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N N. (1) Symbol for nitrogen. The names of certain compounds (such as N ,

N

N. (1) Symbol for nitrogen. The names of certain compounds (such as N,N-dibutyl urea) contain this symbol as an indication that the group or groups

appearing next in the name (i.e., the butyl groups in the example cited) are joined to the nitrogen atoms in the molecule. The molecular formula is N 2 . (2) Mathematical symbol for Avogadro’s number. (3)

thin platelet of high index of refraction. The crystals are readily oriented into parallel layers because of their shape. Being transparent, each crystal reflects only part of the incident light reaching it and tran- smits the remainder to the crystal below. The na- creous effect is obtained from the simultaneous re- flection of light from the many parallel microscopic

Abbreviation for normal solution. layers. See normal (2).

n. Symbol for refractive index: n20/D is refractive index under standard conditions of temperature and wavelength (sodium D line).

n-.

Abbreviation for normal.

NAD.

See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

phosphate.

NADP.

See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

phosphate.

See normal (1).

nafidimide.

Na.

“NA-22” [Du Pont].

Symbol for sodium.

TM for 2-mercaptoimidazoline (C H 2 CH 2 NC(SH) NH).

Properties: A white powder. D 1.42, mp above

CAS: 69408-81-7. mf: C 16 H 17 N 3 O 2 . Hazard: A poison.

“Naflon” [Du Pont].

TM for a perfluorosul-

fonic acid membrane. Use: Manufacture of chlorine and caustic soda. It is a chemically stable ion-exchange resin.

195C.

Use: To accelerate vulcanization of neoprene.

nabam. (disodium ethylenebisdithiocarbamate). CAS: 142-59-6. NaSSCNHCH 2 CH 2 NHCSSNa. Properties: Colorless crystals when pure. Easily sol- uble in water. Derivation: (a) Addition of carbon disulfide to an

naja mossambica mossambica - neurotoxin i.

CAS: 115722-23-1. mf: C 48 H 70 N 10 O 7 . Hazard: A poison. Source: Natural product.

NaK.

(sodium-potassium alloy).

alcoholic solution of ethylenediamine followed by Properties: Soft, silvery solid or liquid. (1) 78%

potassium, 22% sodium: mp 11C, bp 784C, d 0.847 (100C); (2) 56% potassium, 44% sodium: mp 19C, bp 825C, d 0.886 (100C). Must be kept away from air and moisture. The liquid forms come under the class name potassium (or sodium) metallic liquid alloy. Hazard: Ignites in air; explodes in the presence of moisture, oxygen, halogens, acids. Store under ker-

that are also pesticides. osene. Use dry salt or soda ash to extinguish, not

water or foam. Use: Heat-exchange fluid, electric conductor, organ- ic synthesis and catalysis.

Chemicals Association.

TM for durable water

carbonate secreted by the epithelial cells in the man- tle of the oyster. The crystals are bonded by conchio- lin (C 32 H 98 N 2 O 11 ); the layers built up by excretion form pearls.

“Nalclean” [Nalco]. TM for cleaning composi- tion. Use: Removing water and process-formed deposits from industrial equipment.

nine crystals obtained from fish scales or skin, that produces a pearly luster. May be applied as surface “Nalclear” [Nalco]. TM for flocculating coatings, as in simulated pearls, or incorporated into chemicals. plastics. The pigment particle is generally a very Use: Treating wastewater.

neutralization with sodium hydroxide, or (b) by re- action of ethylenediamine with carbon disulfide in aqueous sodium hydroxide. Grade: 19% aqueous solution. Hazard: Irritant to skin and mucous membranes, narcotic in high concentrations, use may be re- stricted. Use: Plant fungicide, starting material for derivatives

NAC.

nacre.

Abbreviation for National Agricultural

(mother

of

pearl).

A form of calcium

“Nalan” [Du Pont].

repellents used in the textile industry.

nacreous pigment. A pigment, containing gua-

869

“NALCO”

870

“Nalco” [Nalco]. TM for a broad class of chem- icals, organic or otherwise, employed in the treat-

mechanism of narcotic action; also as an antidote for acute morphine poisoning.

ment of water and hydrocarbons; paper-making See narcotic. chemicals; cleaning compounds; combustion aids; weed and brush controls; lubricating and antilubri- Nalprep [Nalco]. TM for corrosion inhib- cating compositions; apparatuses; pumps, and itor. mechanisms for proportioning chemicals. Use: To protect cooling-water systems.

“Nalcoag” [Nalco].

TM for a colloidal silica

NaMBT.

See sodium MBT.

available in particle sizes from 4 to 100 m . Use: Reinforcing agent, antiblock agent, and dispers-

nameplate.

The officially rated capacity of a

ing agent.

chemical plant, as opposed to effective or actual maximum; the latter is usually 85–95% of name- plate.

TM for a synthetic

high polymer used for clarifying industrial plant water and municipal water supplies. A coagulant behaving as a polyelectrolyte. Effective at concen- trations of less than 1 ppm; also used in still lower

concentrations as a filter aid. er-Tropsch, Claisen, Clemmensen, Willegerodt,

Diels-Alder, etc. Many have important industrial applications.

name reaction. A chemical reaction, usually organic, that is commonly identified by the name of its discoverer(s), for example, Friedel-Crafts, Fisch-

“Nalcolyte” 671 [Nalco].

Use: Treating water and wastewater.

naled.

(1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl dimethyl

phosphate). nano-. Prefix meaning 10 9 unit (symbol n); 1 ng =

CAS: 300-76-5. (CH 3 O) 2 P(O)OC(Br)HCBr(Cl) 2 . 1 nanogram = 0.000000001 gram; 1 nanometer = 1

Properties: Pure compound is a solid. Mp 26C. Technical compound is a moderately volatile liquid. Bp 110C (0.5 mm Hg). Insoluble in water; slightly

millimicron.

nanoarray.

An ultra-sensitve, ultra-miniaturized

soluble in aliphatic solvents; very soluble in aromat- array for biomolecular analysis.

ic solvents; hydrolyzes in water. Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor; use may be re-

nanobalance. A nanoscale balance for determin-

stricted. Toxic by skin absorption. TLV: 3 mg/m 3 ; ing mass; small enough to weigh viruses and other not classifiable as a human carcinogen. sub-micron scale particles. Use: Insecticide, acaricide.

“Nalgene” [Nalge]. TM for plastic laboratory ware for industry, research, and education. Made of polypropylene, polyethylene, “Teflon,” FEP, po-

nanobeads.

(nanodots; nanocrystals; quantum

beads). Polymer beads with diameters from 0.1 to 10 micrometers.

lyallomer, and polycarbonate. nanobiotechnology. Applying the tools and processes of nanotechnology to build devices for

“Nalflote” [Nalco].

TM for flotation reagent.

Use: Handling, processing, and manufacturing of

coal.

studying biosystems.

nanobubbles.

Nano-sized air bubbles on colloid

surfaces.

nalidixic acid.

(USAN; 1-ethyl-7-methyl-1,8-

naphthyridin-4-one-3-carboxylic acid). nanocantilever. The simplest micro-electro-

mechanical system. They are easily machined and

pound used in medicine. mass-produced by the same techniques used to make computer chips. The ability to detect extremely “Nalkat” [Nalco]. TM for cationic polymers. small displacements make nanocantilever beams an Use: Manufacture of pulp and paper. ideal device for detecting extremely small forces, stresses and masses.

CAS: 389-08-2. C 12 H 12 N 2 O 3 . An antibacterial com-

“Nalmet”

[Nalco].

TM for services in the

wastewater-treatment chemical industry. nanochondria. Nanomachines existing inside

living cells and participating in their biochemistry or assembling various structures.

Use: Metals recovery

and reclamation.

nalorphine.

(N-allylnormorphine).

CAS: 62-67-9. C 19 H 21 NO 3 . The allyl (CH 2 CH==CH 2 ) derivative of morphine. It is able

to “antagonize” or neutralize most of the effects of narcotic drugs (morphine, codeine) but not those of

other types of depressants. nents (mechanical, electronic, or otherwise) built at

A computer made from compo-

nanocomposite.

rials.

nanocomputer.

See nanophase carbon mate-

Use: Biochemical research tool for studying the

the nanometer scale.

871

nanocontainers.

Nanoscale polymeric contain-

ers that could be used to selectively deliver hydro- phobic drugs to specific sites within individual cells.

nanocrystals.

(nanoscale semiconductor crys-

nanophase carbon materials.

NAPHTHA

(carbon na-

notubes, nanodiamond, nanocomposite). Form of matter in which small clusters of atoms form the building blocks of a larger structure.

tals). Aggregates of a few hundred to tens of thou-

nanorods.

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

sands of atoms combining into a crystalline form of matter known as a cluster. Typically around ten

nanoropes.

Formed by connecting and stringing

nanometers in diameter, nanocrystals are larger than together nanotubes.

molecules but smaller than bulk solids. nanoshell. A nanoparticle composed of a metal-

carbon mate- lic shell surrounding a semiconductor. These nanos- cale metal spheres can absorb or scatter light at virtually any wavelength. When attached to a target

rials.

nanodiamond. See nanophase

nanoelectromechanical systems.

(NEMS).

A generic term to describe nano scale electrical or

mechanical devices.

cancer cell, they can be irradiated to cause the nano- shell to become hot, killing the cell.

nanoelectronics.

scale

Electronics on a nanometer

nanosystem. A eutactic set of nanoscale compo- nents working together to serve a set of purposes; complex nanosystems can be of macroscopic size.

nanofabrication.

nanofluidics.

nanogate.

nanotechnology. The interactions of cellular

assemblers and stock molecules. and molecular components and engineered materi-

als typically clusters of atoms, molecules, and mo- lecular fragments at the most elemental level of

fluids. biology. Such nanoscale objects—with dimensions

smaller than 100 nanometers—typically, to not ex- clusivly, can be useful by themselves or as part of larger devices containing multiple nanoscale ob- jects.

of tiny amounts of fluid.

Construction of items using

Controlling nano-scale amounts of

A device that precisely meters the flow

“Nanograde” [Mallinckrodt].

TM for a grade

of chemical purity. Impurities guaranteed to be less

nanoimprinting.

(soft

lithography).

Use of

Carbon nanotubes are fullerene-re-

than ten parts per trillion. lated structures that consist of graphene cylinders

closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings. They are in the size range of cylinders 10 to 20 nm in diameter. See: buckminsterfullerene, fullerines.

lithographic masters) with nanoscale features.

nanotubes.

nanolithography.

Writing on the nanoscale.

Used for etching computer circuits. nanowire. A nanometer-scale wire made of met-

al atoms, silicon, or other materials that conduct electricity. Nanowires are built atom by atom on a solid surface, often as part of a microfluidic device. They can be coated with molecules, such as antibod- ies, that will bind to proteins and other substances of interest to researchers and clinicians.

nanomachining. Involves mechanically chang- ing the structure of nano-scale materials or mole- cules.

nanomanipulation. Manipulating at an atomic

or molecular scale in order to produce precise struc- tures.

nanometer.

One-billionth (10 9 ) meter,

(nm).

napalm. An aluminum soap of a mixture of oleic, naphthenic, and coconut fatty acids.

Properties: Granular powder. Mixed with gasoline it

 

˚

equal to 1 millimicron or 10 A

units.

nanoparticle. A nanoscale spherical or capsule- shaped structure. Many are hollow, which provides

nanopharmaceuticals.

Nanoscale particles

forms a sticky gel that is stable from 40 to 100C. Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Use: Incendiary agent.

a central space that can be filled with substances.

naphite.

See trinitronaphthalene.

Various substances can also be attached to the sur- face of a nanoparticle for transport and reaction

naphtha.

(benzin).

purposes. Most nanoparticles are small enough to pass through blood capillaries and enter cells.

CAS: 8030-30-6. (1) Petroleum (petroleum ether). A general term applied to refined, partly refined, or unrefined petroleum products and liquid products of natural gas, not less than 10% of which distill below

used to modulate drug transport for drug uptake and

347F (175C) and not less than 95% of which distill

delivery applications.

below 464F (240C) when subjected to distillation in

NAPHTHACENE

872

accordance with the Standard Method of Test for naphthacene. (tetracene; rubene).

CAS: 92-24-0. C 18 H 12 . The molecule consists of four fused benzene rings. Properties: Orange solid; slight green fluorescence in daylight. D 1.35, mp approximately 350C. Not easily soluble. Occurrence: In commercial anthracene and coal tar. Hazard: Explodes when shocked, reacts with oxidiz- ing materials. Use: Organic synthesis.

especially ethylene. Cracking for ethylene also pro- duces propylene, butadiene, pyrolysis gasoline, and fuel oil; source of synthetic natural gas.

(a) VM&P (Varnish Makers and Painters) (petrole-

um spirits, petroleum thinner). CAS: 8032-32-4. Any of a number of narrow-boiling-range fractions of petroleum with bp of approximately 93–204C, according to the specific use.

Properties: White, crystalline, volatile flakes; strong coal tar odor. D 1.145 (20/4C), mp 80.2C, bp 217.96C, flash p 176F (80C), sublimes at room tem- perature, autoign temp 979F (526C). Soluble in ben- zene, absolute alcohol, and ether; insoluble in water. Combustible. Derivation: (1) From coal tar oils boiling between 200 and 250C (middle oil) by crystallization and distillation. (2) From petroleum fractions after vari- ous catalytic processing operations. Available forms: Flakes, cubes, spheres, powder. Grade: By melting point, 74C min (crude) to <79C

(b) blending. A petroleum fraction with volatility

similar to the higher boiling fractions of gasoline. It is used primarily in blending with natural gasoline to

produce a finished gasoline of specified volatility.

(c) cleaners’. A dry-cleaning fluid derived from

petroleum and similar to Stoddard solvent but not (refined); scintillation (80–81C).

Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 10 ppm; STEL

100F (37.7C). 15 ppm; not classifiable as a human carcinogen.

Use: Intermediate (phthalic anhydride, naphthol, “Tertralin,” “Decalin,” chlorinated naphthalenes, naphthyl and naphthol derivatives, dyes), moth re- pellent, fungicide, smokeless powder, cutting fluid, lubricant, synthetic resins, synthetic tanning, preser- vative, textile chemicals, emulsion breakers, scintil- lation counters, antiseptic.

bp 160–220C (approximately 90% at

ture of xylene and higher homologs. D 0.885–0.970,

Distillation of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, and

Similar Petroleum Products (ASTM D86); fp 73C, bp 30–60C, flash p 57F (50C), autoign temp 550F (287C), d 0.6.

Hazard:

Flammable, dangerous fire risk, explosive

limits in air 1–6%. Use: Source (by various cracking processes) of gaso- line, special naphthas, and petroleum chemicals,

naphthalene.

(tar camphor).

CAS: 91-20-3. C 10 H 8 .

(tar camphor). CAS: 91-20-3. C 1 0 H 8 . Properties: Distillation range 119–143C, d 07543,

Properties: Distillation range 119–143C, d 07543, bulk d 6.280 lb/gal, pour p approximately 70F

(56C), flash

p 20F (6.6C) (TCC), autoign temp

450F (232C). Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. TLV: 300 ppm; Animal Carcinogen. Use: Thinners in paints and varnish.

necessarily meeting all its specifications; flash p

(2) Coal tar.

(a) heavy (high-flash naphtha).

Properties: Deep-amber to dark-red liquid. A

mix-

200C), flash p

100F (37.7C), evaporation 303 min. Derivation: From coal tar by fractional distillation. Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Toxic by ingestion, inha- lation, and skin absorption.

Use: Coumarone resins; solvent for asphalts, road

process

engraving and lithography; rubber cements (sol-

naphtha soaps; manufacture of ethylene and

tars, pitches, etc.; cleansing compositions;

vent);

acetic acid.

(b) solvent (160-degree benzol).

Properties: A mixture of a small percentage of ben-

zene, toluene, xylene, and higher homologs from

coal tar. (1) Crude: dark straw-colored liquid, (2) refined: water-white liquid; d (1) 0.862–0.892, (2)

(2)

approximately 160C (90%); flash p (1) and (2) ap- proximately 78F (25.5C). Derivation: From coal tar by fractional distillation. Grade: Dark-straw, water-white. Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Use: Solvent; xylene; cumene; nitrated, for incorpo- ration in dynamite.

0.862–0.872; bp (1) approximately 160C (80%),

-naphthaleneacetic acid.

(1-naphthylacetic

acid). CAS: 86-87-3. C 10 H 7 CH 2 COOH. A plant growth regulator. Properties: White crystals; odorless. Mp 132–135C. Soluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform; slightly soluble in water and alcohol. Grade: Usually supplied in dilute form, either as a powder or liquid solution ready for use. Hazard: Skin irritant. Use: Inducing rooting of plant cuttings, spraying ap- ple trees to prevent early drop, fruit thinner.

-naphthaleneactic acid, methyl ester.

C 10 H 7 CH 2 COOCH 3 . A plant growth

regulator. Use: Delaying sprouting of potatoes, weed control, thinning of peaches, etc.

(MENA).

 

873

-NAPHTHOL

naphthalene, chlorinated.

See chlorinated

“Naphthanil” [Du Pont].

TM for a series of

naphthalene.

naphthalenediamine.

mine.

See naphthylenedia-

1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate.

C 10 H 6 (NCO) 2 .

White to light-yellow, crystalline solid; mp

127–131C.

Hazard: Irritant. Use: Manufacture of polyurethane solid elastomers.

naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid.

strongs acid.

See Arm-

naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid.

C 10 H 6 (SO 3 H) 2 .

Properties: White, crystalline solid. Soluble in wa-

ter. Combustible. Derivation: Sulfonation of naphthalene at high tem-

perature and separation

from 2,6-isomer.

Use: Intermediate for dyes.

dye bases. Before coupling the bases must first be diazotized to form the diazo salt. Also represents a series of diazo pigments. Use: Widely used on cotton and rayon textiles.

naphtha, petroleum.

See naphtha (1).

1:4-naphthaquinol-bisdisodium phosphate.

CAS: 131-13-5. mf: C 11 H 12 O 8 P 2 4Na. Hazard: A poison.

naphtha, solvent.

See naphtha (2b).

naphtha, VM&P.

See naphtha (1a).

naphthene.

and obsolete.

The term naphthene is misleading

See cycloparaffin.

-naphthalenesulfonic acid.

Any of a group of saturated

esulfonic acid). C 10 H 7 SO 3 HH 2 O. higher fatty acids derived from the gas-oil fraction

of petroleum by extraction with caustic soda solu-

in water, alcohol, and ether. Combustible. tion and subsequent acidification. Gulf and West

coast crudes are relatively high in these acids. The commercial grade is a mixture, usually of dark color and unpleasant odor, corrosive to metals. The chief use of naphthenic acids is in the production of metal- lic naphthenates for paint driers and cellulose pre-

facture of disinfectant soaps. servatives. Other uses are as solvents, detergents,

(1-naphthalen-

naphthenic acid.

Properties: Deliquescent crystals. Mp 90C. Soluble

Derivation: Interaction of naphthalene and sulfuric acid. Use: Starting point in the manufacture of -naphthol, -naphthalene sulfonic acid, -naphthylaminesul- fonic acid; solvent (Na salt) for phenol in the manu-

-naphthalenesulfonic acid.

(2-naphthalen-

esulfonic acid). CAS: 120-18-3. C 10 H 7 SO 3 H or C 10 H 7 SO 3 HH 2 O.

Mp

124–125C. Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. Combustible. Derivation: Sulfonation of naphthalene. Use: Starting point in the manufacture of -naphthol, -naphtholsulfonic acid, -naphthylaminesulfonic

Properties: Nondeliquescent, white plates.

acid, etc.

1,3,6-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, trisodium

salt.

C 10 H 5 (SO 3 Na) 3 . Fine buff crystals.

Use: Diazo-type stabilizer.

1-naphthalenyl ((hexyloxy)sulfinyl)methyl- carbamate.

rubber reclaiming agent, etc.

naphthenic oils.

CAS: 67254-74-4. Hazard: Questionable carcinogen.

naphthionic acid.

(1-naphthylamine-4-sulfon-

ic acid; 1-aminonaphthalene-4-sulfonic acid; 4-

amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid).

h a l e n e s u l f o n i c a c

CAS: 77267-52-8. mf: C 18 H 23 NO 4 S. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.

Use: Agricultural chemical. Derivation: Heating equimolar amounts of -naph- thylamine and sulfuric acid at 10–15 mm Hg (sever-

Properties: White crystals or powder. Soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol and ether.

(naphthalenyl)methanone.

CAS:

131543-22-1. mf: C 27 H 26 N 2 O 3 .

al hours). Use: Intermediate for azo dyes, e.g., Congo red.

Hazard: A poison.

1,8-naphthalic acid anhydride.

C 12 H 6 O 3 .

Properties: Light-tan powder. Mp 268–270C. Use: Dyestuffs, organic synthesis in general.

-naphthol.

(1-naphthol; 1-hydroxynaphthal-

ene). CAS: 90-15-3. C 10 H 7 OH.

-NAPHTHOL

874

-NAPHTHOL 874 Properties: Yellow crystals. Mp 120C (decom- poses). Soluble in ether, benzene, alcohol. Hazard:

Properties: Yellow crystals. Mp 120C (decom- poses). Soluble in ether, benzene, alcohol. Hazard: Irritant. Use: Chemical reagent and intermediate.

Properties: Colorless or yellow prisms or powder; disagreeable taste. D 1.224 (4C), 1.0954 (95/4C),

mp 96C, bp 278C, volatile in steam, sublimes, refr

alcohol,

and ether; insoluble in water. Combustible. Derivation: By fusing sodium -naphthalene sulfo-

is decomposed with

hydrochloric acid and distilled. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and skin absorption. Use: Dyes, organic synthesis, synthetic perfumes.

index 1.6206 (98.7C). Soluble in benzene,

nate and caustic soda. The melt

-naphthol.

(2-naphthol; 2-hydroxynaphthal-

ene). CAS: 135-19-3. C 10 H 7 OH.

2-hydroxynaphthal- ene). CAS: 135-19-3. C 10 H 7 OH. Properties: White, lustrous, bulky leaflets or white

Properties: White, lustrous, bulky leaflets or white powder. Darkens with age; faint phenol-like odor.

Stable in air but darkens on exposure to sunlight. D 1.217, mp 121.6C, bp 285C, flash p 307F (152.7C).

oils,

and alkaline solutions; almost insoluble in water. Combustible. Derivation: By fusing sodium -naphthalene sulfo-

The product is distilled in

Soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, glycerol,

nate with caustic soda.

vacuo and then sublimed.

Grade: Technical,

Hazard: See -naphthol. Use: Dyes; pigments; antioxidants for rubber, fats, oils; insecticides; synthesis of fungicides; pharma-

sublimed, resublimed.

ceuticals; perfumes; antiseptic.

1,4-naphthoquinone.

( -naphthoquinone).

CAS: 130-15-4. C 10 H 6 O 2 . Properties: Yellow powder; odor like benzoqui- none. Mp 123–126C, sublimes at 100C. Slightly soluble in water; soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, chloroform, benzene, and acetic acid. Combustible. Hazard: Irritant. Use: Polymerization regulator for rubber and polyes- ter resins, synthesis of dyes and pharmaceuticals, fungicide, algicide.

naphthoquinone oxime.

See 1-nitroso-2-

naphthol; 2-nitroso-1-naphthol.

1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid.

( -

naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid). C 10 H 5 (O) 2 SO 3 H. Derivation: Oxidation with nitric acid of 2-amino-1- naphthol-4-sulfonic acid or 1-amino-2-naphthol-4- sulfonic acid. Use: Dye intermediate, identification of sulfonamide derivatives.

naphthoresorcinol.

phthalene.

See 1,3-dihydroxyna-

-naphthoxyacetic acid.

(2-naphthoxyacetic

acid). CAS: 120-23-0. C 10 H 7 OCH 2 COOH. A plant growth regulator. Properties: Crystals. Mp 156C. Soluble in water, alcohol, acetic acid. Use: Rooting clippings, inhibits early fall of fruit, growth promoter.

1-naphthylacetic acid.

acid.

See naphthaleneacetic

naphthol AS.

See -hydroxynaphthoic ani-

See 3-hy-

lide.

CAS: 134-32-7. C 10 H 7 NH 2 . Properties: White crystals becoming red on expo-

sure to air. Flash p 157C, d 1.13, mp 50C, bp 301C. droxy-2-naphthoic acid. Soluble in alcohol and ether; slightly soluble in

water. Combustible. Derivation: Reduction of -nitro-naphthalene with iron and hydrochloric acid. The mass is then mixed with milk of lime and distilled. Method of purification: Crystallization. Hazard: Toxic, especially if containing the isomer; a carcinogen (OSHA).

methyl ether. Use: Dyes and dye intermediates, agricultural chem-

-naphthylamine.

(1-naphthylamine).

3-naphthol-2-carboxylic acid.

Naphthol Green B. A dye used in crystalliz- ing solar salt, it increases the evaporation rate by added absorption of energy; 5 ppm is said to increase salt production 1520%.

-naphthol methyl ether.

See -naphthyl

naphtholsulfonic acid.

Any of several sulfo-

icals.

nated aromatic acids derived from - or

or naphthalene and used as azo dye intermediates.

CAS: 91-59-8. C 10 H 7 NH 2 . Properties: White to reddish, lustrous leaflets. Solu- ble in hot water, alcohol, ether. Commercial: mp

CAS: 524-42-5. C 10 H 6 O 2 . 109.5C, d 1.061 (98.4C), bp 306C. Combustible.

-naphthol

-naphthylamine.

(2-naphthylamine).

1,2-naphthoquinone.

( -naphthoquinone).

875

NARASIN

Derivation: From -naphthol by heating in an auto- clave with ammonium sulfite and ammonia (Buch- erer reaction). Method of purification: Distillation. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, skin absorp- tion; a carcinogen (OSHA) TLV: Confirmed Hu- man Carcinogen.

-naphthylamine hydrochloride.

1-naphthyl-n-(2,3,4,5-di-o-isopropylidene-1-

-o-fructopyranosylsulfinyl)-n- methylcarbamate.

CAS: 81862-21-7. mf: C 24 H 29 NO 9 S. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Use: Agricultural chemical.

1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate.

baryl.

See car-

C 10 H 7 NH 2 HCl.

Properties: White to gray, crystalline powder. Solu-

ble in water, alcohol, and ether.

-naphthyl methyl ether.

( -naphthol

methyl ether; 2-methoxynaphthalene; methyl

Derivation: By the action of hydrochloric acid on - naphthyl ether). C 10 H 7 OCH 3 .

naphthylamine. Properties: White, crystalline scales. Mp 72C, bp Use: Dyes, organic synthesis. 274C. Soluble in alcohol and ether; insoluble in water. Combustible.

Derivation: (1) By heating -naphthol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid. (2) By methylating -naphthol with dimethyl sulfate. Use: Perfumery (soaps).

naphthylaminesulfonic acid.

Any of several

sulfonated aromatic acids derived from - or - naphthylamine and used as azo dye intermediates.

o-2-naphthyl-m-N-dimethylthiocarbanilate.

See tolnaftate.

-naphthylphenyloxazole.

(NPO; ANPO;

2-(1-naphthyl)-5-phenyloxazole). C 19 H 13 NO.

1,5-naphthylenediamine. (1,5-diaminona- Properties: Fluorescent yellow needles. Mp

phthalene). CAS: 2243-62-1. C 10 H 6 (NH 2 ) 2 . Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 190C, bp (sub- limes). Soluble in alcohol and hot water; very spar- ingly soluble in cold water. Combustible. Derivation: (1) By the reduction of -dinitronaph- thalene; (2) by heating dihydroxynaphthalene with

aqueous ammonia. Properties: Crystalline solid. Mp 185C. Almost in-

Use: Organic synthesis. soluble in water; slightly soluble in acetone, ben- zene, and ethanol. Not stable in solutions above pH

9.5 nor at temperatures above 180C. Noncorrosive. Do not store near seeds or fertilizers. Combustible. Use: Selective preemergence herbicide.

phthalene). C 10 H 6 (NH 2 ) 2 . Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 66C, bp 205C (12

Grade: Scintillation. Use: Scintillation counter or wavelength shifter in solution scintillators.

104–106C.

N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid.

C 10 H 7 NHCOC 6 H 4 COOH.

1,8-naphthylenediamine.

(1,8-diaminona-

mm Hg), d 1.12, refr index 1.68. Soluble in alcohol; slightly soluble in water.

-naphthylthiourea.

(ANTU).

Derivation: Reduction of 1,8-dinitronaphthalene CAS: 86-88-4. C 10 H 7 NHCSNH 2 .

with PI 3 . Properties: Odorless, gray powder. Mp 198C. Insol-

uble in water and only very slightly soluble in most organic solvents.

N- -naphthylethylenediamine Derivation: From -naphthylthiocarbamide and al-

kali or ammonium thiocyanate. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. TLV: 0.3 mg/m 3 ; not

Use: Lubricating-oil antioxidant, analytical reagent.

dihydrochloride.

C 10 N 7 NHCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 2HCl.

Properties: Colorless crystals. Soluble in water. classifiable as a human carcinogen.

Use: Reagent for the quantitative determination of sulfa drugs, for the detection of nitrogen dioxide in air.

Use: Rodenticide.

Naples yellow.

naptalam.

See lead antimonate.

-naphthyl ethyl ether.

(nerolin).

( -naphthylphthalamic acid).

C 10 H 7 OC 2 H 5 . Properties: White crystals; orange-blossom odor. Congealing p 35C. Soluble in 5 parts of 95% alco- hol. Combustible.

Derivation: Interaction of -naphthol and ethanol in

the presence of sulfuric acid.

CAS: 132-67-2. C 18 H 13 NO 3 . Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 203C, d 1.40.

Soluble in alkaline solutions; slightly soluble in al- cohol, benzene, and acetone. Use: Analytical reagent (thorium, zirconium); herbi- cide.

Use: Perfumes, soaps, flavoring. narasin.

1-naphthyl isocyanide.

phthalene.

See 1-isocyanona-

CAS: 55134-13-9. mf: C 43 H 72 O 11 .

Crystals

Properties:

from

Me 2 CO

(aq).

Mp:

NARCOTIC

876

98100°. Sol in alcs, acetone, chloroform, ethyl ace- tate. Insol in water. Use: Drug (veterinary); food additive.

Website:

nashome.nsf.

http://www4.nationalacademies.org/nas/

National Fire Protection Association.

narcotic.

(1) A natural, semisynthetic, or synthet-

ic nitrogen-containing heterocyclic drug that char- acteristically effects sleep (coma) and relief of pain

biochemical

situation in which the body tissues become so adapt-

ed to the drug that they can no longer function normally without it. Natural narcotics are the plant products morphine and codeine (constituents of opi- um), both of which are alkaloids. Opium is obtained from the seed of the oriental poppy, Papaver somni- ferens. Semisynthetic narcotics are modifications of

(her-

oin), ethylmorphine (“Dionin”), and methyldihy- dromorphine (metopon). Synthetic narcotics are meperidine, ethadone, and phenazocine (there are

other addictive agents that are not narcotics). The

the

U.S. (2) Inducing sleep or coma. Many chemicals

(NFPA). An organization devoted to promoting knowledge of fire- protection methods. For many years its publication (the NFPA Handbook) has been the accepted standard for all matters relating to com- bustion and flammable materials, firefighting meth- ods, safety, and protection of property. Its headquar- ters are at 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. Website: http://www.nfpa.org.

National Institute for Occupational Safety

but also may result in addiction, i.e., a

the morphine molecule, e.g., diacetylmorphine

and Health. (NIOSH). A federal agency un- der the Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. It is responsible for investi-

gating the toxicity of workroom environments and all other matters relating to safe industrial practice. Its research laboratories are located at Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226.

property Website: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage .html.

sale of narcotics is strictly controlled by law in

that are not narcotics in sense (1) have this (chloroform, barbiturates, benzene, etc.).

l-

-narcotine.

See noscapine.

naringin.

(naringenin-7-rhamnoglucoside; nar-

ingenin-7-rutinoside; aurantiin). C 27 H 32 O 14 .

(bioflavonoid),

crystals, bitter taste. Mp 171C. Soluble in acetone,

alcohol, warm acetic acid, and warm water.

Properties: A flavanone glycoside

Source: Extracted from

fruit and immature fruit. Use: Beverages, sweetener research.

flowers and rind of grape-

NAS

See the National Academy of Scienc-

es–National Research Council.

National Institute of Standards and

Technology. (NIST). Founded in 1901, NIST is a non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Commerce Department’s Technology Administra- tion. NIST’s mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing mea- surement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life. Its main laboratories are locarted at 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 1070, Gaithersburg, MD

20899-1070.

Website: http://www.nist.gov/publicaffairs/gener-

al2.htm.

nascent.

Descriptive of the abnormally active

condition of an element, for example, the atomic

National Nanotechnology Coordination

Office. (NNCO). The NNCO assists in the preparation of multi-agency planning, budget, and

assessment documents. The NNCO is the point of The term is now obsolete. contact on Federal nanotechnology activities for

regional, state, and local initiatives, as well as, gov- ernment organizations, academia, industry, profes-

lene sulfonates. sional societies, foreign organizations, and others to

Available forms: Liquid. exchange technical and programmatic information.

In addition, the NNCO develops and makes avail-

rust preventatives, and metalworking specialties. able printed and other materials as directed by the

NSET Subcommittee. Contact address is 4201 Wil- National Academy of SciencesNational son Blvd., Stafford II Rm 405, Arlington, VA

Research Council. (NAS) A private, non- profit organization of scientists devoted to the ex- pansion of science and its use for the general wel- fare. The Academy was established in 1863, in part

to act as adviser to the federal government on scien- (NNI). The goals of the NNI are to: (1) maintain

a world-class research and development program aimed at realizing the full potential of nanotechnolo- gy; (2) facilitate transfer of new technologies into

stitution Ave., Washington DC 20418. products for economic growth, jobs, and other pub-

oxygen released from hydrogen peroxide and

sulfur

atoms evolved from thiuramsulfide accelerators.

“NA-SUL” [King].

TM for dinonyl naphtha-

Use: Corrosion inhibitors for industrial lubricants,

22230.

Website: www.nano.gov.

National Nanotechnology Initiative.

tific matters; the council was established in 1916, its members being appointed by the president of the academy. Its headquarters are located at 2101 Con-

877

NATURAL

lic benefit; (3) develop educational resources, a natrolite. Na 2 Al 2 Si 3 O 10 2H 2 O. A mineral of the skilled workforce, and the supporting infrastructure zeolite group.

and tools to advance nanotechnology; and, (4) Sup-

port responsible development of nanotechnology greenish, or red. D 2.2–2.25, Mohs hardness 5–5.5. Website: http://www.nano.gov. See zeolite.

Properties: Colorless or white to gray, yellow,

National Research Council. See National natron. A complex salt found in dry lake beds of

Academy of SciencesNational Research Egypt. Originally an ingredient of ceramic glazes. It Council. has the following percentage composition: sodium carbonate 4.9, sodium bicarbonate 12.6, sodium

chloride 30.6, sodium sulfate 20.6, silica 10, calci- um carbonate 2, magnesium carbonate 1.9, alumina 0.7, iron oxide 0.3, water 4.7, and organic matter

National Science Foundation (NSF) is an indepen- dent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 “to promote the progress of science; to advance the

national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense.” With an annual budget of about $5.5 billion, NSF is the funding source for approximately 20 percent of all federally supported

basic research conducted by America’s colleges and Use: Tackifier, processing aid.

universities. In many fields such as mathematics, computer science, and the social sciences, NSF is Natrosol [Aqualon]. TM for hydroxyethyl-

the major source of federal backing. Contact address is 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia

rone-indene resins plasticized to various softening

TM for couma-

National Science Foundation.

(NSF). The

11.7.

Natrorez

[Natrochem].

points or viscosities.

cellulose. CAS: 9004-62-0. Grade: 10 viscosity, 4 biostable, 7 cosmetic, 5 NF, 3

22230.

Website: http://www.nsf.gov/index.jsp. European Pharmocopeia.

National Science and Technology Council.

Available forms: Solid. Use: Thickening agent.

(NSTC). A primary objective of the NSTC is the establishment of clear national goals for Federal

TM for a hy-

science and technology investments in a broad array droxyethyl cellulose. of areas spanning virtually all the mission areas of

Natta catalyst. A stereospecific catalyst made from titanium chloride and aluminum alkyl or simi- lar materials by a special process that includes grind- ing the materials together to produce an active cata- lyst surface.

four primary committees: Science, Technology, En- See Ziegler catalyst.

vironment and Natural Resources, and Homeland and National Security. Each of these committees oversees subcommittees and working groups fo- cused on different aspects of science and technology and the coordination of research and development strateges working to coordinate across the federal government. Contact address is 725 17th Street

Room 5228, Washington, DC 20502. which led to wide application of various stereospe-

Website: http://www.ostp.gov/nstc/index.html. cific polymers with organometallic catalysts such as triethylaluminum. He was for many years consultant

for the Montecatini chemical firm. The researchers

conformation of a protein. of Natta, together with those of Ziegler, made possi-

ble the chemical manipulation of monomers to form specifically ordered 3-dimensional polymers having

tional additives for ink and coatings. predetermined properties, to which the term tailor-

Natta, Giulio. (1903–1979). An Italian chemist born in Imperia on the Riviera, corecipient (with Karl Ziegler) of the Nobel Prize in 1963 for his fundamental work on catalytic polymerization. In 1954 he developed isotactic polypropylene at his laboratory at the Polytechnic Institute of Milan,

the executive branch. The Council prepares research and development strategies that are coordinated across Federal agencies to form investment pack- ages aimed at accomplishing multiple national goals. The work of the NSTC is organized under

Natrusol [Hercules, Ltd.].

native conformation.

The biologically active

“Natralith” [Fanning]. TM for a line of func-

Use: To improve, add lubricity and wetting/dispering

made is often applied.

in both metallic and non-metallic pigments. natural. Descriptive of a substance or mixture

that occurs in nature; the opposite of synthetic or

symbol Na in chemical nomenclature. manufactured. Elements 1–92 are natural sub-

stances that may occur in either the free or combined state. The transuranium elements and all artificial isotopes of other elements are synthetic. Many mix- tures occur naturally, e.g., petroleum, shale oil,

grease formulations. wood, metallic ores, natural gas; others are synthetic

natrium.

The Latin name for sodium, hence the

“Natralube” [Fanning]. TM for a line of rust

preventatives, lubricity, and anti-wear components. Use: For metal working, industrial lubricant, and

NATURAL GAS

878

modifications of natural compounds, e.g., glass, ce- Naugard Q [Uniroyal]. TM for polymer- ment, paper, gasoline. Such materials may be con- ized 1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline. sidered to be semisynthetic. The term synthetic nat- Use: As an antioxidant that gives good protection ural is often applied to synthesized compounds that against degradation due to heat and oxygen. are identical with the natural substance; for exam- ple, synthetic natural gas and synthetic natural rub- Naugard SP [Uniroyal]. TM for styrenat- ber. The term natural product is defined as any ed phenol (mixture of mono, di, tri). organic compound formed by living organisms; nat- Use: Antioxidant for nonstaining and nondiscoloring

ural gasoline has a specialized meaning. See synthesis; natural gas; biomass; gasoline.

applications.

“Naugawhite”

major

component 2,2-methylene bis(4-methyl-6-nonyl- phenol). Use: General-purpose antioxidant for nonstaining and nondiscoloring for rubber and latex in foam sponge, tire carcasses, refrigerator gaskets, foot- wear, proofing, wire insulation, and sundries.

[Uniroyal].

TM

for

natural gas. A mixture of low molecular weight

re-

gions throughout the world. Its composition is 85% methane 10% ethane, the balance being made up of propane, butane, and nitrogen. In the U.S. it occurs

chiefly in the southwestern states and Alaska. An as yet unexploited source of natural gas under extreme- ly high pressure (so-called geopressurized gas) ex-

of

ists in Texas and Louisiana at depths

15,000–20,000 ft. The tremendous pressures in- volved present formidable engineering problems.

Natural gas is classed as a simple asphyxiant. It

About

3% of the natural gas consumed in the U.S. is used as

feedstocks by the chemical industries.

should not be confused with natural gasoline.

hydrocarbons obtained in petroleum-bearing

naval stores. Historically, the pitch and rosin used on wooden ships. The term now includes all products derived from pine wood and stumps, in- cluding rosin, turpentine, pine oils, and tall oil and its derivatives.

“Navane” [Pfizer]. TM for the cis isomer

of N,N-dimethyl-9[3-4-methyl-1-piperazinyl-pro- pylidene]-thioxanthene-2-sulfonamide. An anti- psychotic drug (thiothixene) said to be as effective as most of the phenothiazines. Approved by the FDA.

“NAXONATE” Hydrotropes [Ruetgers].

TM for products used to obtain uniform, clear, and fluid synthetic detergent formulations. Some examples of the chemicals are sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts of xylene, cumene, and tol- uene. Available forms: Powder and liquid. Use: Synthetic detergents.

Nazarov cyclization reaction.

Synthesis of

cyclopentenones by the acid-catalyzed electrocyclic ring closure of divinyl or allylvinyl ketones avail-

able by hydration of divinylacetylenes.

Nb.

Symbol for niobium.

NBA.

Abbreviation for N-bromoacetamide.

NBR.

Abbreviation for nitrile-butadiene rubber.

NBS.

Abbreviation for N-bromosuccinimide.

Properties: Colorless, flammable gas or liquid; al- most odorless. Autoign temp 900–1100F, heating value 1000 Btu/ft 3 . A warning odor is added to household fuel gas as a safety precaution.

and explosion

Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire

risk; explosive limits in air 3.8–17%.

aldehyde and other petrochemical

natural gasoline.

See gasoline.

natural product.

See natural.

Natural Resources Defense Council.

Use: Fuel and cooking gas, ammonia synthesis, form-

feedstocks,

source of synthesis gas and methanol. See liquefied petroleum gas; synthetic natural gas.

(NRDC). A private environmental advisory

point

out serious environmental hazards and to oversee

It

was influential in postponement of the breeder reac-

tor and in recognition of the chlorofluorocarbon- ozone problem. It operates primarily through the

courts. Its main

office is at 40 West 20th Street, New

the enforcement of regulations pertaining to them.

group, founded in 1970, whose function is to

York, NY 10011 Website: http://www.nrdc.org. NC. Abbreviation for nitrocellulose.

Naugard PANA [Uniroyal].

TM for phe-

NCI.

Abbreviation for National Cancer Institute.

nyl- -naphthylamine.

Available forms: Solid. NCS. Abbreviation for N-chlorosuccinimide.

Grade: Crushed and fused. Use: Aromatic amine antioxidant for synthetic lubri-

cants, lubricating greases, and industrial oils. See N-phenyl- -naphthylamine. ND. Abbreviation for new drug.

Nd.

Symbol for neodymium.

879

NEODYMIA

NDGA.

acid.

Ne.

Abbreviation for nordihydroguaiaretic

Symbol for neon.

colloidal solutions. The pH of a 5% dispersion is approximately 1.0. Use: Medicine (antiinfective).

nematic. A linear molecular structure occurring in some liquid crystals and characterized by a threadlike appearance under a polarizing micro- scope.

Properties: A fixed pale-yellow oil with a peculiar odor. D 0.916, saponification value 194–199, flash p 470F (243C), autoign temp 828F (442C), iodine value 70. Soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and kerosene. Combustible. Derivation: By boiling in water the shinbones and feet (without hooves) of cattle and separating the oil from the fat obtained. Grade: 15, 20, 30, 40F cold test (the temperature in

degrees Fahrenheit at which stearin separates). with acids in the presence of zinc chloride, or the Hazard: Subject to spontaneous heating. modification of the Friedel-Crafts alkylation-acyla-

Use: Leather industry for fat liquoring and softening,

An agent that is destructive to soil

neatsfoot oil.

nematocide.

nematodes (roundworms or threadworms).

NEMS.

See nanoelectromechanical systems.

Nencki reaction. The ring acylation of phenols

tion procedure by substitution of ferric chloride for

lubricant, oiling wool. aluminum chloride.

Neber rearrangement.

Hydrogenative

acylation of cycloolefins with acid chlorides in the presence of aluminum chloride; with five- and six-

membered rings, no change in ring size occurs, but neburon. (generic name for 1-n-butyl-3-(3,4- with seven-membered rings, rearrangement takes dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea.) place with formation of a cyclohexane derivative.

Formation of -amino

Nenitzescu indole synthesis.

ketones by treatment of sulfonic esters of ketoximes with potassium ethoxide, followed by hydrolysis.

nectar. The fabled drink of the gods. The honey- like secretion by the nectar gland of flowers. This material is gathered by bees to make honey and used

neem extract.

neo-. (1) A prefix meaning new and designating a compound related in some way to an older one, e.g., neoprene. (2) A prefix indicating a hydrocarbon in

as food by other insects. which at least one carbon atom is connected directly

to four other carbon atoms; as in neopentane, neo- hexane.

CAS: 116580-64-4. Hazard: Moderately toxic by skin contact. Low tox-

“Neobee” [Stepan].

(hydrogenated vegetable

icity by ingestion and skin contact. oil). TM for oil.

Use: Agricultural chemical.

Use: For a flavor carrier, vitamin solubilizer, antibi-

otic vehicle, nutritional fluid, lubricant, emollient, and medical diluent.

Nef reaction. Formation of aldehydes and ke- tones from primary and secondary nitroparaffins, respectively, by treatment of their salts with sulfuric acid.

Nef synthesis.

Addition of sodium acetylides to

aldehydes and ketones to yield acetylenic carbinols;

occasionally and erroneously referred to as the Nef reaction.

negative

A phenomenon of

some multisubunit enzymes, or proteins, in which binding of a ligand or substrate to one subunit im- pairs binding of a second ligand molecule to another

“Neochel” [ATOTECH].

TM for a wetting

agent used in copper plating. A liquid replacement for Rochelle salt with proprietary additives.

neocurdione.

CAS: 108944-67-8. mf: C 15 H 24 O 2 . Hazard: A poison by ingestion.

neodecanoic acid.

cooperativity.

CAS: 26896-20-8. C 9 H 19 COOH. Clear, colorless liquid in 97% purity; available commercially. Its derivatives are especially effective as paint driers

subunit. and are being widely used. Applications as plasticiz- ers and lubricants are also possible.

negative feedback.

Regulation of a biochemi-

cal pathway achieved when a reaction product inhib-

its an earlier step in the pathway. primary alcohol.

Neodol 25 [Shell].

TM for a C 2 –C 15 linear,

Use: Manufacture of biodegradable surfactants, dis- persants, solvents, emulsifiers, and chemical inter- mediates.

negatol.

A condensation product of m-cresolsul-

fonic acid with formaldehyde. A polymerized

dihydroxydimethyldiphenylmethanedisulfonic acid. It is dispersible in water, forming very acidic neodymia. See neodymium oxide.

NEODYMIUM

880

neodymium.

Properties: Pink powder. Insoluble in water; slightly

CAS: 7440-00-8. Nd. Metallic element having soluble in acids.

atomic number 60, group IIIB of the periodic table, aw 144.24, valence of 3. A rare-earth element of the

lanthanide (cerium) group. There are seven iso- neodymium oxide. (neodymia). Nd 2 (SO 4)3 .

Properties: Pure product is a blue-gray powder; technical grade is a brown powder. D 7.24, mp 2270C. Insoluble in water; soluble in acids, hygro- scopic. Absorbs carbon dioxide from the air. Grade: 65, 75, 85, 95, 99, and 99.9% oxide. Use: (65%) To counteract color of iron in glass. (Purified grade) Ceramic capacitors, coloring glass,

prevent tarnish and corrosion. refractories, carbon arc-light electrodes, color TV

Grade: 75, 95, and 99%.

topes. Properties: Soft, malleable, yellowish metal; tar- nishes easily. D 7.0, mp 1024C, bp approximately 3030C, ignites to oxide (200–400C). Liberates hy- drogen from water; soluble in dilute acids. High electrical resistivity, paramagnetic. Readily cut and machined. Store under mineral oil or inert gas to

Derivation: Monazite, bastnasite, allanite. Ores are

cracked by heating with sulfuric acid. Available forms: Ingots, rods, sheet, powder to neodymium sulfate. Nd(SO 4 ) 3 8H 2 O.

tubes, dehydrogenation catalyst.

99.9+%

purity.

Properties: Pink crystals. D 2.85, mp 800C (decom-

Hazard:

(Salts) Irritant to eyes and abraded skin.

poses. Soluble in cold water; sparingly soluble in hot

Use: Neodymium salts, electronics, alloys, colored

water.

glass, (especially in astronomical lenses and lasers), Grade: 75, 99, and 99.9%. to increase heat resistance of magnesium, metallur- gical research, yttrium-garnet laser dope, gas scav- Neoflex [Shell]. TM for a series of linear

primary alcohols, from C 6 through C 11 , including blends. Properties: (C 7 ) Colorless liquid. D 0.8217 (25/ 25C), distillation range 174–182C. Hazard: Combustible, moderate fire risk. Use: Solvent, reaction intermediate, esterifying agent.

enger in iron and steel manufacture. See didymium.

neodymium acetate.

Nd(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 3 xH 2 O.

Properties: Pink powder. Soluble in water.

neodymium ammonium nitrate.

Nd(NO 3 ) 3 2NH 4 NO 3 4H 2 O.

Properties: Pink crystals. Soluble in water. Techni-

principal

impurities praseodymium and samarium com- pounds.

neohexane.

(2,2-dimethylbutane).

cal grade contains 75% neodymium salt,

neodymium carbonate.

CAS: 75-83-2. C 6 H 14 .

neodymium carbonate. CAS: 75-83-2. C 6 H 1 4 . Nd(CO 3 ) 3 • xH

Nd(CO 3 ) 3 xH 2 O.

Properties: Pink powder. Insoluble in water; soluble

in acids. Grade: 75, 95, and 99% neodymium salt. Properties: Colorless, volatile liquid. Bp 49.7C, refr index 1.3659 (25C), d 0.6570 (25C), fp 99.7C,

flash p 54F (47C), octane rating 100+, autoign temp 797F (425C). Derivation: By the thermal or catalytic union (alkyl- ation) of ethylene and isobutane, both recovered from refinery gases. Grade: 95%, 99%, research.

ble in water and alcohol. Hazard: TLV: 500 ppm; STEL 1000 ppm. Highly

Grade: 75, 95, 99, and 99.9%. flammable, dangerous fire and explosion risk, ex- plosion limits 1.2–7%.

Use: Component of high-octane motor and aviation

. Properties: Pink powder. Mp 1410C, bp 2300C.

Insoluble in water. Grade: 65, 75, 99, and 99.9%. “Neolyn” [Aqualon].

TM for a series of soft-

Hazard: Irritant. to-medium hard modifying rosin-derived alkyd res-

ins. Available in solution and/or solid forms of vari-

NdCl 3 6H 2 O. Properties: (1) Violet crystals. D 4.134 (25C), mp 784C, bp 1600C. Very soluble in water; soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether and chloroform. (2) Red crystals. Mp 124C, loses 6H 2 O at 160C. Very solu-

neodymium

chloride.

(1)

NdCl

3 ,

(2)

neodymium fluoride.

NdF

3

fuels, intermediate for agricultural chemicals.

neodymium nitrate.

Nd(NO 3 ) 3 6H 2 O.

ous grades.

Properties: Pink crystals. Very soluble in water;

soluble in alcohol and in acetone. floor tile. Grade: 75, 95, 99, and 99.9%.

Hazard: Possible explosion risk.

neomycin.

Use: Adhesives, lacquers, organosols, plastisols, and

CAS: 1404-04-2. An antibiotic complex obtained neodymium oxalate. Nd 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 10H 2 O. from Streptomyces fradiae; it is soluble in water and

881

NEPHELITE

methanol but insoluble in most organic solvents. It Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and inhala- consists of three component substances, all of which tion. Low toxicity by skin contact. function as antiinfective agents; some derivatives Use: Agricultural chemical. have fungicidal properties. The three types are A

An abnormal growth of tissue in the

(also available as hydrochloride and sulfate); and C: body that may or may not be malignant.

(also called neamine): C 12 H 26 N 4 O 6 ; B: C 23 H 46 N 6 O 13

neoplasm.

C 23 H 46 O 13 .

See antineoplastic.

neon.

CAS: 7440-01-9. Ne. Inert element of atomic num- ber 10, noble gas group of the periodic table, aw 20.179. Three stable isotopes. Properties: Colorless, odorless; tasteless gas. Does not form compounds, but ionizes in electric dis-

d

0.6964 (air = 1), sp vol 11.96 cu ft/lb (21C, 1 atm).

soluble in water. An asphyxiant gas. Non-

combustible. Derivation: By fractional distillation

of liquid air. It

constitutes 0.0012% of normal air. Grade: Technical, highest purity. Hazard: ?TLV: simple asphyxiant. Use: (Gas) Luminescent electric tubes and photo- electric bulbs, electronic industry, high-voltage in- dicators, lasers. (Liquid) cryogenic research.

charge tubes. Liquefies at 245.92C, fp 248.6C,

Slightly

neoprene.

(polychloroprene).

CAS: 126-99-8. (CH 3 ClC:CHCH 3 ) n . A synthetic elastomer available in solid form, as a latex or as a flexible foam. Properties: Vulcanized with metallic oxides rather than sulfur. D 1.23; resistant to oils, oxygen, ozone,

corona discharge, and electric current. An isocya- nate-modified form has high flame resistance. Com- bustible but less so than natural rubber. Use: (Solid) Mechanical rubber products, lining oil- loading hose and reaction equipment, adhesive ce- ment, binder for rocket fuels, coatings for electric wiring, gaskets and seals. (Liquid) Specialty items made by dipping or electrophoresis from the latex. (Foam) Adhesive tape to replace metal fasteners for automotive accessories, seat cushions, carpet back- ing, sealant.

neonicotine.

See anabasine.

neopentane.

(2,2-dimethylpropane; tetrame-

thylmethane).

CAS: 463-82-1. C 5 H 12

or C(CH 3 ) 4 . Present in small

amounts in natural gas.

neopyrithiamine.

See pyrithiamine.

Neosalvarsan.

(sodium 3:3-diamino-4:4-dihy-

droxyarsenobenzene formaldehyde sulfoxylate).

CAS: 457-60-3. C 13 H 14 O 4 N 2 SAs 2 Na.

Use: Treatment against syphilis.

4 N 2 SAs 2 Na. Use: Treatment against syphilis. Properties: Colorless gas or very volatile

Properties: Colorless gas or very volatile liquid. Bp

85F

(65C), autoign temp 842F (450C). Soluble in alco- hol; insoluble in water Grade: Technical 95%, pure 99%, research 99.9%.

Hazard: Highly flammable, dangerous fire risk, ex- plosive limits in air 1.4–7.5%. Use: Research, butyl rubber.

9.5C, d 0.591 (20/4C), fp 19.5C, flash p

neopentanoic acid.

See trimethylacetic acid.

neopentyl glycol.

(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propane-

“Neosol” [Shell]. TM for ethanol based on a formulation approved by the Bureau of Internal Revenue.

“Neosporin” [Pfizer]. Proprietary formulation of polymyxin B sulfate, neomycin sulfate, and gramicidin. Use: Ocular antibiotic.

neotridecanoic acid.

C 12 H 25 COOH. Colorless

liquid of 97% purity. Suggested for plasticizers, lubricants, paint driers, fungicides, cosmetics, alkyd resins.

“Neozone” [Du Pont].

TM for a group of

rubber antioxidants. An N-phenyl- -naphthyl- amine. “D” is N-phenyl- -napthylamine. “C” is fu- sion of Neozone A and toluene-2,4-diamine.

diol). CAS: 126-30-7. HOCH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 OH.

Properties: White, crystalline solid. Boiling

nephelite. (nepheline). (Na,K)(Al,Si) 2 O 4 . Essen- tially a silicate of sodium, found in silica-poor igne- ous rocks.

soluble in water; miscible with Properties: Colorless, white, or yellowish; vitreous to greasy luster. Mohs hardness 5.5–6, d 2.55–2.65.

Occurrence: The former U.S.S.R., Ontario, Norway, South Africa, Maine, Arkansas, New Jersey. Use: Ceramic and glass manufacture, enamels, source of potash and aluminum (the former U.S.S.R.).

range

95% between 204–208C, mp 120–130C, d 1.066

(25/4C). Partially alcohol and ether.

Use: Polyester foams, insect repellent, alkyd modifi-

er, plasticizers, urethanes, synthetic lubricants.

neopinamine.

CAS: 66525-27-7. mf: C 19 H 25 NO 4 .

NEPHELOMETRY

882

nephelometry.

Use: To insure consistent odor in sweet, floral com-

niques for measuring the light scattered by finely positions. divided particles of a substance in suspension. It is

used to estimate the extent of turbidity in such prod- ucts as beer and wine, in which colloidally dispersed

106-25-2.

particles are present. (CH 3 ) 2 C:CH(CH 2 ) 2 C(CH 3 ):CHCH 2 OH. The cis iso- mer of geraniol.

Properties: Colorless liquid, rose-neroli odor. Solu- ble in absolute alcohol. Combustible. Derivation: Iodization of geraniol with hydriodic acid, followed by treatment with alcoholic soda. Use: Perfumery, flavoring.

ment having atomic number 93, first formed by

bombarding uranium with high-speed deuterons

237.0482, valences of 3, 4, 5, 6; d 20.45. Neptuni- um-237, the longest-lived of the 11 isotopes, has been found naturally in extremely small amounts in

uranium ores. It is produced in weighable

as a by-product in the production of plutonium. Metallic neptunium is obtained by first preparing

neptunium trifluoride, which is reduced with barium vapor at 1200C. It is a silvery white metal; mp 640C.

Neptunium is similar chemically to uranium;

forms such intermetallic compounds as NpAl 2 and NpBe 13 , as well as NpC, NpSi 2 , NpN, NpF 3 , NpF 6 ,

NpF 4 , NpNO 2 , Np 3 O 8 , etc;

Photometric analytical tech-

nerol.

CAS:

(cis-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol).

neptunium. Np. A radioactive transuranic ele-

aw

amounts

nerolidol.

3-ol).

(3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-

CAS: 7212-44-4. (CH 3 ) 2 C:CH(CH 2 ) 2 C(CH 3 ):CH(CH 2 ) 2 (CH 3 )(OH)CH:CH . A sesquiterpene alcohol.

2

it Properties: Straw-colored liquid; odor similar to

rose and apple mixtures. D 0.878, refr index 1.480–1.482, angular rotation (natural) +11 to +14 degrees; (synthetic) optically inactive, stable in air.

Soluble in alcohol and most fixed oils; insoluble in glycerol. Combustible. Derivation: Occurs naturally in Peru balsam and oils of orange flower, sweet orange, and ylang ylang. Also made synthetically. Grade: FCC. Use: Perfumery, flavoring.

soluble in hydrochloric

acid, strong reducing agents. Use: Np-237 is used in neutron detection instru- ments. Hazard: A radioactive poison.

neptunium dioxide.

NpO 2 .

Properties: Dark-olive, free-flowing powder. Derivation: Neptunium oxalate is precipitated from

The

neptunium oxalate is calcined at 500–550C, produc- ing neptunium dioxide. Hazard: Toxic. A radioactive poison. Use: Fabrication by powder metallurgy into target

solutions containing nitric acid and neptunium.

nerolin.

See -naphthyl ethyl ether.

neroli oil.

An essential oil used in perfumery and

flavoring.

elements to be irradiated to produce Pu-238. nerve gas. (nerve poison). One of several toxic

chemical warfare agents developed in Germany dur- ing World War II. They are organic derivatives of phosphoric acid (principally alkyl phosphates, fluo- rophosphates, and thiophosphates). They inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase and cause acetylcholine poi- soning and cessation of nerve transmission. They are colorless, odorless, tasteless liquids of low vola- tility and are absorbed rapidly through the eyes,

lungs, or skin; they are lethally toxic to higher ani-

of a single electrode in a galvanic cell. mals and humans. Many insecticides have the same

the phases of a two-phase system. (2) Potential (E)

(1) The potential that exists between the interiors

nequinate.

CAS: 13997-19-8. mf: C 22 H 23 NO 4 . Properties: Crystals. Mp: 287288°. Use: Drug (veterinary); food additive.

Nernst potential.

(thermodynamic potential).

of

Nernst, Walther. (1864–1941). A German chemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1920. He

was educated at Zurich and Berlin and received his Ph.D. at Wurzburg. He wrote many works concerning theory of electric potential and conduction of elec- trolytic solutions. He developed the third law of

thermodynamics, which states that at absolute zero the entropy of every material in perfect equilibrium is zero, and therefore volume, pressure, and surface tension all become independent of temperature. He also invented Nernst’s lamp, which required no vac- uum and little current.

“Neroflex” [Millenium].

TM for floral com-

position additive.

structure and properties. Antidotes are atropine sul- fate and pralidoxime iodide. See parathion; cholinesterase inhibitor.

pralidoxime iodide. See parathion; cholinesterase inhibitor. N e s s l e r ’ s r

Nesslers reagent.

CAS: 7783-33-7. Solution of mercuric iodide in potassium iodide. Hazard: High toxicity. Use: Detecting the presence of ammonia, particularly in very small amounts.

883

NEUTRON

Nessler tubes.

Standardized glass tubes for fill-

ing with standard solution colors for visual color comparison with similar tubes filled with solution samples.

“Neustrene 064” [ACH].

(glyceryl tristea-

rate). CAS: 555-43-1. TM for plastic lubricant and mold- release agent.

See Nesslers reagent. Use: Synthetic wax for cosmetic sticks and pencils.

neticonazole hydrochloride.

CAS: 130773-02-3. mf: C 17 H 22 N 2 OSClH. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.

neutral.

(1) Of particles, without electric charge.

See neutron; atom. (2) Of solutions, neither acidic nor basic. See pH.

netobimin.

CAS: 88255-01-0. mf: C 14 H 20 N Hazard: A reproductive hazard.

4 O 7 S 2 .

neutral flame. Gas flame produced by a mix- ture of fuel and oxygen so as to be neither oxidizing nor reducing.

Neuberg blue.

neutralization. A chemical reaction in which water is formed by mutual interaction of the ions that characterize acids and bases when both are present in an aqueous solution, i.e., H + + OH H 2 O, the remaining product being a salt. R. T. Sanderson states: “An aqueous solution containing an excess of hydronium ions is called acidic. It readily releases protons to electron-donating substances. An aque- ous solution containing an excess of hydroxyl ions is called basic. It readily accepts protons from sub- stances that can release them, and is in general an

of analogous constitution is always the same. excellent donor. No aqueous solution can contain an excess of both hydronium and hydroxyl ions, be-

low-profile additives.

A mixture of copper blue (pow-

dered azurite) and an iron blue (Prussian blue). It can be more easily ground in oil than pure copper blue.

“Neulon”

[Dow].

TM for polyvinyl acetate

Use: For polyester

modifiers, fast cure processes, and

pigmentable systems.

Neumann’s law. Molecular heat in compounds

Neumann triangle. Graphical representation

cause when these ions collide, a proton is immedi- contact of equilibrium of two of immiscible three surface liquids tensions with at air. point of yl ately ion, transferred and both from become the hydronium water molecules. to the hydrox-

Neutralization occurs with both (1) inorganic and (2) organic compounds: (1) Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 SO 4

CaSO 4 + 2H 2 O; (2) HCOOH + NaHCO 3 HCOO-

Na + CO 2 + H 2 O. It should be noted that neutraliza- tion can occur without formation of water, as in the

reaction CaO + CO

CaCO . Neutralization does

neurine.

(trimethylvinylammonium hydroxide).

CAS: 463-88-7. CH 2 :CHN(CH 3 ) 3 OH. A poisonous

during putrefaction by the dehy-

dration of choline. Properties: Syrupy liquid; fishy odor. Absorbs car-

dioxide from the air; soluble in water and al-

ptomaine formed

bon

cohol.

2

3

not mean the attaining of pH 7.0; rather it means the equivalence point for an acid-base reaction. When a

strong acid reacts with a weak base, the pH will be

research. less than 7.0, and when a strong base reacts with a

Hazard: Highly toxic.

Use: Biochemical

neuron.

A cell of nervous tissue specialized for

weak acid, the pH will be greater than 7.0.