by the micrometer (2) near the oscillating
1 object (3). The contactor is connected in serial with
a voltage source Us and a control LED (4) atthe
2 control unit. The oscillating object is grounded.
5V Just in the moment of the first contact between
contactor and object the LED lights.
- + The signal at the input sockets of the control unit
Us 4 Contact
may be used for triggering a stroboscope

54
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

- Mount the contactor (1) to the stand (2) of the


damper

- Connect the contactor to the red (+) socket of


the control unit (3)
4 2
- Clamp the grounding cable to the mounting
screw of the beam at the locating bearing (4)
1

5 3
- Connect the grounding cable to the black (-)
socket of the control unit (5)
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

- Turn the micrometer fully back


Triggersignal
6
- Adjust contactor at the stand in height until
there is a gap of approx. 15 mm between
contact and beam
15 mm
- Switch on contactor unit at the control unit

7 - Turn the contactor slowly toward the beam and


look at the control LED. In the moment it flashes
read off the micrometer

- If you made a new measurement, please first


turn back the micrometer

ATTENTION! Too large amplitudes will damage


the contact.

55
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

6.5 Absorber experiment

The absorber effect is used in engineering to


reduce/absorb sympathetic oscillation.
No attempt is made here to explain the theory of
the absorber effect, since this enters the field of
multi-mass oscillators and would go beyond the
present scope.
The basis of the experiment is a flexible beam. The
theory of an oscillating beam and lateral vibra-
tions is likewise not treated here in view of the
scope and difficulties involved. Reference should
be made to the appropriate literature.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Original resonance f
The absorption of oscillations makes use of the
fact that the attachment of a second oscillatory
New resonance points
system - absorber - to the basic system increases
the number of natural frequencies by one. A beam
which originally had one resonance point f now has
two, namely f1 and f2 (two-mass system).
These new resonance points are above and below
the original resonance. Appropriate matching of
the natural frequency of the absorber makes it
f
1 fT f2 possible to achieve an absorber point fT at the
Absorber point
original resonance point (see adjacent resonance
curves). Here the basic system is completely at
rest; merely the additional mass oscillates at an
amplitude governed by the level of excitation.

56
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

The following pictures outline the types of oscilla-


tion of this two-mass system.
Beam - At the first resonance point f1 the two masses,
f1
namely absorber and beam, move in the same
Absorber direction. They oscillate in phase
fT - At the absorber point fT the beam is at rest
and only the absorber oscillates

- At the second resonance point f2 the two


f2
masses move in opposite directions. They
oscillate in phase opposition
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

6.5.1 Set-up

Use is made as basic system of a flexible beam


hinged at both ends.
- Fit locating bearing on left side of frame
- Fit non-locating bearing on right side of frame
4 1 2 5 - Insert flexible beam (1) through slot (2) in shaft
of non-locating bearing.
For lengthy operation, lubricate with several
drops of oil through hole (5).
3
- Screw flexible beam (1) with spacer (3) and
Locating bearing Non-locating cheese-head bolt M6 (4) to shaft of locating
bearing
bearing
- Secure exciter in position in centre of beam
using hexagon bolt M6 x 15

IMPORTANT: Always use short bolt to secure


exciter.
Long bolts (rigid beam) could bang against unba-
lance mass.

57
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

- Remove weights from leaf spring of absorber.


To do so, loosen M6 cheese-head bolts at
absorber weights

- Position retainer (1) including leaf spring with


2 recess facing upwards on threaded rod (2) at
1
exciter and secure with knurled nut (3)
3 Use knurled nut with long shoulder facing up-
wards

6.5.2 Performing the experiment


All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Basic system
Switch on exciter and move to resonance point of
basic system

- Resonant frequency, basic system without


absorber:
f = 7.3 Hz

System with absorber


Attach the two absorber weights (4) with M6 chee-
se-head bolts to the leaf springs (5)
4 5
Weights can be moved on the leaf spring to adjust
the absorber. Initially adjust such that leaf springs
are flush with outer surface of absorber weights
147 mm 147 mm
(length L = 147 mm).
Switch on exciter and move to the two new re-
sonance frequencies
- Resonance frequencies with absorber:
f1 = 5.2 Hz
f2 = 10.2 Hz
Move to absorber point; beam must be completely
at rest
- Absorber point:
fT= 7.2 Hz

58
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

The in-phase/opposing-phase oscillation is clearly


visible. A node forms in the leaf spring of the
absorber at the second resonance point.
Shifting the two absorber weights makes it possible
to alter the absorber location in the frequency
range.
IMPORTANT: The amplitudes may become ex-
treme at the second resonance point. Use a
limiter.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

59
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

7 Appendix

7.1 Tools

List of tools used


(ISK: hexagon socket, WS: wrench size)

Assembly of pendulum mount - frame: ISK 6


Clamping of thread pendulum: knurl
Adjustment of ball mass - rod pendulum: ISK2.5
Adjustment of knife edge - rod pendulum: knurl
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Adjustment of additional mass - wooden


pendulum: ISK 6

Fitting springs WS 10
Fitting beam - locating bearing: ISK 5
Fitting damper - beam: ISK 5
Fitting stylus holder - beam: ISK 5
Fitting limiter: knurl

Fitting unbalancer - beam: WS 10


Adjustment of unbalance mass ISK 3

Fitting absorber - unbalancer: knurl


Adjustment of absorber frequency: ISK 5

Fitting additional masses - unbalancer: knurl

Adjustment of amplitude limiter: knurl

60
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

7.2 Control unit


All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Control exciter motor Control lamp Control


and speed meter contact unit drum recorder

Front

Switch for speed demand, switch settings:


Socket red via sotware Socket
drum recorder black at control unit Set Frequency

Vor Öffnen des Gehäuses Netzstecker ziehen


Disconnect from power supply before openin

intern / extern

Schreiber / Recorder
5 V TTL

Si Masse / Ground

Kontakt Frequenzeinstellung
Unwuchterreger
220 - 240 V, 50 Hz Contactor Exciter motor Set Frequency

Power- Main switch Fuse 800 mA M Sockets contact unit Socket exiter motor
supply

Back

61
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

7.3 Worksheet circular plot


All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

62
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

7.4 Symbols and formulas

7.4.1 List of symbols

a, b: Lever arm, length


c: Spring constant
d: Damper constant
D: Degree of damping
f: Frequency
F: Force
g: Acceleration due to gravity
J0: Mass moment of inertia (MMI) about
the suspension point
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

L, Lred: Length
m, mu, mz: Mass
M: Moment
rso: Distance between centre of gravity and
point of suspension
t: Time
T: Periodic time
x, y: Deflection, amplitude
ε: Eccentricity
ϕ: Angle, amplitude
ω, ω0 : Natural angular frequency
Ω: Exciter angular frequency
ψ: Phase shift

63
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

7.4.2 List of Formulas

Pendulum oscillation

Mathematic Pendulum
Equation of motion
.. g
ϕ+ ϕ=0
L

Natural frequency

ω=

√ g
L
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Periodic time



L
T= ω =2π
g

Physical pendulum
Equation of motion
.. rso m g
ϕ+ ϕ=0
Jo

Natural frequency



m g rso
ω=
Jo

Periodic time



Jo
T= ω =2π
m g rso

Reduced length of pendulum


Jo
Lred =
m rso

64
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Homogeneous rod pendulum


Equation of motion
.. 3 g
ϕ+ ϕ = 0.
2L

Natural frequency



3g
ω=
2L

Periodic time

=2π√

2π 2 L
T=
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

ω 3 g

Spring-mass system

Spring and damping force


Fc = c y

.
Fd = d y

Damped oscillation
Equation of motion
.. .
y + 2 D ω0 y + ω02 y = 0

Degree of damping
d
D=
2 m ω0

Natural frequency
c
ω2o =
m

65
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

Solution of equation of motion


ω0
y(t) = y0 e−Dω0t sin (ωd t + ψ)
ωd

Damped natural frequency

ωd = ω0 √

1−D2

Forced oscillation
Exciter force at unbalanced excitation
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Fe = mu ε Ω2 sin Ωt

Equation of motion
.. . mu
y + 2 D ω0 y + ω02 y = ε Ω2 sin Ω t
m

Solution of Equation of motion


Amplitude
mu Ω2
y(t) = ε sin (Ωt + ψ)
m  √
[1−(Ω⁄ω0) 2]2 + [2 D Ω⁄ω ] 2
0

Phase shift

2 D Ω ω0
ψ = arctan
ω20 − Ω2

66
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

7.5 Index

A
Absorber experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Absorber point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Acceleration due to gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Amplitude measurment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
B
Bar oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Beam oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Bifilar suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
C
Centre of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

Circular plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Concentrated mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Control exciter motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 61
D
Damper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Damped oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Damper constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Degree of damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
E
Enlargement function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Equation of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
F
Filling damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Fitting exciter unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Fitting limiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Fitting plotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Force-elongation graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Forced oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Fuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
H
Harmonic oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Homogeneous differential equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
I
Installing stylus for circular plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Installing stylus for drum plotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
L
List of formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
List of symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

67
TM 150 Universal Vibration System

M
Main switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Mass moment of inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Mathematical pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
N
Natural angular frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Natural frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Natural oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Non-damped oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
P
Pendulum experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 13
Period of oscillation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Phase shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Physical pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH , Hamburg

R
Radius of gyration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Reduced pendulum length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Resonance curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 54
Resonance curves with damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Reversible pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Rod pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
S
Seconds pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Speed meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Spring constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Spring-mass system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 28
Subcritical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Supercritical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
T
Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Testing exciter unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Thread pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
U
Unbalance system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Upkeep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
W
Wooden pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Worksheet circular plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

68