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Design, Testing and Analysis of

Journal Bearings for


Construction Equipment

Henrik Strand

Doctoral Thesis TRITA-MMK 2005:21


Department of Machine Design ISSN 1400-1179
Royal Institute of Technology ISRN/KTHMMK/R-05/21-SE
SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden ISBN 91-7178-142-0
TRITA-MMK 2005:21
ISSN 1400-1179
ISRN/KTHMMK/R-05/21-SE
ISBN 91-7178-142-0

Design, Testing and Analysis of Journal Bearings for Construction Equipment

Doctoral Thesis in Machine Design

This is an academic thesis, which with approval of the Department of Machine Design,
Royal Institute of Technology, will be presented for public review in fulfillment of the
requirements for a Doctorate of Engineering in Machine Design. This public
presentation will be made at the Roya l Institute of Technology, Room M3, Brinellvägen
64, Stockholm, Sweden, on October 7, 2005 at 14:15.

© Henrik Strand 2005


HENRIK STRAND
DESIGN , TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF JOURNAL BEARINGS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

ABSTRACT
Grease- lubricated journal bearings present a common challenge for construction
equipment manufacturers in the world. The common design methodology is based on
empirical data and has worked very well historically because the market and
governments have accepted that bearings in construction equipment need frequent
lubrication and exchange of worn parts. Legal and market requirements will soon
demand lower environmental impact and increased machine efficiency. These
requirements call for better methods of designing grease lubricated journal bearings.

The goal of the outlined work was to develop better design methods for grease
lubricated journal-bearing design used in heavy-duty construction equipment machines,
in order to prolong life and lubrication intervals.

The research approach of the project can roughly be divided into three phases:

1. Development of test apparatus and test methods for journal bearing studies.

2. Bench tests of grease lubricated journal bearing design.

3. Verification between bench tests and computer simulations.

In the thesis the current state of the art in bearing design for construction equipment is
discussed and summarized in the form of design guidelines. The suggested design steps
are just a mean to get to the starting point of design. The simple guidelines do however
serve a purpose when collected since most published bearing design guidelines are
aimed at the bushing material or at continuously rotating bearings. The influence of
housing, environment and load cases can not be ignored when designing a bearing.
Long term field-testing and experience can not be replaced until better design criteria
have been established.

Paper A deals with the design of the bearing test apparatus that was built and evaluated.
Comparisons between theoretical contact and contact elements in Finite Element
program have been made and discussed in paper B. In paper C a replica technique for
measuring wear of large field specimens was evaluated. A case study of bearing housing
design was performed in paper D utilizing Finite Element program and then validated in
paper E in the bearing test apparatus. The influence of grease groove design on bushing
life was tested and evaluated in paper F. Wear simulation of a plain bushing has been
performed with a Finite Element program and presented in paper G.

Keywords; Contact Mechanics, Finite Element, Grease, Journal Bearing, Lubrication,


Replica Technique, Test Apparatus, Tribology, Wear

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SAMMANFATTNING (ABSTRACT IN SWEDISH)


Fettsmorda glidlager är en gemensam utmaning för tillverkare av anläggningsmaskiner i
hela världen. Det vanliga sättet att konstruera är baserad på empiriska data och har
fungerat mycket väl fram till nu, då marknaden och regeringarna har accepterat att
glidlagren i dessa maskiner behöver frekvent återsmörjning och utbyte av slitdelar.
Striktare marknads- och lagkrav gällande miljöeffekter och ökad produktivitet gör att
bättre metoder för konstruktion av fettsmorda glidlager behövs.

Målet med det här arbetet var att utveckla bättre metoder för konstruktion av fettsmorda
glidlager i tungt belastade entreprenadmaskiner för att öka livslängden och förlänga
serviceintervallen.

Tillvägagångssättet för forskningen i projektet är grovt indelat i tre faser:

1. Utvecklande av provapparat och provmetoder för studier av glidlager.

2. Bänk och fälttest av fettsmort glidlager konstruktion.

3. Verifiering mellan fält och bänktester med data simuleringar.

I avhandlingen är den nuvarande metodiken för dimensionering av lagringar för


anläggningsmaskiner diskuterad och sammanfattad i form av dimensioneringsregler. De
föreslagna konstruktionsanvisningarna är en hjälp att komma till en startpunkt för
fortsatt konstruktion. Dessa enkla anvisningar fyller dock sin funktion när de är
ihopsamlade, då de flesta publicerade anvisningar för lagringskonstruktion är enbart
avsedda för val av bussningsmaterial eller roterande lagringar. Inverkan av lagerhus,
miljö och lastfall kan dock inte ignoreras när en lagring ska dimensioneras.
Långtidsprov i fält och erfarenhet kan inte bli ersatta förrän bättre konstruktionskriteria
är etablerade.

Artikel A behandlar konstruktion av lagerprovapparaten som är byggd och evaluerad.


Jämförelser mellan teoretisk kontakt och kontaktelement i finita element program är
gjorda och diskuteras i artikel B. I artikel C är en replikeringsmetod för att mäta slitage
av stora fältprover utvärderad. En fallstudie av lagerhusets inverkan på
yttrycksfördelningen presenterad i artikel D och genomförd med hjälp av finit element
program samt validerad i artikel E med hjälp av lagerprovapparaten. Inverkan av
fettsmörjspårens utformning på bussningsslitage är studerat i artikel F.
Nötningssimulering av en slät bussning är gjord med finit element program och
presenteras i artikel G.

Nyckelord; Avgjutningsteknik, Fett, Finita Element, Glidlager, Kontaktmekanik,


Nötning, Provapparat, Smörjning, Tribologi

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work presented in this thesis was carried out during 1998-2005 at the Department
of Machine Design, Division of Machine Elements at the Royal Institute of Technology
(KTH) in Stockholm and at Volvo Wheel Loaders AB in Eskilstuna.

The financial support from the Swedish Research Council, the research program HiMeC
and Volvo Construction Equipment is gratefully acknowledged.

I would like to thank my supervisor Professor Sören Andersson and co-supervisor Dr.
Stefan Björklund for all the help, support and guidance during these past years. My
thanks go also to the colleagues at the division of Machine Elements for stimulating
company and support.

I would also like to thank my colleagues at department UM of Volvo Wheel Loaders


AB for support and enduring my many questions. Special thanks to my manager M.Sc.
Per Olson for his support and to Lic.Eng. Magnus Byggnevi for enduring my unending
questions about solid mechanics.

Last but not least, I would like to thank my wife Karin and the rest of my family for
making me explain in various languages what I am researching and for proofing this
thesis.

Eskilstuna, August 2005

Henrik Strand

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LIST OF APPENDED PAPERS


Slight adjustments in formatting for the appended papers have been made from the
original. Henrik Strand is sole author of all papers. Papers E, F and G are submitted for
publication.

Paper A

Strand, Henrik, “Apparatus for simulation of wear in heavy-duty oscillating journal


bearings”, Proceedings OST – 99 Symposium on Machine Design, KTH, Stockholm,
1999

Paper A was orally presented at OST-99 in Stockholm, Sweden.

Paper B

Strand, Henrik, “Boundary conditions in finite element calculations utilizing conformal


contact of cylindrical bodies”, 9th Symposium on tribology – Nordtrib 2000, VTT
Technical Research Centre of Finland, Porvoo, 2000

Paper B was presented as a poster at Nordtrib 2000 in Porvoo, Finland.

Paper C

Strand, Henrik, “Wear measurement of plain journal bearings”, 10th Symposium on


tribology – Nordtrib 2002, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002.

Paper C was presented orally at Nordtrib 2002 in Stockholm, Sweden.

Paper D

Strand, Henrik, “Journal Bearing Housing Design - A Statistical Study with FEM”, 11th
Symposium on tribology – Nordtrib 2004, Tromsö, Norway, 2004.

Paper D was presented orally at Nordtrib 2004 in Tromsö, Norway.

To be published in Tribology International.

Paper E

Strand Henrik, “Influence of journal bearing housing stiffness on bushing wear”

Paper F

Strand, Henrik, “Influence of grease groove design on bushing wear”

Paper G

Strand, Henrik, “Simulation of bushing wear”

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NOMENCLATURE
a [m] effective throat measure λ [W/mK] heat transfer coefficient
A [m2 ] area ν [-] Poissons coefficient
α [°] half contact angle µ [-] coefficient of friction
α [1/K] coefficient of heat p [N/m2 ] pressure
expansion q [N/m] line load
β [°] half oscillation angle Q [W] heat effect
c [m] eyebar radial width R [m] radius
d [m] diameter R' [m] equivalent radius
1 1 1
∆d [m] diametric change = −
R' R1 R2
D [m] diameter s [m] seat width or distance
δ [m] displacement S [Nm] torque or torsion
∆ [m] diametric difference, σ [N/m2 ] stress
∆ > 0 ⇒ play, σy [N/m2 ] yield stress
∆ < 0 ⇒ interference, σUTS [N/m2 ] ultimate tensile stress
E [N/m2 ] modulus of elasticity τ [N/m2 ] shear stress
E' [N/m2 ] equivalent modulus τy [N/m2 ] yield shear stress
of elasticity t [m] thickness
1 1 − ?12 1 − ?22
= + t [s] time
E' E1 E2
F [N] force or load T [K] temperature
Ff [N] frictional force ∆Τ [K] temperature difference
h [m] height v [m/s] sliding velocity
H [N/ m2 ] hardness V [m3 ] volume
η [-] safety factor w [m] bushing width
I [m4 ] moment of inertia W [m3 ] bending or torsion
k [m2 /N] coefficient of wear resistance
K [-] coefficient of wear ξ [-] heat distribution
Kt [-] stress concentration ψ [-] relative bearing play
factor z [m] height coordinate
L [m] length
∆L [m] length difference

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................................................III
S AMMANFATTNING (ABSTRACT IN SWEDISH)......................................................................................................V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...........................................................................................................................................VII
LIST O F APPENDED PAPERS.................................................................................................................................... IX
NOMENCLATURE ....................................................................................................................................................... XI
TABLE O F CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................XIII
1. INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................................1
1.1. BACKGROUND ...........................................................................................................................................1
1.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................4
1.3. INDUSTRIAL A ND A CADEMIC RELEVANCE...........................................................................................4
1.4. RESEARCH A PPROACH.............................................................................................................................5
1.4.1. Subtasks...........................................................................................................................................5
1.5. OUTLINE OF THESIS .................................................................................................................................6
2. BEARING DESIGN...............................................................................................................................................7
2.1. STRUCTURAL DESIGN ..............................................................................................................................7
2.1.1. Pin Diameter ..................................................................................................................................7
2.1.2. Flexural Pin Design......................................................................................................................7
2.1.3. Surface Pressure Distribution.....................................................................................................9
2.1.4. Bushing Width............................................................................................................................. 11
2.1.5. Pin Seat Width............................................................................................................................. 12
2.1.6. Housing........................................................................................................................................ 13
2.1.7. Lockplate Screw Joint................................................................................................................ 14
2.1.8. Lockplate Weld Size................................................................................................................... 14
2.1.9. Lockplate Lock Size.................................................................................................................... 15
2.1.10. Lateral Pin Lock ......................................................................................................................... 17
2.1.11. Bearing Play................................................................................................................................ 18
2.1.12. Velocity......................................................................................................................................... 19
2.1.13. Pressure Velocity........................................................................................................................ 20
2.1.14. Friction......................................................................................................................................... 21
2.1.15. Temperature ................................................................................................................................ 21
2.1.16. Surface Roughness..................................................................................................................... 22
2.1.17. Wear.............................................................................................................................................. 23
2.2. BEARING M ATERIAL SELECTION .........................................................................................................24
2.2.1. Pins ............................................................................................................................................... 24
2.2.2. Bushings....................................................................................................................................... 25
2.2.3. Seals.............................................................................................................................................. 27
2.2.4. Grease .......................................................................................................................................... 28
2.3. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS..................................................................................................................29
3. S UMMARY OF APPENDED PAPERS .............................................................................................................. 30
3.1. PAPER A...................................................................................................................................................30
3.2. PAPER B ...................................................................................................................................................32
3.3. PAPER C ...................................................................................................................................................33
3.4. PAPER D...................................................................................................................................................34
3.5. PAPER E ...................................................................................................................................................35
3.6. PAPER F....................................................................................................................................................36
3.7. PAPER G...................................................................................................................................................37
4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................. 38
5. FUTURE R ESEARCH........................................................................................................................................ 39
6. R EFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................... 40
7. APPENDIX ......................................................................................................................................................... 41
APPENDED PAPERS A-G

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1. INTRODUCTION
Grease- lubricated journal bearings present a common challenge for construction
equipment manufacturers in the world. The common design methodology is based on
empirical data and has worked very well historically because the market and
governments have accepted that bearings in construction equipment need frequent
lubrication and exchange of worn parts. Legal and market requirements will soon
demand lower environmental impact and increased machine efficiency. These
requirements call for better methods of designing grease lubricated journal bearings.

The goal of the outlined work was to develop better design methods for grease
lubricated journal-bearing design used in heavy-duty construction equipment machines,
in order to prolong life and lubrication intervals.

Bearings for construction equipment are ge nerally subject to very high loads together
with low sliding speeds. Typical values of pressure are 100-200 MPa and sliding speeds
are in the range of 0.01-0.1 m/s. An example of a construction equipment machine with
many oscillating journal bearings is a wheel loader shown in figure 1 below.

Figure 1. A Volvo wheel loader model L220E.

1.1. BACKGROUND
Grease- lubricated journal bearings have followed mankind since the earliest
civilizations. The principal design of a rotating or oscillating shaft in a grease- lubricated
hole has not changed much since then [1]. Today these bearings consist of hardened
steel axles sliding against plastic or metallic bushings lubricated with modern
petrochemical grease, instead of wooden shafts sliding against wood lubricated by
animal fat.

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Knowledge of bearing design has been passed down mostly as rules of thumb. In today's
heavy-duty industrial applications, problems develop due to increasing loads on the
bearing while the size is reduced. This leads to high surface pressures and accelerated
wear. The question how to optimize the bearing design of heavy-duty bearing
applications while maintaining small size and low cost is becoming a very important
issue.

Substantial testing of different bushing materials has been done by a variety of different
researchers with various often contradictory results [2]. These tests are only concerned
with the material selection process, i.e. how to select the best combination of material
for the pin and bushing. Still for the overall bearing design, a few direct conclusions can
be drawn from these tests.

Current design guidelines found in literature for journal bearings are mostly based on
empirically derived correlations for grease lubricated journal bearings subject to static
loads and continuous rotation. However this is not a very fitting description of the actual
working condition for bearings in construction equipment.

The loading unit of a Volvo wheel loader has 16 individual grease lubricated journal
bearings as can be seen in figure 2 below.

Figure 2. A loading unit of a wheel loader.

These journal bearings operate in very harsh environments with highly varying dynamic
impact loads and oscillations under low sliding speeds and a wide range of ambient
temperatures. This implies that the bearings are operating in the boundary- lubricated
regime, which means insufficient lubrication to completely separate the axle pin from
the bushing. The resulting pin-bushing contact results in wear that shortens the life of
the bearing. High friction from insufficient lubrication is a major cause of energy loss in
the load unit.

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Another problem is how to keep grease inside the bearing until all of it is consumed and
then replaced with new grease. Today grease lubricated journal bearings operate on a
total loss system, which means that all inserted grease is released directly out into the
environment after its lubrication properties are diminished. For a machine that is used
very hard, replenishment of grease is needed every day. Every time a wheel loader is
greased, a few kilograms of grease are released into the environment.

Seals are used to keep the grease between the bushing and the pin while protecting
against external contaminants. They need to be stiff enough to seal against dirt while
keeping the grease inside, but resilient enough to allow replenishment. During heavy
loads the pin is deflected during operation, thus allowing the grease to be pushed out
through the deformed seals.

To minimize deflection different designs of housing can be used. A typical journal


bearing for construction equipment is shown in figure 3 below.

Figure 3. Cross section of a typical journal bearing housing for construction


equipment.

To understand which factors and interactions govern the performance of the bearing,
both simulations and full-scale field tests need to be performed. A quick way to evaluate
different housing designs is to use finite element programs with capability of contact
simulation. Use of finite element analysis places great demand on accuracy and speed.
The most critical aspect of every finite element model is how to apply the boundary
conditions and loads that most accurately correspond to reality. To fine-tune the finite

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element model, it is necessary to compare results from actual physical tests and
theoretical contact mechanic calculations.

1.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND


Man started using metallic bushings as early as 400 BC. It is documented that conical
journal bearings were used in China around 300 BC. During the Roman Empire the use
of metal bushings spread throughout Europe. After the fall of the empire the usage
diminished rapidly. The continuous use of metallic bushings until 1000 AD has been
documented in China.

In Europe the use of metallic bushings did not become widely spread until the middle
ages. Most common bearings were still made of wood since metal bearings were
expensive and difficult to make. In the middle of the 16th century there was evidence of
journal bearings of wood, iron and steel. Around the year 1600 in Italy,
recommendations for design and dimensioning of bearings with bronze bushings
together with steel pins were recorded.

From a hundred years later there are references to softer bushing materials with split
halves being used with the possibility of adjusting the play. From 1734 there is evidence
of the usage of cast iron, brass and bell metal for bushing materials.

In 1839, Isaac Babbitt obtained a patent on a tin-based alloy with antimony and copper
for bushings, called Babbitt. In 1921 copper- lead based alloys were introduced. During
the middle part of the 20th century no significant improvements to bearing design were
contributed. Since the introduction of plastic materials, tremendous progress on the
plastic bearing market has been achieved. Within the last decades, porous oil- filled
materials, as well as composite bearings, have also been applied as bushing material
with success. In the course of this progress of bearing materials it has proved important
to understand which physical and tribological properties are needed for different
applications [1].

1.3. INDUSTRIAL AND ACADEMIC RELEVANCE


The bearings in the lifting frame unit of a wheel loader are one of the most crucial
components for its operation. If the bearings do not work properly the machine will not
work well at all. A comparison can easily be made between a machine with bad
lubrication and a human with rheumatism; neither can do much heavy intensive work
without serious injury.

The bearing design problem described above is present in many construction equipment
applications. Very little open research has been done in this field in the last few years.
Research with grease as a lubricant has been aimed at rolling element bearings that
operate under much different tribological conditions. This is largely because roller
bearings have been regarded as state of the art during the 20th century. However for
slow moving applications like lifting frame bearings in wheel loaders, roller bearings
just do not work well eno ugh without being substantially oversized.

The work presented in this thesis can be used as reference for other similar applications
and the guidelines presented in chapter 2 will simplify the design process.

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1.4. RESEARCH APPROACH


The research approach of this work can roughly be divided into three phases:

1. Development of test apparatus and test methods for journal bearing studies

The first phase was the foundation for further studies. In this phase the test apparatus for
oscillating bearing testing was built and evaluated. Methods of measuring results from
the test apparatus were also important. Papers A, C, E are related to this phase.

2. Bench tests of grease lubricated journal bearing design

This phase involves testing of different designs and materials. The measured result was
how the design and material combinations affect wear, friction and lubricity of the
sliding bearing surface. Papers E and F mostly cover this phase.

3. Verification between bench tests and computer simulations

The final phase was meant to correlate field and bench test results with simulated results
from finite element analysis and numerical wear modeling. The goal was to be able to
predict wear life as a function of material, load, speed and design. Another goal was to
formulate a wear model for grease lubricated journal bearings to predict when a bearing
needs to be replaced, and how much a bearing is damaged when subject to loss of
lubrication. In papers D and E this verification is discussed. Some wear simulations
have been performed using a finite element program and the results are presented in
paper G.

1.4.1. SUBTASKS
To achieve the above stated goals a few subtasks need solving:

• Bearing design parameters

The object was to theoretically find the parameters that govern the bearing function. To
help sort through the parameters of the testing process, it is important to try to use
existing empirical formulas and make simplified calculations to select the most
important parameters. The result from this work is compiled in chapter 2 on bearing
design.

• Faster finite element contact analysis

In order to solve 3-dimensional solid mechanics problems with the finite element
method, it is necessary to have correct boundary conditions to get accurate results. It is
of great importance to use an appropriate contact element model that corresponds well
to reality and theory to produce these boundary conditions for contacting surfaces.
Increased use of contact elements in finite element programs has helped the engineer to
get more accurate boundary conditions at the expense of heavily increased calculation
times. The question of how to trim the contact elements to get accurate results and short
calculation times is a major problem, especially for conformal contacts in journal
bearings. If a finite element analysis could be used to predict wear, it is vital that the
analysis is quickly solved with reasonable accuracy. This is discussed in paper B.

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1.5. OUTLINE OF THESIS


In this chapter the background, purpose and research approach of the work is presented
and explained. In chapter 2 the current state of the art in bearing design for construction
equipme nt is compiled into a handbook of journal bearing design. The handbook is not
complete in any way but will hopefully serve as a start of design. In chapter 3 a short
overview of the accomplished work of the appended papers can be found. In chapter 4
the results presented in the thesis are discussed and concluded. And finally in chapter 5
some remarks about future research are made.

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2. BEARING DESIGN
Grease lubricated oscillating journal bearings are today mostly designed by empirical
tests and traditional guidelines. Bearing manufacturers have good knowledge of bearing
material interaction but the design engineers who buy them and build them into
machines usually do not. Unfortunately bearing manufacturers have little knowledge of
how the bearing will be used and they have to rely on in-house bench tests. There are in
fact a lot of design parameters that rely on the surrounding environment and geometry
that can not be tested in a general purpose bench test.

In this chapter some design guidelines are outlined for grease lubricated oscillating
journal bearings for construction equipment applications.

2.1. STRUCTURAL DESIGN


The applied load F on the bearing together with the material yield stress σy serves as the
basis for the bearing design process. A safety factor denoted by η is frequently
appearing in the equations below but no guidelines about what factors to use are
presented since it varies for different applications.

2.1.1. PIN DIAMETER


The pin material yield stress in shearing gives a minimum value of the diameter that
may serve as a starting point.

F 4⋅F 2⋅ F 
τ= = =
2 ⋅ A 2⋅ π ⋅ d 2
π ⋅ d 2  2 3 F ⋅η
⇒d=
σy
(1)
 π σy
σ e,VonMises = σ + 3 ⋅τ =
2 2

η 

This equation yields a diameter that is much smaller than actually needed. A large
safety factor is recommended against shear break of the pin.

2.1.2. FLEXURAL PIN DESIGN


Blake [4] states that the bending stress alone makes the decisive stress if the pin
diameter is smaller or equal to its free length. Since this is usually the case, it becomes
easy to account for the maximum stress of the outer fiber by approximating the pin as a
constrained beam loaded in the middle. The beam is considered constrained since the
contact between pin and pin seat is rather tight. From beam theory the minimum
diameter to avoid plastic deformation for the described load case is:

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F⋅L 
S= 
8

π ⋅d3 
W = 
32 4 F ⋅ L ⋅η
⇒ d = 3 (2)
σ=
S  π σy
W 
σ 
σ e,VonMises = σ 2 + 3 ⋅τ 2 = y 
η 

The free length L is defined by Blake to be the length between the pin seats i.e. the
bushing width plus the lateral play.

Figure 4. Model of a constrained beam and model for bending with a transversal hole.

When there is a lubricating hole in the pin, the stress is increased due to stress
concentration. The effect of a transversal hole in a round pin subject to bending can be
read from stress concentration factor charts. The result is shown below with Kt
calculated from empirical data presented by Pilkey [5].

σy 
σ = K t ⋅ σ nom = 
η 
S 
σ nom = 
W 
I pin I hole d 3  π 1  dhole   
W= − = ⋅  − ⋅    ⇒
z max zmax 4  8 3  d  
F ⋅L 
S=  (4)
8 
2 3 4
 d   d   d   d   d 
K t  hole ≤ 0.2  = 3 −11.3 ⋅  hole  + 51.6 ⋅  hole  −114.6 ⋅  hole  + 76.4 ⋅  hole  
 d   d   d   d   d  
2 3 4
d  d  d  d 
3 − 11.3 ⋅  hole  + 51.6 ⋅  hole  − 114.6 ⋅  hole  + 76.4 ⋅  hole 
4 F ⋅ L ⋅η  d   d   d   d 
⇒d=3 ⋅ ⋅
π σy 8  d 
1− ⋅  hole 
3⋅π  d 

As shown in equations 4 above, a lubrication hole in the maximum loaded region will
increase the minimum required pin diameter by 34 - 44%. The maximum stress in the
transversal hole does not occur on the surface, but a small distance below the pin

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surface inside the lubrication hole [5]. This fact makes it very important to make sure
that the lubrication hole has smooth surfaces to avo id additional stress concentration.
The transition zone between the hardened surface and the core material is also in the
same region.

Another way to deal with this stress concentration is to place the transversal lubrication
hole in the neutral layer for bending, which can be difficult since the load direction is
often not fixed relative to the pin.

2.1.3. SURFACE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION


The surface pressure by projected bearing area is the most common distribution seen in
bearing catalogues. As a rule of thumb, the projected surface pressure should be kept
below 50% of the softer material yield stress to avoid seizure if the velocity is kept
below 0.02 m/s [6]. The projected surface pressure is:

F σy 2⋅F
p= ≤ ⇒ d ⋅ w = Aprojected ≥ (5)
d ⋅w 2 σy

If the surface pressure exceeds the material hardness it will be plasticized resulting in
increased play, wear and extrusion [7]. The projected pressure does not take into
account the influence of misalignment and bearing play and their addition to the
maximum pressure in the bearing.

Figure 5. Projected area for surface pressure calculations.

The projected surface approach tells nothing about the maximum edge pressure that
deforms the materials in the bearing. A simplified model of load distribution of a
bearing is shown in the figure below. The real parabolic load distribution shape of the
bearing is difficult to model without using finite element tools to analyze the housing
stiffness. A simplified triangular load distribution usually provides a slightly more
accurate model than the projected pressure distribution but conservative model. Using
this load distribution doubles the maximum pressure compared to the projected surface
pressure.

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Figure 6. Left; bearing with loads. Center; pin with parabolic pressure distribution.
Right; pin with simplified pressure distribution.

In figure 6 above the load is only varied axially and no information about the
circumferential distribution is given. This distribution can be more or less simplified.
Different approaches to circumferential pressure distribution modeling are shown in
figure 7 below.

Figure 7a-d. Examples of four different circumferential pressure distribution models


subject to a load per unit length q [N/m]. Figure 7a shows projected pressure
distribution. Figure 7b shows sinusoidal pressure distribution. Figure 7c shows Hertz
pressure distribution. Figure 7d shows pressure distribution according to equation 9.

Figure 7a shows the projected pressure distribution, whic h gives the average pressure
over the bearing diameter. The maximum pressure in this case is:

q
p MAX = (6)
d

where q is the normal load per unit length. Figure 7b shows a common pressure
distribution model, a sinusoidal distribution that is rather accurate for a press- fitted
loaded axle in a hole. The maximum pressure in this case is:

4⋅q q
p MAX = ≈ 1.273 (7)
p ⋅d d

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Figure 7c shows the Hertzian pressure distribution that is valid when the radial
differences are large enough to get a contact angle α below 20°. The maximum pressure
in this case is:

q ⋅ E'
p MAX = (8)
p ⋅ R'

Figure 7d shows the pressure distribution that was analytically derived by Persson [8],
which is valid for plain stress solutions. The maximum pressure is calculated by:

  2 
 a ln  tan  a  + 1 + tan  a   
 2 ⋅ tan    2  2    2 ⋅ q
 2 
p MAX = + (9)
 2
 
2
  
2
  d
 a 
 p ⋅ tan   + 1 a a
p ⋅ tan   1 + tan    

 2  2    2   
 

The advantage of the two first models is that no knowledge about modulus of elasticity
and contact angles is needed to get an estimate of the pressure distribution. The
disadvantage is, of course, that they are inaccurate and in most cases far from the real
distribution. The Hertz pressure is very easily calculated and takes into account different
material parameters and bearing play, but only works for contact angles less than 20°
which is not good for tight fitting journal bearing designs. The distribution in equation 6
is not easily calculated and requires knowledge about the contact angle that can be
found by forming the quota E⋅∆/2⋅q and reading the value from a previously calculated
table found in the appendix. It should be noted that equation 9 only works for materials
with the same modulus of elasticity. In the work by Persson [8] there are results for
material combinations with different modulus of elasticity but they are not reproduced
here.

Typical grease lubricated journal bearings should have a contact angle 2α of about 80-
160 degrees between the pin and bushing. The contact angle is of course depending on
the deflection. A stiffer bearing and pin can have a less play and thereby handle larger
contact angles and a weaker bearing will deflect more and get a larger contact area with
increased load.

According to equation 9 the model in equation 7 is conservative for α = 72 degrees and


materials with the same modulus of elasticity. Another simple approach is to use twice
the projected pressure, which can be used for large play between axle and bushing. This
model is then conservative for α = 38 degrees.

2.1.4. BUSHING WIDTH


A way to get the minimum bearing width is to calculate the maximum edge pressure on
the bushing and compare it to the bushing hardness measured in Brine ll (HB) or Vickers
(HV). The bushing hardness is used since it is usually softer than the pin material. If the
width of the bushing is smaller than calculated by equation 10 the bushing edges will be
plastically deformed. In the formula below the simplified pressure distributions shown
in figures 6 and 7b are used.

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2⋅ F 
qM AX = 
w 8 F H 8 F ⋅η
 ⇒ pMAX = = bushing ⇒ w = (10)
4 ⋅ qMAX  π d ⋅w η π d ⋅ H bushing
p MAX =
π ⋅d  

If the bushing is too short, it is susceptible to large edge pressures due to pin
misalignment. A long slender bushing is better at handling misalignment but has
problems with bending if the axle is not stiff enough compared to the load, as can be
seen in figure 8 below.

Figure 8. Edge loading due to axle misalignment (left) and deflection (right).

Width to diameter ratio should be kept in the interval of

w
0.5 ≤ ≤ 1 .5 (11)
d

to avoid large edge loads due to misalignment and bending. A w/d ratio of about 1.3 is
recommended for grease lubricated journal bearings to minimize side leakage [6]. These
recommendations do not take into account the influence of the bearing play, bushing
elasticity and seals.

2.1.5. PIN SEAT WIDTH


The minimum pin seat width can be calculated in a similar way as the bushing width
above. Again, the triangular pressure distribution is used.

F 
q MAX = 
s 4 F H 4 F ⋅η
 ⇒ pMAX = = seat ⇒ s = (12)
4 ⋅ qMAX  π d ⋅s η π d ⋅ H seat
p MAX =
π ⋅d  

If the hardness value is not known the following approximate relation between Brinell
hardness and ultimate tensile strength can be used for hardness’s below 400 HBS [9]:

H seat = 0.3 ⋅ σ uts (13)

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2.1.6. HOUSING
The bearing housing should be stiff to prevent the bearing from thermal and mechanical
deformation leading to misalignment, but also weak enough to allow conformal
deformation to prevent edge loading. The housing should be optimized for stiffness to
avoid deflection while maintaining an even pressure distribution to avoid wear.

Figure 9. Cross section of a typical bearing for construction equipment

A common practice in engineering design is to use an inner to outer diameter ratio


between 2 and 4 [4]. It is also recommended that the width c is kept constant along the
outer edge to avoid stress concentrations.

Figure 10. Eyebar design

The presence of a loaded hole in an eyebar is compensated by a stress concentration


factor [10]. Using equations 14 belo w provide a minimum width of the eyebar.

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σy 
σ = σ NOM ⋅ K t =  2
η  σy σy  2 2 σ
⋅ s⋅d ±   ⋅ s ⋅ d + 4 ⋅ y ⋅ w ⋅ d ⋅ F − 4 ⋅ F 2
F  η η  η
σ NOM =  ⇒ Dh = (14)
s ⋅ (Dh − d )  σ F
2 y ⋅ s − 
d Dh  η d
Kt = + 
Dh d 

2.1.7. LOCKPLATE SCREW JOINT


The pin is prevented from rotation by screwing its lockplate to the pin seat. To
dimension the screw for shear load the following equation can be used with figure 11.

d⋅F
F ⋅ µ1 ⋅
d d
− 2 ⋅ F ⋅ µ 2 ⋅ − R ⋅ FPINLOCK = 0 ⇒ FPINLOCK = (µ1 − µ 2 ) (15)
2 2 2⋅ R

The coefficient of friction µ1 is between pin and bushing and µ2 is between pin and pin
seat in figure 11 below.

Figure 11. Calculation of weld size and lockplate screw force.

The maximum shear load on the screw occurs when µ1 = 1 and µ2 = 0. In reality friction
also occurs between the lockplate and pin seat side but that is neglected here due to the
conservative use of the coefficients of friction.

2.1.8. LOCKPLATE WELD SIZE


Most pins have a lockplate welded to one end of the pin. The function of the lockplate is
to prevent the pin from rotating in the pin seat and to keep the pin from moving axially
out of the pin seat. Generally there are three different weld designs in use; external,
internal and vertic al weld as can be seen in figure 12 below.

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Figure 12. Different lockplate weld types with respective cross section below.
Shown from left to right are an internal weld, external weld and vertical weld.

To calculate the needed effective throat measure the maximum allowed shear stress
must be known. The shear stress for the internal and external weld can be calculated
using the equation below. The minimum effective throat measure is usually 2 - 3 mm.

 µ1 = 1  F ⋅d 
  ⇒ FPINLOCK = 
 µ2 = 0 2⋅ R 

W=
π ⋅a
(Di + 2 ⋅ a
2
)  ⇒ Di =
3 F ⋅ d ⋅η
2 π ⋅ a ⋅σ y
− 2 ⋅a (16)
2 
S FPINLOCK ⋅ R σy 
τ= = = 
W W 3 ⋅ η 

For internal welds there is a maximum diameter requirement for Di. It has to do with
penetration of the weld and heat close to the induction hardened surface.

(
Di ≤ d − 2 ⋅ a ⋅ 1 + 2 ) (17)

There is also a minimum diameter requirement for internal welds related to the
possibility of manufacturing, and it is about 20 - 25 mm depending on desired weld
throat size and electrode used.

This calculation does not take the fatigue life of the weld into account. The fatigue life
is governed by the stress in the weld and the geometrical design crack in the root of the
weld. This design crack serves as an initiation point of the crack. For further reading on
fatigue life of welds see Byggnevi [11].

2.1.9. LOCKPLATE LOCK SIZE


There are several lockplate designs in use today. Two typical designs use a screw in a
closed or open slot in the lockplate. It is important to have large radiuses in the slot to
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reduce the effect of stress concentrations. The plate thickness t is usually between 5 - 15
mm and the material is usually low alloyed structural steel with low yield strength (σy ≤
300 MPa). For calculation of bending stress the prongs of the lockplate are simplified as
constrained beams. Since the prongs are quite short and thick the shear stress can not be
neglected and have to be incorporated in the calculation.

Open design

Figure 13. Open lockplate design.


S = F ⋅L 

t ⋅ h2    2 2 
2
W =   σ
6 6 ⋅ F ⋅  F + F 2 + 16 ⋅  y  ⋅ t ⋅ L 
  η  
S 6⋅ F ⋅L   
σ= = ⇒h= (18)
W t⋅h 2
σ
 2 ⋅t ⋅ y
F  η
τ= 
t⋅h

σy
σ e,VonMises = σ + 3 ⋅ τ =
2 2

η 

Closed design

Figure 14. Closed lockplate design

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δ1 = δ2 
FE ⋅ (2 L )
3  5
δ1 =  ⇒ FE = F (19)
3⋅ E ⋅ I  32
F ⋅ (2 L)3   L   L   FE ⋅ (2 L)3 
2 3

δ2 = 3⋅   −   − 
6 ⋅ E ⋅ I   2 L   2 L   3 ⋅ E ⋅ I 

11 
S = F ⋅ L − FE ⋅ 2 ⋅ L = ⋅ F ⋅ L
16 
t ⋅h    2 2 
2
2
W =   σ
6 6 ⋅ F ⋅  F + F 2 + 121 ⋅  y  ⋅ t ⋅ L 
  η  
S 33 F ⋅ L   
σ= = ⋅ ⇒ h= (20)
W 8 t ⋅h 2
σ
 4 ⋅t ⋅ y
F  η
τ= 
2⋅t⋅h

σy 
σ e,VonMises = σ + 3 ⋅ τ =
2 2

η 

Using equation 19 the necessary eyebar width c can then be calculated as:

FE σ y 5 F ⋅η
σ = = ⇒c = ⋅ (21)
c ⋅t η 32 σ y ⋅ t

2.1.10. LATERAL PIN LOCK


If the pin seat bores have a loose fit together with a long slender pin, lateral pin
movement can occur. The bending of the pin will move the pin out of the bore furthest
away from the lockplate due to deformation. To prevent this choose a tight fit between
pin and seat and a pin length to diameter ratio less than 3. If lateral movement still
occurs or if it is not possible to use the tighter fit or length/diameter ratio, a screwed on
end plate might be necessary. The movement of the pin can be approximated by the
following equation together with figure 15:

Figure 15. Lateral displacement

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L 
2 2
 Lb 
  + δ 2
=   
 2 2 
1 F⋅L
3  ∆L 1  F ⋅L 
2 2
δ = ⇒ = 1 − 1 − 2   (21)
48 E ⋅ I  L 24  E ⋅ I 
∆L = L − Lb 



In equation 21 above the total pin length (L=2⋅s +w) should be used. To prevent the pin
end from moving a lateral force need to be applied. The necessary force can be
calculated by equation 22 below if the friction between the pin and pin seat is neglected:


σ PIN = E ⋅ ε PIN 

∆L 
ε PIN = 
L 2  2 
 E ⋅π ⋅ d  64  F ⋅ L  
2
FLATERAL = σ PIN ⋅ A ⇒ FLATERAL = ⋅ 1 − 1 −  
4  
(22)
 4  9  E ⋅ π ⋅ d  
π ⋅d 2  
A= 
4 
π ⋅d 4 
I= 
64 

2.1.11. BEARING PLAY


For grease lubricated heavily loaded bearings with metallic bushings, the recommended
relative bearing play ψ for journal bearings is [6]:

0 .3 ‰ ≤ ψ ≤ 5 ‰
 dbush − d pin  (23)
ψ = 
 d pin 

The bearing play depends on the type of load and application. The bearing play can be
used to control the bearing sensitivity to bearing play increase due to wear and
magnitude of edge load. For oscillating grease lubricated bearings with slow sliding
speeds the play should be kept as small as possible.

Since the bushing is often press fitted into the housing, there will be a deformation that
influences the bearing play. To control the resulting play, four diametrical tolerances
have to be known, namely the housing inner diameter, bushing outer diameter, bushing
inner diameter and pin outer diameter, see figure 16 below.

The deformation from the interference fit is in the same magnitude as the manufacturing
tolerances, which makes it important to have control over the displacement of the inner
diameter. In the case when the housing and bushing are of the same material the radial
displacement of the inner surface diameter of the bushing can be approximated by the
following equations adapted from Sundström [12]:

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(
? d b D2 − Dh2
u=− ⋅ ⋅ 2
)
2 D db − Dh2( )
(24)
 ? = Db − dh 
 
 D = d h ≈ Db 

Figure 16. Press fit of bushing into house.

When the bushing and the housing material modulus of elasticity and Poisson
coefficients are different, the interference fit equation becomes:

 D 2 ⋅ db ⋅ (3 ⋅υ h − 5 ) 
 
1 ∆  D 2 − d b2 
u=− ⋅ ⋅ (25)
4 D ⋅ Eb    D  2
   d b 2  
  1+     
1+
 1  D 
 h 
 1   D  
 ⋅ 2
+ υh  + ⋅  2
− υ b 
 Eh   D   Eb   db  
  1 −  D    1−  D  
   h     

2.1.12. VELOCITY
When calculating velocity it is important to use the actual velocity during movement for
life calculations. The average velocity for pendular motion of journal bearings can be
formulated by the equation below.

s 2⋅d ⋅β
v= = (26)
t t

The equation is illustrated in figure 17 below. This is a simplification since an


oscillating movement implies a lot of accelerations and decelerations. The influence of
intermittent operation is not contained in the equation but influence the life of the
bearing greatly. Journal bearings for construction equipment operate under very low

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speeds and transient motion. This transient motion generates heat that has to be
dissipated.

Figure 17. Sliding distance for calculation of average sliding velocity.

2.1.13. PRESSURE VELOCITY


The maximum limit of the pressure p is correlated to the mechanical strength of the
material and the limit of the sliding velocity v is regarding frictional heating of the
materials. For a given material combination there is a maximum pv-product beyond
which surfaces can no longer absorb the friction energy thus generating either localized
seizure or melting of the materials. A typical pv- graph is shown in figure 18 below.

Figure 18. A typical pressure velocity graph with logarithmic axes.

The pv- factor characterizes damage risks related to thermal and mechanical phenomena.
It does not consider wear modes that might occur in industrial applications. In particular
this factor does not describe the influence of phenomena such as abrasion and fretting
corrosion. For journal bearings in construction equipment the velocity is so far away
from the upper velocity limit of the pressure- velocity - graph that in reality only the
pressure limit needs to be considered.

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2.1.14. FRICTION
The friction force in a bearing is modeled as directly proportional to the normal load
(Coulomb friction).

Ff = µ ⋅ FN (27)

This simplification only deals with the friction from a system point of view and states
nothing about the local shear stresses at different locations with different pressures. For
unevenly distributed normal force the friction force will vary, and this results in
unfavorable stress gradients in the materials.

For grease lubricated oscillating journal bearings, the coefficient of friction is typically
in the range of 0.1 - 0.8. This large range is due to the material combination and amount
of lubricant present between them. A newly greased lubricated bearing will have a
coefficient of friction of about 0.1, and then it will gradually increase to reach typical
values of the dry surfaces since the grease escapes from the sliding area due to heat or
mechanical action. The upper limit is when seizure or excessive wear occurs between
the bushing and the pin. This is not really sliding friction but rather shearing of the
material at the contact interface.

2.1.15. TEMPERATURE
The generated heat between pin and bushing is considered to be proportio nal to the
frictional force and sliding speed. The partitioning of absorbed heat by the pin and
bushing is depending on the heat conductivity and bulk temperatures. Due to the low
sliding speeds both the pin and bushing can be regarded as stationary and the
partitioning of heat entering each body can be calculated by the following equation
adapted from Bhushan [13]:

Q = F ⋅ µ ⋅ v = Qbush + Qpin
Qbush = ξ ⋅ Q
Qpin = (1 − ξ ) ⋅ Q
(28)
1
ξ=
λpin
1+
λbush

As can be seen the conductivities of the bodies govern the partitioning of the frictional
heat and the most heat will enter the body with highest thermal conductivity.

To get the temperature on the contact surface it is usually necessary to measure the
temperature a short distance away. The following equation can be used to estimate the
temperature in the contact interface if the temperature is measured on the backside of a
bushing with thickness t [14]:

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T surface − Tmeasured 
Qbush = λbush ⋅ Am ⋅   d + 2 ⋅t 
t Qbush ⋅ ln  
  d 
π ⋅ w ⋅t  ⇒ T = T + (29)
Am = 
surface measured
λ ⋅ π ⋅ w
 d + 2⋅t  bush
ln   
 d  

The material combination governs the maximum temperature that can be allowed
without resulting in thermal degradation.

If the temperature gets too high in grease- lubricated bearings, the ultimate bearing
resistance will be decreased with increased friction and wear as a result. The grease will
separate and bleed out all oil, and only the soap will remain in the bearing. The soap
will then be destroyed resulting in high friction and wear.

Figure 19. Heat dissipation.

The pin and bushing does also shrink due to temperature differences. This is commonly
used in production to fit bushings and pins. The diameter of the pin and bushing shrinks
and expands according to the following equation:

∆d = d ⋅α ⋅ ∆T (30)

Typical values of α are 12⋅10-6 [1/K] for steel, 18⋅10-6 [1/K] for bronze and 100⋅10-6
[1/K] for nylon plastics.

It is important to have control over the temperature dependency since the magnitude of
heat expansion is usually of the same range as manufacturing tolerances and bearing
play.

2.1.16. SURFACE ROUGHNESS


Surface roughness is an important factor to control wear and lubrication film formation.
The surface roughness of both axle and bushing should be kept below 1µm Ra to control
wear [5]. The requirement on the surface roughness properties is closely related to
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material combination and surface treatment of the sliding surfaces. The roughness also
influences the lubricant's ability to adhere to the surfaces. A very smooth surface may
result in the lubricant not protecting the surface due to bad adhesion.

A good way to characterize surface properties is to use the bearing area curve that is a
cumulative height function. This curve is shown in figure 20 below.

Figure 20. Bearing area curve. The leftmost picture is a representation of a measured
surface with exaggerated z scale. The graph in the middle is the height distribution and
the graph to the right is the cumulative height distribution.

2.1.17. WEAR
The Archard wear law is commonly used to model wear of the bushing and pin in a
bearing. It is not certain that the equation models the wear in a bearing correctly, but it
is used commonly anyway.

V F
=K⋅ (31)
s H soft

For simulation purposes it is better to use the generalized Archard wear law that is
produced by dividing equation 31 with the contact area A.

V K F  V K F 
= ⋅ ⇒ h = , k = , p = , s = v ⋅ t  ⇒ h = k ⋅ p ⋅ v ⋅t (32)
s ⋅ A H soft A  A H soft A 

The difficulty in using these laws is the unknown coefficient of wear k which depends
on many factors like pressure, velocity, temperature, surface roughness, materials, type
and amount of lubricant. The coefficient has to be determined through testing.

Wear mechanisms common to bearings are adhesive, oxidative and fatigue wear and
they depend on the material combination and lubrication regime. Abrasive wear can be
avoided by using good seals and sufficient lubrication.

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2.2. BEARING MATERIAL SELECTION


It is very difficult to find material combinations that have ideal performance in every
aspect of operation. Different bulk and surface properties have to be considered when
selecting materials for journal bearing applications.

2.2.1. PINS
Material properties:

Suitable materials for pins are low alloyed carbon steels that can be hardened and
tempered. The higher the carbon content the harder the pin will be when hardened. The
problem with higher carbon content is that if a lockplate is welded to the pin there will
be martensite remains if the pin is not welded at raised temperature. Also the fatigue life
can be reduced by higher carbon content.

To get as much performance as possible from the pin it should be hard on the surface
and soft in the core. This is usually achieved by hardening processes. Through- hardened
low temperature tempered pins are not recommended for dynamically loaded bearings
due to brittleness.

Thermal properties:

Good heat transfer is required to lead away heat from the contact. Heat transfer is
generally good for steel materials without nonmetallic coatings.

Tribological and chemical properties:

To achieve adequate surface finish, grinding of a hardened surface is generally required


(Ra 0.2-1.0 µm). To protect from corrosive environment and decrease friction, surface
coating or heat treatments can be used. Another reason for coated pins are fretting
corrosion in the pin seats which can make disassembly difficult.

Hard chromium coatings are common but have the disadvantage of a toxic process and
cost. The advantage is a very hard surface of about 900 HV with very good corrosion
resistance. To work properly hard chromium needs a hardened surface to adhere to.

Other coatings used are low friction coatings like PTFE, graphite or molybdenum
disulphide. These treatments can lower the coefficient of friction below 0.1 and work
for short durations without lubricant but they are fairly expensive and relatively
uncommon.

The most common heat treatment is induction hardening with tempering which makes
the surface hard while keeping the core soft. Induction hardening is commonly used for
steels with carbon content less then 0.5%. Case hardening can be used if the material
has carbon content below 0.3%. These steels can get a very hard surface but the yield
strength is generally lower then for tempered steels.

There are also nitriding processes like carbo nitriding, gas nitriding, plasma nitriding
and nitro-carburizing that can be suitable for pins. These processes increase fatigue
endurance, corrosion resistance and lowers the coefficient of friction.

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Manufacturing and procurement properties:

Pin prices generally consist of 50% material cost and 50% manufacturing cost. Steel
prices and steel availability is a difficulty since not many steel mills provide tempered
steels with low carbon content in large diameters. One important factor when buying
round steel bars for pins is that the rate of reduction from slab to bar is high to avoid
large slag inclusions and segregations. High rate of reduction also provides a good
homogenization of the material. Another important manufacturing factor is hydrogen
degassing that can influence life at static loads and also improves the purity of the steel.

2.2.2. BUSHINGS
Many different bushing designs flood the world market. All claim superiority to the rest.
The truth is that almost every bushing works for some type of application. Bushings
could be divided into solid bushings and rolled strip bushings as illustrated in figure 21
below.

Figure 21. Solid bushing and rolled strip bushing with interlocking flanges.

Solid bushings generally have thick walls in order to withstand deformation and provide
long wear life. Solid bushings are mostly made of metals, but recently polymer
composite bushings have been designed that are almost as good. There are also self-
lubricating ceramic bushings available, but they tend to break at high impact loads.

Material properties:

Steel alloy bushings are most commonly case hardened and can achieve hardness values
of about 600 - 800 HV. This is in the same hardness region as induction hardened pins
which implies that a chromium coating is needed to achieve a sufficient hardness
difference of 100 HB if the bushing is regarded as the sacrificial part. One drawback of
case hardening is geometric distortion since bushings are usually rather thin walled.

Copper alloys used in construction equipment are copper-tin and copper-aluminum


bronzes and some copper-zink brasses. In the past a lot of copper- lead alloys were used
but since lead is not considered healthy, these are not so common anymore.

Tin (Sn) bronze alloys are the most common bronze alloy with a tin content of about 8 -
14%. Hardness values of tin bronze are in the range of 90 - 130 HB.
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Another tough bronze is aluminum bronze with an Al content of about 10% and some
nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Typical hardness values are 140 - 230 HB.

Manganese brass is also a used copper alloy for bushings. 25% Zink (Zn) and 10%
aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) makes a very hard alloy with typical
hardness values of 190 - 230 HB.

Most copper alloys can not be successfully hardened. Some aluminum bronzes can be
hardened but they turn hard and brittle. Recently some progress in hardening bronze
with tin and nickel have been made and resulting in hardness values of about 275 - 375
HV without much embrittlement [15].

Thermal properties:

Steel and copper alloys have very good thermal properties for leading away heat from
the contact surface.

Plastics are generally good insulators and can have difficulties with heat transport and
their physical properties change rapidly with temperature. This can lead to problems
with interference fit and deformation if the temperature dependence taken into account.

Tribological and chemical properties:

Steel sliding against steel is not a good tribological solution but is commonly used
anyway. Steel bushings work well under heavy loads and slow sliding speeds with good
lubrication. If good lubrication can not be provided different surface treatments can be
added to prevent high friction and wear. Steel bushings have also fairly good resistance
against abrasive wear. Uncoated or untreated steels have poor corrosion resistance.

Bronze bushings are soft due to the high copper content. The copper content makes the
alloy adhere to lubricants very well by forming grease like films with hydrocarbons that
stick to the surface. Most coppers are fairly resistant to corrosion and work with most
lubricants. To enhance dry rubbing performance sometimes solid graphite blocks are
drilled into to the bronze bushing thereby forming a solid lubricant film.

Manufacturing and procurement properties:

Solid steel and bronze bushings are fairly easy to acquire, but the problem is to choose
between all the different formulations that are offered. Some bronze alloys are difficult
to turn due to the good lubricity of the material.

Rolled bushings are generally thin walled and cheap to manufacture. They are often
rolled of a metallic plate in steel or bronze lined with self- lubricated friction reducing
material like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite or molybdenumdisulphide
(MoS2 ). The disadvantage of rolled bushings is that they have a slot where the ends of
the bushing meet. This slot has to be locked to avoid separation when the housing is
loaded. From an assembly point of view they also present a problem since they need a
special mounting tool to avoid bushing overlapping. Bushing overlapping is generally
not a problem for small diameters.

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2.2.3. SEALS
Seals are added to protect the bearing from dirt and contaminants. Usually only one set
of seals are used per bearing but sometimes there are two sets. The outer seal is then to
protect from dust, weather and operators cleaning with high pressure equipment. The
inner seals function is to keep the grease from escaping the contact zone between the
pin and bushing while preventing contaminations from entering.

The most common seals used for oscillating bearings are o-rings, lip seals and scraper
rings as shown in figure 22 below.

Figure 22. Example of seal cross sections.

Material properties:

Common materials for seals are different types of elastomers. Depending on design the
elastomers should be stiffer or softer. A general requirement is to ensure the elastomer
can handle the deflection in the bearing so there will not be a gap where grease can
escape and contaminants can enter. On the other hand the elastomer needs to be stiff
enough to ensure that the grease is only allowed to escape when it is being replaced by
new grease.

Thermal properties:

The elastomers used in seals should be able to function in a temperature range of -40°C
to +100°C.

Tribological and chemical properties:

The elastomers have to be compatible with oils and greases and also have little wear in
dry contact with steels. The seals must also be resistant to a wide range of chemicals
depending on the machine operating environment.

Manufacturing and procurement properties:

To avoid excessive wear it is important to have good surface finish on the axle. The
design of the seal has to be adjusted for the application. Bearing deflection, contaminant
level, grease consistency, frictional properties and period of relubrication all have
influence on the sealing design.

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2.2.4. GREASE
The recommended amount of grease required for adequate lubrication varies greatly in
literature. Generally the stated amount is too large. Only a small amount of grease is
really needed for sufficient lubrication of the bearing. The excess grease is mainly for
pushing out contaminants and moisture. The frequent need for grease replenishment is
often due to inadequate seals and bad bearing design.

The trick of good bearing design is to keep grease from escaping the loaded area to the
unloaded area of the bearing. The grease does not return to the contact surface when it is
unloaded since grease only flows when it is loaded. To keep the surfaces lubricated at
all times very sticky grease is needed. Very sticky grease cannot be replenished easily
due to pumping resistance. Smooth and soft grease is easy to transport but does not
adhere to the surfaces very well.

The ideal grease is, of course, sticky grease that lubricates well and is easy to transport
to the bearing. Since this is a contradiction other means have to be used. It is also very
difficult to specify special grease for machines that are shipped worldwide since the
grease properties vary greatly from continent to continent even for the same formulation
and brand.

Lubrication grooves and grease reservoirs are usually machined into the bushing. The
grooves distribute the grease from the lubrication entry point along the sliding surface,
while the reservoirs help maintain lubrication for longer periods of time.

The edges of the grooves and reservoirs should be rounded to prevent the lubricant from
being removed from the opposing surface. The grooves should also have a cross section
large enough to ensure grease transport without having the grease bleed out any oil due
to extrusion.

Figure 23. Examples of lubrication grooves and pockets.

Stand-alone reservoirs in the bushing are a way to keep grease where it is needed. These
reservo irs can have different shapes such as half spheres, holes and rhombs.

The disadvantage of grooves is that they reduce the load bearing area if the grease is not
pressurized and they are expensive to manufacture.

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2.3. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


Finite element analysis can be used for contact studies in the bearing without regard to
lubricant. Through computer simulations, the surface pressure distribution and contact
area can be found for the given load and bearing geometry. The deflection, contact area,
and pressure distribution of the bearing contact surface are important for wear modeling
and prediction. With the help of finite element program a better approach to the axial
and circumferential pressure distribution can be made.

It is necessary to have good understanding of how this distribution of load is made since
the bearing is often the force or displacement boundary condition for structural finite
element calculations. A slight change in boundary condition can have very large impact
on the stresses of the entire structure, as shown by Pettersson [16].

These contact calculations of the bearing surfaces are very time consuming to solve
with high precision in finite element programs. If it is known how the bearing assembly
distributes the load, a simplification of the bearing in the finite element model can be
made to improve calculation times as is shown in the appended paper B. This
simplification should only be used when the important results are some distance away
from the bearing.

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3. SUMMARY OF APPENDED PAPERS

3.1. PAPER A
Paper A describes design of the test apparatus for heavy-duty grease-lubricated journal
bearings. Characteristics of the apparatus were designed to simulate real operations of a
journal bearing in the lifting frame of a wheel loader or excavator. The apparatus can
vary normal force, oscillating frequency and angle of oscillation (i.e. sliding distance
and velocity). The provided amount of grease and the geometry of the bushing and pin
seat can also be varied. The collected output data include; normal force, friction torque,
sliding velocity, oscillating angle, bearing temperature and structural stress.

A photo of the bearing test apparatus is shown in figure 24. Two hydraulic cylinders
induce both load and movement to the test sample that is positioned in the middle of the
pivot arms. To provide the load, hydraulic pressure is built up on the positive side of
both cylinders. The pressure can be varied up to a maximum of 300 bars, which results
in a maximum force of 1.25 MN per cylinder. An open connection between the two
lower sides of the cylinders creates an equal force in each. This reduces the need for
constant replenishment of large volumes of pressurized hydraulic fluid for the cylinders.

Figure 24. Photo of the bearing test apparatus.

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The two vertically standing hydraulic cylinders are connected by a yoke with the test
object in the middle as can be seen in figure 25 below.

Figure 25. Detail of test apparatus with journal bearing test layout

The pressure of lower sides of the cylinders manages the load on the bearing and the
sliding speed and oscillation is regulated by alternatively pressurizing the upper sides of
the hydraulic cylinders. The maximum applied load is 2.5 MN, maximum sliding speed
is 10 degrees/s and the maximum oscillation angle is ±45 degrees. All of the bearing
parts can be changed to test housing design, pin lengths and diameters etc. as can be
seen in figure 26 below. The test apparatus can be seen in figure 4 above.

Figure 26. Detailed layout of grease-lubricated journal bearing test. Screw (1) Pin (2),
pin holder with lock (3), scraper ring seals (4), bushing (5), bearing house (6) and pin
seat (7).

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3.2. PAPER B
Paper B is a study of the theoretical solution of the conformal contact of a pin in a hole
compared to different finite element solutions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the
possibility of speeding up contact calculations in finite element programs by using less
calculation expensive elements than contact elements. This is mainly usable for large
structures with many bearings.

The idea was to replace the modeled pin by link and beam elements as can be seen in
figure 27 below.

Figure 27. 3-dimensional setup with quarter models.

This method provides fairly accurate estimates, at a low computational cost, especially
at a distance from the loaded surface, if the correct stiffness values are used. These
stiffness values can be found by trimming the stiffness values in 2-dimensional
calculations with the theoretical solution or contact elements.

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3.3. PAPER C
In Paper C a method of measuring bushing wear in situ without removing the bushing
from the machine was evaluated. This method of measurement is made possible by
using replica technique with cast plastic at room temperature. Some extra parts to
prevent the plastic from escaping can be seen in figure 28 below.

Figure 28. Schematic procedure from mold assembly to finished cast replica.

The resulting plastic replica can be seen in figure 29 below.

Figure 29. Cast replica of worn bushing.


The results for the surface roughness were good but the form of the replica was
distorted during curing. Unfortunately the form is the interesting part when
investigating wear of large samples.
Since this method can not accurately reproduce the surface without distortion, it is not a
good way to get results if shape is interesting, but the results are good enough to get
comparative answers to how the bearing is worn in field measurements. A great benefit
from this method is that the worn surfaces are preserved in the cast for possible further
analysis and comparison with other samples.

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3.4. PAPER D
In Paper D the design of the journal bearing housing is studied. The idea was to find
what parameters govern the pressure distribution between the pin and bushing utilizing
a finite element model and applying statistical methods to evaluate the results. The
parametric model can be seen in figure 31 belo w.

Figure 30. Left; Cross-section of the evaluated design with the designated parameters A
(set ring thickness), B (set ring width) and C (effective throat measure). Right; a quarter
of the complete bearing assembly used for FE-analysis.

Figure 31. Response surface of parameter A and B and their influence


on the normalized contact pressure curve slope.

The results show that the contact pressure distribution is most influenced by the height
(A) and width (B) of the set ring, and that a fairly thin set ring provides the smoothest
distribution. The influence of the weld size was shown not to be as important as
believed initially.

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3.5. PAPER E
In Paper E the results from paper D were validated in the test apparatus. Three housings
with different set ring diameters were tested. The load cycle used for testing can be seen
in figure 32 below.

Figure 32. Load cycle used for testing.

A total of 9 bushings were tested in three different houses. The average wear results for
the different houses are shown in figure 33 below.

Figure 33. Average wear curves for houses 1-3.

From the wear curves in figure 33 it can be deduced that none of the housings have
optimum design. Ho use 1 has a too compliant set ring and thereby inducing higher
pressures in the center region. House 2 has low wear close to the center but a spike at
the edge from a too stiff set ring. House 3 has high wear both at the center and on the
edge. From these curves it can be deduced that the optimum housing should be
somewhere between house 1 and 2 if the set ring cross section is kept rectangular.

Figure 34. Calculated pressure distributions.

When comparing the pressure distributions from the finite element (FE) calculation
shown in figure 34 with the accumulated wear curves, the likeness of the curves are
quite good considering that the FE- model did not include a central grease groove. If a
grease groove had been modeled, an increase of pressure close to the groove would be
anticipated. The deviation in the edge region of the bushing is most likely due to coarse
element mesh and how the load was applied in the FE- model.

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3.6. PAPER F
In Paper F two different bushing grease groove designs and their influence on wear
were studied and compared with a bushing without grooves. The bushings tested are
shown in figure 35 below.

Figure 35. Bushing groove designs tested. No groove, X-groove and H-groove. The
arrow shows the direction of the load and the dashed line shows the location of the
measured profile.

The wear results from testing of the different bushings are shown in figure 36 below.

Figure 36. Averaged wear curves for the different groove designs.

From figure 36 can be observed that both the plain bushing and the H- groove bushing
have less wear than the X-groove bushing. It was expected that the H-groove would be
better then the plain bushing but not that the plain bushing would be better then the X-
groove bushing.

Both the X-groove bushing and the plain bushing have a lot of wear particles that have
deformed and stuck to the bushing surface. All bushings have transferred material to the
pin in greater or lesser degree.

The fact that the X-groove bushing have twice the wear in the region x = 4-16 mm can
be from the fact that the grooves comes together and decrease the supporting area there.
Another possibility is that the grease is dragged outside the groove in that region and no
grease is available thereby generating more wear.

The results from the tests show that the best groove for grease lubricated oscillating
journal bearings are perpendicular to the sliding direction and that a groove with 45
degree angle to the sliding direction is no better than a bushing without a groove.

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DESIGN , TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF JOURNAL BEARINGS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

3.7. PAPER G
In Paper G a wear simulation of house 2 of paper E was made. A finite element model
of the pin, bushing and housing was used to calculate pressure distributions for different
loads and then used as input for wear calculation with the wear results from paper E.
Then the model was updated and the pressure calculations were rerun in two steps. The
results were then compared to the actual wear from the performed tests. The model used
is shown in figure 37 below.

Figure 37. Left; Finite element model of the house, bushing and pin.
Right; Detail of pin - bushing interface.

The measured and calculated wear profiles are shown in figure 38 below.

Figure 38. Bushing wear curves. Measured wear compared to calculated wear
in one step and wear calculated in three steps.

The differences between the pressure distributions of the different worn bushings were
not significant thereby validating the use of the linear wear equation. In figure 38 the
difference between using a one step wear calculation and using three steps was minor
except for the parts close to the central groove and the edge.

The discrepancy from the calculated wear and the measured wear was probably due to
neglecting the influence of initial lubrication of the bushing. Since the grease was
introduced to the groove in the middle of the bushing before testing it is likely to
assume that more grease was available in the center of the bushing thereby protecting
the surface from wear. Assuming the edge region of the measured wear profile was
unlubricated a larger coefficient of wear would be expected.

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4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS


The bearing design guide in chapter 2 should be used as a means to get to a starting
point of design. The equations are compiled to be used as is.

These guidelines were collected and presented, since most published bearing design
guidelines are aimed at the bushing material or at continuously rotating bearings. The
influence of housing, environment and load cases cannot be ignored when designing a
bearing. Long term field-testing and experience cannot yet be replaced by theoretical
reasoning until better formulations have been established.

The vision when starting to compile these equations and guides was to serve as a tool
for both original equipment manufacturer engineers and bearing suppliers to help them
communicate and make better decisions about bearing design.

Looking back at the research work performed a few conclusions can be made:

• Finite element programs are a necessary tool to calculate accurate pressure


distributions in the bearing.

• Contact elements in finite programs can only be replaced by simpler elements if


the region of interest is not too close to the bearing.

• Replacing pins with beam and link elements in finite element analysis is a very
fast method to get results for large structures with a lot of bearings but can be
inaccurate if the element properties are not carefully chosen.

• When constructing finite element models for calculation of pressure


distributions and wear it is important to use small enough elements to get
accurate results.

• Roughness can be measured very accurately by plastic replicas.

• Form of large objects is very difficult to measure using replica techniques since
the replica is often deformed during curing.

• Form is the most important factor when measuring wear over large specimens.

• Plastic replicas of test surfaces are a good way to store worn surfaces for future
reference.

• Frictional heating can be a problem for the lubricants in the bearing even at slow
sliding speeds if the intensity of oscillation and the pressure is high enough.

• Grease grooves should be perpendicular to the sliding direction for best result.

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5. FUTURE RESEARCH
Since this thesis has not resolved all issues about journal bearing design for construction
equipment, there are a few important tasks to consider for the future:

• Some of the guidelines in chapter 2 need to be verified by simulations and


testing before they can be fully trusted.

• Find the correlation between field tests and test apparatus to be able to trust the
results from bench tests and know what they mean in reality.

• Influence of grease lubrication is only briefly touched in this thesis. The


questions of ultimate lubrication interval, amount and type of lubricant to keep
down wear and friction is a very important issue. Also to be able to calculate
grease lubrication films is also a challenge.

• Environmentally friendlier lubricants are also coming up as a market and


government demand. The question of how environmentally friendlier lubricants
can be used in construction equipment without degrading performance and
becoming hazardous when they are used is a difficult question to solve.

• Legislation about chromium plating is about to happen and which surface


treatments to replace chromium with are something to consider. Hard chromium
is not affected by the legislation yet, but since the market for ordinary chromium
treatments will be reduced, hard chromium plating will be affected. To find out
what surface treatme nts for pins that can be used instead is a question that needs
to be solved to be able to use hard materials for bushings in the future.

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6. REFERENCES
[1] Dowson, D., “A History of Tribology”, Professional Engineering Publishing,
London, 1998.

[2] Neale, M.J., “The Tribology Handbook”, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1995.

[3] Strand, H., “Apparatus for simulation of wear in heavy-duty oscillating journal
bearings”, Proceedings OST – 99 Symposium on Machine Design, KTH,
Stockholm, 1999.

[4] Blake, A., “Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design”, Marcel Dekker Inc,
New York, 1982.

[5] Pilkey, W.D., “Peterson’s stress concentration factors”, 2nd-edition, John Wiley
& Sons, New York, 1997.

[6] Essinger, I., “Glidlager, Fettsmorda och Självsmörjande”, Johnson Metall AB,
Örebro, 1989 (In Swedish).

[7] Hogmark, S., Jacobson, S., “Tribologi – Friktion, smörjning och nötning”, Liber
Utbildning AB, Stockholm, 1996 (In Swedish).

[8] Persson, B.G.A., “On the stress distribution of cylindrical elastic bodies in
contact”, Doctoral Dissertation, Chalmers University, Göteborg, 1964.

[9] Beckman, S., “Approximate relationship between Vickers, Brinell and Rockwell
hardness”, Volvo internal standard 1002,432 issue 4;
http://www.tech.volvo.se/standard/docs/1002432.pdf

[10] SSAB Svenskt Stål, “Konstruera med Weldox- och Hardox-plåt”, SSAB
Oxelösund AB, Oxelösund, 1991 (In Swedish).

[11] Byggnevi, M., “LEFM Analysis and Fatigue Testing of Welded Structures”,
Licentiate Thesis, KTH, Stockholm, 2005.

[12] Sundström, B., “Allmänna tillstånd och dimensioneringskriteria, 6:e upplagan”,


Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, 1993 (In Swedish)

[13] Bhushan, B., “Modern Tribology Handbook”, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001

[14] Ekroth, I., “Tillämpad Termodynamik”, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan,


Stockholm, 1994 (In Swedis h).

[15] http://www.brushwellman.com/alloy/products/copper_nickel_tin/copper_nickel_ti
n.asp

[16] Pettersson, G., “Fatigue assessment of welded structures with non-linear


boundary conditions”, Licentiate Thesis, KTH, Stockholm, 2005.

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7. APPENDIX
Tabulated values for equation 9 in chapter 2.1.3:

α  E ⋅∆ d ⋅ pMAX α  E ⋅∆ d ⋅ pMAX
tan   α tan   α
2 2⋅q 2⋅ q 2 2⋅q 2⋅ q
0,020 2,29 1591 15,92 1,4 108,9 -0,3714 0,5805
0,040 4,58 396,9 7,968 1,5 112,6 -0,4050 0,5817
0,060 6,87 175,9 5,321 1,6 116,0 -0,4323 0,5835
0,080 9,15 98,52 4,000 1,7 119,1 -0,4548 0,5856
0,10 11,42 62,71 3,210 1,8 121,9 -0,4736 0,5878
0,12 13,69 43,26 2,685 1,9 124,5 -0,4895 0,5901
0,14 15,94 31,53 2,311 2,0 126,9 -0,5031 0,5924
0,16 18,18 23,92 2,032 2,1 129,1 -0,5148 0,5946
0,18 20,41 18,71 1,817 2,2 131,1 -0,5250 0,5968
0,20 22,62 14,98 1,645 2,3 133,0 -0,5339 0,5988
0,22 24,81 12,22 1,506 2,4 134,8 -0,5417 0,6008
0,24 26,99 10,12 1,391 2,5 136,4 -0,5487 0,6027
0,26 29,15 8,492 1,294 2,6 137,9 -0,5549 0,6044
0,28 31,28 7,199 1,213 2,7 139,4 -0,5604 0,6060
0,30 33,40 6,157 1,142 2,8 140,7 -0,5654 0,6076
0,32 35,49 5,305 1,082 2,9 141,9 -0,5699 0,6090
0,34 37,56 4,600 1,029 3,0 143,1 -0,5740 0,6104
0,36 39,60 4,011 0,9824 3,1 144,2 -0,5777 0,6117
0,38 41,61 3,512 0,9415 3,2 145,3 -0,5811 0,6128
0,40 43,60 3,088 0,9054 3,3 146,3 -0,5842 0,6140
0,42 45,56 2,723 0,8732 3,4 147,2 -0,5871 0,6150
0,44 47,50 2,408 0,8445 3,5 148,1 -0,5897 0,6160
0,46 49,40 2,134 0,8187 3,6 149,0 -0,5921 0,6169
0,48 51,28 1,894 0,7956 3,7 149,8 -0,5944 0,6178
0,50 53,13 1,683 0,7749 3,8 150,5 -0,5964 0,6186
0,52 54,95 1,496 0,7561 3,9 151,2 -0,5984 0,6193
0,54 56,74 1,330 0,7392 4,0 151,9 -0,6001 0,6201
0,56 58,50 1,183 0,7238 4,1 152,6 -0,6018 0,6207
0,58 60,23 1,051 0,7100 4,2 153,2 -0,6034 0,6214
0,60 61,93 0,9319 0,6974 4,3 153,8 -0,6048 0,6220
0,62 63,60 0,8250 0,6859 4,4 154,4 -0,6062 0,6226
0,64 65,24 0,7284 0,6755 4,5 154,9 -0,6074 0,6231
0,66 66,85 0,6408 0,6661 4,6 155,5 -0,6086 0,6236
0,68 68,43 0,5612 0,6575 4,7 156,0 -0,6098 0,6241
0,70 69,98 0,4887 0,6496 4,8 156,5 -0,6108 0,6245
0,72 71,51 0,4225 0,6425 4,9 156,9 -0,6118 0,6250
0,74 73,00 0,3619 0,6360 5,0 157,4 -0,6128 0,6254
0,76 74,47 0,3063 0,6301 6,0 161,1 -0,6198 0,6286
0,78 75,91 0,2552 0,6248 7,0 163,7 -0,6241 0,6306
0,80 77,32 0,2081 0,6199 8,0 165,7 -0,6270 0,6319
0,82 78,70 0,1646 0,6155 9,0 167,3 -0,6290 0,6329
0,84 80,06 0,1244 0,6114 10 168,6 -0,6304 0,6336
0,86 81,39 0,0872 0,6078 11 169,6 -0,6315 0,6341
0,88 82,70 0,0526 0,6045 12 170,5 -0,6323 0,6345
0,90 83,97 0,0205 0,6015 13 171,2 -0,6329 0,6348
0,92 85,23 -0,0094 0,5988 14 171,8 -0,6334 0,6350
0,94 86,46 -0,0372 0,5964 15 172,4 -0,6338 0,6352
0,96 87,66 -0,0632 0,5942 20 174,3 -0,6350 0,6358
0,98 88,84 -0,0876 0,5922 25 175,4 -0,6356 0,6361
1,0 90,00 -0,1103 0,5904 30 176,2 -0,6359 0,6363
1,1 95,45 -0,2049 0,5842 40 177,1 -0,6362 0,6364
1,2 100,4 -0,2753 0,5811 50 177,7 -0,6364 0,6365
1,3 104,9 -0,3292 0,5801 8 180,0 -2/π -2/π

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HENRIK STRAND
DESIGN , TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF JOURNAL BEARINGS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

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