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Philippine Christian University

Dasmariñas City, Cavite

Yolanda C. Aquino
Dr. Lydia O. Oriña
ED. D. in Educational Management
April 14, 2018

Unit 3

Principles and Practices in Organizations


In the previous unit, we studied the nature and purpose of Administration. We learned the
meaning of Administration, and examined who an Administrator is, in an organizational setting,
like the school.

Now, in Unit 3, we will discuss Principles and Practices in Organizations. We will learn
other additional content as specified in the objectives below.


By the end of this unit, you should be able to:

 Describe the concept of organization.

 Identify the two types of organization.
 Explain the principles of organization.
 Describe organizational conflict.

What Are Organizations

An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an

institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means "organ". (Organization -

School organization refers to how schools arrange the resources of time, space and
personnel for maximum effect on student learning. The school’s organization plan addresses
those issues that affect the school as a whole, such as the master schedule, the location of staff in
different rooms, and how assignment of aides tom teachers or teams.

How a school is organized is a matter for the staff to determine, and a school’s
organization should reflect the staff’s commitment to the success of all students. Every aspect of
the instructional program will convey the values and goals of the staff toward students and their

We are constantly surrounded by organization. They employ us, sell to us, provide for us,
protect us and give us along with others what we want, need, or are required to do. An
organization may be small (like the mechanic’s workshop) or large (like the Federal Ministry of
Education). Large organizations are however, usually complex as they have multiple goals and
more people working in them.

One characteristic that all organizations share is that they are composed of people. These
people have in common the fact that their activities are coordinated and that they, therefore
cooperate with each other directly or indirectly in other to achieve a goal. Cooperation in a
venture that requires the efforts of a number of people means that actions must occur and jobs be
done in short, people must behave in certain ways so that the organization fulfils its purpose.

In Nigeria for instance, we have organizations like the Nigerian Union of Teachers, The
Nigerian Science Teacher Association, The Nigerian University Students Association, The
National Association of Educational Administrators and Planners (NAEAP), The Nigerian
Chambers of Commerce, the Nigerian Bar Association, Taxi Drivers Association, Schools,
Colleges, Universities, Hospitals, and so on.

According to Misaazi (1982) organizations are needed to provide a structural framework

for communication, command, and coordination of activities and people’s effort. No enterprise,
large or small, can operate successfully when duties are so vaguely defined that everybody can
meddle in everything and nobody is responsible for anything. Therefore, to operate successfully
an enterprise, a school or a government unit must have an organizational structure which
provides for the clear allocation of functions and responsibilities to the various sections and
department of the establishment poor organizations structure is often a major cause of
inefficiency and indecision. But a good organization establishes clear lines of responsibility and
communication and limit the span of authority and command, so that no one person takes
responsibility for more than he can adequately supervise.

From the above questions it is clear that to describe an organization, one requires the
consideration of a number of properties it possesses.

Eminent researcher has found it difficult to define organizations in general.

Eminent researcher has found it difficult to define organizations in general. Subsequently

Muzaazi (1982) observed that organizations come into being because certain people have
identified a common purpose, have been able to communicate with each other, and have shown
willingness to contribute action. An organization established conditions that will enhance the
effectiveness of the organization in attaining its goals. For example, in order to realize the
educational goals of a school, we need suitable physical facilities, qualified trained and
experienced teachers, motivated learners, who have high aspirations, effective leadership and
healthy human relation within the school and with Ministry of Education, and the community at