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Wow G2Y.0¥ Builcligfeye Brewte ri: Produdg with Fin item Zlemen Analysis Vince Adams and Abraham Askenazi BIBLIOTEKET STNESO as Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Vince Adams and Abraham Askenazi Published by: ‘OnWord Press 2530 Camino Entrada Santa Fe, NM 87505-4835 USA Carol Leyba, Publisher David Talbot, Acq Barbara Kobl, Associate Editor Daril Bentley, Senior Editor Andy Lowenthal, Director of Production and Manufacturing Cynthia Welch, Production Manager Liz Bennie, Director of Marketing Lynne Egensteiner, Cover Illustration and Design Michael Kline, Indexer ins Director All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the pub- lisher, except for the inclusion or brief quotation in a review. Copyright © OnWord Press First edition, 1999 SAN 694-0269 109876 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging.in- Publication Data Adams, Vince, 1963- Building Better Products with finite element analysis / Vince Adams and Abraham Askenazi. p. cm. Inchides index. ISBN 1456690-160X 1, Finité element method. I. Askenazi, Abraham, 1969- II, Title, ‘TAS47.F5A25 1998 620.001'51535-de21 9828578 clr Trademarks Trademarks ‘OnWord Press is a registered trademark of High Mountain Press, Inc. All other terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. OnWord Press cannot attest to the accuracy of this information, Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Warning and Disclaimer This book provides information on the current state of finite element analysis technology, underlying theory, and its use in engineering design. Every effort has been made to make the book as complete, accurate, and up to date as pos- sible; however, no warranty or fitness is implied. ‘The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors and OnWord Press shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages in connection with or arising from the informa- tion contained in this book. Acknowledgments I would like to thank Catherine Campbell for her tireless and caring aid, and her willingness to do anything to help keep the book on track; Mike Koch, Chris Vasiliotis, Randy Andracki, and Rick Fischer for their technical contibu- tions and support throughout; WyzeTek, Inc. and my clients, whose patience provided a little breathing room in an already full schedule; and finally, Bill Krasson, who was responsible for pushing me to learn more about the techno ‘ogy and who suggested some of the original material that, after several over- hauls, formed the basis for this book. Vince Adams Iam grateful to my beautiful wife Sofi for all her love, care, and support; my mother Paz and father Eduardo for always being a phone call away; my brother Pepe for much needed comic relief; and my cats Anselmo and Sesame for their solidarity in staring at the computer screen for too many hours. I would also like to thank my close friends for their oaks! and aaahs! regarding this book, and last, but not least, the Buell Motorcycle Co. and its people for their invest- ment in this technology, trust in my work, and willingness to listen, discuss, and provide helpful advice. Abraham Askenazi iv Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis About the Authors Abraham Askenazi serves as senior analyst for the Buell Motorcycle Company. He has both B.S. and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from the Univer- sity of California at Berkeley, with a thesis on “Dynamics of Single Track Vehi cles.” Abraham utilizes finite element analysis as a powerful tool in the analysis- driven design process of the complete motorcycle system. By incorporating this, and other simulation technologies, Abraham assists the Buell development team in enhancing its state-of-the-art vehicle design reputation. Committed to helping others grow in FEA technology usage, Abraham has helped elevate the Chicago/Milwaukee MECHANICA User Group (MUG) program to an educational format. Abraham shares his Pro/MECHANICA expertise with Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa peers as a regular “fillin” presenter at MUG meetings. Recognized for his Pro/ MECHANICA knowledge and contributions to this organization, he has been an elected officer for the past two years Over the past 16 years, Vince Adams has established a reputation for excellence. He began his tenure in product development asa product design engineer and project manager, accumulating six U.S. and European patents through the launch of successful and innovative programs such as the Life Fitness Lifestride Treadmill and Zebra Technologies’ Stripe Bar Printer. As regional technical support representative for The MacNealSchwendler Cor- poration (MSC), followed by serving as North American product manager for Pro/MECHANICA and other analysis software products at Rand Technologies, Vince established several unprecedented training and support programs. Earn- ing the Top Customer Support Award in his first year at MSC and developing a strong customer base for Rand’s analysis software product suite, Vince has been recognized by his peer group of engineering professionals as a knowl- edgeable mentor. He was elected to the MECHANICA User Group vice-chair position, followed by chairperson in 1996 and re-elected to the chair position for the 1997-98 and 1998-1999 periods. Currently, as founder and president of WyzeTek, Inc., Vince chartered a mis- sion to help companies “build better products through ‘wyze’ application of advanced technologies.” Specializing in simulation tools, such as finite element analysis, providing project support, customized training, and industry leading software, WyzeTek is involved in all facets of product development from conceptual design to failure verification. Known for his FEA coaching style and programs, Vince facilitates the WyzeTek sponsored FEA advocacy and educational pro- gram entitled the “MESH” series. rie Contents List of Figures and Tables Introduction xxIX Who Will Benefit From This Book . . : uaa scents New FEA Users ........ xox Experienced FEA Users . xxx All Engineers . is Xxx Managers and Supervisors... 1. How This Book Is Organized ... 2 xxx The Importance of “Classical Engineering sox Part Introduction to FEA and the Analytical Method 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to FEA in the Product Design Process 3 A Brief History of Computer-aided Engineering 4 Enter the Design Analyst ........ 7? Rapid Product Development Process 8 Who Should Use FEA? ........ Pointing FEA in the Right Direction Analytical Problem Solving Process Process .. What is the goal of the analysis? : Predictive engineering versus failure ver ification « Trend analysis versus absolute data Selecting required output data . . What input is required for the solution and what level of uncertainty does it introduce? . What is the most efficient means to solve the probl Introduction to the Assumptive Approach . mmon Misconceptions About FEA Meshing is Everything FEA Replaces Testing . Finite Element Analysis is Easy Finite Element Analysis Is Hard . Learning the Interface Equals Learning FEA . Summary vi Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Chapter 2: Fundamentals 27 First Principles . .27 Body Under External Loading 27 ‘Area Moments of Inertia 31 Definitions . . 82 Stress and Stra What Is St Principal Stresses. Brain ec... Principal Strain Fundamental Stress States Stress in Flexure .. Stress in Shear Stress in Torsion Stress in Pressure Stress in Contact ; Stress in Thermal Expansion Stress Concentration Factors Material Properties ‘Types of Materials Common Material Properties ea Ductile versus Brittle Material Behavior . Safety Factor ... Failure Modes... Results Interpretation... Typical Failure Modes . Classic Failure Theories . Ductile Failure Theory Brittle Failure Theory . Other Failure Theories Buckling... Fatigue . Creep « Dynamic Analysis Modal Analysis Frequency Response Analysis Transient Response Analysis . Summary Chapter 3: FEA Capabilities and Limitations 89 Actual Performance versus FEA Results How FEA Calculates Data Contents A Simple Model... a H-elements versus P-elements - Correctness versus rey The Correct Answer . The Accurate Answer... Key Assumptions in FEA for Design Four Primary Assumptions Geometry ......ceee0+ Properties . Mesh ..... Boundary Cond inear Static Assumption. Linear . : Material Propertics « Geometry Concerns Boundary Condit Using the Linear Assumption Static Assumption Transient Response Frequency Response Random Response . . Using the Static Assumption . ‘Other Commonly Used Assmpions Geomeuy . Material Prope! Boundary Conditions Fastener General ‘Summary Part 2 Finite Element Modeling Basics 113 Chapter 4: Common Model and Element ors 115 ‘Common Modeling Types its Plane Stress Modeling % Identifying Plane Stress Models. Geometry in a Plane Stress Model ... . Plane Strain Modeling Axisymmetric Modeling Orientation of an Axisymmetric Model . viii Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Identifying an Axisymmetric Model .... . - 124 Loading = 125 Constraints . = 126 Symmetry aT Reflective Symmetry = 198 Nearsymmetry = 128 Loading . +129 Constraints .... - 129 Cyclic Symmetry . 130 Boundary Conditions yi -131 Using Reflective Symmetry to Approximate Cyclic Symmetry . - 131 Antisymmetry . 133 Additional Benefits of Symmetry . . 134 Beam Models... . aD ‘Two Basic Types of Beam Elements . 136 Rod Elements - 136 - 136 ety - 138 - 139 Beam Elements .... Beam Coordinate System Stress Recovery in Beams Beams in Torsion . Convergence 140 Section Orientation . 140 Plate and Shell Modeling 141 141 142 - 144 Shell Element Basics. Orientation . . Stress Recover Identifying Shell Model vee 145 ‘Accuracy ..... oe 149 Special Shell Elements. . 150 Additional Benefits .. . 151 Solid Element Modeling ae Identifying Solid Model Candidates . Solid Element Basics } Tet versus Brick Meshes. Solid Modeling Tips... Special Elements Spring Elements Damper Elements . - 152 Sel ae 158 oe 154 . 154 - 155 - 155 156 Mass Elements .o 1B? Mass Moment of Inertia . 158 Rigid Elements ...... 159 Uses of Rigid Elements . ++. 160 ‘Contact Modeling - 160 Contents ix Gap Elements Gap Elements as Cables Slide Line Elements Slide Lines in 3D Contact . General Contact Elements Friction in Contact Elements Grack Tip Elements ..... Port versus Assembly Modeling Component Contribution Analysis... ‘Turning the One Disadvantage into an Advantage . Considering Interactions in Terms of Boundary Conditions . Isolating the Performance of Each Part . Keep It Simple. Transitional Meshing - 161 - 163 +. 168 - 164 - 166 - 166 - 167 167 168 - 169 169 -170 aa a7 Use Test Models to Debug Idealizations 173 ‘Summary 173 Chapter 5: CAD Modeling for FEA 175 Design versus Analytical Model... .. ‘ ceaee 176 Building CAD Models for Eventual FEA Use “ Solid Chunky Parts . - 180 Building Clean Geometry 181 Short Edges . - 182 Sliver Surfaces . - 184 Voids in Solids . - 186 High Order Surfaces and Edges . . 187 Corrupt Geometric Definition ++. 188 Parent-child Relationships - 189 Guidelines for Part Simplification 191 Guidelines for Geometry Planning - 192 Additional Considerations . - 192 Working with Existing (Geometry as 193 Geometry Guidelines for Working with eco Cooma . 198 Symmetry 193 Boundary Condition Adjustments . 194 Feature Suppression versus Submodeling 196 Feature Suppression 198 Submodeling ............ 201 Mid-plane Extraction Adjusting Features Knowing When to Bail. Working with Limited Geometry Tools . 206 x Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis 208 208 209 210 210 212 213 jRS 214 216 Developing Geometry Specifically for Anis art Simple The Burden of Commitment ... € Guidelines for Analytical Geometry ... Elements and Model Types Plan for Boundary Conditions Plan for Assembly Features . . Plan for Automat Optimization . Topology Constraints Relationship Constraints Test the Limits of Geometry Variables igblegemh esis ADL. Stinmiory i .. .<.cconca 4.46: lt Sond narra ny ard ee Chapter 6: Assigning Properties 219 Introductory Concepts 220 Property Names .. 220 Comments and Descriptions «0... 221 Colors ..... 221 Material Properties 222 Types of Materials 222 Stillness Properties - 223 Other Properties. eset 223 Units Mises eyeing eee 224 Nonlinear Material Properties - 224 General Element Properties 4 225 Beane se foe’ sents 225 ‘Advanced Beam Properties... 227 Shells 298 Advanced Shell Properties . 298 Solids. ...05..05006 os 229 Special Element Properties Mass Elements ... Springs . Dampers . Contact Elements Gap Elements Slide Line Elements Friction Summary oo... eee eeeee Chapter 7: Finite Element Model Building Setting Up the Model | Grouping and Layering ....... Contents xi Resource Requirements ...-... 06.5656 5 00sec teen eee e eee ee eens 236 Element Selection + 287 Manual versus Automatic Meshing . 238 Modeling Speed = 238 Solution Speed. 239 Accuracy . 239 Convergence . 239 Perception 240 240 240 241 241 - 242 Manual and Automatic Mixed Meshes . P-elements and H-elements Meshing Beam Models : Guidelines for Beam Element Size . Other Beam Modeling Issues .... Meshing Shell Models... . 242 Other Methods of Creating Shell Models = 245 Element Shape Quality . 246 Mapped Meshing 247 Biasing a Mesh . 247 = 248 249 249 | Transitioning Mesh Densities . | Controlling a P-element Mesh | ‘Manual Meshing of Solid Models Methods for Meshing Solids . Ie 250 Extruding and Revolving Surface Meshes ........cccsesceseeseeee vee 250 Automeshing Solids 251 Element Quality Issues . 252 Meshing a Solid Model. ++ 253 | Debugging a Failed Automesh 2 254 Transition Elements 255 255 257 Rigid Elements . Constraint Equations . ‘Summary 257 Chapter 8: Boundary Conditions 259 What Are Boundary Conditions? +. 261 261 = 263 - 264 264 265 265 2s 266 120 A Simple Example. Types of Boundary Conditions i emental Degrees of Freedom Boundary Conditions and Accuracy . Overconstrained Models . . Redundant Constraints Excessive Constraints . Coupled Strain Effects . aii Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Understiffened Models ... 270 Underconstrained Models = 270 Insufficient Part Stiffness . 270 Local versus Global Accuracy 2 ae AL Singularities ... : +271 Bracketing Boundary Conditions 274 276 276 276 Review of General Boundary Condition Concepts Preparing Geometry for Boundary Conditions . . Applying Boundary Conditions to Geometry . Using Load and Constraint Sets . . sin IT Coordinate Systems . 2-278 Constraints 0... pageat ; + 280 Constraints on Different Element Types . . 281 Conditional Equilibrium 282 Symmeuy ... = 282 Enforced Displacement . 285 288 - 288 Load Distribution + 289 Load Orientation 291 Nonlinear Forces .. 991 Types of Loads ....... 202 Forces and Moments . 292 Pressure Loads 298 Acceleration Loads 294 Temperature Loads ... 294 Checking Applied Loads ... ++ 295 Comparison of pee Condition Schemes. 295 Summary = 300 Chapter 9: Solving the Model 303 Multiple Load and Constraint Cases. ........ 304 Final Model Checks Free Node Check. ‘Model Continuity Check Sanity Checks Material Properties Boundary Conditions Mass System Resources Element Check When the Solution Fails. Contents xiii Insufficient System Resources ...........++ Insufficiently Constrained Models . Solve Model for First Mode. Abrupt Change in Stiffness SumRy eee tes cca ne Chapter 10: Convergence Importance of Convergence Understanding Convergence Uncertainty versus Error Error Estimates . 3 Relating Error Estimates to Convergence More Examples P-elements versus H-elements .. . Element Quality versus Convergence Chapter 11: Displaying and interpreting Results Method for Viewing Results Displacement Results . Animation, : Magnitude of Deformed Shape Stress Results 2 Fringe Quality Convergence . Stress Magnitude .......... Centroidal versus Corner Stress . . Entire Model versus individual Components or Groups Types of Output Data Displacements ... Rotations ..... : Velocities and Accelerations Strain Quantities oud | Max, Mid, Min Principal Strain... Normal and Shear Strain ..... Shell Membrane and Transverse Shear Strain Strain Energy Stress Quantities Max, Mid, Min Principal Stress Normal and Shear Stresses .. Von Mises Stress ....... Reaction and Resultant Forces and Moments . xiv Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Line Element Results . . Strain and Stress .... Resultant Force and Moments Rigid Element Forces Shell Element Results Location ... vs Measures......++ 000+ Types of Results Displays Animation Fringe Averaged verstis Unaveraged versus Continuous Tone Isolines and Isosurfaces Query Vector Plots... Orientation of Principal Stress... Graphs ..... Results Interpretation: Qual Convergence Issues Correlation to Expectations (Common Sense) . Qualification and Review of Assumptions Correlation to Closed Form Equations Use of Test Models Correlation to Testing Relation to Problem Goal Bulk Calculations on Results Combined Load Sets .. . Fatigue Estimates Mohr’s Criterion negation ‘ond Vewfcction’ chia Summary Chapter 12: Optimization: Tying It All Toasts 355 Engineering versus Analysis o Avoiding "Emotional Commitment” Optimization ‘Ask Questions f Phase I Optimization: Brainstorming 359 Extrusion . 366 Injection Molding . . ++. 367 Sheet Metal Weldment . = 368 Phase I Optimization: 371 374 Summary Contents xv Part 3 Advanced Modeling Techniques and Applications Chapter 13: Modeling Assemblies and Weldments Design Model versus Analysis Model Assembly Type Controls Usability of CAD Model Continuous Load Bearing Structures. 2 Jointed Assemblies with Free Degrees of Freedom . Mixed Assembly Modeling Realistic Interpretation of Local Joint Resulls . ‘Component Contribution Analysis ‘ Treat Continuous Subassemblies as Single Component f Use Free Body Diagrams or Kinematics to Develop Boundary Conditions . Optimize Each Component on Its Own Merits Combine into Assemblies One Component at a Time Use Test Models of Joints ...... Identify Fasteners Requiring Detailed Results Consider Submodeling for More Detailed Local Results Examine Results Local to Each Joint ........ } Review Performance of Each Part at Each Step | Review Complete Assembly for Conformance to Global Expectations Submodel Portions of System Using Assembly Reactions ‘Modeling Continuous Load Bearing Assemblies Solid Assemblies Weldments Bolted Castings or Machined Parts Sheet Metal Assemblies . Weldments . Continuous Welds Skip or Partial Welds Plug or Spot Welds . . Riveted or Bolted Assemblies . More on Continuous Assemblies Plastic Assemblies . .. Printed Circuit Boards . Construction Assemblies ‘Modeling Jointed Interfaces Identify Critical Information Up Front . Rotational Joints . ; Bolts, Rivets, and Pins Detailed Fastener Interfaces. Rotational Bearings .... xvi Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Translational Joints Sliding Gontact . Linear Bearings . Guide Pins and Rods 407 407 408 409 Slots . 409 Summary 409 Chapter 14: Thermal ExpansionAnalysis 411 Thermal Expansion Basics 412 Material Properties Boundary Conditions Local Temperature Loads . Constraints ... ite Us rate Exglertion Modeling Weld Stress Injection Molded Part Pressit Analysis = 412 414 414 415 415 415 417 + 419 421 Spring Preload .... : Example of moth Used Thermal as .. 421 Summary ...... = 423 Chapter 15: Nonlinear Analysis 425 Basic Concepts in Nonlinear Analysis 426 Why Use Nonlinear Analysis? .. . 426 Exact Performance Data Required . 427 Contact Is Inevitable .... . 427 Large Displacement in Flexible Parts. - 428 Detailed Stress Input to Fatigue Analyses . 428 Manufacturing and Forming Simulation. - 428 Identifying Nonlinear Behavior . - 428 Fundamental Conditions of Linearity 429 Stressstrain .. - 429 Strain Displacement . - 429 Load Continuity 429 Common Symptoms of Nonlinear Behavior - 480 Stress Levels Approach the Yield Point - 430 Coupled Displacements Are Restrained 431 Large Displacements Are Expected . . - 431 Unreasonably High Deflections Are Observed . - 431 ‘Two Surfaces or Curves Penetrate .......-+- - 432 - 432 . 433 433 433, Direct versus Iterative Solutions .... Overview of Nonlinear Solution Algorithm Load Cases, Load Steps, and Convergence . Load Steps . Load Cases . Methods for Updating Model Stiffinesses Three Common Types of Nonlinear Behavior Material Nonlinearity . Material Definitions Revisiting Young's Modulus Yield Criteria. Hardening Rules . x Commonly Used Material Models . Geometric Nonlinearity Using Geometric Nonlinear FEA Boundary Nonlinearity Contact. . Follower Forces . Other Types of Nonlinearity Hyperelastic . . Nonlinear Transient . Greep . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis Bulk Metal Forming Nonlinear Results Data. Nonlinear Solution Methodology Use Test Models to Debug Materials or Contact Building and Running Model as Linear System Set Up Nonlinear Solution Parameters . ae Run Nonlinear Analysis with Large Displacements . Run Contact Conditions 0.0.2.2... eae Enable Nonlinear Material Model... When Convergence Is Not Obtained Finite Element Modeling for Nonlinear Analysis ‘Modeling Nonlinear Behavior with Linear Tools Moderately Nonlinear Large Displacements . Moderately Nonlinear Material Problems Use Linear Methods to Simulate Contact, Springs .. Constraints . Reaction Forces . Multipoint Constraints Summary Chapter 16: Buckling Analysi Possible Scenarios Accuracy Issues . xvi Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Simple Buckling oe and Correlation nee . 468 Summary .......- 475 Chapter 17: Modal mene 477 ‘A Simple Modal Analysis Sa ean 3 - 478 Basics of Modal Analysis 2479 Reasons to Perform Modal Analyses. . - 480 482 on 5 = 488 Dealing with Resonant Frequencies «0.0. sseessee+ees 2 484 Meshing a Part for Modal Analyses . 484 Other Uses for Modal na i +++ 486 Simin Yee bey Pgpichiecttee oo teense Deeper sASh Chapter 18: Dynamic Anetyslt 489 Frequency Response Definitions ....... Input ... Constraints Phase Offet .... Amplitude Offset Frequency Response Results. . Revisiting Amplitude Offsets Transient Response Input Constraints Solution Parameters Results Output ...... Random Response Solution Methods . Constraints ig Modal versus Direct Solvers... Damping ‘Summary curt 4 Integrating Simulation into Product Design Strategy 503 Chapter 19: Overview of Popular CEE, Siete 505 Packaging Wee artes Se Contents xix 506 ‘Three Key Components of. Any FEA Solution . oe ee 507 Preprocessor | Solver 507 | Postprocessor . 508 Open Systems 508 Integrated Systems 509 CAD-embedded Systems 510 Proprietary Systems... 510 Options Bul Contact Information for Vendors 530 Chapter 20: Key Elements of a Successful FEA Implementation 531 Key Success Factor: Evaluation Economic Needs ... Cost of Delay . oduct Development Costs } Missed Sales... .. Lost Market Share . Summarizing Cost of Delay ........ Product Musts versus Product Wants . Product Musts Product Wants ..... Summarizing the Economic Benefits of FEA . Technological Needs . Personnel Resources Give Users the Best Chance to Succeed « Should Designers Be Doing FEA? Project Schedule Resources. . Hardware Resources RAM Requirements Hard Disk Requirements ‘Swap Space Scratch Space Storage Space Graphics Cards . System Data Bus ‘ Hardware Evaluation Summary . Evaluating FEA Suppliers Evaluating FEA Systems CAD Compatibility ... qi Finite Element Modeling: The Preprocessor Solution Accuracy xx Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Support and Training . a Key Success Factor: Inleertan Implementation Plan . Training j Internal Training and Coaching Programs External Training and Coaching Choosing a Coach . After All That Initial Project Management Buy-in .... Key Success Factor: Verification Economic Verification .. Technical Verification. A Practical Verification Process Summary Chapter 21: Trends and Predictions for the Future of FEA Faster Computing Speed and Algorithms. Self-adapting, Self-converging Technologies Multiphysics, Mulisolution Technologies CAD-embedded Systems Other Advancing Technologies 2 Internet Based Support, Training, and Solvers . . . Windows NT/UNIX Convergence i Automation Technologies for Results Verification More Accessible Use of Manufacturing Technologies . Sophisticated Bulk Calculations on Results Improved Optimization Algorithms . Summary Bibliography Index Mist of Figures Fig 1A Tensile testing was performed by Galileo. ..... Fig. 1.2. Railroad engineering utilized truss calculations and drove the development of fatigue analysis methods. Fig. 1.8. Actua rapid protorping equipment from 3D Systems, .. Fig. 1.4. Solid model builtin SolidWorks. .. 10 Fig. 1.5. Relative acceptance and age of the three ‘enabling technologies. .........0.0.42. 11 ig 1.6. Traditional product development PPOCESS. ees eeees : Fig. 1.7. Relative cost of product change at the different stages of the design process. . Fig. 1.8. Cost versus knowledge dilemma. Big 1 deirodnct deta amenable press engineering. ..... M Hig 10s laproved backing of opsoyaines product knowledge with simulation. ..... 14 Fig. 2.1. General free body diagram (a). Resultant forces and moments (b). Second law equivalent (c). 28 Fig. 2.2. Uniaxial spring and damper sytem (a), Planar body motion (b). ...---+ Fig. 2.3. Submerged wall (a). Beam in pure bending (b). Bar in pure torsion (c). .... 32 Fig. 24. Rectangular and polar moments of inertia (a). Parallel axis theorem (b).....« Fig. 2.5. General stress elements in equilibrium, . Fig. 2.6. General plane strex element (a) Orientation of principal stress (b) Orientation of maximum shear stress (c).. 36 Fig. 2.7. Mohr's circle diagram for plane stress (a) and triaxial stress (b). . Fig. 2.8. Deformation of a uniform bar under uniaxial loading. .... Fig. 2.9. FEA of a beam in flexure. Fig. 2.10. Straight beam in flexure. . Fig. 2.11. Curved beam in flexure... Fig. 2.12, FEA ofa cantilever beam in shear. 43 Se eee eee in shear... . Fig. 2.14. FEA of a round bar in torsion. Fig. 2.15. Solid round bar in torsion. .......44 Fig. 2.16. FEA of a thick cylinder under preanire! cea aN 46 Fig. 2.17. Opiate aie (ees (a). Press fit cylinders (b). . eS Fig. 2.18. FEA of two spheres in contact... ..48 Fig 2:19, Forced contact of to spheres (3) and two cylinders (b). a 48 Fig. 2.20. FEA ofa shaft subject toa temperature change with the ends fully constrained. .. 50 Fig. 2.21. FEA of a drilled plate under tension. 51 Fig. 2.22. Typical engineering stress-strain diagram of a ductile material specimen subject to uniaxial tensile loading. . 5A Fig. 2.23. Comparison of three ductile failure theories. = +60 Fig. 2.24. Comparison of three brite failure theories. .. 61 Fig. 2.25, Effective length factors for common ‘end conditions of centrally loaded columns. 63 Fig. 2.26. Critical stress in columns as a function of slenderness ratio. ....--.++++ - 64 Fig, 2.27. Bucking FEA ofa complex shell SUUCtUFE. 6... sess Fig. 2.28. Eccentrically Joaded column (a). Maximum unit load for different values of Ned eccenticiy and column slenderne ratio (b). Fig. 2.29. Typical SN diagram for steel. ..66 Fig. 2.80.Sinwoidal uctuating tres, amplinde versus time. ...+. 2-68 Fig. 2.31. Stages of creep failure. ..........71 Fig. 2.82. Free vibration of cantilever beam, first mode. . e 2B Fig. 2.33. Free vibration of systems which are ‘overdamped, critically damped (a), or - +65 Fig. 2.34. Discretized beam model with 3D. spring and damper systems. Fig. 2.35. Modal FEA of a cantilever beam, au four modes. pa IS Fig. 2.36. Twodegree of freedom system... ..78 Fig. 2.37. Damped singledegree of freedom system subject to harmonic excitation. ... 81 xxii Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Fig. 2.38. Magnification factor and phase angle versus frequency ratio for different damping ratios of single-legree of freedom systems subject to harmonic excitation. . 82 Fig. 2.9. Transient response FEA of a cantilever team subject ta harmonic excitation applied perpendicularly at its free end. Fig. 3.1. Cantilevered beam geometry. .....91 Fig. 3.2. Dimensional laser scan of a part overlayed on the actual CAD geometry... .92 Fig. 3.3. Schematic representation of a two- Spring system... se ceeeeeeeeeee Fig. 3.4, Simple p-clement mesh. = 98 Fig. 3.5. Solid p-element mesh. Fig. 41. Plane stress idealization of simply supported beam. ...... oly Fig. 4.2. Plane stress model of plastic clip feature. -- 118 Fig. 4.3. Plane stress model of cable retainer with multiple wall thicknesses. . 8 Fig. 4.4. Plane stress model of a spur gear ‘mesh, i Hoa LIS, Fig. 4.5. Eaqualent solid model of the retainer 4 Fig. 46. Plane strain idealization of long pipe under constant pressure. .......---121 Fig. 47. Axsymmettc model ofa pressure vessel. Fig. 48, Axisymmetric model of the forming ofa calculator battery assembly. ...... «122 Fig. 4.9, Axisymmetric model of an engine valve stem. 2128 Fig. 4.10. Axisymmetric model of a bara -120 122 cylinder piston. 128 Fig. 4.11, Solid CAD model of steet hole punch, 124 Fig. 4.12. Axisymmetsic analyses of hole punch (a) without hole feature and (b) with hole cutout. 6... .eeeeceereee eee 185 Fig. 4.13. CAD solid model of pressure vessel lid, ba = 126 Fig. 4.14. Four constraint conditions and resulting displacement plots for the pressure vessel lid. 127 Fig. 4.15. Three symmetry planes for a domed pressure vessel with the section required for an internal pressure load. 198 Fig 4.16. CAD sold model of samped flange. 129 Fig. 4.17, Fan blade and hub model. ...... 130 Fig. 4.18. Turbine blade model with cyclic symmetry instance exploded. .......... 130 Fig. 4.19. Flywheels undergo windup in the transient portion of startup and are good candidates for cyclic symmetry. ........ 130 Fig. 4.20. Cyclic symmetry can be used on an instance of a motor rotor. .. 131 Fig, 4.21. Cyclic symmetry concepts can be simulated with planar symmetry in this, press fit model......... <- 182 Fig. 4.22. An odd number of features in an otherwise symmetric model can be simulated with radial cut planes as long as the loading is radial. . Fig. 4.23. Construction of antisymmetry results. a 138 Fig. 4.24. Ring under internal pressure with a point constraint at the bottom and symmetry constraints. The smaller internal ring is the undeformed model for reference. ...... 194 Fig. 4.25. Full shell model of stamped flange with symmetry constraints on the appropriate planes. toot Fig. 4.26. Schematic representation of a rod element. . . 136 Fig. 427. Beam element coordinate system. 137 Fig. 4.28. Linear (a), quadratic (b), and 132 plement (c) beam elements. ......... 138 Fig. 4.29. Stress recovery points for an ‘T-beam cross section in FEMAP. ........ 139 Fig. 4.30. A displacement plot showing the difference in torsional stiffness ofa closed tube (a), and a split tube with the free end constrained to remain planar (b). ...... 140 Fig. 4.81. The orientation of a section greatly affects its ability to carry a bending load. . 141 Mig 4.82 Linear and quadratic shell element types. ...- -. 142 Fig. 4.88. Shell mid-planes can be offset to Detter capture thickness variations or a stack of plates. Fig. 4.34. Tapered or drafted walls can be ‘modeled with (i) tapered shell elements, (ii) a median thickness, or (ii) a stepped thickness reduction, ... i 143 Fig. 4.38. Normals of shell elements in this bottle model point inward . 144 143, Fig. 4.36. If shell normals are not consistent, discontinuities in stress results may appear. 145 List of Figures Fig. 4.87. “Virtual” overlap of the shell geometry as interpreted by the solver. ... 146 Fig. 4.88. Steps required to break an Lheam ‘ross section into a shell model. ....... 147 Fig. 4.39. Thick-walled weldments may not be ‘good shell model candidates. .......... 148 Fig. 4.40. Solid CAD model of a cast cross brace. pipettes Fig. 4.41. Stress results ofa shell model of the cast cross brace. ...... - 148 Fig. 4.42, Plane stress model of thin-walled panel)... suulseie4 aga AD Fig. 4.43, Solid model of thin-walled panel, 149 Fig. 4.44, Shell model of thin-walled panel. 150 Fig. 4.45. Local mesh refinement of shell ‘model near cutout. . 151 Fig. 4.46, Chunky solid CAD models are likely candidates for solid FEA models. ....... 152 Fig. 4.47. Common solid element shapes. . 153 Fig. 4.48. Comparison of an automeshed valve stem to a revolved brick mesh. ......... 154 Fig. 4.49. Spring elements can be used in a simulation in the same way as they are used in the actual part in - 156 Be. 490, Schemas representation of damper element. . 157 Fig. 4.51, Mass clement ted to vertical plate with rigid links. .. sige Fig. 4.52. Pro/ENGINEER mass property listing for solid part. ...... hepa ore 158 Fig. 4.53. Use rigid elements to distribute beam moments at the correct footprint ona shell model, 159 Fig. 4.54. Rigid clements enable meshes of dissimilar densities to be quickly connected. 160 Fig. 4.55. Gap element orientation. ...... 161 Fig. 4.56. Gap elements ensure that the load transfer beyond the root of the weld i correct. - 162 Fig. 457. Gap clements enable shaft to transmit load to retaining bore. .......-. 02.264 162 Fig. 4.58. Slide line contact regions required to model battery assembly. ......-+..+-+- 163 Fig. 4.59. Slide line elements allow spur gear teeth to load each other naturally. ...... 164 Fig. 4.60. This sliced hemisphere can contact the platen chee dimensions wsing radially oriented slide lines. 165 Fig. 4.61. This automotive bumper can conteei he poleensreninusing parallel slide lines. ..... 165 Fig. 4.62. General 3D contact regions are required to model impact between crossing cylinders... - 166 Fig. 4.63. Schematic representation of friction correlation fixture. 167 Fig. 4.64. Pulley and mount assembly. .... 168 Fig. 4.65. Solid element analysis of shaft component,......+ Fig. 4.66. Shaft loading will produce a moment and a‘Z’ lateral shear load on the a Pi cst ieee ROE 169 Fig, 4.67. Load path to base causes moments in both ‘Y and ‘2’ with the “X’ oriented lateral shear. ra ghasl DD. Fig. 4.68. Special handling is required to transition solid shaft to shell flange mesh. 171 Fig. 4.69. Depending on its geometry, a single part may need to transition from one element type to another... 72 Fig. 4.70, Pressure loading on the gusset will ‘cause significantly different displacements if the shell solid transition is ignored (a) and correctly adjusted for load transfer (b). . .172 Fig. 4.71. Test model of transitioning mesh as. continuous solid can aid in results interpretation, .... Fig. 5.1. Potatoshaped parts usually mesh cleanly and solve well with automeshed tetrahedrons, --178 Fig. 5.2. Parts similar to this one must clearly be modeled with solid elements. -181 Fig. 5.3. Designer's choice of feature size controls the creation of dirty geometry. ..182 Fig. 5.4. Short edges on large faces can cause highly distorted elements ora failed mesh. 182 Fig. 5.5. This short edge was created by the proximity of two nearly aligned surfaces. 183 Fig. 5.6. Sloppy geometry creation often ‘causes small cracks or gaps in faces that are = 168 o6178 difficult to visually detect. . 184 Fig. 5.7. These two cylindrical features are offset only slightly....... rea 186 Fig. 5.8. As the two curved edges approach each other, a surface dimension much smaller than any part feature is created. . .185 in Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis Fig. 5.9. More thought on aligning these two features would have eliminated the sliver surface. Fig. 5.10. Sliver surface caused by a slightly undersized fillet. ..... wees 186 Fig. 5.11. A fillet across this shallow angle has created a difficult meshing situation... 186 Fig. 5.12. Itis extremely easy to accidentally create voids in a solid model while designing a new part. ..... ++: 187 ig. 5.13. A p-element mesher which maps the element definition to the geometry definion i highly inconsistency. Fig. 5.14. Always try to avoid Sage dime: such as depicted here. f Fig. 5.15. Distributing load across bolt head washer diameter can be achieved with patches, B ts = 195 Fig. 5.16. While the actual location of the supporting beam represented by the rectangular patch might be off the part edge by a wall thickness or two, this small adjustment should not affect the reliability of the shell model... . 2195 Fig. 5.17. Proper orientation of split surfaces facilitates the application of loads. ......196 Fig. 5.18. The mounting tab on this connector Can easily be decoupled for submodeling. 197 Fig. 5.19. Connecting rod can be divided into {two separate studies due to uniaxial nature of loading, --198 Fig. 5.20, Initial geometry can be coarser. ..199 Fig. 5.21. As behavior of ‘partis clearer, fillets are added to ensure that the stress distribution captured is correct. ........199 Fig. 5.22. The final analysis can have a much tighter mesh because a considerable amount of detail was removed from areas with no structural concerns. ..... = -200 Fig, 5.28. The overall size ofthis partis so large in comparison to its wall thickness that mid-plane model will behave nearly the same as a mesh on the outer surface. ....208 Fig, 5.24. The time spent developing a mid-plane surface of this geometry would probably not pay off. .........00.5 = 208 = 185 Fig. 5.25. This thick-walled part is questionable from a shell modeling standpoint, but must certainly be modeled at mid-plane in order to achieve any level of accuracy. ........204 Fig. 5.26. Solid model corrupted by IGES transfer. Fig. 5.27, With corrupted surfaces removed and rebuilt, the part is ready to mesh. . .. 207 Fig. 5.28. One rib pattern may appear visually to provide the best stiffness. oes 208 Fig. 5.29. However, a drastically different pattern might actually be the better choice. ..... 209 Fig. 5.30. A simple beam model can quickly allow you to evaluate options, whereas a solid model of the wire rack would be nearly impossible to mesh and solve. .... 211 Fig. 5.31. This shell model can be modified quickly and easily in pusuit of an optimal design. ...... i eo Fig. 5.32, A simple representation of a solid ‘can be meshed with brick elements fora = 206 quick and reliable study. .....2.........212 Fig. 5.38. Use surface patches to aid in aligning assembly components, 213 Fig. 5.34. New bracket design must have ‘mounting features as shown and fit within the specified envelope. ......... 214 Fig. 5.35. Evaluate drastically different approaches independently instead of trying to develop a single model that can capture all possibilities. 2.215 Fig. 5.36. Holes shown in configuration at left can “merge” to create the larger opening shown at right if dimensioned properly. . 215 Fig. 5.37. By making the rib height less than plate thickness, the rib can be made to “disappear” in an optimization study. ....216 Fig. 5.38. A simple plate with a rectangular hole may require more complex dimensioning for an optimization study than for detailing a single design. ....... 217 Fig. 5.39. Order of creation becomes important ifan optimizer is allowed to adjust the position of overlapping features.

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