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# BICOL UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
LEGAZPI CITY, ALBAY

STRUCTURAL DESIGN:
REINFORCED CONCRETE
DESIGN
(FLOWCHARTS)

## ANALYSIS & DESIGN

PROCEDEURES

SUBMITTED BY:
SERRANO, BREILLAN C.
BSCE 4B

SUBMITTED TO:
ENGR. DENISE LEGAZPI
PROFESSOR
STEPS IN FINDING ∅𝑴𝒏 OF A BEAM WITH KNOWN TENSION STEEL AREA As
AND OTHER BEAM PROPERTIES FOR RECTANGULAR BEAMS (NSCP 2010)
Given: b, d, f’c, fy ,and As:

𝐴𝑠
Solve for ρ: 𝜌 =
𝑏𝑑

Compute 𝜌𝑏 to check if
steel yields by
0.85𝑓′𝑐𝛽1 (600)
𝜌𝑏 = Steel yields
𝑓𝑦 (600 + 𝑓𝑦 )
does not yield
Steel yields larger of:
𝜌 ≤ 𝜌𝑏 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛= 1.4 or 𝜌 √𝑓′𝑐
𝜌 > 𝜌𝑏
𝑓𝑦 𝑚𝑖𝑛=
4𝑓𝑦

## 𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏 Use ∅ = 0.65 , compression-

𝑎
controlled
𝑎 = ___ 𝑐 = Note:
𝛽1
600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
If 𝜌 < 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 , the given As 𝑓𝑠 =
600(𝑑 − 𝑐) 𝑐
𝑓𝑠 = is not adequate for the
𝑐 beam dimension [𝑇 = 𝐶]

𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑠 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏

## 𝑓𝑠 ≥ 1000 Mpa 𝑓𝑠 < 1000 Mpa But 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐

600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝐴𝑠 ( ) = 0.85𝑓′𝑐(𝛽1 𝑐)𝑏
𝑐
𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 − 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛,
𝑐 = ___ 𝑎 = ___
𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑,
∅ = 0.65
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝑇(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)
Use ∅ = 0.90 𝑓𝑠 − 𝑓𝑦
+0.25 ( )
1000 − 𝑓𝑦 ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑠(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)

or

## ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)

STEPS IN FINDING ∅𝑴𝒏 OF A DOUBLY REINFORCED RECTANGULAR BEAM
WITH GIVEN As, A’s AND OTHER BEAM PROPERTIES (NSCP 2001 & 2010)

## There are three possible cases in doubly reinforced beams.

CASE 1: Both tension and compression yields. (𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓 ′ 𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦 )
CASE 2: Tension steel yields and compression steel does not. (𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦 , 𝑓′𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦 )
CASE 3: Tension steel does not yield and compression steel yields. (𝑓 ′ 𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦 , 𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦 )

## Assume compression steel yields (𝑓 ′ 𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦 )

𝐴𝑠2 = 𝐴′ 𝑠 = ______
𝐴𝑠1 = 𝐴𝑠 − 𝐴𝑠2

## Solve for a and c (assuming tension steel yields):

[𝐶1 = 𝑇1 ] 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏 = 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦
𝑎
𝑎 = ____, 𝑐 = , 𝑐 = ___
𝛽1
600(𝑑−𝑐)
Check 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑐

not yield
𝑓𝑠 ≥ 𝑓𝑦 𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦

## Solve for the stress in

compression steel 𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦 but 𝑓′𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦
600(𝑐−𝑑 ′ )
𝑓 ′𝑠 = 𝑇 = 𝐶1 + 𝐶2
𝑐
𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑠 = 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝑎𝑏 + 𝐴′𝑠𝑓𝑦
compression 600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
compression steel does not 𝐴𝑠 ( ) = 0.85𝑓′𝑐(𝛽1 𝑐)𝑏 + 𝐴′𝑠𝑓𝑦
𝑐
steel yields yield 𝑐 = ____ , 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐 = ___
𝑓′𝑠 ≥ 𝑓𝑦 𝑓′𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑛 = 𝑀𝑛1 + 𝑀𝑛2

𝑀𝑛 = 𝐶1 (𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2) + 𝐶2 (𝑑 − 𝑑′)

## ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2) + ∅𝐴′𝑠𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑑′)

∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝑀𝑛1 + ∅𝑀𝑛2

## ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝑇1 (𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2) + 600(𝑐−𝑑 ′ )

𝑓 ′𝑠 = 𝑐
For NSCP 2001, use
∅ 𝑇2 (𝑑 − 𝑑′) ∅ = 0.90
0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝑎𝑏 + 𝐴′𝑠𝑓′𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑦 For NSCP 2010, use:
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2) + ∅ = 0.90
600(𝑐 − 𝑑′ ) (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑, 𝑓𝑠 ≥
0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝑎𝑏 + 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑦
∅ 𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑑′) 𝑐 1000𝑀𝑃𝑎)
𝑓𝑠−𝑓
𝑐 = ___ , 𝑓′𝑠 = ____, 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐 = ___ 𝑦
∅ = 0.65 + 0.25 (1000−𝑓 )
𝑦
𝑀𝑛 = 𝑀𝑛1 + 𝑀𝑛2 (transition region,
fs< 1000 MPa)
𝑀𝑛 = 𝐶1 (𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2) + 𝐶2 (𝑑 − 𝑑′) ∅ = 0.65
(𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑,
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2) + ∅𝐴′𝑠𝑓′𝑠(𝑑 − 𝑑′) 𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦 )
STEPS IN DESIGNING ONE - WAY SLAB (𝑳 ≥ 𝟐𝑺)
(NSCP 2001 & 2010)
Solve for the floor pressure or live load (𝑤𝐿 ),
Multiply by
𝑏 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑟 1𝑚 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝

## Solve for ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑛 :

Simply One end Both ends Cantilever For Fy other
supported continuous continuous than 415 MPa
be multiplied
𝑳 𝐿 𝐿 𝐿 𝑓𝑦
by (0.4 + 700
)
𝟐𝟎 24 28 10

𝑚

## 𝐶𝑚 = 𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑐𝑘 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑁𝑆𝐶𝑃 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑠

𝑤𝑢 = 1.4𝑤𝐿 + 1.7𝑤𝐷 for NSCP 2001 Compare ρ, ρmin, and ρmax
𝑤𝑢 = 1.2𝑤𝐿 + 1.6𝑤𝐷 for NSCP 2010 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛= 1.4 or 𝜌 √𝑓′𝑐
𝑓𝑦 𝑚𝑖𝑛=
4𝑓𝑦
𝐿𝑛 = 𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑠
0.85𝑓′𝑐𝛽1 (600)
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75 (NSCP 2001)
𝑀𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑞. = ∅𝑅𝑛𝑏𝑑2 𝑓𝑦 (600+ 𝑓𝑦 )

## 𝑅𝑛= ____ 3 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝛽1

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 7 ( 𝑓𝑦
) (NSCP 2010)
0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 2𝑅𝑛
𝜌= ቌ1 − ඨ1 − ቍ
𝑓𝑦 0.85𝑓′𝑐
if 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 ≤ 𝜌 < 𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 (okay!)
𝜌= ____ IF If 𝜌 < 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛, 𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑

## Use S as the smallest of: Solve for Ast: 𝐴𝑠𝑡 = 𝜌𝑡 𝑏ℎ

𝐴𝑏 = 12𝑚𝑚
1. 𝑆1 𝜌𝑡 = 0.0020 (𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑠 230 & 275)
𝜌𝑡 = 0.0018 ( 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑒 415)
2. 3ℎ
𝐴𝑏
3. 450 mm 𝑆1 = × 1000 0.0018 (415)
𝐴𝑠 𝜌𝑡 = (𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑓. 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ
𝑓𝑦
𝑓𝑦 > 415 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑓 0.35%

## Use S as the smallest of:

𝐴𝑏 = 12𝑚𝑚
Concrete cover: 1. 𝑆2
40 mm - for db = 45 to 60 mm 2. 3ℎ
20 mm – for db ≤ 36mm 𝐴𝑏
3. 450 mm 𝑆2 = × 1000
𝐴𝑠𝑡
STEPS IN THE ANALYSIS OF NON- RECTANGULAR BEAMS

(NSCP 2010)

## Determine whether steel yields/ does not yield,

Compute As and compare with 𝐴𝑠𝑏
600𝑑
𝑐𝑏 = 𝑓 , 𝑎𝑏 = 𝛽1 𝑐 = ___
𝑦 +600
[𝑇 = 𝐶]

𝐴𝑠𝑏 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐
𝐴𝑠𝑏 = ____

tension
tension steel does not
steel yields yield
𝐴𝑠 ≤ 𝐴𝑠𝑏 𝐴𝑠 > 𝐴𝑠𝑏

## [𝑇 = 𝐶] Use ∅ = 0.65 , compression-

controlled
𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏
600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝑎 = ____ 𝑓𝑠 =
𝑐
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2) [𝑇 = 𝐶]

## For ∅: 𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑠 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐

600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝑓𝑠 = But 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐
𝑐
600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝐴𝑠 ( ) = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐
𝑐
𝑐 = ___ 𝑎 = ___
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝐶(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)
𝑓𝑠 ≥ 1000 Mpa 𝑓𝑠 < 1000 Mpa
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)

## 𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 − 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, use

𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑,
∅ = 0.65
Use ∅ = 0.90 𝑓𝑠 − 𝑓𝑦
+0.25 ( )
1000 − 𝑓𝑦
STEPS IN THE ANALYSIS OF NON- RECTANGULAR BEAMS (NSCP2001)

## If 𝑓’𝑐 ≤ 30 𝑀𝑃𝑎, 𝛽1 = 0.85 Ø = 0.90

0.05
If 𝑓’𝑐 > 30 𝑀𝑃𝑎, 𝛽1 = 0.85 − 7
(𝑓’𝑐 − 30) ≥ 0.65

## Determine whether steel yields/ does not yield,

Compute As and compare with 𝐴𝑠𝑏
600𝑑
𝑐𝑏 = 𝑓 , 𝑎𝑏 = 𝛽1 𝑐 = ___
𝑦 +600
[𝑇 = 𝐶]

𝐴𝑠𝑏 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐
𝐴𝑠𝑏 = ____

tension
tension steel does not
steel yields yield
𝐴𝑠 ≤ 𝐴𝑠𝑏 𝐴𝑠 > 𝐴𝑠𝑏

[𝑇 = 𝐶] ∅ = 0.90
𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏 600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝑓𝑠 =
𝑐
𝑎 = ____
[𝑇 = 𝐶]
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)
𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑠 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐
For ∅:
But 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐
use ∅ = 0.90
600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝐴𝑠 ( ) = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐
𝑐
𝑐 = ___ 𝑎 = ___
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝐶(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)

## ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)

STEPS IN FINDING ∅𝑴𝒏 OF A SINGLY REINFORCED T- BEAM WITH GIVEN
As AND OTHER BEAM PROPERTIES (ANALYSIS) (NSCP 2001 & 2010)

## Determine whether steel yields/ does not yield,

Compute As and compare with 𝐴𝑠𝑏
600𝑑
𝑐𝑏 = 𝑓 , 𝑎𝑏 = 𝛽1 𝑐𝑏 = ___
𝑦 +600
[𝑇 = 𝐶]

## Tension 𝐴𝑠𝑏 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝐴𝑐

Tension
steel 𝐴𝑠𝑏 = ____ steel does
yields not yield

## Tension steel yields, 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦 600(𝑑 − 𝑐)

𝑓𝑠 =
𝑐
Compute the area of
compression concrete, 𝐴𝑐 [𝑇 = 𝐶1 + 𝐶2 ]

𝐶=𝑇 600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝐴𝑠 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐(𝐴1 + 𝐴2 )
𝑐
0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝐴𝑐 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦
𝑐 = ___, 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐 = _____
𝐴𝑐 = ________
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝑀𝑛1 + ∅𝑀𝑛2
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅( 𝐶1 𝑦1 + 𝐶2 𝑦2 )

## Compare 𝐴𝑐 with the area of ∅Mn = ∅0.85 f′c [ 𝐴1 𝑦1 + 𝐴2 𝑦2 ]

compression flange, 𝐴𝑓 = 𝑏𝑓 𝑡

## For NSCP 2001, use

∅ = 0.90
𝐴𝑠 < 𝐴𝑓 , 𝑎 < 𝑡 𝐴𝑐 > 𝐴𝑓, 𝑎 > 𝑡 For NSCP 2010, use:
∅ = 0.90
(𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑,
𝑓𝑠 ≥ 1000𝑀𝑃𝑎)
𝑓𝑠−𝑓
𝑦
Solve for a: Solve for 𝑧: ∅ = 0.65 + 0.25 (1000−𝑓 )
𝑦

𝐴𝑐 = 𝑏𝑓 × 𝑎 𝐴𝑐 = 𝐴1 + 𝑏𝑤 𝑧 (transition region,
fs< 1000 MPa)
𝑎 = _____ 𝑧 = ___________ ∅ = 0.65
(𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝑇(𝑑 − 𝑎Τ2) ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝑀𝑛1 + ∅𝑀𝑛2 − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑,
𝑎 ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅( 𝐶1 𝑦1 + 𝐶2 𝑦2 ) 𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦 )
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − )
2
∅Mn = ∅0.85 f′c [ 𝐴1 𝑦1 + 𝐴2 𝑦2 ]

## If 𝑓’𝑐 ≤ 30 𝑀𝑃𝑎, 𝛽1 = 0.85

If 𝑓’𝑐 > 30 𝑀𝑃𝑎,
0.05
𝛽1 = 0.85 − (𝑓’𝑐 − 30) ≥ 0.65
7
STEPS IN FINDING TENSION STEEL AREA, 𝑨𝒔 OF A SINGLY REINFORCED
T- BEAM WITH GIVEN Mu AND OTHER BEAM PROPERTIES (DESIGN)
(NSCP 2001)

## Solve for 𝜑𝑀𝑛 max to determine of compression

steel is necessary ∅ = 0.90
𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥
∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∅0.85𝑓𝑐′𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑏(𝑑 − )
2
𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝛽1 𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75 𝑐𝑏
600𝑑
𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75 𝑓𝑦 +600

## 𝑀𝑢 ≤ 𝜑𝑀𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥 , the beam is 𝑀𝑢 ≤ 𝜑𝑀𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥 , the beam is

singly reinforced doubly reinforced

## Compressive force in concrete,

𝐶 = 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝑏𝑓 𝑡

𝑀𝑛 1 = 𝜑 𝐶(𝑑 − 𝑡Τ2)

## 𝜑𝑀𝑛1 > 𝑀𝑢 , 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑎 > 𝑡

𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑 𝑀𝑛
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑 𝑀𝑛1 + 𝑀𝑛2
𝑀𝑛2 = ____________
Solve for a: 𝑀𝑛2 = 𝐶2 𝑦2 = 0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝑏𝑤 𝑧 𝑦2
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑 𝑀𝑛 = 𝜑 ∁(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)
𝑧 = _________________
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝑎𝑏(𝑑 − 𝑎Τ2)
𝑎 = ______________ 𝑇 = 𝐶1 + 𝐶2
A𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 𝐶1 + 𝐶2
𝑇=𝐶 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85 𝑓 ′ 𝑐 ( 𝑏𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑏𝑤 𝑧)
𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝑎𝑏
𝑨𝒔 = _______ ≥ 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑠 = ___________
𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 is the smallest value of:
𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 is the smaller value of:
√ 𝑓′𝑐
√ 𝑓′𝑐 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏 𝑑
𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏𝑤 𝑑 2𝑓𝑦 𝑤
2𝑓𝑦
√ 𝑓′𝑐 √ 𝑓′𝑐
𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏𝑓 𝑑 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏 𝑑
4𝑓𝑦
4𝑓𝑦 𝑓
If As < 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 , adapt As = Asmin If As < 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 , adapt As = Asmin
STEPS IN FINDING TENSION STEEL AREA, 𝑨𝒔 OF A SINGLY REINFORCED
T- BEAM WITH GIVEN Mu AND OTHER BEAM PROPERTIES (DESIGN)
(NSCP2010)

## Solve for 𝜑𝑀𝑛 max to determine of compression

steel is necessary
𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥
∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∅0.85𝑓𝑐′𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑏(𝑑 − )
2
𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝛽1 𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 (for rect. beam only)
3
𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑑
7

## 𝑀𝑢 ≤ 𝜑𝑀𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥 , the beam is 𝑀𝑢 ≤ 𝜑𝑀𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥 , the beam is

singly reinforced doubly reinforced

## Solve for 𝜑𝑀𝑛1 when a = t ∅ = 0.90

(𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑,
𝑓𝑠 ≥ 1000𝑀𝑃𝑎)
∅ = 0.65 +
𝑓𝑠−𝑓𝑦
Compressive force in concrete, 0.25 ( )
1000−𝑓𝑦
(transition region,
𝐶 = 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝑏𝑓 𝑡
fs< 1000 MPa)
𝑀𝑛 1 = 𝜑 𝐶(𝑑 − 𝑡Τ2) ∅ = 0.65
(𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝜑𝑀𝑛1 = 𝜑0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝑏𝑓 (𝑑 − 𝑡⁄2) = ______ − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑, 𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦 )

## 𝜑𝑀𝑛1 > 𝑀𝑢 , 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑎 > 𝑡

𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑 𝑀𝑛
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑 𝑀𝑛1 + 𝑀𝑛2
𝑀𝑛2 = ____________
Solve for a: 𝑀𝑛2 = 𝐶2 𝑦2 = 0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝑏𝑤 𝑧 𝑦2
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑 𝑀𝑛 = 𝜑 ∁(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)
𝑧 = _________________
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝑎𝑏(𝑑 − 𝑎Τ2)
𝑎 = ______________ 𝑇 = 𝐶1 + 𝐶2
A𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 𝐶1 + 𝐶2
𝑇=𝐶 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85 𝑓 ′ 𝑐 ( 𝑏𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑏𝑤 𝑧)
𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝑎𝑏
𝑨𝒔 = _______ ≥ 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑠 = ___________
𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 is the smallest value of:
𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 is the smaller value of:
√ 𝑓′𝑐
√ 𝑓′𝑐 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏 𝑑
𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏𝑤 𝑑 2𝑓𝑦 𝑤
2𝑓𝑦
√ 𝑓′𝑐 √ 𝑓′𝑐
𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏𝑓 𝑑 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏 𝑑
4𝑓𝑦
4𝑓𝑦 𝑓
If As < 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 , adapt As = Asmin If As < 𝐴𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 , adapt As = Asmin
STEPS IN FINDING THE REQUIRED TENSION STEEL AREA As OF A BEAM
WITH KNOWN MOMENT Mu AND OTHER BEAM PROPERTIES FOR
RECTANGULAR BEAMS(NSCP 2010)
Given: b, d, f’c, fy, and Mu:
compare Mu and ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,Solve for ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥

## ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∅𝑓′𝑐𝜔𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 0.59𝜔) 𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥

∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∅0.85𝑓𝑐′𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑏(𝑑 − )
3 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝛽1 2
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ( ) 𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝛽1 𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 (for rect. beam only)
7 𝑓𝑦
3
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑓𝑦 𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑑
𝜔= 7
𝑓′𝑐
51 3
∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∅ 𝑓′𝑐𝛽1 𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 𝛽1 )
140 14
L
800 − 𝑓𝑦
∅ = 0.65 + 0.25 ( )
1000 − 𝑓𝑦

Design as Design as
Singly Doubly
Reinforced if if Reinforced

## Determine if the section is tension from 𝑀𝑛 = 𝑀𝑛1 + 𝑀𝑛2

controlled or in transition region:
459 3 where 𝑀𝑛1 = 𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥
∅𝑀𝑡𝑛 = ∅ 𝑓′𝑐𝛽1 𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 𝛽1 )
1600 16
∅ = ∅𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑀𝑢 𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑀𝑛2 = −
∅𝑚𝑎𝑥 ∅𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑀𝑢 < ∅𝑀𝑡𝑛 𝑀𝑢 > ∅𝑀𝑡𝑛
(transition ➢ Required tension steel: (In design tension steel always
(tension yields)
controlled) region)
Use ∅ = 0.90 from [𝐶 = 𝑇]
0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏 = 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑢 = ∅𝑅𝑛𝑏𝑑 2 𝑀𝑢 = ∅𝐶(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2) eq. 1 𝐴𝑠1 = ______
𝑅𝑛= ____
∅ = 0.65 from 𝑀𝑛2 = 𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑑′ )

0.85𝑓 𝑐 2𝑅𝑛 𝑓𝑠 − 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠2 = ______
𝜌= ቌ1 − ඨ1 − ቍ +0.25 ( )
𝑓𝑦 0.85𝑓′𝑐 1000 − 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠1 + 𝐴𝑠2
𝜌 =_______ ; 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛= 1.4 or 𝜌 √𝑓′𝑐
600(𝑑 − 𝑐) ➢ Required compression steel: (may or may not yield
𝑓𝑦 𝑚𝑖𝑛=
4𝑓𝑦 𝑓𝑠 = 600(𝑐−𝑑′ )
𝑐 𝑓′𝑠 = , where c = 𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑐
If 𝜌 < 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛, 𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝐶 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏
As = 𝜌𝑏𝑑
Substitute to eq. 1
compression steel compression steel
𝑐 = ___ 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐 = ___ yields fs′ = 𝑓𝑦 does not yield

0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏 = 𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑦
0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏 fs’ ≥ 𝑓𝑦 fs′ < 𝑓𝑦
𝐴𝑠 =
𝑓𝑦
from [𝐶2 = 𝑇2 ] from [𝐶2= 𝑇2 ]
𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦
𝐴′𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 =
𝑓𝑦 𝑓𝑠′
𝐴′ 𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠2 𝐴′ 𝑠 = ___
STEPS IN FINDING ∅𝑴𝒏 OF A BEAM WITH KNOWN TENSION STEEL AREA As
AND OTHER BEAM PROPERTIES FOR RECTANGULAR BEAMS (NSCP 2001)

𝐴𝑠
Solve for ρ: 𝜌 =
𝑏𝑑

## Check if steel yields by

computing 𝜌𝑏
0.85𝑓′𝑐𝛽1 (600)
𝜌𝑏 =
𝑓𝑦 (600 + 𝑓𝑦 ) Steel yields
Steel yields does not yield
larger of:
𝜌 ≤ 𝜌𝑏 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛= 1.4 or 𝜌 𝜌 > 𝜌𝑏
√𝑓′𝑐
𝑓𝑦 𝑚𝑖𝑛=
4𝑓𝑦

## ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝑓′𝑐𝜔𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 0.59𝜔) 600(𝑑 − 𝑐)

𝑓𝑠 =
𝜌𝑓𝑦 𝑐
𝜔=
𝑓′𝑐 [𝑇 = 𝐶]
Note:
𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑠 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏
If 𝜌 < 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 , the given As
is not adequate for the But 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐
beam dimension
600(𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝐴𝑠 ( ) = 0.85𝑓′𝑐(𝛽1 𝑐)𝑏
𝑐
𝑐 = ___ 𝑎 = ___
∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅𝑇(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)

or

## ∅𝑀𝑛 = ∅0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏(𝑑 − 𝑎⁄2)

STEPS IN FINDING THE REQUIRED TENSION STEEL AREA As OF A BEAM
WITH KNOWN MOMENT Mu AND OTHER BEAM PROPERTIES FOR
RECTANGULAR BEAMS(NSCP 2001)

Solve for ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥

## ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∅𝑓′𝑐𝜔𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 0.59𝜔)

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜌𝑏
0.85𝑓′𝑐𝛽1 (600)
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75
𝑓𝑦 (600 + 𝑓𝑦 )
𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝜔=
𝑓′𝑐
OR
𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥
∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∅0.85𝑓𝑐′𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑏(𝑑 − )
2
𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝛽1 𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 (for rect. beam only)
𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75 𝑐𝑏
600𝑑
𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75
𝑓𝑦 + 600

Use ∅ = 0.90
Design as
Design as
Doubly
Singly if if Reinforced
Reinforced

## 𝑀𝑢 = ∅𝑅𝑛𝑏𝑑2 from 𝑀𝑛 = 𝑀𝑛1 + 𝑀𝑛2

𝑅𝑛= ____
where 𝑀𝑛1 = 𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥
0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 2𝑅𝑛
𝜌= ቌ1 − ඨ1 − ቍ ∅ = ∅𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑓𝑦 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐
𝜌 =_______ ; 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛= 1.4 or 𝜌 𝑀𝑢 𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑚𝑖𝑛=
√𝑓′𝑐 𝑀𝑛2 = −
𝑓𝑦 4𝑓𝑦 ∅𝑚𝑎𝑥 ∅𝑚𝑎𝑥

If 𝜌 < 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛, 𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑 ➢ Required tension steel: (In design tension steel always
yields)

from [𝐶 = 𝑇]
0.85𝑓′𝑐𝑎𝑏 = 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦
compression fs’ ≥ 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠1 = ______
steel yields
fs′ = 𝑓𝑦 from 𝑀𝑛2 = 𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑑′ )
from [𝐶2 = 𝑇2 ]
𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠2 = ______
𝐴′𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠1 + 𝐴𝑠2
𝑓𝑦
𝐴′ 𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠2 ➢ Required compression steel: (may or may not yield
600(𝑐−𝑑 ′ )
𝑓′𝑠 = , where c = 𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥
compression 𝑐
steel does not
yield fs′ < 𝑓𝑦

from [𝐶2= 𝑇2 ]
𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦
𝐴′𝑠 =
𝑓𝑠′
𝐴′ 𝑠 = ___
DESIGN OF COLUMNS – TIED AND SPIRAL (NSCP2001)

Solve for Po
Po = Ps + Pc
Po = fyAst + 0.85fc’ FOR
FOR
TIED SPIRAL
COLUMN COLUMN

## Solve for Pn Solve for Pn

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 𝑃𝑜 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 𝑃𝑜

Note:
To check if it is
Solve for Pu adequate Solve for Pu
1%𝐴𝑔 ≤ 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ≤ 8%𝐴𝑔
𝑃𝑢 = 1.4𝑃𝐷 + 1.7𝑃𝐿 (both tied & spiral) 𝑃𝑢 = 1.4𝑃𝐷 + 1.7𝑃𝐿

## Solve for Ag Solve for Ag

𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛 𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛

## where ∅ = 0.70 where ∅ = 0.75

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡] 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡]

## Solve for Dimension Solve for Dimension and No.

and No. of bars of bars
𝐴𝑔 = 𝐿𝑊 𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝐴𝑔 = 𝐿𝑊 𝑁 =
𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝐴𝑏
𝑁 =
𝐴𝑏

Solve for ρs
4𝑎𝑠 (𝐷𝑐 −𝑑𝑠 )
Solve for Sc1, Sc2 ρs =
𝑆𝐷𝑐 2
If Sc1> 150𝑚𝑚 provide

𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑐′
𝜌𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.45( − 1)
𝐴𝑏 𝑓𝑦ℎ

## Vertical Spacing of Ties Use ρs= 𝜌𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 if 𝜌𝑠< 𝜌𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛

1. 16𝑑𝑏
2. 48𝑑𝑠
3. Least dimension of column Solve for Spacing of Spiral
4𝑎𝑠𝑡 (𝐷𝑐 −𝑑𝑠 )
s=
𝜌𝑠 𝐷𝑐2

𝑠𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑟 = s - 𝑑𝑠
DESIGN OF COLUMNS – TIED AND SPIRAL(NSCP 2010)

Solve for Po
Po = Ps + Pc
Po = fyAst + 0.85fc’ FOR
FOR
TIED SPIRAL
COLUMN COLUMN

## Solve for Pn, 𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 𝑃𝑜 Solve for Pn, 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 𝑃𝑜

Note:
To check if it is
Solve for Pu adequate Solve for Pu
1%𝐴𝑔 ≤ 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ≤ 8%𝐴𝑔
𝑃𝑢 = 1.2𝑃𝐷 + 1.6𝑃𝐿 (both tied & spiral) 𝑃𝑢 = 1.2𝑃𝐷 + 1.6𝑃𝐿

## 𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛, where ∅ = 0.65 𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛, where ∅ = 0.75

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡] 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡]

Solve for Dimension and No. of bars Solve for Dimension and No. of bars
𝐴𝑔 = 𝐿𝑊 𝐴𝑔 = 𝐿𝑊
Get the corrected Ag, then solve Get the corrected Ag, then solve for
for Ast, ex. 𝐴𝑔 = 0.06 𝐴𝑠𝑡 Ast, ex. 𝐴𝑔 = 0.06 𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝑁 = 𝑁 =
𝐴𝑏 𝐴𝑏

ρs =

## Solve for ρsmin

𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑐′
𝜌𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.45( − 1)
Vertical Spacing of Ties 𝐴𝑏 𝑓𝑦ℎ

## 4. 16𝑑𝑏 Use ρs= 𝜌𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛 if 𝜌𝑠< 𝜌𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛

5. 48𝑑𝑠
6. Least dimension of column

## Solve for Spacing of Spiral

4𝑎𝑠𝑡 (𝐷𝑐 −𝑑𝑠 )
s= 𝜌𝑠 𝐷𝑐2

𝑠𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑟 = s - 𝑑𝑠
ANALYSIS OF COLUMNS – TIED AND SPIRAL
(NSCP 2001 & 2010)

## FOR NSCP 2001

FOR FOR
TIED Solve for Ag, Ast
SPIRAL
COLUMN 𝐴𝑔 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 COLUMN
𝜋
𝐴𝑠𝑡 = 𝑁 × (𝐷 2 )
4

## Solve for Pn Solve for Pn

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 𝑃𝑜 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 𝑃𝑜

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡] 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡]

## Solve for Pu Solve for Pu

𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛 𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛

## Where ∅ = 0.70 Where ∅ = 0.75

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡] 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡]

## Solve for Ag, Ast

FOR FOR
TIED 𝐴𝑔 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 SPIRAL
COLUMN 𝜋 COLUMN
𝐴𝑠𝑡 = 𝑁 × (𝐷 2 )
4

## Solve for Pn Solve for Pn

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 𝑃𝑜 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 𝑃𝑜

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡] 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡]

## Solve for Pu Solve for Pu

𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛 𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛

## Where ∅ = 0.65 Where ∅ = 0.75

𝑃𝑛 = 0.80 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡] 𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 [0.85 𝑓𝑐’ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡]
STEPS IN FINDING ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD CAPACITY OF
COMPOSITE C0LUMN(NSCP 2001 & 2010)

## For evaluation of slenderness effects, radius of gyration, r

0.2𝐸𝑐 𝐼𝑔 + 𝐸𝑠 𝐼𝑠𝑥
𝑟≤ඨ
0.2𝐸𝑐 𝐴𝑔 + 𝐸𝑠 𝐴𝑠𝑥 𝐸𝑐 = 4700√𝑓′𝑐
Where:
𝐸𝑠 = 200 𝐺𝑃𝑎
𝐼𝑠𝑥 = moment of inertia of structural steel shape, pipe or tubing about centroidal axis in
composite column’s section

## Where: ∅ = 0.75 for composite member with spiral reinforcement

∅ = 0.65 for other reinforcement (NSCP 2010), ∅ = 0.70 (NSCP 2001)
𝐴𝑠𝑡 = area of reinforcing steel of strength fy
𝐴𝑠𝑡 = area of structural steel shape of strength Fy
𝐴𝑐 = net concrete area

## FOR THE DESIGN:

Minimum Thickness:
𝐹𝑦
a. Steel pipe filled with concrete, 𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝐷ට
8𝐸𝑠
𝐹𝑦 𝐹𝑦
b. Steel tubing filled, 𝑡1𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏1 ට , 𝑡2𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏2 ට
3𝐸𝑠 3𝐸𝑠

Spiral Reinf. Around Structural Steel Core Tied column Around Steel Core

## 1. f’c = 17 MPa 1. f’c = 17 MPa

2. 𝐹𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 𝐹𝑦𝑠𝑠 ≤ 350 𝑀𝑃𝑎 2. 𝐹𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 𝐹𝑦𝑠𝑠 ≤ 350 𝑀𝑃𝑎
3. 1% 𝐴𝑛𝑐 ≤ 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ≤ 8% 𝐴𝑛𝑐 (2010) 3. 𝑑𝑠 ≥ 0.02ℎ 𝑖𝑓 10𝑚𝑚 ≤ 𝑑𝑠 ≤ 16𝑚𝑚
1% 𝐴𝑛𝑐 ≤ 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ≤ 6% 𝐴𝑛𝑐 (2001) 4. Limit of Reinf.
1% 𝐴𝑛𝑐 ≤ 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ≤ 6% 𝐴𝑛𝑐 (2001)
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒: 𝐴𝑛𝑐 = 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑒
5. S (vertical spacing of ties)
S ≤ 1. 16𝑑𝑏
2. 48𝑑𝑠
1
3. 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
2
STEPS IN THE DESIGN OF VERTICAL STIRRUPS
(NSCP 2001 & 2010)

Calculate the factored shear force, Vu at critical sections or at any section you want the spacing
to be determined.
𝑉𝑢 = 1.4 𝑉𝐿 + 1.7 𝑉𝐷 (NSCP 2001) 𝑉𝑢 = 1.2 𝑉𝐿 + 1.6 𝑉𝐷 (NSCP 2010)
And shear strength carried by concrete:
1
𝑉𝑐 = 6
√𝑓𝑐′𝑏𝑤 𝑑, 𝑉𝑐 = 0.17𝜆√𝑓𝑐′𝑏𝑤 𝑑

## (provided by concrete subject to shear and flexure only)

1 𝑁𝑢 𝑁𝑢
𝑉𝑐 = 6
ቄ1 + 14𝐴𝑔ቅ √𝑓𝑐′𝑏𝑤 𝑑, 𝑉𝑐 = 0.17𝜆 ቄ1 + 14𝐴𝑔ቅ √𝑓𝑐′𝑏𝑤 𝑑

## where: Nu = factored axial load normal to cross section occurring simultaneously w/ Vu to

be taken as (+) for compression and (-) for tension
Ag = gross area of section in mm2

## If Vu > ∅Vc, stirrups 1 1

If Vu < ∅Vc but Vu > 2
∅Vc, If Vu < 2 ∅Vc, beam
are necessary only minimum shear section is capable to carry
reinforcement is required the required shear

## Calculate the shear strength provided by the stirrup, Vs 𝑏 𝑠

𝑤
Avmin= 3𝑓𝑦
𝑡
𝑉𝑢 𝑉𝑢
Vn = ∅
Vs = Vn – Vc = ∅
-Vc 𝑤 𝑏 𝑠 𝑤 𝑏 𝑠
Avmin= 0.062√𝑓′𝑐 3𝑓𝑦 ≥ 0.35 3𝑓𝑦
𝑡 𝑡

## where: s= d/2 or 600mm

(whichever is smaller)

## adjust the size 𝐴𝑣 𝑓𝑦𝑡 𝑑

of the beam
Calculate the spacing of stirrups, s s=
𝑉𝑠
if s< 25 𝑚𝑚, increase the value of Av by either using a bigger bar size or adding
more shear area. Compare with maximum spacing (section 411. 6.4)
𝑑
o When Vs ≤ 0.33√𝑓′𝑐𝑏𝑤 𝑑, 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2
𝑜𝑟 600 𝑚𝑚
𝑑
o When Vs > 0.33√𝑓′𝑐𝑏𝑤 𝑑, 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 4
𝑜𝑟 300 𝑚𝑚