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Presented by

G.Divya vani M.Mounisha Reddy

Reg.No-05631A0508 Reg.No-05631A0523
Email id: Email id:
divyareddy_cse8@yahoo.com mouni_maddi@yahoo.com


(sponsored by the exhibition society, Hydrabad)
Mobile computing has been undergoing a bit of a renaissance lately. A few years
ago it was a simple matter of finding a data-compatible mobile phone, a PC card modem, and
a matching cable and installing it as a modem. Then people started to use PDA’s(Personal
Data Assistants) as well. Cell phones started to come with infrared ports to allow
communication with laptops. Then cell phones started to come with modems built in. The
connecting methods of mobile computing, its introduction, connection types, factors affecting
connections, mobile applications and its limitations will be discussed.

With increasing use of small portable computers, wireless networks and satellites, a
trend to support "computing on the move" has emerged. This trend is known as mobile
computing or "anytime" and "anywhere” computing. Some people refer it as "Nomadic"
Mobile computing is a new style of computer access emerging at the intersection of
the two currently dominant trends: producing portable computers in computer industry and
wireless communications in telecommunication industry. This abstract discusses some key
issues involved in realizing a mobile wireless computing environment by examining the
characteristics required of each main component: mobile computer, wireless communications
network, and coordination software.
Mobile computing evolved during the last few years as a result of shrinking portables
and growing (wireless) networks. It enlarges the usability of computers, but raises demanding
challenges. A mobile user has to deal with the problems of slow albeit expensive connection
lines, frequent interruption of wireless connections, and limited host performance.
"Requirements for mobile services are stability, bandwidth / cost considerations, and
integration into the familiar environment, application transparency, security and extendibility.
Mobile computing is a new style of computer access emerging at the intersection of
the two currently dominant trends: producing portable computers in computer industry and
wireless communications intelecommunication industry. Some key issues involved in
realizing a mobile wireless computing environment by examining the characteristics required
of each main component: mobile computer, wireless communications network, and
coordination software.

Wireless networking technology has engendered a new era of computing, called mobile
computing. Mobile Computing is an umbrella term used to describe technologies that enable
people to access network services any place, anytime, and anywhere.
Ubiquitous computing and nomadic computing are synonymous with mobile
computing. Mobile computing helps users to be productive immediately by reducing the
training requirements associated with traditional automated data collection methods and
provides a higher level of portability than keyboard-based systems.
Field-based users can access any information available from the system at any time to
make critical business decisions. This information is available at the point of use, wherever
and whenever they need it.
Portable devices like laptop and palm top computers give mobile users access to diverse
sources of global information anywhere and at any time.

One of the most important and highly publicized recent

developments in the PC world has been the introduction of the pen
interface. By using a stylus to replace the keyboard, mobile computers
are turning thousands of computer illiterate people especially those
involved with field-based data collection into computer users. The
market potential and breadth of application requirements for mobile
computing has prompted numerous hardware and software companies to
focus their efforts in providing solutions to the vertical, form-oriented marketplace.
The pen interface allows users to interact with the computer in a very natural and familiar
way by entering text, numbers, and graphics in “electronic ink” directly on the screen. The
pen interface also provides users with highly intuitive and efficient applications, whether
tapping graphical icons to navigate through applications or selecting options from scrolling
lists and checkboxes.
Mobile computing applications can closely simulate the original paper form, providing
users with a familiar look and feel. Through the use of the latest PCMCIA technology, data
storage is large, fast, and more efficient with minimal power consumption and the highest
level of ruggedness, while communications via modem or wireless is also tightly integrated,
fulfilling the requirements of the mobile user. And standardized ports give users access to
printers, barcode readers, and various other peripheral devices.


Wireless refers to the method of transferring information between computing devices,
such as a personal data assistant (PDA), and a data source, such as an agency database server,
without a physical connection. Not all wireless communications technologies are mobile. For
example, lasers are used in wireless data transfer between buildings, but cannot be used in
mobile communications at this time.
Mobile simply describes a computing device that is not restricted to a desktop. A mobile
device may be a PDA, a "smart" cell phone or Web phone, a laptop computer, or any one of
numerous other devices that allow the user to complete computing tasks without being
tethered, or connected, to a network. Mobile computing does not necessarily require wireless
communication. In fact, it may not require communication between devices at all.


Mobile Computing is becoming
increasingly important due to the rise in
the number of portable computers and
the desire to have continuous network
connectivity to the Internet irrespective
of the physical location of the node. The
Internet infrastructure is built on top of a
collection of protocols, called the
TCP/IP protocol suite.
The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP)
is an extension to the Internet Protocol
proposed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) . It enables mobile computers
to stay connected to the Internet regardless of their location and without changing their
IP address. More precisely, Mobile IP is a standard protocol that builds on the Internet
Protocol by making mobility transparent to applications and higher level protocols like


1. Reliability, coverage, capacity, and cost: At present wireless network is less

reliable, have less geographic coverage and reduced bandwidth, are slower, and cost more
than the wired-line network services. It is important to find ways to use this new resource
more efficiently by designing innovative applications.
2.Integration with legacy mainframe and emerging client/server applications:
Application development paradigms are changing. As a result of the IT industry’s original
focus on mainframes, a huge inventory of applications using communications interfaces that
are basically incompatible with mobile connectivity have been accumulated. Still the
application development trend is geared towards wired network platform and little thought
has been given to applications necessary for mobile platform.This practice must change for
successful integration of mobile connectivity.
3. End-to-end design and performance: Since mobile computing involves multiple
networks (including wired) and multiple application server platforms, end-to-end technical
compatibility, server capacity design, and network response time estimates are difficult to
4. Security: Wireless networks have relatively more security requirements than wired
network. A number of approaches have been suggested and also the use of encryption is has
been proposed.
5. Revising the technical architecture: Mobile users are demanding. They are
important to the business world. To provide complete connectivity among users the current
communication technology must be revised to incorporate mobile connectivity. Additionally,
application and data architectures must also be revised to support the demands put upon them
by the mobile connectivity.

Mobile devices
There are seven different types of mobile devices:
• Laptop computers
• PDA’s and handheld PCs
• Pagers
• Smart phones and cellular phones
• Task devices, such as bar code scanners
• Blue tooth
• Bridge
Achieving the Benefits of Mobile Computing
Accurately recognizing situations where mobile computing is an appropriate
technology to address an organization's problems, opportunities, and directives is important if
the promised benefits of mobile computing are to be achieved.
The six categories are:

M the need for mobility

O the need to improve operations
B the need to break business barriers
I the need to improve information quality
L the need to decrease transaction lag
E the need to improve efficiency
 Mobility
1. Freedom of movement is required to accomplish the task.
2. Information must be gathered, accessed, or processed during movement or while at
a remote location.
3. Contact must be made while personnel are mobile or at remote locations.
4. The location or status of personnel must be known throughout the workday.

 Operations
1. Current operations are not keeping pace with competitors due to a technological
2. Management is not able to properly oversee operations due to a lack of information.
3. Workers lack information required to operate at their full potential.

 Barriers
1. Geography. Business operations or expansion is hindered by the geographical dispersion of
business activities. Key business processes or activities are not being accomplished where
they are best performed or most needed.
2. Cost. Current processes carry significant costs in labor, inventory, operating locations, or
travel expenses.

 Information
1. Information sent to or received from mobile personnel is not timely, current, or frequent
2. Information sent to or received from mobile personnel is not accurate, complete, concise,
or relevant enough.

 Lag
1. The mobile worker cannot quickly complete a transaction while at the remote location
because access to information or authorization from a central location is required.
2. Return trips to a remote location or multiple contacts are required to complete a

 Efficiency
1. Data is input from paper, input more than once, or not captured at its source.
2. Questions must be re-asked or locations must be revisited because data was not completely
or correctly gathered on initial visit due to a mistake or oversight.
3. Work cannot be completed at remote site due to lack of information from the central
business location.
Challenges in mobile computing
Wireless and mobile environments bring different challenges to users and service
providers when compared to fixed, wired networks. Physical constraints become much more
important, such as device weight, battery power, screen size, portability, quality of radio
transmission, error rates. Mobility brings additional uncertainties, as well as opportunities to
provide new services and supplementary information to users in the locations where they find
The major challenges in mobile computing are described including: low bandwidth, high
error rate, power restrictions, security, limited capabilities, disconnection and problems due
to client mobility.
 Low Bandwidth
Wireless networks deliver lower bandwidth than wired networks. As a result, mobile
applications have to be carefully designed to control the bandwidth consumption. Software
techniques required to improve effective bandwidth usage include data compression logging
requests to combine multiple short ones, lazy write back, difference-based updates, caching,
prefetching, usage of proxy, priority scheduling, etc.
 High Error Rate
The network quality varies as the mobile computer moves across the heterogeneous
network connections. The wireless environment exhibits higher error rates, which results in
retransmission and affects the Quality of Service. By minimizing the usage of wireless
transmission, the data is less exposed to transmission errors. In addition, error correction
schemes can be employed to improve performance. However, these schemes also add to the
communication overhead and reduce the usable bandwidth.
 Power Limitations
Mobile computers are concerned with the limited power supply, an issue that does not
appear in distributed wired environment. Hardware improvements on batteries can help to
lengthen the life of a charge and reduce battery weight. In addition, efficient software
operations can help to lower the power consumption. Examples include: shifting the
processing to a fixed host, aggressively caching and prefetching data to reduce disk traffic,
and transmitting less data while receiving more
Security and privacy are of specific concerns in wireless communication because of the
ease of connecting to the wireless link anonymously. Common problems are impersonation,
denial of service and tapping. The main technique used is encryption. In personal profiles of
users are used to restrict access to the mobile units.
 Limited Capabilities
Unlike stationary computers, mobile computers are smaller in physical size and have
smaller storage capacity. PDA’s like Infopad and ParcTab are designed to have extreme
portability and provide ubiquitous information access. However, their applications rely
heavily on the interoperability of the pads and other servers. Even ordinary laptops typically
have less RAM and smaller hard disks than stationary computers.
To overcome these limitations, some useful techniques are proposed including:
Compressing file systems, accessing remote storage over the network, sharing code libraries
and compressing virtual memory pages. In addition, the user interface has to be designed to
adapt to the small screen size of the portable computers.
 Disconnection
Disconnection can be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary disconnection occurs when
mobile users want to disconnect the mobile unit from the network temporarily, like working
on a plane. Involuntary disconnection is mainly due to network failures.
The mobile application should not be disrupted under these circumstances.
Some applications are designed to run entirely locally on the mobile unit, but it may not be
feasible for distributed applications where users have to communicate with one another.
Again, prefetching and lazy write-back are some useful techniques that allow to work under
The CMU CODA file system allows shared files to be modified even during
disconnections. Upon reconnection, application-specific conflict resolution schemes are used
in the file servers to reconcile any update conflicts made by various clients. It also uses
concurrency control and prefetching techniques. However, this approach is designed mainly
for file systems and does not work for all kinds of applications.
There are two types of mobility described: (a) mobility of clients and (b) mobility of
Mobility of clients raises the issues of unique naming of the clients and finding their
current locations. Unlike stationary computers, where information on location is configured
statically mobile computers have to configure information dynamically Mobility of resources
addresses this problem. When a mobile host moves into a new cell or administrative domain,
it has to discover the resources available there. At the same time, any server that needs to
communicate with the mobile host has to identify its new location. Location transparency
should be provided to the mobile applications by the underlying runtime system so that the
users are not aware of the effects of mobility.

The benefits of automating data collection applications with mobile computing are the
reduction of hard and soft costs, enhancement of revenue potential, and a distinct competitive
advantage through:
 Improving the data collection process
 Improving data accuracy
 Reducing paperwork
 Enforcing collection of more complete information
 Facilitating collection of more useful information
 Eliminating redundant data entry
 Reducing administrative costs
 Reducing billing errors
 Reducing data backlog
 Improving information flow
 Allowing faster adaptation to changing business conditions
 Increasing responsiveness and customer satisfaction
 Providing access to previously unavailable information


The demerits of the mobile computing are discussed as follows:

 Information access via a mobile device is plagued by low available bandwidth, poor
connection maintenance, poor security, and addressing problems. Unlike their wired
counterparts, design of software for mobile devices must consider resource limitation,
battery power and display size. Consequently, new hardware and software techniques
must be developed. For example, applications need to be highly optimized for space, in
order to fit in the limited memory on the mobile devices.
 Mobility brings additional uncertainties, as well as opportunities to provide new services
and supplementary information to users in the locations where they find themselves. In
general, most application software, operating systems, and network infrastructures are
intended for more conventional environments, and so the mobile, wireless user has great
difficulty exploiting the computational infrastructure as fully as he or she might. There is
an emerging consensus among researchers that a new architecture and dynamic
infrastructure is an appropriate way to address this problem.
 Day by day as the standard of the mobile computing is increasing the boons of mobile
computing are changing to banes. Eg: The most deadly terrorist attack occurred on sept
11, 2001.
New technical and application developments have established that mobile systems can be a
cost-effective, efficient, and productive solution in several different types of application
environments. They are:- a new generation of satellites, especially Low-Earth Orbit systems
(LEOS) are under development with the Internet in mind. Companies like Teledesic and
Orbcomm are actively promoting Internet access. Vertical industries where mobile technology
has already been successfully adopted include Consumer Goods, Delivery and Route Sales,
Government, Healthcare, Market Research, Pharmaceuticals, Transportation, and Utilities.

Consumer Goods. Typical applications include inventory, merchandising, order entry, and sales
automation. Features found in these applications usually provide access to stock and pricing
information, monitor promotions, and perform shelf space analysis including number of facings
and product age. Customer detail helps reps to act more as consultants than order takers.

Delivery & Route Sales. With fierce competition and an increasing inventory, having timely and
accurate information is more important than ever.

Government. Applications center around assessments, inspections, and work orders. Most of
these applications involve auditing some sort of facility or process (food service, restaurant,
nursing home, child care, schools, commercial and residential buildings).
Healthcare. The focus in this industry has been on automating patient records, medication
dispension, and sample collection. A common goal is to leverage mobile computing in the
implementation of positive patient identification.

Market Research. Automating the survey process has enabled these companies to get their data
more accurately and quickly while being able to customize their queries at will.

Pharmaceuticals. In addition to the reps need to perform account management and call reporting
functions, the FDA’s requirement for physician signatures for all drug samples dispensed was an
added complication that was eliminated through the use of mobile technology.

Transportation. Transforming freight damage inspections from paper to mobile computing

greatly expedites the process and reduces costs by providing on-line pre-shipment inspections.
This technology also offers a more efficient means of storing and transmitting maintenance
inspection reports. In conjunction with GPS (global positioning systems), mobile computing
allows companies to provide better customer service by being continually aware of exactly where
any given shipment is when in transit.

Utilities. Eliminating the rekeying of data and providing a means to perform on site analysis are
instrumental to an industry that is required to perform inspections on a routine basis

Wireless Internet Future

There's more happening than many people suspect. The difficulty, though, is to provide
the right network, the right device, the right price and the right applications. Wireless is not
wired, and there are numerous advantages and disadvantages. The wireless industry
"mindset" is different from the computer community's. These different philosophies produce
what we call a "wireless-Web culture clash." Also, much of the information we obtain via the
Internet isn't worth paying for in a mobile environment. The Internet will change is already
changing the way mobile companies and computer companies offer products and services,
and deal with customers. Indeed, many wireless subscribers will demand these changes,
ranging from online customer service to electronic bill-paying to creating profiles that
automatically transmit personalized information via the Internet to wireless devices.
We are in a period of tremendous change. It's mobile computing jungle where old
technologies must evolve to survive and where proponents of new technologies are jockeying
for dominance. It is a dangerous and exciting time where existing business models can
crumble and more nimble, innovative companies can usurp established institutions.

Uncovering these developments, analyzing their impact and recommending solutions to

corporations is what Wireless Internet & Mobile Computing consulting is all about.

Mobile computing is rapidly becoming popular, and user demand for useful wireless
applications is increasing. Additionally, this paper shows how these behavioral extensions
serve as a powerful abstraction for practical systems.
In this paper, we have looked at issues related to portable devices, merits, demerits and
applications in mobile environment.
Because of the banes of mobile computing the security level should be improved.