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# Well Control Fundamentals

7/29/2018 POTS 1
Hydrostatic Pressure
Hydrostatic Pressure = Density (ppg) x Depth in ft (TVD) x 0.052
Hydrostatic Pressure = Density (kg/m³) x Depth in m (TVD) x .00981

7/29/2018 POTS 2
Hydrostatic Pressure Provides Primary Well Control
A column of fluid at rest exerts “hydrostatic” pressure at the bottom of the fluid column.
Hydrostatic pressure is dependent on the fluid weight and vertical depth to the point of interest.

HP = 0.052 x FW x TVD
HP - psi
FW (Fluid Weight) - ppg The pressure gradient (also called fluid
gradient) is the hydrostatic pressure exerted by
TVD - feet
one vertical foot of a fluid of a given weight.

MW – 12 ppg Example

## • What is the hydrostatic pressure gradient of

9 5/8” @ 12.0 ppg fluid?
8500 ft TVD Gradient = .052 x 12 = 0.624 psi/ft
• What is the hydrostatic pressure at the casing
shoe?
HP @ shoe = .624 x 8500 = 5304 psi
12,000 TVD • What is the bottomhole hydrostatic pressure?
HP @ TVD = .624 x 12000 = 7488 psi

7/29/2018 POTS 3
Equivalent Mud Weight
If the pressure is known, it can be described at a depth of interest as an “equivalent
fluid weight” often called equivalent mud weight.

Example:
What is the equivalent mud weight of a producing reservoir
having 8,500 psi pressure at a depth of 14,000 ft TVD / 16,000 ft
TMD.

## Pressure 8,500 psi

Equivalent Fluid Weight (ppge) = = = 11.68 ~ 11.7 ppg
(0.052 x TVD) (0.052 x 14,000 ft)
Note:
Oilfield units for fluid or mud weight is typically expressed as ppg (pounds per
gallon). Fresh water for example has a weight of 8.33 ppg. Typical seawater, due to
the salt content, would weigh about 8.5 ppg.
Many materials used in the oilfield are expressed in terms of their Specific Gravity
(SG). For example, barite has a SG of about 4.2 gms/cc. To determine what this is
in ppg terms you must multiply the SG by the weight of fresh water since fresh
water has a SG of 1.0.
A barrel of barite would weigh 4.2 x 8.33 x 42 = 1470 lbs

7/29/2018 POTS 4
Force, Pressure and Area
Surface area of piston exposed to
1000 lbs the pressure = 100 sq inches

## Force 1000 lbs

Pressure on Gauge = = = 10 psi
Area 100 sq in
And Note:
Force = Pressure x Area

Example:
Pressure of 10 psi on the What would be the upward force acting on a 5 “ OD (closed in)
Pressure Gauge applied to DP in a well with 2500 psi shut-in casing pressure?
exposed area of the cup
Area = 0.785 x (5) 2 = 19.63 sq in

## Force = 19.63 x 2,500 = 49,075 lbs

7/29/2018 POTS 5
Volumes, Capacities and Displacements
Nearly all well control operations require that hole and pipe volumes and pipe displacement
volumes be calculated. The formulas and examples below are very useful for this purpose.

## ID2 Cylinder may be the hole being drilled, casing,

Capacity (bbl/ft) = or drillpipe or tubing. Capacities and
1029.4 displacements can be looked up in tables or
1 ft calculated using the formulas shown here.

## Volume (bbls) = Capacity (bbls/ft) x Cylinder Length (ft)

ID of Cylinder
Example:
Consider the well diagram at the right. If 5 stands (450 ft) of the
5”, 19.50 #/ft DP 5” drillpipe were POOH (dry). How far would the mud level
drop?
Cap = 0.0178 bbl/ft Volume Steel Pulled = DP Disp. X Length POOH
Disp = 0.0076 bbl/ft
Volume Steel Pulled = 0.0076 bbl/ft x 450 ft = 3.42 bbls
Volume (bbls)
Drop in Mud Level (ft) =
9 5/8”, 47.00 #/ft Casing Capacity (bbl/ft)
Cap = 0.0732 bbl/ft 3.42 bbls
Drop in Mud Level (ft) = = 52.1 ft
(0.0732 bbl/ft – 0.0076 bbl/ft)
7/29/2018 POTS 6
Flowline Elevation Effect
1. Normally pressured sand 2. Sand EMW referenced to
@ 1000 ft below sea level. flowline elevation of the floating rig.

Flowline Elevation

MSL to Flowline = 80 ft

MSL = 300 ft

BML = 700 ft

## Formation pressure at 1080 ft RKB

= 8.6 ppg x 1000 ft x 0.052
= 447 psi

## TVD = 1080 ft TVD = 1080 ft Formation pressure (EMW) at

Normally Pressured Sand at 1000 ft this point referenced to flowline:
= 447 psi / (1080 ft x 0.052)
Normal Pore Pressure = 8.6 ppg = 8.0 ppg
7/29/2018 POTS 7
U-Tube Effect
0 3367
psi
Drill Pipe
16 ppg

## 10.6 ppg mud

16 ppg mud
Annulus
10.6 ppg

Differential Pressure
reflected on the gauge
that has the lighter
fluid beneath it.

## 9970 psi 6603 psi

11983 ft
7/29/2018 POTS 8
Displacing Well to 16 ppg Mud
New Mud Weight Inside DP = 16 ppg (0.832 psi/ft)
Old Mud Weight Inside Annulus = 10.6 ppg (0.551 psi/ft)

## = 0.281 psi/ft x 11983 ft

= 3367 psi

7/29/2018 POTS 9
U-Tube Concept
In almost all cases of well work, the hydrostatic pressures associated with the fluids in the well can be
represented as a “U-tube” with one leg of the tube representing the drill pipe or work string and the other
leg representing the annulus.

2 7/8” Tubing A 10 bbl slug (10.0 ppg) was pumped into the tubing. The 10 bbl
Cap. = 0.0045 displaced 2222 ft of the 8.5 ppg fluid from the tubing into the
bbl/ft annulus. After the pump was stopped, the slug continued to fall until
the combined hydrostatic in the tubing equaled the hydrostatic of the
annulus.

392 ft
Air

## 8.5 ppg 8.5 ppg

2,222 ft
Fluid 10 ppg Slug Fluid 1.76 bbls

## (10 bbls) Pit Gain

TVD = 10,000 ft

7/29/2018
HP = 0.052 x 8.5 x 10,000 = 4,420 psi POTS 10
HP = 0.052 x 8.5 x 10,000 = 4,420 psi
Boyle’s Gas Law
Many well control operations deal with gas. Whether the gas is methane from a producing well or
nitroen being used to initiate production in a new completion, gas behaves according to gas laws.
When dealing gwith a near constant temperature environment, Boyle discovered the following
relationship concerning gas behavior.

## Gas Pressure x Gas Volume = A Constant Value or, P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

Example:
If the nitrogen in an accumulator bottle is pressured by
the accumulator’s hydraulic fluid pump to 3000 psi,
what would be the resulting volume of N2?
P1 = 1000 psi V1 = 10 gal (approximate)
N2
P2 = 3000 psi V2 = ?

P1 x V1 1000 x 10
V2 = = = 3.33 gal
10 gal Accumulator
P2 3000
Bottle Pre-charged With
N2 to 1000
psi7/29/2018

7/29/2018
POTS 11
Slow Circulating Rate Pressures
The slow pump pressure is used as a reference
pressure when circulating kicks from the well.

Remember!!
Circulating pressure is the sum of all the friction
pressures in the circulating system or flow path.
Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
Degasser When the well is shut-in and circulation is through
the choke, the choke is used to apply “controlling”
pressure to the formation. The slow circulating
Mud Pumps
Trip
Tank rate
pressure for the system is measured with no load.
Choke
Manifold
Under load conditions (of a kick) the pump
efficiency could be significantly reduced , therefore
SCR pressure is just an indicator of friction
pressure in
the system at a given rate of circulation.

## Slow Circulating Rate Pressures Should be

Measured:

•Each tour;
•After any mud weight change;
•Every 500 ft or 150m of new hole drilled;
•After each BHA change or trip;
•After any significant change in mud properties
7/29/2018 or type.
POTS 12
Slow Circulating Rate Pressures

## • Slow circulating rates should be pre-determined and should be based on the

following;
– Rig barite mixing capability
– ECD on open hole (around DCs/BHA) Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
– Reaction time for choke operator Degasser

## – Pump liner burst pressure limitations Trip

Mud Pumps
– Capacity of mud gas separator
Tank

Choke
– Choke line friction (floaters) Manifold

## – Convenience and ease of use

• Pipe depth should be near bottom (within 50 ft)
• Procedure:
– Position string
– Rotate slowly
– Reduce pump speed to desired slow circulating rate
– Allow drill pipe pressure to stabilize
– Record circulating rate and pump pressure on gauges at:
• Remote Choke Control Unit
• Choke Manifold
• Driller’s Console
7/29/2018 • Standpipe Manifold POTS 13
Circulating System Friction Losses
Typical Rig Circulation System

Rotary Hose

## Standpipe Circulating Circulating Pressure of the Fluid

Pressure
• The pressure required to circulate fluid
through the rig’s circulating system is a
Kelly or Topdrive Standpipe measurement of friction losses in the
system at a selected rate of circulation
(spm).
Mud
Pump • The factors that effect these pressure
(friction) losses are:
Surface Pits  Dimensions of the system:
 Length, ID of drilling or work
string; ID of nozzles in the bit or
ID of downhole tools, annulus
clearances, etc. rheological
properties, etc.
Drillpipe  Fluid properties:
Annulus  Mud or fluid density;
Wellbore
 Fluid flowrate (circulation rate)
Jet Bit w/ Nozzles

7/29/2018 POTS 14
Circulating Pressure Losses
Are present in:
1. Surface equipment, including
standpipe, rotary hose, swivel, top Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy

drive. Degasser

Trip

## downhole tools Choke

Manifold

4. Bit Nozzles
5. Outside the drill string (Annulus
Pressure Loss)

7/29/2018 POTS 15
Circulation System Friction Losses

## Total Friction Loss

Drill String
Safety Valve
1. Mud Properties
Poorboy

2. Measured Depth
Degasser

Mud Pumps
Trip
Tank
3. Size of the Drill
Choke
String
Manifold

4. BHA Components
5. Nozzle Sizes
6. Annular Clearance
7. Circulation Rate
8. Surface Equipment

7/29/2018 POTS 16
Circulating System Friction Losses

Friction Pressure Losses • The pressure on the standpipe gauge is the sum
of the friction pressure losses that occur in the
Rotary Hose circulating system. This pressure is the total
system pressure loss.
• These pressure losses occur in the following
areas:
 Surface Equipment
Kelly or Standpipe
Topdrive  Drillpipe or Workstring
Mud  Drill collars
Pump
 Bit nozzles or downhole tools
Surface Pits  Annulus
Example
 Surface equipment =
50 psi
 Drillpipe =
Drillpipe 800 psi
Annulus
Wellbore  Drill collars =
150 psi
Jet Bit w/ Nozzles  Nozzles =
7/29/2018 POTS 1800 psi 17
 Annulus =
Circulating System Friction Losses (SI)
Friction Pressure Losses • The pressure on the standpipe gauge is the
sum of the friction pressure losses that occur
Rotary Hose in the circulating system. This pressure is the
total system pressure loss.
• These pressure losses occur in the following
areas:
Standpipe  Surface Equipment
Kelly or
 Drillpipe or Workstring
Topdrive
Mud  Drill collars
Pump  Bit nozzles or downhole tools
Surface  Annulus
Example
Pits
 Surface equipment =
350 kPa
 Drillpipe =
5600 kPa
Drillpipe
Annul Wellbore  Drill collars =
us 1050 kPa
Jet Bit w/  Nozzles = 12600 kPa
7/29/2018 Nozzles POTS  Annulus = 18
1400 kPa
Estimating Pump Pressures Changes

## New Pump Pressure

Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
Degasser
= Old Pump Pressure x ( New SPM
Old SPM ) 2

Trip
Mud Pumps Tank

Choke
Manifold

## = Old Pump Pressure x ( New Mud Density

Old Mud Density )
7/29/2018 POTS 19
Estimating Pump Pressures Changes (API)

## New Pump Pressure

( )
Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
180 SPM 2
Degasser
= 3000 psi x
150 SPM
Trip
Mud Pumps Tank
= 4320 psi
Choke
Manifold Increase Mud Density to 11.5
ppg from 10 ppg
New Pump Pressure

## = 3000 psi x ( 11.5 ppg

10 ppg )
= 3450 psi

7/29/2018 POTS 20
Factors Affecting ECD

## 1. The Hole Depth

Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
2. The Circulation Rate
Degasser

## 3. The Mud Weight

Mud Pumps
Trip
Tank
4. The rheology of the
Choke
Manifold mud
5. The hole size
6. Annular Clearance
7. Cuttings volume in
the annulus

7/29/2018 POTS 21
Equivalent Circulating Density
1. Total Pressure at Point of Interest
= Hydrostatic Pressure + APL
Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
Degasser

Trip
Mud Pumps Tank

Choke
Manifold

## 2. Equivalent Circulating Density

Pressure at Point of Interest
=
TV Depth x 0.052

7/29/2018 POTS 22
Equivalent Mud/Circulating Density (API)

## Trip In BHP = Hyd Press + Surge Press= BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052

7/29/2018 POTS 23
Equivalent Mud/Circulating Density (API)
Depth: 12,100 ft Mud Weight: 16 ppg
Annular Pressure Loss: 300 psi
Swab Pressure: 250 psi
Surge Pressure: 400 psi

## BHP = 12,100 ft x 0.052 x 16 ppg = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052

Pump Off BHP = 10,067 psi = 10,067 psi ÷ 12,100 ft ÷ 0.052
= 16 ppg

## BHP = (12,100 ft x 0.052 x 16 ppg) + 300 psi = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052

Drilling = 10,367 psi ÷ 12,100 ft ÷ 0.052
BHP = 10,367 psi
= 16.5 ppg
= BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052
BHP = (12,100 ft x 0.052 x 16 ppg) - 250 psi
Trip Out = 9817 psi ÷ 12,100 ft ÷ 0.052
BHP = 9817 psi
= 15.6 ppg

## BHP = (12,100 ft x 0.052 x 16 ppg) + 400 psi = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052

Trip In BHP = 10,467 psi = 10,467 psi ÷ 12,100 ft ÷ 0.052
= 16.6 ppg

7/29/2018 POTS 24
Estimating Pump Pressures Changes (SI)

( )
Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
180 SPM 2
Degasser
= 21000 kPa x
150 SPM
Trip
Mud Pumps Tank
= 30240 kPa
Choke
Manifold

## = 21000 kPa x ( 1320 kg/m3

1200 kg/m3 )
= 23100 kPa

7/29/2018 POTS 25
Estimating Pump Pressures Changes (SI)
Increase Pump Speed to 180 SPM from 150 SPM

( )
Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
180 SPM 2
Degasser
= 21000kPa x
150 SPM
Trip
Mud Pumps Tank
= 30240 kPa
Choke
Manifold

## = 21000 kPa x ( 1380 kg/m3

1200 kg/m3 )
= 24150 kPa

7/29/2018 POTS 26
Equivalent Circulating Density (SI)

## 1. Total Pressure at Point of Interest

= Hydrostatic Pressure + APL
Drill String
Safety Valve
Poorboy
Degasser

Trip
Mud Pumps Tank

Choke
Manifold

## 2. Equivalent Circulating Density

Pressure at Point of Interest
=
TV Depth x 0.00981

7/29/2018 POTS 27
Equivalent Mud/Circulating Density (SI)

## Drilling BHP = Hydrostatic Pressure + APL = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.00981

Trip Out BHP = Hyd Press - Swab Press = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.00981

## Trip In BHP = Hyd Press + Surge Press= BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.00981

7/29/2018 POTS 28
Equivalent Mud/Circulating Density (SI)
Depth: 3690 m Mud Weight: 1920 kg/m3
Annular Pressure Loss: 2100 kPa
Swab Pressure: 1700 kPa
Surge Pressure: 2800 kPa

## BHP = 3690 x 0.00981 x 1920 kg/m3 = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.00981

Pump Off BHP = 69502 kPa = 69502 ÷ 3690 ÷ 0.00981
= 1920 kg/m3

Drilling BHP = (3690 x 0.00981 x 1920 kg/m3) + 2100 kPa = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.00981
BHP = 71602 kPa = 71602 ÷ 3690 ÷ 0.00981
= 1978 kg/m3
= BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052
Trip Out BHP = (3690 x 0.00981 x 1920 kg/m3) – = 67802 ÷ 3690÷ 0.00981
1700 kPa = 1873 kg/m3
BHP = 67802 kPa
BHP = (3690 x 0.00981 x 1920 kg/m3) + 2800 kPa = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052
Trip In BHP = 72302 kPa = 72302 ÷ 3690 ÷ 0.00981
= 1997 kg/m3

7/29/2018 POTS 29
Equivalent Circulating Density
Hole Static Circulating on Well

## APL = 100 psi

Total Pressure at Shoe
= (12.5 ppg x 5000 ft x 0.052) +
Mud in Hole 100 psi
= 3350 psi
= 12.5 ppg
ECD at Shoe
5000 ft shoe = 3350 psi / (5000 ft x 0.052)
= 12. 9 ppg

## Hydrostatic Total Pressure at TD

= (12.5 ppg x 10,000 ft x 0.052) + 350
Pressure (EMW) APL = 200 psi psi
= 6850 psi
= 12.5 ppg ECD at TD
= 6850 psi / (10,000 ft x 0.052)
= 13.2 ppg
TVD = 10,000 ft TVD = 10,000 ft

7/29/2018 POTS 30
Equivalent Mud/Circulating Density

7/29/2018 POTS 31
Factors Affecting Surge and Swab

1.Annulus Clearance
2.Mud Viscosity
3.Gel Strength of the Mud
4.Trip Speed of pipe
5.Acceleration or
deceleration of the pipe.
6.Wellbore profile (vertical
or horizontal)

7/29/2018 POTS 32
Desirable Drilling Conditions

## Equivalent Mud Density vs In-Situ Conditions

LOT (of open hole to avoid fractures )
HP +Surge Pressure (less than)

## Minimum Horz. Stress (f close)

ECD while drilling (less than)

## Equivalent Static Density (of OBM)

Mud Density

Formation Pressure
HP - Swab Pressure (more than FP)

7/29/2018 POTS 33
Undesirable Condition - Ballooning

## Equivalent Mud Density vs In-Situ Conditions

Surge Pressure
LOT (f open)
Equivalent Circulating Density

## Equivalent Static Density (SOBM)

Mud Density
Formation Pressure

The mud lost while circulating will flow back to the wellbore
when the pumps are shut off.
7/29/2018 POTS 34
Undesirable Condition - Total Losses

LOT (f open)

## Equivalent Static Density (SOBM)

Mud Density
Minimum Horz. Stress (f close)

Formation Pressure

Total mud loss occurs when the static mud density exceeds the
minimum horizontal stress.

7/29/2018 POTS 35
Surge & Swab Pressure Variations

1. Run in Hole at Constant Speed (Surge) 3. Pulling out Hole at Constant Speed (Swab)

## 1. Increase due to BHA

1. Increase due
to BHA removal

2. Increase due to DP
2. Decrease due
to DP removal
Surge Pressure are
Swab Pressures are present
present
through out the wellbore
through out the
and not only at Point of
wellbore
Interest.
and not only at Point of
.
Interest.
3. Decrease as
BHA passes 3. Influence of
shoe. BHA passing
shoe.

4. Constant Surge
pressure due to 4. Constant Swab
DP in casing. pressure due to
DP in casing.

7/29/2018 POTS 36
Pressure Surges Lowering Pipe
+ D

B
Pressure

0
C

## A = SWAB - pipe lifted from slips

B = SURGE - Positive pressure to break mud gel
A C = Lowering pipe to drill Minimum pipe velocity
- D = Swab – To make a connection Maximum pipe velocity
E = Neutral - pipe stopped suddenly

7/29/2018 POTS 37
Surge and Swab

## FRACTURE PRESSURE = 10,587 psi

10,587
Accelerate

Decelerate
9900
Accelerate
SURGE
HP = 9700 psi ANNULUS FRICTION PRESSURE

Start pumps
9700
PRESSURE

SWAB
TRIP
MARGIN
9500

9300

## 7/29/2018 Bottom Hole Pressure is Affected by Pipe Motion

POTS 38
Restoration of BHP/Gas Migration (API)

## Keep BHP constant to avoid underground blowout

SIDPP SIDPP
Formula: Kick Volume x Pressure Increase

400 520
Volume to bleed =
Formation Pressure – Pressure Increase
SICP

680 800
Migration Rate/hr = Change in surface press

Given:
Well bore mud density is 12 ppg
The well depth is 9500 ft
The well is SI after 30 bbls of kick in the annulus

## The surface pressures stabilized as:

SIDPP = 400 psi, SICP = 680 psi

## a. Calculate the migration rate of the gas bubble (

in ft per hour.)
Increase in surface pressure
Due to gas migration in ½ hrs
b. Calculate the volume to bleed to restore BHP to
original value (bleed down to take place after the
½ hr increase.
7/29/2018 POTS 39