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Chapter Page Importance System Topic

6 ** Respiratory
8 277 ** Immune
6 **** Respiratory
6 * Respiratory
6 ** Respiratory
7 228 *** Cardiovascular
7 229 * Cardiovascular
*
** Nervous
7 235 *** Cardiovascular
7 238 ** Cardiovascular
**** Renal System
7 241 ** Cardiovascular
7 243 ** Cardiovascular
7 250 ** Cardiovascular
7 251 ** Cardiovascular
8 273 ** Immune
8 273 ** Immune
8 278 * Immune
8 278 * Immune
8 279 * Immune
8 281 * Immune
8 281 * Immune
8 281 * Immune
8 281 * Immune
8 281 * Immune
8 281 * Immune
8 ** Immune
**** Endocrine Pancreas
9 310 *** Digestive Digestion
9 310 *** Digestive Digestion
9 310 **** Digestive Digestion
9 311 *** Digestive Digestion
9 311 *** Digestive Digestion
9 312 *** Digestive Digestion
9 312 *** Digestive Digestion
9 312 *** Digestive Digestion
9 312 *** Digestive Digestion
9 312 *** Digestive Digestion
9 312 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion
9 314 *** Digestive Digestion
9 314 *** Digestive Digestion
9 315 *** Digestive Digestion
9 316 *** Digestive Accessory Organs of
Digestion
Accessory Organs of
9 316 *** Digestive
Digestion
Accessory Organs of
9 317 *** Digestive Digestion
Accessory Organs of
9 317 **** Digestive
Digestion
Accessory Organs of
9 318 *** Digestive
Digestion
Accessory Organs of
9 318 *** Digestive Digestion
Absorption and
9 322 ** Digestive
Defecation
Absorption and
9 322 ** Digestive
Defecation
Absorption and
9 323 ** Digestive Defecation
Absorption and
9 324 ** Digestive Defecation
Absorption and
9 324 ** Digestive
Defecation
Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive Defecation
Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive Defecation
Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive
Defecation
Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive Defecation
Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive Defecation
10 343 **** Excretory Renal
10 344 **** Excretory Renal
10 344 **** Excretory Renal
10 345 **** Excretory Renal
10 345 **** Excretory Renal
10 349 **** Excretory Renal
10 348 **** Excretory Renal
10 348 **** Excretory Renal
10 349 **** Excretory Renal
10 348 **** Excretory Renal
10 350 **** Excretory Renal
10 350 **** Excretory Renal
10 351 **** Excretory Renal
10 352 **** Excretory Renal
10 356 *** Immune Innate Immune System
11 *** Musculoskeletal Muscles
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles
** Musculoskeletal Bones
** Musculoskeletal Bones
** Musculoskeletal Bones
404 **** Genetics Fundamental Concepts
404 **** Genetics Fundamental Concepts
404 **** Genetics Fundamental Concepts
405 **** Genetics Fundamental Concepts
Analytical Approaches
in Genetics
Evolution
Term
Mast Cells
Lysozyme
Bicarbonate Buffer
System
Intercostal Muscles
Surfactant
LAB RAT
Intercalated Discs
Vagus Nerve
Medulla Oblongata
Portal Systems
Hematocrit
Kidney
Hematopoietic Stem
Cell
Rh Factor
Bohr Effect
Fetal Hemoglobin
Humoral Immunity
Thymus
Complement
Interferon
Major
Histocompatibility
Pattern recognition
Complex
receptors
Natural Killer Cells
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Histamine
Basophils

Islets of Langerhans
Mastication
Salivary Amylase
(ptyalin)
Lipase
Epiglottis
Peristalsis
Stomach Anatomy
Gastric Glands
Mucous Cells
Chief Cells
Parietal Cells
Pepsin
Intrinsic Factor
Pyloric Glands
G-Cells
Gastrin
Chyme
Pyloric Sphincter
Small Intestine
Duodenum
Brush Border
Enzymes
Lack of Digestive
Enzyme
Bile
Bile Salts
Pancreatic Juices
Acinar Cells
Pancreatic Enzymes
Duodenal Papillae
Liver
bilirubin
Gallbladder
Villi
Lacteal
Hepatic Portal System
Chylomicrons
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Water Soluble
Vitamins
Cecum
Appendix
Colon
Internal and External
Anal Sphincters
Vasa Recta
Bowman's Capsule
Detrusor Muscle
Micturition reflex
Starling Forces
Countercurrent
Multiplier System
Loop of Henle
Dump the HUNK
Diluting Segment
Proximal Convoluted
Tubule
Distal Convoluted
Tubule
Collecting Duct
Osmotic vs Oncotic
Pressure
Renal Bicarbonate
Buffer System
Langerhans cells
Red Fibers
White Fibers
Myogenic Activity
Tropomyosin
Troponin
Myosin
Tetanus
Harversion Systems
Endochondral
Ossification
Synovial Fluid
Penetrance
Expressivity
Mendel's First Law
Mendel's Second Law
(Law of Segregation)
(Law of Independent
Hardy-Weinberg
Assortment)
Equations
Inclusive Fitness
Punctuated
Equilibrium
Polymorphism
Adaptive Radiation
Definition
Immune cells in lungs covered with antibodies. Release inflammatory chemicals upon
antigen binding to promote immune response. Responsible for respiratory allergic
Enzyme
reactionsabledueto toattack petidoglycan
reactions with things walls
likeofpollen
gramandpositive
molds.bacteria. Found in nasal
concentrations.
cavity, tears, andLess CO2 in blood = More Basic = Body responds with slower breathing
saliva
to retain
Layers ofCO2. More
muscles CO2 in blood
between = More Acidic
ribs. External = Body
Intercostal increases
Muscles breathing
contract uponrate to
inhalation
remove
to pull ribcage up and expand intrathoracic volume (chest cavity volume). Internalbasic.
CO2. Hyperventilation decreases CO2 levels in blood, making blood more
Detergeny
Intercostalcovering alveoli toupon
Muscles contract reduce surface
forced tensiononly.
exhalation and prevent alveolus from
collapsing on itself. Premature babies do not have surfactant.
Left Atrium = Bicuspid Valve (Mitral Valve), Right Atrium, Tricuspid Valve. Could also
Connect
remember muscle
LAMBcellsRATintothe myocardium
associate of the
the mitral heart.
valve Contain valve.
= bicuspid many gap junctions to
connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and allowing for quicker signal propogation and
Mostly Parasympathetic
coordinated Nerve that slows down heart rate when activated. Originates in
ventricular contraction.
Medulla Oblongata.
Below the pons. Connects brain to spinal chord.
capillary beds in series before returning to the heart. The three portal systems are the
Hepatic
Measure(Gut -> liver),
of how many hypophyseal
Red Blood Cells (Hyopthalamus
are in blood, -> anterior
given pituitary), of
as a percentage and renal
total cells
in blood.
Secretes erythropoietin to stimulate red blood cell development and thromboprotein
which stimulates
Stem cell which can platelet development.
differentiate to create Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, and
Platelets.
Surface Protein expressed in red blood cells in the presence of allele called D. Leads to
(+) or (-)affinity
reduces blood type classifications.
for oxygen. Dominant
This allows allele. to be delivered to tissues.
more oxygen
(HbF) has higher
Decreased pH canaffinity for oxygen
be caused than adult
by increased hemoglobin
CO2 and lactic acid(HbA) in order
in blood. toshift
Right pull of
oxygen from mother's hemoglobin and onto fetal hemoglobin. Results in left shifted
Division of adaptive
oxyhemoglobin immunity
dissociation that includes antibodies and B-cells which act within the
curve
blood rather than within cells.
Gland
Proteinsthat matures
that T-cells. Located
nonspecifically between
will punch holesthe lungs,
in the celljust above theof
membranes heart.
bacteria,
making them osmotically unstable. Can use the classical pathway which requires
production. Decrease
antibody binding, permeability
or alternative of cellwhich
pathway membrane and upregulate MHC class 1 and
doesn't)
class 2 molecules on cell surface to signal immune system.
many proteins to cell surface. When foreign proteins are presented, Responsible for malaise,
immune cells know
(PRR)
that theable to recognize
presenting category
cell is infectedofand
invaders
needs (bateria, virus, fungus,
to be destroyed. Called parasite)
endogenousin order
to initiate appropriate cytokine response. These receptors are presented on
Detect and destroy
macrophages cells withcells.
and dendritic downregulated MHC. Includes cancer cells and some
Most
virallypopulous
infected leukocyte
cells in blood. Short lived (5 days). Dead neutrophils are
responsible for formation of pus. Follow bacteria via chemotaxis and phagocytize them.
Release
Can alsolarge amounts
destroy of histamine
opsonized cells. upon activation for inflammation. Contain bright,
red-orange ganules.
Released by Eosinophils and Basophils. Cause inflammation by inducing vasodilation
and
Haveincreased
large, purpleleakiness of blood
granules. Leastvessels
populus soleukocyte.
additionalProduce
immunelargecells can enteroftissue.
amount
histamine in response to allergens. Closely related to mast cells.
Pancreatic bundles of cells that release hormones. Include alpha, beta, and delta cells,
which
Chewing:release glucagon,
mechanical insulin, and
breakdown somatostatin
of food respectively.
into smaller particles to increase surface area
for enzymatic digestion and lessen risk of obstruction of digestive tract
Enzyme in saliva capable of hydrolyzing starch into smaller sugars.
Enzyle in saliva that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids.
Cartilaginous structure that folds down to cover larynx during swallowing, so food
Involuntary,
doesn't enterrhythmic
and leadcontraction
to choking. of smooth muscle that propels food down digestive
tract. Can be reversed during
Consists of the Fundus (top), Body emesis (vomiting)
(middle), to move
Pylorus contents
(bottom), andfrom the stomach,
Antrum (exit).
out the
Lesser mouth.
curvature is the inside curve, Greater Curvature is the outside curve. Rugae is
Dominant glands in the Fundus and Body. Stimulated by the Vagus Nerve of the
the internal, folded lining of the stomach.
Parasympathetic Nervous System. Contain three main cell types: Mucous Cells, Chief
Produce
Cells, andbicarbonate-rich
Parietal Cells. mucous that protects the muscular walls of the stomach from
the harshly acidic and proteolytic environment.
Secrete pepsinogen in the stomach, the inactivated form of pepsin.
pepsin. Low pH also helps kill most harmful bacteria and denature proteins and break
Enzyme
down some produced from pepsinogen
intramolecular bonds thatbeing
holdcleaved by hydrogen
food together. ionscells
Parietal in the stomach.
also secrete
Cleaves peptide bonds near aromatic amino acids, resulting in short, peptide fragments.
Uniquely most active at low pH.
Glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells in the gastric glands in the stomach. Involved
in the proper
Dominant glandsabsorption of vitamin
in the Antrum andB12Pylorus sections of the stomach. Contain G-cells
that secrete gastrin.
Cells in the pyloric glands of the stomach that secrete Gastrin
Peptide Hormone that induces the parietal cells in the stomach to secrete more HCl and
also signals the stomach to contract. Secreted by G-cells
Acidic, semifuild mixture in the stomach resulting from the digestion of solid food.
Sphincter that controls movement of chyme from the stomach to duodenum
meters long. Consists of three segments: Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum. The majority
of
Sitechemical
of chemical digestion takesinplace
digestion in theintestine.
the small duodenum while the
Releases tonsmajority
of enzymes of absorption
such as brush
Enzymes presentsecretin,
border enzymes, on the inside surface of cells lining the duodenum that are released in
and cholecystokinin.
the presence
Intestines can'tof cleave
chyme.disaccharaide
These enymesfor break down This
digestion. dimers and trimers
increases of biomolecules
osmolarity and pulls
into absorbable monomers. Include disaccharidases and peptidases
water into the intestines to form diarrhea. Bacteria in the small intestine are able to
Complex
break down fluid of bile salts, pigments,
disaccharides, but resultand cholesterol.
in methane gas asProduced by the
a biproduct, liver and
resulting instored
farts.
allow
in the fats and cholesterol
gallbladder to form micelles
before secretion into theand smallgiving access to pancreatic lipase
intestine.
digestion (a water soluble enzyme). The creation of micells increases surface area of
Complex
fats for aidedmixture of ezymes
digestion in bicarbonate-rich
by lipases. solution.isThis
Formation of micelles basic
a form ofsolution
mechanical
neutralizes chyme to allow for ideal pH for enzymatic
Cells that make up the bulk of the pancreas and participate in its exocrine digestion (most active around pH
functions.
Pancreatic Amylase:juices.
Produce pancreatic Digests carbohydrates.
Trypsinogen: Activated by Enteropeptidase (produced in Duodenum) to form trypsin,
Secretion
which then point of pancreatic
activates juices into duodenum
chymotrypsinogen. from pancreatic
Procarboxypeptidases A and ducts.There
B to protein is a
major and a minor duodenal papilla.
- Converts Ammonia (waste product of amino acid metabolism) into Urea
-Major
Detoxifies
pigment chemicals
in Bile, such
which asisdrugs and alcohol
the byproduct of the breakdown of hemoglobin.
into the billiary
Inability to process tree,orwhich merges
excrete withresults
bilirubin the pancreatic
in Jaundice.duct before entering the
duodenum via the duodenal papillae. Gallbladder stones made of cholesterol or
is coveredcan
bilirubin in microvilli. This greatly
cause inflammation increases
of the surface
gallbladder area
and for absorption.
blockage of both the Each villus
biliary
contains a capillary bed for absorption of water soluble nutrients
Lymphatic channel that takes up fats for transport into the lymphatic system. Located and small fatty acids
Portal system in which blood first travels through capillaries in the villi of the small
in the Villi.
intestine
Packagedto absorb nutrients,
triglycerides then again
and esterified through that
cholesterol the capillaries in the liver
gets transferred from for the
nutrients
mucosal cells to beofprocessed
the villi ofand
the for toxins
small to be removed.
intestine into the lacteal for insertion into the
Vitamins
lymphaticA,system D, E, and K. Easily dissolve into chylomicrons to enter body. Failure to digest
or absorb fat may lead to deficiencies in fat soluble vitamins.
Vitamin B complex and C. Absorb directly from small intestine into blood plasma.
through the ileocecal valve and is the site of attachment of the appendix. Home to many
aerobic
Originally bacteria
thought that
to produce
be vestigial,a symbiotic
but now relationship
thought to aid that
in helps
warding produce vitamin K
off bacterial
infections
indigestedand repopulating
material left overthe from large
the intestine with normal
small intestine. Absorbs flora
lessafter diarrhea.
water than the small
intestine, but still aids in formation of feces. Too much or
Seperate the rectum from the outside. Internal sphincter is involuntary. External too little absorption causes
is
voluntary.
Capillaries that surround the loop of Henle as the second capillary be in the renal portal
system (the first being the glomeruli)
Cuplike structure around glomerulus that leads to the proximal convoluted tubule.
Muscular lining of the bladder which contracts after stimulation from the
When stretch receptors
parasympathetic nervous insystem.
bladder recognize that it is full, they fire parasympathetic
neurons
Forces that govern the movementand
to the detrusor musccle internal
of fluid into urethral
the Bowmen's sphincter causing
Capsule from them
the to
contract
Glomerulus. and relax
This respectively.
is a the
result of Recta
the hydrostatic andflowoncotic forces ofdirections,
the Bowman's Space
The system in which Vasa and Nephron in opposite allowing
and
more Glomerulus
hypertonic capillaries.
blood (high osmolarity) to beofexposed
increasingly concentrated solution at the end the loop.to the loop of Henle, allowing
for maximum water absorption.
Ascending Loop: Only permeable to salts. This allows the highly concentrated fluid at
the
Majorendwaste
of theproducts
loop to be reabsorbed by the
are vasa recta,NH3,
decreasing K+.concentration by the
mitochondria in these excreted in urine
cells to facilitate active H+, Urea,
transport. and cells
These are pushing out
salts against
Proceeds thetheir
Bowmans concentration
Capsule. gradient,
Amino Acids, sinceSalts,
the fluid inside
Glucose, the loop
Water Solubleof Henle has
Vitamins
become
reabsorbed hypotonic compared to the interstitium. This is the only portion of the nephron
Responds tointo the Vasa Recta
Aldosterone, whichalong with water.
promotes sodiumAbout 70% of the
reabsorption. filtered
Water willsodium is
follow the
reabsorbed
sodium, here.
concentrating H+, K+ NH3,
the urine Urea are all
anddependent secreted
decreasingon here.
itspermability
volume. Waste productsduct, are also
Final concentration of urine largely of collecting which
secreted here.
is affected by ADH and Aldosterone to increase water absorption and concentrate urine
output. Water travels to Vasa Recta, where it reenters blood stream.
Osmotic Pressure = "Sucking" pressure that draws water into blood
When
Oncotic pH is too high,
Pressure kidneysPressure
= Osmotic can selectively excrete
specifically morebybicarbonate
caused Proteins and reabsorb
more H+. When pH is too low, kidneys exctrete more H+ and reabsorb more
Special macrophages that reside within the stratum spinosum of the epidermis.
bicarbonate.
Capable
Slow twitchof presenting
fibers, high antigens
mioglobinto T-cells
content toand
activate
derivetheenergy
immune system. Lots of
aerobically.
Mitochondria
Fast twitch fibers. Less myoglobin. Contract rapidly, but fatigue more quickly.
Both smooth muscles and cardiac muscles can contract without nervous system input.
Protein
Protein that spirals around
on tropomyosin. Hasactin
a Ca2+in muscles, covering
binding site. When the myosin by
activated binding sites.
calcium binding,
troponin causes tropomyosin
Ca2+ is bound to troponin. to undergo conformational change, exposing myosin
binding sites
When muscle contracts do not get the chance to relax at all due to constant stimulation
After
at myosin-actin
a high frequency. binding,
E.g. afterADP + Pi dissociate
a tough workout, frommuscles
your myosin, causing the power stroke.
Structural Unit of Bone, also called Osteons. Have Harversianare andstill tense,
Volkmann's even though
Canals
you aren't flexing.
(longitudinal and transverse canals) that allow blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels
Process of hardening
to maintain bone health.cartilage into bone. Responsible for formation of most of the long
bones of the body.
Lubricates the movements of structures in the joint space. Secreted by soft tissue called
the
Thesynovium,
proportionwhich is enclosed
of individuals inside
in the of the joint
populations cavity by
carrying anthe synovial
allele capsule.express
who actually
the phenotype.
Different manifestations of the same genotype across the population. Constant
expressivity
only carry one means
alleleall
dueindividuals withduring
to separation a givenmeiosis
genotype of experience sameone
the alleles. Only phenotype.
allele will
Inheriting one geneif does
be fully expressed not affect
two alleles are the inheritance
different, while ofoneanother
is silentgene. Thisfor
(except was later
explained by recombination during meiosis. Problematic when linked genes were
discovered.
Equations show the frequency of alleles in a population and also the frequency of a
ability to support
given genotype oroffspring, and ability
in the population. of the
There offspring
will always be to support
twice as others. Promotes
many alleles as
altruism since sacrificing oneself, commonly for offspring, can ensure
Some species have "Explosions" of evolutionary change that occur in rapid bursts, passing of genes
rather
Natuallythan slowlydifferences
occuring over a longin period
form of time. members of the same population, such
between
as light and dark coloration in the same species of butterfly.
Rapid rise of a number of different species from a common anscestor.
Also Related To Understanding
Immune System Strong
Unsure
pH Homeostasis Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Strong
Unsure
Unsure
Hind Brain Weak
Unsure
Weak
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Weak
Weak
Weak
Weak
Weak
Granulocyte Weak
Granulocyte Weak
Weak
Granulocyte Weak

Weak
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Strong
Weak
Mucous Cells, Chief Cells, Weak
Parietal Cells
Gastric Glands Weak
Gastric Glands Weak
Gastric Glands Weak
Chief Cells Weak
Parietal Cells Weak
G-Cells Weak
Pyloric Glands Weak
G-Cells Weak
Weak
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Unsure
Strong
Acinar Cells Unsure
Pancreatic Juices Unsure
Acinar Cells Unsure
Pancreatic Juices Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Unsure
Strong
Weak
Unsure
Unsure
Weak
Unsure
Weak
Strong
Strong
Strong
Weak
Weak
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Aldosterone Unsure
Aldosterone, ADH Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Topic Mnemonic Meaning
Stratum Corneum
Layers of the Come, Let's Get Sun Burned Stratum Lucidum
Epidermis
Waste products in Dump the HUNK Stratum
H+ Granulosum
Urine deposit onto bones, stimulated by calcitonin.
OsteoBlasts Build Bone, Urea
Bone Osteoclasts promote resorbtion of calcium from bones
OsteoClasts Chew it Seminiferious
Sperm Pathway STEVE UP into the blood Tubules, Testes, Epididymus,
stream, stimulated by VitaminVas
D and
deferens, Ejaculatory Duct, Urethra, Penis
http://www.mcatprep.net/mnemMCAT.html
Leucine, Isoleucine, Methionine, Proline, Valine,
Amino Acids LIMP VAG Alanine,
GlutamicGlycine.
Acid andThese are the
Aspartic nonpolar,
Acid. These arenonaromatic
the
Amino Acids ED amino acids.
negatively charged amino acids. Erectile Dysfunction
Histidine, Lysine, Arginine. Positively Charged Amino
Amino Acids HKR is a negative
Acids. thingistoReally
Hong Kong have....ED = negative.
positive (I Nonpolar-
tried my best
Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Phenyalanine.
Amino Acids WYF here....lol)
Amomatic
Uncharged,Amino Acids. My
Polar Amino wifeHonestly
Acids. (WYF) wears
I neververy
found
Amino Acids CQSTN aromatic perfume.
a good way to remember these. I just got this through
brute memorization.
Chapter Page Importance System Organ
Central Nervous System Brain
Central Nervous System Hypothalamus
Central Nervous System Thalamus
Central Nervous System Amygdala
Central Nervous System Medulla Oblongata
Central Nervous System Pons
Central Nervous System Cerebrum
Central Nervous System Brocca's Area
Central Nervous System Wernicke's Area
Central Nervous System Hippocampus
Central Nervous System Pituitary

Respiratory Lungs

Pancreas

Liver

Gallbladder

Stomach
Structure
Function
Also Related To Understanding
Chapter Page Importance System Term
7 240 **** Genetics Acetylation of Histone
7 239 **** Genetics Heterochromatin
7 240 **** Genetics Euchromatin
7 **** Genetics N-terminus
7 **** Genetics C-terminus
7 **** Genetics Peptidyl Transferase
12 399 **** Bioenergetics Gibbs Free Energy
Equation
12 399 **** Bioenergetics Standard Free Engery
12 402 *** Bioenergetics Hess's Law
12 405 *** Bioenergetics Postprandial State
12 405 *** Bioenergetics Anabolism
12 405 *** Bioenergetics Catabolism
Adipose Tissue
12 *** Bioenergetics Postabsorptive State
12 *** Bioenergetics Prolonged Fasting
12 419 *** Bioenergetics Respiratory Quotient
9 *** Metabolism Glycolysis
Substrate-Level
9 294 *** Metabolism Phosphorylation
*** Metabolism Gluconeogenesis
*** Metabolism Ketogenic Amino Acids
Glucogenic Amino
*** Metabolism Acids
*** Metabolism GLUT 2
*** Metabolism GLUT 4
**** Enzymes Dehydrogenase
Definition Also Related To
Decreases positive charge of lysines, unbinding DNA, results in
increased transcription
Tightly coiled DNA that in inaccessible to transcription
Loosely coiled DNA that allows transcription machinery access
5' end of DNA/RNA
3' end of DNA/RNA
Enzyme that forms peptide bond in ribosome between incoming
amino acid in A-site with polypeptide chain in P-site
∆G = ∆H - T∆S. Reaction proceeds spontaneously if ∆G is negative
∆G˚ is energy change tht occurs at 1 M, 1 atm, and 25˚C.
∆G = ∆G˚
Total + RT ln(Q)
Enthalpy change of a reaction is the sum of the enthalpy
change
"well-fed state"step
of each of the
occurs reaction
after eating. Greater anabolism than
catabolism. Lasts 3-5 hours after a meal
Synthesis of biomolecules and fuel storage
Breakdown of biomolecules for energy
Tissue that stores fat for energy
"Fasting state" where catabolism dominates and glucagon and
cortisol are very
degredation active vsstores
of glycogen insulin
in in theBrain
liver. postprandial
adapts tostate.
use Ketones
RQ = CO2 produced
for energy, / O2on
muscles rely consumed. Carbohydrates
fatty acids. have
Rapid lipolysis, RQ =acetyl-
excess 1,
Lipids as main fuel source have RQ = 0.7. Amino Acid
consumed, 4 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules are produced Metabolism
has
alongRQwith
of 0.8-0.9.
two pyruvate molecules. Facilitated by Insulin. Limited
phosphorylation to produceactivity,
by Phosphofructokinase-1 ATP inwhich
cells without mitochondria
is inhibited by ATP andor Oxidative Phosphorylation
oxygen. This is the only method of generating ATP in
Production of glucose in Liver and Kidneys to raise blood sugar.anaerobic
Promoted
Lysine andby glucagon
Leucine. Canand
be epinepherine.
converted intoInhibited by insulin.
Ketone bodies for
alternative fuel during prolonged starvation.
All except Lysine and Leucine. Can be converted in order to feed
into gluconeogenesis.
Glucose transporter in the liver and pancreous cells. Senses glucose
Present
levels forininsulin
Adipose and Muscle tissue. Increase in expression on cell
release.
surface in presence of insulin, promoting more glucose transport
Transfer
into cells.a hydride ion (H-) to an electron acceptor such as NAD+ or
FAD.
phorylation
Chapter Page Importance System Term
**** ThermodynamicsFirst Law of Thermodynamics
**** ThermodynamicsSecond Law of Thermodynamics
Zeroeth Law of
**** ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Gibbs Free Energy Equation
https://www.mcat-prep.com/mcat-physics-equations-sheet/
Definition Also Related To
Change in internal energy of a system = Heat added - work done by
system
Entropy always increases
Two bodies in thermal equilibrium with a third body are in equilibrium
with each other
∆G = ∆H - T∆S
Hormone secreted from in response to
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Hypothalamus puberty
(GnRH)
Growth Hormone-releasing hormone Hypothalamus
(GHRH)
Thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) Hypothalamus
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) Hypothalamus
Prolactin-inhibiting factor (PIF) aka Hypothalamus Always
dopamine
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Anterior Pituitary GnRH
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Anterior Pituitary GnRH
Growth Hormone (GH) Anterior Pituitary GHRH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Anterior Pituitary TRH
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Anterior Pituitary CRF
Prolactin Anterior Pituitary Decreased PIF or Dopamine
Endorphins Anterior Pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, Posterior pituitary High Blood Osmolarity
vasopressin)
Oxytocin Posterior pituitary
Thyroid C cells
Calcitonin (parafollicular cells)
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Parathyroids
Glucagon Pancreas α-cells Low Blood Sugar
Insulin Pancreas β-cells High Blood Sugar
Somatostatin Pancreas δ-cells
Aldosterone Adrenal Cortex Angiotensin II
Estrogen Adrenal Cortex
Progesterone Adrenal Cortex
Testosterone Adrenal Cortex
Epinepherine Adrenal Medulla
Norepinepherine Adrenal Medulla
Thyroxine (T4) Thyroid TSH
Stress (exercise, cold,
Glucocorticoids Adrenal Cortex emotional)
Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid TSH
Ghrelin Stomach Knowing a meal is coming
Orexin Ghrelin, hypoglycemia
Leptin Fat Cells
Secretin Duodenum Amino Acids and Fat in
Cholecystokinin (CCK) Duodenum Chyme as it enters
duodenum
to act on to cause
Anterior Pituitary secretion of FSH and LH
Anterior Pituitary secretion of GH
Anterior Pituitary secretion of TSH
Anterior Pituitary secretion of ACTH
Anterior Pituitary inhibition of prolactin secretion
Gonads
Gonads
Muscles and Bones Growth, raises blood glucose
Thyroid secretion of T3 and T4
Adrenal Cortex secretion of cortisol
breasts milk production and secretion
Decrease sensation of pain, euphoria
Kidneys permeability of collecting duct. Lowers blood
osmolarity by increasing blood volume. Often Release is inhibited by alcohol and caffeine.
Uterus Uteral Contractions, Pleasure feelings
Decrease
Increases blood
blood calcium
calcium concentration
concentration by promoting
resorbtion of calcium into blood from the bones.
Blood production to increase
Activates Vitamin D andblood sugar. Causes feeling of
Osteoclasts.
hunger. Promotes glyconeogenesis. Releases
Facilitate storage of glucose into glycogen fatty
to lower
Blood blood sugar.
Distal Convoluted Inhibits both Insulin and Glucagon
water into the blood stream, increasing blood
Tubule, Collecting volume/blood pressure. Also increase potassium and
Duct

sugar, and glycogenolysis in muscles to increase


Liver, Muscle muscle glucose.
sugar, and Increasesin
glycogenolysis basal metabolism
muscles in target
to increase
Liver, Muscle Slower, longer lasting effects on metabolism. Clear
Small Intestine, muscle glucose. Excess is thought to lead to Mania.
cholesterol from plasma and increase glucose
Stimulates fight or flight response by rapidly
Blood
Blood absorption from small
mobilizing glucose fromintestine.
the liver into the blood
Small Intestine, Derived
stream from T4 vai deiodonases. Clear cholesterol
Blood from plasma and increase glucose absorption from
Increases appetite. Stimulates release of Orexin
Increases appetite and alertness
Orexin Decrease
Regulatesappetite by suppressing
pH by inhibiting orexin from
HCl secretion production
Pancreous parietal cells and increasing bicarbonate secreation
Pancreous, Brain Stimulates release
from pancreas. of bile
Slows and pancreatic
motility juices. tract
through digestive
Promotes satiety in brain.
ase is inhibited by alcohol and caffeine.
Process Enzyme Name
Glycolysis Phosphofructokinase-1
(PFK-1)
Fermentation Lactate dehydrogenase
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
Glycolysis dehydrogenase
Glycolysis Hexokinase
Glycolysis Glucokinase
Glycolysis Pyruvate kinase
Glycolysis bisphosphoglycerate mutase
Glycolysis Pyruvate dehydrogenase
(PDH)
Glycogenesis Glycogen Synthase
Glycogenesis Brancing Enzyme
Glycogenolysis glycogen phosphorylase
Glycogenolysis Debranching Enzyme
Pentose Phosphate glucose-6-phosphate
Pathway dehydrogenase
Gluconeogenesis Pyruvate carboxylase
Gluconeogenesis PEPCK
Gluconeogenesis Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
Gluconeogenesis Glucose-6-phosphatase
Citric Acid Cycle Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
Citric Acid Cycle Succinyl-CoA Synthetase
Citric Acid Cycle Nucleosidediphosphate
Fatty Acid kinase
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase
Synthesis
Digestion Pepsin
Digestion Enteropeptidase (formerly
enterokinase)
Digestion Aminopeptidase
Digestion Dipeptidase
Amylase
Action Promoted by Inhibited by
Transforms Fructose 6-phosphate into Fructose 1,6- AMP, Fructose 2,6- ATP, Citrate
Oxidizes NADHRate
bisphosphate. to NAD+, replenishing
limiting, irreversible NAD+
stepfor glyceraldehyde- bisphosphate
in glycolysis
3-phosphate
Phosphorylates dehydrogenase
Glyceraldehyde function. into pyruvate to Absence of oxygen
Also reduces
3-phosphate oxygen
lactate. Rate Limiting step in Fermentation
glyceraldehyde 1,3-bisphosphate by consuming a phosphate
Irreversibly
while reducing phosphorylates
NAD+ into NADH. glucose by using one ATP, Mg 2+
facilitated by Mg 2+. This prevents
Functions like hexokinase, but found glucose
only infrom
liverexiting
cells andthe cell.
Insulin in the liver
pancreatic
Irreversiblyislet cells.
dephosphorylates phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into
BPG)
pyruvateintowhile
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate
turning ADP into ATP (2,3-BPG), which decreases
hemoglobin affinity for oxygen. Shifts oxygen dissociation curve
Converts
right. Does pyruvate
not bindirreversibly
well to fetalinto Acetyl-CoA
hemoglobin for krebs
(HbF), which orisfatty Insulin in the liver. Acetyl-CoA
acid cycle. and glucagon,
Insulin, glucose 6-
Forms
Forms alpha-1,4
alpha-1,6 glycosidic
glycosidic bond
bondsforforlinear chains
brancing of glycogen.
chains of which
phosphate
glycogen by breaking off an alpha-1,4 chain and transfering it to phosphorylate
abreaks
alpha-1,6alpha-1,4
bond in a glycosidic
different location. AMP and
Breaks the
the first alpha-1,4, bondbonds
from the branch and moves to epinephrine in ATP
end
Rateof a linearstep
limiting chain, then hydrolyzes
in Pentose Phosphate alpha-1,6
Pathwaybond (PPP)andwhich
releases a final glucose molecule.
irreversibly turns glucose 6-phosphate into 6- Insulin, NADP+ NADPH
phosphogluconate while reducing
Converts pyruvate into oxaloacetate NADP+ to NADPH, Acetyl-CoA
Converts oxaloacetate into phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Glucagon, cortisol
Bypasses pyruvate kinase.
Rate limiting step in gluconeogenesis that replaces PFK-1 ATP, glucagon AMP, insulin
Reverse of Glucokinase. Only found in ER of liver cells
oxidized to oxalosuccinate (Reducing NAD+ to NADH in the
process),
Transforms which is decarboxylated
Succinyl-CoA to produce
to Succinate alpha-input from
with energy
turning
Transfers GDP into GTP from GTP to ADP in order to produce
a phosphate
and Citrate
ATP. Long Chain
to theThis is the
acetyl end.only time in Citric
It achieves Acid
this via Cycle
ATP that ATPtoisADP
converting created.
Derrived from pepsinogen (allosterically), Fatty Acids,
a CO2 molecule. This is thesecreted fromstep
rate limiting the of
chief cells
Fatty in the
Acid
gastric glands of the stomach. Activated in low pH Insulin Glucagon
enzymes from the
environments. accessory
Cleaves peptide organs
bondsofnear
digestion.
aromatic Activates
side chains.
trypsinogen to form trypsin. Also Activates
Secreted by duodenum. Removes the N-terminal amino acid
from a peptide.
Secreted by duodenum. Breaks dipeptides into monopeptides.
Class of enzymes that hydrolyze starch into sugars.
Strong Nucleophiles Weak Bases (anions)
Good Leaving Groups

Sn1 Reactions 2 steps. Nucleophilic Substitution with one rate limiting factor (carbocation conc
Sn2 Reactions Attack and fall off simutaneously. Primary and Secondary carbons. Nucleophile s
Epoxide Reactions
Elimination Reactions
Electrophiles Weak acids (cations)
Aprotic Solvents No H-bonds
Protic Solvents
Leaving Groups Weaker the base = better leaving group
Common Examples
k Bases (anions)

ps. Nucleophilic Substitution with one rate limiting factor (carbocation concentration). *Tertiary
ck and fall off simutaneously. Primary and Secondary carbons. Nucleophile strength important

k acids (cations)
Dimethylformamide (DMF), DMSO, Acetone
Water, Acids / Increases in SN1, decreases SN2
ker the base = better leaving group
Chapter Page Importance Subject Topic
7 264 *** Psychological Disorders Dissociative Disorders
7 264 *** Psychological Disorders Dissociative Disorders
7 263 *** Psychological Disorders Dissociative Disorders
7 263 *** Psychological Disorders Dissociative Disorders
7 263 *** Psychological Disorders Trauma and Stressor
Disorders
Somatic Sympton
7 264 *** Psychological Disorders Disorders
Somatic Sympton
7 264 *** Psychological Disorders
Disorders
Somatic Sympton
7 265 *** Psychological Disorders
Disorders
7 265 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 265 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 266 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 266 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 266 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 266 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 266 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 266 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 265 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 266 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 266 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 267 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 267 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 267 *** Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders
7 257, 269 *** Psychological Disorders Schizophrenia
Nervous System
7 272 *** Psychological Disorders Disorders
Nervous System
7 271 *** Psychological Disorders Disorders
7 259, 270 *** Psychological Disorders Depressive Disorders
7 259 *** Psychological Disorders Depressive Disorders
7 259 *** Psychological Disorders Depressive Disorders
7 259 *** Psychological Disorders Depressive Disorders
7 259 *** Psychological Disorders Depressive Disorders
7 258 *** Psychological Disorders Schizophrenia
7 260 *** Psychological Disorders Bipolar Disorder
7 260 *** Psychological Disorders Bipolar Disorder
7 260 *** Psychological Disorders Bipolar Disorder
7 260 *** Psychological Disorders Bipolar Disorder
7 260 *** Psychological Disorders Bipolar Disorder
8 289 **** Group Psychology Group Psychology
8 **** Group Psychology Group Psychology
8 289 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 290 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 290 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 291 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 291 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 291 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 291 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 291 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 291 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 291 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 291 **** Group Psychology Social Action
8 293 **** Group Psychology Group Process
8 294 **** Group Psychology Group Process
8 294 **** Group Psychology Group Process
8 295 **** Group Psychology Group Process
8 297 **** Group Psychology Culture
8 297 **** Group Psychology Culture
8 297 **** Group Psychology Culture
8 298 **** Group Psychology Culture
8 299 **** Group Psychology Culture
8 299 **** Group Psychology Culture
8 300 **** Socialization Socialization
8 300 **** Socialization Socialization
8 300 **** Socialization Socialization
8 300 **** Socialization Socialization
8 301 **** Socialization Socialization
8 301 **** Socialization Norms
8 301 **** Socialization Norms
8 301 **** Socialization Norms
8 302 **** Socialization Socialization
8 303 **** Socialization Deviance and Stigma
8 303 **** Socialization Deviance and Stigma
8 303 **** Socialization Deviance and Stigma
8 303 **** Socialization Deviance and Stigma
8 303 **** Socialization Deviance and Stigma
8 304 **** Socialization Conformity
8 304 **** Socialization Conformity
8 304 **** Socialization Conformity
8 304 **** Socialization Conformity
8 306 **** Socialization Obedience
8 307 *** Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behavior
8 308 *** Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behavior
8 308 *** Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behavior
8 308 *** Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behavior
8 308 *** Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behavior
8 308 *** Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behavior
8 308 **** Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behavior
8 308 **** Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behavior
9 324 **** Social Interaction Elements of Social
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 324 **** Social Interaction Interaction
Elements of Social
9 324 **** Social Interaction
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 324 **** Social Interaction
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 324 **** Social Interaction Interaction
Elements of Social
9 325 **** Social Interaction
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 326 **** Social Interaction
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 326 **** Social Interaction Interaction
Elements of Social
9 326 *** Social Interaction
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 326 **** Social Interaction
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 328 **** Social Interaction Interaction
Elements of Social
9 328 **** Social Interaction
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 328 **** Social Interaction
Interaction
Elements of Social
9 328 **** Social Interaction Interaction
Expressing and
9 329 *** Social Interaction
Detecting
ExpressingEmotions
and
9 330 *** Social Interaction
Detecting Emotions
Expressing and
9 330 *** Social Interaction Detecting
ExpressingEmotions
and
9 330 *** Social Interaction Detecting Emotions
Expressing and
9 330 *** Social Interaction
Detecting
ImpressionEmotions
9 331 *** Social Interaction Management
Impression
9 331 *** Social Interaction Management
Impression
9 331 *** Social Interaction
Management
Impression
9 331 *** Social Interaction Management
Impression
9 331 *** Social Interaction Management
Impression
9 331 *** Social Interaction
Management
Impression
9 331 *** Social Interaction
Management
Impression
9 331 *** Social Interaction Management
Impression
9 331 *** Social Interaction
Management
Impression
9 332 *** Social Interaction
Management
Impression
9 332 *** Social Interaction Management
Impression
9 332 *** Social Interaction
Management
10 350 **** Social Thinking Social Behavior
Term
depersonalization
derealization
Dissociative Amnesia
Dissociative Identity
Disorder
Posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD)
Somatic Sympton
Disorder
Illness Anxiety
Disorder
Conversion Disorder
ego-syntonic
Cluster A personality
disorders
Cluster B personality
disorders
Cluster C personality
disorders
Antisocial Personality
Disorder
Borderline
Personality Disorder
Histrionic Personality
Disorder
Narcissistic
Personality Disorder
Paranoid Personality
Disorder
Schizotypal
Personality Disorder
Schizoid Personality
Disorder
Avoidant Personality
Disorder
Dependent
Personality Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive
Personality Disorder
Schizophrenia
Alzheimer's Disease
Parkinson's Disease
Major Depressive
Disorder
Major depressive
Episode
Seasonal Affective
Disorder (SAD)
Dysthymia
Persistent Depressive
Disorder
Avolition
Bipolar I Disorder
Bipolar II Disorder
Hypomania
Cyclothymic Disorder
Manic Episodes
Michelangelo
Phenomenon
Blueberry
Phenomenon
Social Action
Social Facilitation
Yerks-Dodson Law of
Social Facilitation
Deindividuation
Antinomative
Behavior
Bystandar Effect
Social Loafing
Peer Pressure
Identity Shift Effect
Cognitive Dissonance
Asch Conformity
Experiment
Social Interaction
Group Polarization
Groupthink
Irving Janis
Culture
Assimilation
Ethnic Enclaves
Multiculturalism
Subcultures
Counterculture
Socialization
Cultural Diffusion
Cultural Learning
Anticipatory
Socialization
Resocialization
Mores
Taboo
Folkways
Agent of Socialization
Stigma
Labeling Theory
Differential
Association Theory
Strain Theory
Deviance
Normative Conformity
Internalization
Identification
Philip Zimbardo
Stanley Milgram
Social Cognition
Affective Component
of Attitude
Behavioral
Component of Attitude
Cognitive Component
of Attitude Attitudes
Functional
Theory
Learning Theory
Elaboration
Likelihood Model
Social Cognitive
Theory
Ascribed Status
Achieved Status
Master Status
Role Conflict vs Role
Strain
Role Exit
Primary Groups vs
Secondary Groups
Gemeinschaft
Gesellschaft
System for Multiple
Level Observation of
Groups (SYMLOG)
Group conformity
Characteristic
Institution
Bureaucracy
Iron Law of Oligarchy
McDonaldization
Basic Model of
Emotional Expression
Appraisal Model
Social Construction
Model
Display Rules
Cultural Syndrome
Impression
Management
Authentic Self
Ideal Self
Tactical Self
Self-Disclosure
Managing
Appearances
Ingratiation
Aligning Actions
Alter-casting
Dramaturgical
Approach
Front Stage Self
Back Stage Self
Definition
Individuals feel detached from their own mind and body. E.g. out of body experience.
Individuals feel detached from their surroundings. E.g. world is dreamlike or
insubstantial
Amnesia not due to a neurological disorder. Inability to recall past experiences
Multiple personality disorder, where 2+ personalities recurrently take control of a
Intrusion:
person's behavior. RelivingUsually
events including
results from flashbacks or nightmares
severe abuse as a child
Avoidance: Deliberate attempt to avoid
Individual is experiencing symptoms and is disproportionatelypeople, places, objects, or actions associated
concerned about it,
with
devotes trauma
a ton of time and energy to it, or is overly anxious about it. Symptoms may or
Like Somatic Symptom Disorder, but without the symptoms. Individuals are consumed
may
with not be related
the ideasymptoms to underlying
of having or developingmedical condition
a serious medical condition. Can obsessively
Unexplained affecting voluntary motor or sensory functions, usually after
check
traumatic themselves forsudden
event. E.g. illness, blindness
or avoid medical appointments
or paralysis altogether.
with no evidence of neurological
Individual precieves behavior as correct, normal, or in harmony with goals. E.g.
damage
thinking
Paranoid,everyone schizotypal,elseandis wrong when
schizoid they sayConsidered
disorders. you have a problem
odd or eccentric behavior.
Weird.
Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic. Overly dramatic and emotional
behavior. Wild.
Avoidant,
Disregard dependent,
for rights ofand obsessive-compulsive.
others. Repeated illegal acts, Anxious or fearfulaggressiveness,
deceitfulness, behavior. Worried
or
lack of remorse for bad actions. More common in males than females. E.g. show no guilt
Intense
for serious fearcrime
of abandonment.
such as murder Use "splitting" as a defense mechanisms where ohers are
either pure good or evid. Suicide attempts and self-mutilation are common. Twice as
Attention
Sense of grandeur,seeker. Drama queen. with
preoccupied May use seductive
fantasies of ownbehavior
success,to need
gain attention.
for constant
attention and admiration. Entitled. Very fragile self esteem and concerned with how
Constant
others fiew distrust
them. of others. Constantly suspicious of other's motives. May be in
Odd
prodromalor eccentric
phasethinking. Have ideas of reference (everything is directed towards
of schizophrenia.
them...everything has a meaning in their own life somehow. There are no coincidences)
Detachment
as well as magical from social
thinking relationships, restricted emotional expression. Little desire for
Extreme
socializing. shyness
Don't and
havefearcloseof friends,
rejection. Seesocial
poor oneself as socially inept and isolated. Intense
skills.
desire for social affection and acceptance. Tend to stay in the same job, life situation,
Need continuous reassurance.
and relationships despite wanting Emotionally
to changedependent on one specific person, such as
Perfectionistic
parent or significant and inflexible.
other Likes rules and order. Stubborn, routine, no desire to
change.
catatonia, NOT OCD.negative
and/or OCD is ego-dystonic
symptoms for (Must
morewash
thanhands because
6 months. of germs)
Thought to bewhile
related to
OCPD
excess is ego-syntonic
dopamine in the(I like rules
brain. and
Active order).
symptoms OCPD is lifelong.
generally preceded by Prodromal
- Diffuse Atrophy in brain CT/MRI
Phase,
-- Flattened or phase
Sulciofinclearly
cerebral deteriorating
cortex behavior with passive symptoms. Partially
Slow Movement
-- Enlarged
Resting Tremorcerebral ventricles
Biological Markers:
-- Pill-rolling tremor (rollinginfingers and thumbs together like you're making a tiny ball
- High glucose
Energy, metabolism
low energy, amygdala
always feeling tired
-- hippocampal
Sleep disturbancesatrophy
Major Depressive Disorder with a seasonal onset (winter months). May be related to
abnormal melatonin metabolism and is often treated with bright light therapy, where
Depressed mood that
patient is exposed to aisn't severe
bright lightenough to meet
for a period criteria
of time eachforday.
a Major Depressive
Episode.
Suffering from Dysthymia for a long period of time, generally for at least two years. May
have occasional
Decreased major depressive
engagement in purposeful,episodes.
goal directed actions. A possible negative
symptom of schizophrenia. E.g. Laziness
Manic Episodes with or without Major Depressive Episodes
Hypomania with Major Depressive Episodes
Energetic and optimistic, but typically doesn't impair functioning or have psychotic
features
Cycling
- Insomniabetween hypomania and dysthymia
- Grandiosity
Interdependent individuals influence and "sculpt" each other to become closer to their
ideal selves. Oppsote of Blueberry Phenomenon.
Interdependent individuals bring out the worst in each other.
Actions and behaviors of an individual who is conscious of performing the action
because others are around. Eg. Behavior based on environment
Person performing better on simple tasks when in the presence of others.
Performance of simple tasks is enhanced with increased arousal (e.g. being in the
Being in the
presence presence
of others) of complex
and a large group
tasksprovides anonymity
are hindered and causes
with increased a loss of
arousal.
individual identity, which can dramatically change behavior. May lead to antinormative
behavior
Behavior such as violence
against the norm.during a riot.
In low danger
Tendency scenarios,tobystanders
of individual less likely
put in less effert when toin
intervene. In highthan
a group setting danger
theyscenarios,
would
individually.
Social influence placed on an individual by others to modify or continue certain
When
behavior, an individual
attitudes, or is threatened
beliefs. by social rejection, individual conforms to norms of
the group. This causes internal conflict within the individual, so he/she will undergo an
Simultaneous
identity shift where presence of two
he/she opposing
adopts thoughts of
the standards orthe
opinions.
group as Usually leads
his/her own.to internal
discomfort which may manifest as anxiety, fear, anger, or confusion.
which line matched the length of the first card, and participants were told to team up
against on group member with the wrong answer. Peer pressure to choose an
Explores the ways in which 2+ individuals can both shape each other's behavior.
Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the individual ideas
Phenomenon
and inclinations where
of thedesire for harmony
members within theor conformity
group. Alsoresults in a group
called "Choice coming to an
Shift".
incorrect or poor decision. Desire to agree with group causes a loss of independent
-critical
Illusion of morality, belief the group's decisions are morally correct
thinking.
-Beliefs,
Excessive stereotyping,
behaviors, actions, construction of stereotypes
and characteristics against
of a group outsideofopinions
or society people. Learned
of
byanother group.
living within In termsobserving
a society, of migrant assimilation,
behaviors there are
and traits, thenfour primary
adopting factors to
them.
assess completeness of assimilation:
Slow assimilation. Locations with high concentrations of a specific ethnicity
(Chinatown,
CommunitiesLittle Italy) containing multiple cultures. "Cultural Mosaic" compared to
or societies
assimilation
from which they being a "melting
belong. Can be pot".
formed based off of race, gener, ethnicity, sexuality, etc.
Subcultures can be perceived
A subculture that directly opposes as negative if theyculture
the majority begin toand disagree wit theopposes
deliberately primary
-primary
Primarycultural
Socialization:
norms.During childhood, when we initially learn norms, primarily
through parents.
The spread of cultural norms, customs, and beliefs throughout the culture
AKA Cultural Transmission: the manner in which society socializes its members
Process by which a person prepares for future changes (occupations, living situations,
relationships)
Where one discards old behaviors in favor of new ones to make a life change. E.g.
Training military personel to obey orders
Widely observed social normes
Socially unacceptable, disgusting, or reprehensible
Social behavior that is considered polite in particular social interactions, e.g. shaking
hands
Influencingafter afactor
sportsthatmatch.
affects socialization. Includes family, peers, religion, ethnicity,
workplace, mass media,
Extreme disapproval or dislike school,ofgovernment,
a person orgeographical
group based on location, etc. differences
perceived
Theory
from thethat restlabels givenE.g.
of society. to people
stigmaaffect how
against fatothers
peoplerespond
or dwarfs. to that person as well as
their own self-image. This can lead to behavior conforming with society, or deviating
that
fromgo it. against them. Says that spending time with a lot of peolpe engaging in
Says that deviance
antinormative is a natural
behavior leads to reaction to the inability
the individual being moreto achieve a normative
likely to social
engage in said
goal while staying within a limiting social structure. Therefore, deviance is a behavior
that deviance is necessary
aims at achieving in a society
a socially desirablein order to establish
goal using clear perception
antinormative behavior.of social
norms and acceptable bondaries, encourage unity within a society, and promote social
Desire to fit into a group because of fear of rejection
Outwardly agreeing to conform while also inwardly agreeing with the ideas of the
group
Outwardly
Directed the agreeing
Stanford toPrison
conform while not to
Experiment personally acceptingPrisoners
study conformity. the ideas.and Guards
both
agonyconformed
and requests to roles of being
to stop submissivebecause
the experiment, and abusive respectively.
the person runningWhen
the experiment
interviewed
told them to afterwards,
with demanding they were shocked
language. at their
Milgram wasbehavior.
surprised at the level of obenience
that
Wayswas shown.
in which Were think
people able toabout
get 65% of participants
others and how these to administer
ideas impact maximum
behavior.shocks of
The way a person feels towrads something. Emotional component of attitude.
The way a person acts with respect to something.
components.
Ego Expression:
E.g. Knowing thatAllows
snakesonecantobe
communicate and express
dangerous provides feelings
reason to solidify
for a person self-
to be afraid
Attitudes are developed through different forms of learning (observational, classical
identity
conditioning, operant conditioning, etc). E.g. attitude towards candy after tasting it and
to those who
learning focus on superficial details such as appearance or catchphrases
its sweet.
People learnroute
(peripheral how to behave andWhere
processing). shapethey
attitudes
fall onbythe
observing thedictates
continuum behavior of others,
how they will
influences of personal factors, and the environment. These three factors are related and
constantly
Status that affecting each other. Supported
is given involuntarily by Albert
such as race, Bandura
ethnicity, gender, background, etc.
Status gained as a result of one's efforts or choices such as being a doctor.
holds and affects all aspects of hat person's life. This may lead to pigeonholing, where
outsiders only view
(Being a doctor, person
a father, andthrough lens of master status without regard to other
a husband)
Role strain is difficulty to satisfy multiple requirements for the same role (Buy diapers,
Dropping
time, suchof asone roleor
family inclose
favorgroup
of another, usually due to role conflict.
of friends.
Means
SecondaryCommunity: Groups that are superficial
Groups: Interactions unified by feelings
with fewofemotional
tegetherness dueForm
bonds. to shared
and
beliefs, ancestry, or geography, like families or neighborhoods.
Means Society: groups formed due to mutual self-intersts working together towards the
same goal, such as a company
Individuals
Dominance are compliant with the group's goals, even when the group's goals may be in
vs Submission
direct contrast to the individual's goal. Conform in an attempt to fit in and be accepted
by
The the group.
basic organization of society, today isadministration,
found in Bureaucracy.
Rational system of political organization, discipline, and control.
Usually slow to change and less efficient than other organizations. Setup is basically like
States that democratic
every corporation and bureaucratic systems naturally shift to being ruled by an
in America.
elite group.
Refers to a shift in focus towards efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control in
societies.
Established by Charles Darwin. States that emotional expression is universal, thus it is
an
Saysevolutionary trait.
there are biologically predetermined expressions once an emotion is experienced,
but there is a cognitive precursor
experiences and situational context to alone.
emotional
One expression.
must be familiar with social norms for a
certain emotion to perform the corresponding emotional behaviors in a given social
Cultural expectations of emotions.
Shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values, and behaviors among members of the
same culture that are organized around a central theme. Influece display rules.
Attempt to influence how others perceive us. Also called Self-Presentation.
Who we actually are, both positive and negative.
Who we would like to be under ideal circumstances.
Who we market ourselves to be when we adhere to others' expectations of us. Similar
to the oughtmanagement
Impression self. strategy.
Impression management
Giving information about strategy.
oneself to establish an identity
Using props, appearance, emotional expression, or associations with others to create a
Impression
positive image.management strategy.
Using flattery or conforming
Impression management to expectations to win someone over.
strategy.
Impression management
Making questionable strategy.
behavior acceptable through excuses.
Imposing an identity onto another
Erving Goffman's description of impression person. E.g. "As a good person,
management throughyou
the need
use oftothe
____"
where one assigns you the identiy of being a good person.
metaphor that individuals are actors in a theatrical performance and creating images
Actor is in frontinofvarious
for themselves the audience, performing according to the setting, role, and script in
situations.
order
Actor is not being observed and hewants
to conform to the image he others
is free to actto
insee.
ways that may not be congruent with
his desired public image.
Also Related To Understanding
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Strong
Unsure
Unsure
Weak
Strong
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Cluster B Personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster B Personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster B Personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster B Personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster A Personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster A Personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster A Personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster C personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster C personality Unsure
Disorder
Cluster C personality Unsure
Disorder
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Major Depressive Episode Unsure
Major Depressive Disorder Unsure
Major Depressive Disorder Unsure
Major Depressive Episode Unsure
Dysthymia, Major Unsure
Depressive Episodes
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
hypomania, disthymia Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Max Weber Strong
Yerkes-Dodson Law of Social Strong
Facilitation
Social Facilitation Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Strong
Strong
Strong
Cognitive Dissonance Strong
Unsure
Peer Pressure Weak Famous Person
Unsure
Strong
Irving Janis Unsure
Groupthink Weak Famous Person
Strong
Strong
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Subculture Strong
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Weak
Strong
Weak
Unsure
Strong
Unsure
Unsure
Weak
Strong
Unsure
Weak
Weak
Weak Famous Person
Weak Famous Person
Weak
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Weak
Weak
Weak
Weak
Strong
Strong
Strong
Strong
Strong
Unsure
Fernidad Tonnies Unsure Famous Person
Fernidad Tonnies Unsure Famous Person
Weak
Groupthink Strong
Bureaucracy Unsure
Strong
Bureaucracy Unsure
Strong
Unsure Famous Person
Unsure
Weak
Strong
Unsure
Strong
Strong
Strong
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Unsure
Strong
Dramaturgical Approach Strong
Dramaturgical Approach Strong
Functional Theory
B.F. Skinner Behavioral Theory
Noam Chomsky Biological Theory
Social Cognitive
Vygotsky
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Theory/Interactionalist
Karen Horney, Myers- Approach
Psychoanalytic Theory
Gesalt, Maslow, George
Briggs Humanistic Theory
Kelly, Carl Rogers
Language

anything, they only acquire language through operant


conditioning. Reinforcement
from birth to age comes
8-9 years old. LAD from parent's
specializes forsmiling
your
Biological and social
language once factors
you start have
using to interact.
it. States Children's
that all languages
desire to communicate with others, such as adults in
their life, motivates them to learn language.
Of Behavior Of Personality

Conditioning. The environment influences


behavior.
Personality Token
traitseconomies
are relatedact
toas a good
genes and
genetics.
very influential: does a person feel in control
of his or her environment
Subconscious or not? Pastwith the
dominates personality
id, ego, be
should andapproached
superego (according to Freud).
from a holisting
perspective. Look at past experiences of
Of Attitudes
Attitudes serve four functions: Knowledge, ego expression,
adaptation, and ego defense.

attitude. For example: Work ethic (behavior) is affected by


collegues work ethic and their previous attitudes towards work
(personal) as well as the systems and infrastructure of the
of Societyfrom norms is necessary to establish Important People
Deviance
firm boundaries within a society, promote unity,
or even social change. B.F. Skinner

Sigmund Freud
Born 1 Month 2 Months 3 Months 4 Months 5 Months 6 Months 7 Months 8 Months
Language
Piaget's Babbling
Cognitive Children learn to use senses and move around. Don't understand object permanence. Have Stranger An
Development Head Up, Chest Up Sit Up
Roll Over Stand with Support
Motor Pull up to standing position
Development
Crawling
Freud's Walk while holding o
Psychosexual Trust vsstimulation.
Mistrust If fixation, issue with dependen
Stages of Focused around rooting/sucking reflex. Pleasure from oral
Development
Kohlberg's
Personality
Moral If mistrust wins, child will be suspicious of the world
Reasoning
9 Months 10 Months 11 Months 12 Months 13 Months 14 Months 15 Months 16 Months 17 Months
One word per month
manence. Have Stranger Anxiety. Ends once Object Permanence is fully developed. Perform Circular Reactions. Primary Circular: Soo
Stand on their own
upport Walk alone
p to standing position
Crawling
Walk while holding onto furniture
Autonomy
xation, issue with dependency or aggression. Toilet training. Learns control and independence. Serves as basis vs Shameprodu
for competent, and D
Preconventional Morality
f the world Feeling to exert control
Stageover world andconcerned
1, Obedience: have freedom
withofavoiding
choise vs
p
Stage 2, Self-interest: concerned with rewards. Also called "instrumental relativist stage" base
18 Months 19 Months 20 Months 21 Months 22 Months 23 Months 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years
Exposion lf Language Sentences
and combining words of 3+
Childrens develop pretend play, imagination, sy
ctions. Primary Circular: Soothing--enjoy how something feels or sounds or looks. thinking (symbols to represent things). Very Ego

Electra Complex. Child identifies


Autonomy
s basis vs Shameproductive,
for competent, and Doubt creative adults. If fixation occurs, problems with orderiness Sense
with same-sexability
parenttoand
of purpose, initiate
econventional Morality activities, enjoy accomplishments
ndconcerned
e: have freedom
withofavoiding
choise vs sense of doubt and external locus of control
punishment
mental relativist stage" based on concepts of "i'll scratch your back, you scratch mine"
5 Years 6 Years 7 Years 8 Years 9 Years 10 Years 11 Years
Language Rules Mastered after ~5 years old
etend play, imagination, symbolic Understand Conservation. Learn empathy and
epresent things). Very Egocentric. begin reasoning math skills. Can grasp logical

mplex. Child identifies Children release libido in hobbies or interests. Play is between same-
me-sexability
rpose, parenttoand
initiate gender children. Develop social skills. Fixation at this stage doesn't
enjoy accomplishments Competent feeling, able to affect the world as child desires vs
Puberty/adolescence (12-20 years Adulthood (20-40 years old)
old)
~5 years old Formal Operational Stage - (11+ years old)

Think abstractly, moral reasoning, the reason for consequences. Can perform experiments with controls to

Focus on developing strong Love and


sexual interests. ability
Focus to haveofintimate
on needs others.
"Physiological revolution" - Unique
Stage 3. Conformity: relationships and ability to commit
and intersting personseeks approval Stage 5, Social Contract: views
with sustained moral rules as conventions designed to ensure gre
of others onsels to other's goals vs avoidance,
Stage 4, Law and Order: Social order
Middle Aged (40-65 years old) Old Age (65+ years old)
l Operational Stage - (11+ years old)

nsequences. Can perform experiments with controls to solve a problem logically.

Wisdom and assurance in meaning of life,


productive, caring member of dignity,
iews moral rules as conventions designed life has been worthwhile,
reasoningready to
society vs selfish, bored, andto ensure greater good with focused
on individual rights.