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Capacitor voltage transformer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The circuit diagram for a simple capacitor voltage transformer


A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT or CCVT), is a transformer
used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and
provide a low voltage signal, for metering or operating a protective
relay.
In its most basic form, the device consists of three parts: two
capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an
inductive element to tune the device to the line frequency, and a
voltage transformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for
metering devices or protective relay.
The tuning of the divider to the line frequency makes the overall
division ratio less sensitive to changes in the burden of the
connected metering or protection devices.[1] The device has at least
four terminals: a terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a
ground terminal, and two secondary terminals which connect to the
instrumentation or protective relay.
Capacitor C1 is often constructed as a stack of smaller capacitors
connected in series. This provides a large voltage drop across C1 and
a relatively small voltage drop across C2. As the majority of the
voltage drop is on C1, this reduces the required insulation level of
the voltage transformer. This makes CVTs more economical than
the wound voltage transformers under high voltage (over 100 kV),
as the latter one requires more winding and materials.
An SF6 circuit breaker rated 115 kV, 1200 A installed at a
hydroelectric generating station
Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers protect electrical power
stations and distribution systems by interrupting electric
currents, when tripped by a protective relay. Instead of oil, air,
or a vacuum, a sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses sulfur
hexafluoride (SF6) gas to cool and quench the arc on opening a
circuit. Advantages over other media include lower operating
noise and no emission of hot gases, and relatively low
maintenance. Developed in the 1950s and onward, SF6 circuit
breakers are widely used in electrical grids at transmission
voltages up to 800 kV, as generator circuit breakers, and in
distribution systems at voltages up to 35 kV.
Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers may be used as self-
contained apparatus in outdoor air-insulated substations or may
be incorporated into gas-insulated switchgear which allows
compact installations at high voltages.

Operating principle[edit]
Current interruption in a high-voltage circuit breaker is
obtained by separating two contacts in a medium, such as sulfur
hexafluoride (SF6), having excellent dielectric and arc-
quenching properties. After contact separation, current is
carried through an arc and is interrupted when this arc is cooled
by a gas blast of sufficient intensity.[1]
SF6 gas is electronegative and has a strong tendency to absorb
free electrons. The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high-
pressure flow of sulphur hexafluoride gas, and an arc is struck
between them. The gas captures the conducting free electrons in
the arc to form relatively immobile negative ions. This loss of
conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough
insulation strength to extinguish the arc.[2]
A gas blast applied to the arc must be able to cool it rapidly so
that gas temperature between the contacts is reduced from
20,000 K to less than 2000 K in a few hundred microseconds, so
that it is able to withstand the transient recovery voltage that is
applied across the contacts after current interruption. Sulfur
hexafluoride is generally used in present high-voltage circuit
breakers at rated voltage higher than 52 kV.
Into the 1980s, the pressure necessary to blast the arc was
generated mostly by gas heating using arc energy. It is now
possible to use low-energy spring-loaded mechanisms to drive
high-voltage circuit breakers up to 800 kV.
Voltage transformer or potential transformer

A 120:120 instrument isolation transformer showing two polarity


marking conventions
Voltage transformers (VT), also called potential transformers (PT),
are a parallel connected type of instrument transformer. They are
designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured
and have an accurate voltage ratio and phase relationship to enable
accurate secondary connected metering.
lightning arrester (alternative spelling lightning arrestor) (also called lightning diverter) is a device
used on electric power systems and telecommunication systems to protect the insulation and
conductors of the system from the damaging effects of lightning. The typical lightning arrester has a
high-voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge (or switching surge, which is
very similar) travels along the power line to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted through
the arrester, in most cases to earth.

In telegraphy and telephony, a lightning arrester is placed where wires enter a structure, preventing
damage to electronic instruments within and ensuring the safety of individuals near them. Smaller
versions of lightning arresters, also called surge protectors, are devices that are connected between
each electrical conductor in power and communications systems and the Earth. These prevent the flow
of the normal power or signal currents to ground, but provide a path over which high-voltage lightning
current flows, bypassing the connected equipment. Their purpose is to limit the rise in voltage when a
communications or power line is struck by lightning or is near to a lightning strike.

If protection fails or is absent, lightning that strikes the electrical system introduces thousands of
kilovolts that may damage the transmission lines, and can also cause severe damage to transformers
and other electrical or electronic devices. Lightning-produced extreme voltage spikes in incoming
power lines can damage electrical home appliances or even produce death[citation needed].

Lightning arresters are used to protect electric fences. They consist of a spark gap and sometimes a
series inductor.

Lightning arresters can form part of large electrical transformers and can fragment during transformer
ruptures. High-voltage transformer fire barriers are required to defeat ballistics from small arms as well
as projectiles from transformer bushings and lightning arresters, per NFPA 850.
Bus coupler is a device which is used to couple one bus to
the other without any interruption in power supply and
without creating hazardous arcs. Bus coupler is a breaker
used to couple two busbars in order to perform maintenance
on other circuit breakers associated with that busbar.
It is achieved with the help of a circuit breaker and isolators.
A circuit breaker is a device that, interrupts an electric circuit to
prevent unwarranted current, caused by a short circuit, typically
resulting from an overload. Its basic functionality is to interrupt
current flow after a fault is detected. To know more about Circuit
breakers read this article Types of Circuit Breaker and Its
Importance. A vacuum circuit breaker is a kind of circuit breaker
where the arc quenching takes place in vacuum medium. The
operation of switching on and closing of current carrying contacts
and interrelated arc interruption takes place in a vacuum chamber in
the breaker which is called vacuum interrupter.

Vacuum Circuit Breaker


The Vacuum interrupter technology was first introduced in the year
of 1960. But still, it is a developing technology. As time goes on, the
size of the vacuum interrupter has reduced from its early 1960’s size
due to different technical developments in this field of engineering.
A current transformer (CT) is a type of transformer that is used to
measure alternating current (AC). It produces a current in its
secondary which is proportional to the current in its primary.
Current transformers, along with voltage or potential transformers,
are instrument transformers. Instrument transformers scale the large
values of voltage or current to small, standardized values that are
easy to handle for instruments and protective relays. The instrument
transformers isolate measurement or protection circuits from the
high voltage of the primary system. A current transformer provides a
secondary current that is accurately proportional to the current
flowing in its primary. The current transformer presents a negligible
load to the primary circuit.
Current transformers are the current-sensing units of the power
system and are used at generating stations, electrical substations, and
in industrial and commercial electric power distribution.
A battery room is a room in a facility used to house batteries for
backup or uninterruptible power systems. Battery rooms are found
in telecommunication central offices, and to provide standby power
to computing equipment in datacenters. Batteries provide direct
current (DC) electricity, which may be used directly by some types
of equipment, or which may be converted to alternating current
(AC) by uninterruptible power supply (UPS) equipment. The
batteries may provide power for minutes, hours or days depending
on the electrical system design, although most commonly the
batteries power the UPS during brief electric utility outages lasting
only seconds.
Battery rooms were used to segregate the fumes and corrosive
chemicals of wet cell batteries (often lead–acid) from the operating
equipment; a separate room also allowed better control of
temperature and ventilation for the batteries. In 1890 the Western
Union central telegraph office in New York City had 20,000 wet
cells, mostly primary zinc-copper type, in use.[1]
IT IS USED FOR DETECTING ERRORS IN VARIOUS CTS.
AND RELAYS USED IN THE POWER SUBSATION.
WHENEVER THE EROOR IS DETECTED BY THE
OPERATOR, IN FORM OF ALARM. THE OPARATOR CHECKS
THE RADINGS OF THAT EQUIPMENT. HENCE ERROR IS
RECTIFIED AND CORRECTED.
THE FOLLOWING IS A REPORT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
COMPLETED BY ME, IN RUNNI SAIDPUR POWER SUB
STATION IN MONTH OF JUNE-JULY.

I WORKED UNDER GUIDANCE OF A.E.E MR. MD. NASEEM


ANJER SIR, J,E,E MR. MD SAMIUL RAHMAN SIR.
 INTRODUCTION
 WHAT IS GRID
 FIG OF TRANSFORMER
 POER TRANSFORMER
 CURRENT TRANSFORMER
 POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
 HOW TO CALCULATE TRANSFORMER LOSS
 CKT. BREAKER
 SURGE ARRESTER
 TYPES OF TRNSMISSION TOWER
 RELAY
 INSULATOR
 POWER TRANSFORMER
 CURRENT TRANSFORMER
 BATTERY BANK
 CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
 TRANS SWITCHES
 TRAINING REPORT
 LINE DIAGRAM OF GSS