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RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:16 PM Page 389

C H A P T E R t e n

WINDOWS AND
DOORS
Fire Rating and Security / 390

Door and Window Openings / 393

Wood and Plastic Doors / 395

Specialty Doors / 400

Windows / 401

Skylights / 411

Hardware / 413

Glazing / 418
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:16 PM Page 390

390 Fire-Rated Openings


GENERAL FIRE RESISTANCE: the property of materials or their
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of exces-
Fire-rated assemblies for door and window openings, used sive heat, hot gas, or flames under conditions of use. FACTORY MUTUAL 1 1/2 HOUR RATED FIRE DOOR

to protect against the spread of fire and smoke, consist of a MINIMUM LATCH THROW 1/2 INCH

fire-rated door or window with frame, hardware, and acces- FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING: the time, in minutes or hours, FM FM - XXXXXXX
sories, including gasketing. Each component is crucial to that materials or assemblies have withstood fire exposure OAK BROOK, IL
APPROVED TESTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASTM E512
the overall performance of the assembly as a fire barrier. in accordance with the test procedure of NFPA 252. FMF

Choices to be made regarding the enclosure of openings in


fire-rated walls include the following: LABELED: equipment or materials marked with the label, DOOR LABEL
symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization con-
1. Fire-rated wall requirements cerned with product evaluation and acceptable to the local
2. Size of opening jurisdiction. This organization must periodically inspect pro-
FACTORY MUTUAL FIRE DOOR FRAME
3. Means of egress duction of labeled equipment, and the manufacturer, by
labeling the product, indicates compliance in a specified
a. Required size per occupancy manner with appropriate standards or performance. FM FM - XXXXXXX
b. Quantity and location APPROVED TESTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASTM E512
OAK BROOK, IL
FMF
c. Direction of egress flow and operation of enclosure NONCOMBUSTIBLE: a material that, in the form in which it
is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not aid
d. Hardware requirements combustion or add appreciable heat to an ambient fire.
e. Window egress requirements FRAME LABEL
4. Materials and finishes SELF-CLOSING: as applied to a fire door or other protective
opening, self-closing means the door is normally closed and NOTE
5. Security
is equipped with an approved device that will ensure clo- Various agencies test and rate fire door and window units
6. Visibility and glazing sure after the door has been opened. and assemblies. Manufacturers locate metal labels in
accessible but concealed locations (the hinge edge of
SMOKE BARRIER: a continuous membrane, either vertical doors, for example); these labels must remain in place,
FIRE PROTECTION CRITERIA or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that unpainted, uncovered, and unaltered.
NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows, is a is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of
consensus standard that establishes minimum criteria for smoke. A smoke barrier may or may not have a fire-resis- TESTING LABELS
installing and maintaining assemblies and devices used to tance rating.
protect openings in walls, ceilings, and floors from the
spread of fire and smoke. The degree of fire protection (in FULL MITRE AND
hours) required for a given opening is referenced in the CONTINUOUS WELD
model building codes (BOCA, SBCCI, and UBC) and the Life
Safety Code (NFPA 101). Fire doors are classified by hourly
DOUBLE FRAME WITH 40 SQ FT
references determined by testing done in accordance with FIXED MULLION MAX.
NFPA 252, Standard Method of Fire Tests of Door Assem- (OPTIONAL) OPENING
blies (also known as UL 10B). Further information is avail-
able in chapter 6, section 6 of the NFPA’s Fire Protection
Handbook.
CLEAR
HEIGHT:
TYPES OF OPENINGS 6”-8” MIN.
4-HR AND 3-HR OPENINGS (formerly class A): located in (10’-0” MAX.)
fire walls or in walls that divide a single building into fire
areas.

11/2-HR AND 1-HR OPENINGS (formerly class D and B,


respectively): located in multistory vertical communication
enclosures and in 2-hr rated partitions providing horizontal
fire separations.
3
/4-HR AND 20-MIN. OPENINGS (formerly class C, E): CLEARANCE
located in walls or partitions between rooms and corridors BOTTOM OF
with a fire-resistance rating of one hour or less. FRAME TO
FLOOR, 3/4” MAX.
The hourly protection rating for openings depends on the
use of the barrier, as in exit enclosures, vertical openings in
buildings, building separation walls, corridor walls, smoke
barriers, and hazardous locations. In most codes, class des-
ignations have been replaced by hour classifications. CLEAR
WIDTH
(4’-0” MAX.)

TYPES OF FRAMES NOTE


HEAVY FLOOR CLIP The minimum width of each door opening must be suffi-
Fire-rated doorframes can be assembled at the factory or in
FOR FRAME
the field. Frames must be adequately anchored at the cient for the occupant load it serves. Verify the following
jambs and floor according to the manufacturer’s specifica- SPECIAL POCKET AND general guidelines for door width with local codes:
tions. Codes require doors to be installed in accordance REINFORCING FOR
with NFPA 80. Section 2-5, Frames, indicates only labeled ELECTRIC LOCK (OPTIONAL) 1. Dwelling units that are not required to be accessible or
frames are to be used. adaptable: 293/4 in.
SHIPPING SPREADER 2. Hospital and other medical facilities: 36 in.
LIGHT-GAUGE METAL FRAME: head and jamb members
3. Standard openings: 32 in.
with or without transom panel made from aluminum (45-
min. maximum rating) or light-gauge steel (11/2-hr maximum SECURITY FRAME REINFORCING FOR DOOR OPENINGS FOR MEANS OF
rating); installed over finished wall. FIRE-RATED OPENINGS EGRESS
PRESSED STEEL (HOLLOW METAL): head and jamb mem- SOLID PANEL (3-.11/2-.1-.
bers with or without solid or glazed transoms or sidelights AND 3/4-HR) WIRE GLASS
made from 18-gauge or heavier steel (3-hr. maximum rat- OPTIONAL 40 SQ FT
ing); required for most metal doors. MULLION MAX.
OPENING

DEFINITIONS MAX.
10’-0” MAX.

The following definitions are typically used in relation to fire-


11’-2” MAX.

GLASS AREA
rated openings: 1296 SQ FT
10’-0” MAX.

9’-0” MAX.
8’-0” MAX.

80 SQ FT
AUTOMATIC: providing a function without the necessity of MAX. OPENING
human intervention.
4’-0” 4’-0” 8’-0” 4’-0”
MAX. MAX. MAX. MAX.
FIRE BARRIER: a continuous membrane, either vertical or
horizontal (for example, a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly),
that is designed and constructed with a specified fire-resis-
tance rating to limit the spread of fire and restrict the move- Varies
ment of smoke. PAIR PAIR WITH SINGLE FLUSH
TRANSOM BAR TRANSOM

FIRE-RATED STEEL FRAME ELEVATIONS

National Fire Protection Association; Quincy, Massachusetts


Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

10 FIRE RATING AND SECURITY


RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:16 PM Page 391

Fire-Rated Openings 391


10” MAX.
54” MAX.

FLUSH
METAL
DOOR
GLASS LIGHT
1296 SQ IN.
MAX. OF 1/4”
THICK WIRE
GLASS IN
GLASS LIGHT 3
NO GLASS /4-HOUR,
PERMITTED 100 SQ IN MAX. UNLIMITED
OF 1/4” THICK AREA IN

54” MAX.
33” MAX.
WIRE GLASS 20-MIN. DOOR

NO LOUVERS LOUVERS:
LOUVERs:
PERMITTED 576 SQ IN. MAX.
576 SQ IN. MAX.

24” MAX.
24” MAX.
TYPICAL CLEARANCES:
1
/8” MAX. AT JAMBS;
3
/4” AT NONCOMBUSTIBLE
FLOOR; 3/8” AT TOP 24” MAX. 24” MAX.

3
4-HOUR/3-HOUR CLASSIFICATION 11/2-HOUR/1-HOUR CLASSIFICATION /4-HOUR/20-MIN. CLASSIFICATION
NOTES
1. All hinges or pivots must be steel. Two hinges are 2. While wired glass 1/4 in. thick is the most common mate- 3. Consult all authorities with jurisdiction before installation
required on doors up to 5 ft in height; an additional hinge rial used for glass lights, other materials have been listed of glass lights and louvers.
is required for each additional 2 ft 6 in. of door height or and approved for installation. Refer to the UL fire protec- 4. Fusible-link/automatic closing louvers are permitted in
fraction thereof. The same requirement holds for pivots. tion directory. fire-rated doors with restrictions; they are not permitted
in smoke-barrier doors.
FIRE-RATED DOOR CLASSIFICATIONS
FIRE-RATED CONSTRUCTION OF
20” MIN.
WALL ASSEMBLY
CLEAR 54” SWINGING FIRE DOORS
OPENING MAX.
Outlined here are different types of swinging fire doors and
notes about the hardware used with them.
OPERABLE
SASH TYPES OF DOORS
1. Composite fire doors: wood, steel, or plastic sheets
54”
MAX.
bonded to and supported by a solid core material.
2. Hollow metal fire doors: flush or panel design with a
24” MIN. steel face of not less than 20-gauge steel.
CLEAR
OPENING 3. Metal-clad fire-doors: flush or panel design consisting of
metal-covered wood cores or stiles and rails and insu-
lated panels that are covered with steel of 24-gauge or
lighter.
4. Sheet metal fire doors: 22-gauge or lighter steel of corru-
gated, flush sheet, or panel design.
5. Tin-clad fire doors: wood core with a terne plate or galva-
44” MAX. nized steel facing (30- or 24-gauge).
ABOVE
FLOOR
6. Wood core doors: wood, hardboard, or plastic face
sheets bonded to a wood block or wood particleboard
GLAZED PANEL: 1296
SQ IN. PER PANEL,
core material with untreated wood edges.
MAX., WHERE 3/4-HOUR
OPENING IS REQUIRED, DOOR OPERATION
UNLIMITED SIZE WHERE
20-MIN. OPENING
1. Doors that swing in the direction of egress are preferred
IS REQUIRED for fire-rated doors.
NOTE 2. Horizontal sliding and revolving doors are permitted with
Glazed panel assemblies in fire-rated walls must conform to restrictions.
the size limitations indicated below and to wire glass and
other approved material requirements. Multiple panels are HARDWARE
permitted, but the aggregate area of all panels and open- 1. Door hardware is provided by the builder independent of
NOTE ings must not exceed 25% of the wall surface. Refer to the assembly or furnished by the manufacturer with the
specific codes for details. door assembly. In either case, the manufacturer prepares
When required for egress, such as in sleeping areas in resi-
dences, windows must meet the following criteria: GLAZED PANEL REQUIREMENTS the door and frame to receive hardware to ensure the
integrity of the fire-rated assembly.
1. Clear opening per sash must be a minimum of 5.7 sq ft. MAXIMUM DOOR SIZES 2. Fire doors are hung on steel ball-bearing hinges and must
2. Bars, grilles, or screens must be releasable from inside (HOLLOW METAL, ALL CLASSES*) be self-closing. Labeled automatic latches and door clos-
without use of tools or key. ers can be self-operated or controlled by fail-safe devices
Single door 4 x 10 ft with labeled single-point or that activate in a fire.
3. Windows opening onto fire escapes have additional 3-point latching device
requirements; refer to codes. 3. Pairs of doors require coordinators with astragals to
4 x 8 ft with fire exit hardware ensure that both doors close.
4. Check with manufacturers for integral release hardware
Pair of doors 8 x 10 ft active leaf with labeled 4. Heads and jambs should be sealed with gaskets when
options for awning, casement, pivot, or other windows.
single-point or 3-point latching device smoke control is required.
5. Double-hung window units with fully removable sash
that do not require special tools, force, or knowledge to 8 x 10 ft inactive leaf with labeled 5. Panic hardware may be required when space occupancy
operate may offer greater flexibility in unit selection to 2-point latching device or top and is greater than 100 people.
meet size requirements for egress openings; verify with bottom bolts
manufacturers and code officials. 8 x 8 ft with fire exit hardware
WINDOW EGRESS REQUIREMENTS *Wood door size requirements are similar.

National Fire Protection Association; Quincy, Massachusetts

FIRE RATING AND SECURITY 10


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392 Door and Window Security


GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS FROM THE HOLLOW SLIDING DOOR UNITS
METAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (HMMA) Sliding glass doors are a particular concern in securing a
HMMA HMMA HMMA HMMA building. The locking devices should include vertical rod, or
860 861 862 863 lever bolts, at top and bottom; the frame should be solid or
DOORS reinforced at the locking points; the stile must also be rein-
forced at the locking points. The operating panels should be
Face sheets interior 20 ga. 18 ga. 14 ga. 14 or 12 ga. designed so that they cannot be lifted out of their tracks
Face sheets exterior 18 ga. 16 ga. 14 ga. 14 or 12 ga. when in the locked position. Glazing and other components
should be installed from the inside so that entry cannot be
Minimum thickness 1 3/4” 1 3/4” 1 3/4” 2” gained by disassembly.
Stiffeners 22 ga. 22 ga. 18 ga. 18 ga.
Vertical edges Continuous weld or inter- Continuous weld Continuous weld Reinforced by 10 ga. con- PROVIDE LEVER BOLT
locking seam welded at tinuous steel channel, AT TOP AND BOTTOM
top and bottom of door continuous weld WITH 1” MIN. THROW
Top and bottom Closed with 16 ga. con- Closed with 16 ga. con- Closed with 12 ga. con- Reinforced with continu- INTERLOCKING
edges tinuous recessed steel tinuous recessed steel tinuous recessed steel ous steel channel, 10 ga. MEETING STILE
channel channel, spot welded to channel, spot welded to spot welded to face HEAVY DUTY LOCK
face sheets face sheets sheets 4” on center WITH HOOK TYPE
HARDENED DEAD BOLT
Glass molding and Fixed moldings welded Fixed moldings welded Fixed moldings welded Fixed moldings, 12 ga.
stops to door on security side; to door on security side; to door on security side; spot welded to face GROUT FRAME FULL
loose stops, 20 ga. loose stops, 20 ga. all stops, 16 ga. sheets 5” o.c.; remov- OR BRACE SOLID FROM
FLOOR TO 12” ABOVE
able glass stops, 14 ga. LOCK
pressed steel channel
FRAMES SLIDING GLASS DOOR
Interior openings 16 ga. (18 ga. for wood 16 ga.; 14 ga. for open- 12 ga. 12 ga.
doors, 20 ga. for hollow ings over 4’ - 0” in width WINDOW SECURITY DESIGN
core wood doors) CRITERIA
Exterior openings 16 ga. 14 ga. 12 ga. 12 ga. The following items should be considered when designing
Construction Welded or knocked-down Welded units with Welded units with Welded units with and selecting windows:
with integral stop and integral stop and trim integral stop and trim integral stop and trim
trim 1. If accessible (residential: 12 ft vertical, 6 ft horizontal;
Floor anchors 16 ga. welded 14 ga. welded 14 ga. welded Same ga. as frame, commercial: 18 ft vertical, 10 ft horizontal) and hidden
inside jambs inside jambs inside jambs welded inside jambs from public view, a higher grade is required.
with at least 4 spot 2. If windows are protected by a detection device (such as
welds per anchor shutters, security screens, or bars), the window grade
could be irrelevant. If security screens, bars, or shutters
Jamb anchors In masonry walls 16 ga. In masonry walls 16 ga. In masonry walls 14 ga. Same ga. as frame
are used, requirements for fire exiting must be met.
steel or 0.156” diameter steel or 0.156” diameter steel or 0.156” diameter
steel wire. For stud parti- steel wire. For stud parti- steel wire. For stud parti- 3. The existence of windbreaks near a building may provide
tions, 18 ga. steel tions, 18 ga. steel tions, 16 ga. steel cover for intruders.
anchors welded inside anchors welded inside anchors welded inside 4. The use of shades and window coverings may deter
jambs jambs jambs intruders, depending on the ease of removal of these
Loose glazing stops 20 ga. cold-rolled steel 20 ga. cold-rolled steel 16 ga. cold-rolled steel 10 ga. cold-rolled steel devices or the noise from breakage. The use of lockable
shutters or rolldown blinds is very effective.
NOTES 5. Window units should at least comply with ASTM F588-
1. HMMA 860: For use in building projects where traffic is relatively light and hard usage is not anticipated. 85 Standard Test Methods for Resistance of Window
Assemblies to Forced Entry for a minimum grade perfor-
2. HMMA 861: For use in commercial and industrial applications where rigorous use is anticipated, such as schools, hospitals, mance and with NIJ-STD-0316, Physical Security of Win-
industrial buildings, office buildings, hotels, nursing homes, airports, and convention centers. dow Units, for higher grade performance.
3. HMMA 862: For use in applications where security is paramount due to high susceptibility to vandalism, break-in, and theft,
such as entrances and back doors of businesses, storerooms, warehouses, strip stores, apartments, and condominiums. FRAME DESIGN ELEMENTS
HMMA 862 incorporates testing procedures and performance requirements promulgated by NILECJ for Class IV doors (ASTM
1. A rigid frame and sash is important to resist prying and
F476-84) including jamb/wall stiffness test, jamb/wall stiffness performance, door impact test, door and glazing panel impact
should be removable from the inside only.
resistance performance.
2. The quality of the hardware and its placement and
4.HMMA 863: For applications in jails, prisons, detention centers, and secured areas in hospitals or courthouses. HMMA 863
anchorage are critical to security. Exposed removable
requires five tests: static load test, rack test, impact load test, removable glazing stop test, and bullet resistance test.
hinges should not be used.
5. Reprinted with permission from the Hollow Metal Manufacturers Association, division of NAAMM.
3. Special attention must be given to the use of weather
stripping, since this can permit insertion of wires to
unlock windows.

GLAZING DESIGN ELEMENTS


1. Multiple glazing systems provide a greater hazard to
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SLIDING GLASS DOOR UNIT entry/exit through broken-out windows.
SECURITY 2. Reflective glazing impedes outside daytime surveillance.
REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR WINDOWS
PARAMETER CLASS I UNIT CLASS II UNIT 1. Class IV. Very heavy fixed frames with laminated glass
Disassembly No entry No entry over 1/4 in. thick security screen, bars, or shutters with
special locking device.
Latch operator loiding resistance 10 lbf (45 N) 10 lbf (45 N)
2. Class III. Heavy duty sash with laminated glass over 1/4
Latch loiding resistance 300 lbf (1335 N) plus weight of panel 600 lbf (2670 N) plus weight of panel in. thick or polycarbonate glazing 1/4 in. thick. Lock should
Locking device stability Horizontal - 50 lbf (222 N) Horizontal - 50 lbf (222 N) include at least two heavy duty dead locking bolts.
Vertical - 50 lbf (222 N) Vertical - 50 lbf (222 N) 3. Class II. Heavy duty sash with laminated glass or polycar-
plus weight of panel (10 cycles) plus weight of panel (10 cycles) bonate glazing; if wood, sash must be reinforced or
Door panel removal resistance Horizontal - 100 lbf (445 N) Horizontal - 100 lbf (445 N) heavy; double locks required.
Vertical - 300 lbf (1335 N) Vertical - 600 lbf (2670 N) 4. Class I. Regular glazing in commercial sash with double
plus weight of panel plus weight of panel locks; can be wood frame.
Locking device strength 300 lbf (1335 N) 600 lbf (2670 N)
Fixed panel fastening strength 300 lbf (1335 N) 600 lbf (2670 N)
Meeting stile fastening strength 150 lbf (667 N) Horizontal - 100 lbf (445 N)
300 lbf (1335 N) GROUT SOLID TO REINFORCE
WALL AND ANCHORS AT
Glazing impact strength None 37 ft-lbf (50 Joules) BOTH SIDES OF WINDOW

NOTES EXTEND FASTENER


3” MIN.
1. Table from the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standard 0318.00, Physical Security of Sliding Glass Door Units.
2. Class I sliding door units provide a minimum level of physical security. Class II sliding door units provide a moderate level of
physical security.
3. Loiding is a method of manipulating a locking device from the exterior of a sliding glass door unit by means of a thin, flat object
or a thin stiff wire that is inserted between the locking stile and the strike so as to force the locking device toward the unlocked
position.
WINDOW JAMB DETAIL

McCain McMurray, Architect; Washington, D.C.

10 FIRE RATING AND SECURITY


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Door and Window Openings 393


DEFINITIONS
CRIPPLE STUD
BUCK: a subframe of wood or metal set in a wall or parti-
tion to support the finish frame of a door or window; also HEADER
called door buck or rough buck. DOUBLE STUD,
WOOD OR METAL
CASING: the finished, often decorative framework around a
door or window opening, especially that which is parallel to KING STUD
the surrounding surface and at right angles to the jamb; TRIMMER STUD
also called trim.
WALL FINISH
MATERIAL
SUBCASING: finish frame components that support and
guide the door or sash. HEAD

JAMB
HEAD: horizontal members at top of door or window.
STOP
JAMB: vertical members at sides of door or window.
CAP

6’-101/2” FOR 6’-8” DOOR, TYP.


STOP: integral or applied member that prevents a door or
window from swinging past its closed position, or mem-
bers that guide horizontal or vertical sliding movement.

SILL: horizontal members at bottom of door or window.

ROUGH OPENING
THRESHOLD: applied wood, stone, or metal plate, usually
weatherproof. BUCK

SADDLE: part of a threshold, usually bridging dissimilar


flooring materials.

ROUGH
OPENING
PLANTED STOP RABBETED STOP
(OR DOUBLE
RABBETED STOP)

BLANK JAMB
(FOR CASED OPENING) ROUGH
OPENING
FRAME AND STOP TYPES
FRAME WITHOUT
STOPS, DOOR,
OR WINDOW

SUBCASING

SILL BASEBOARD

TRIM OR
NOTE CASING
SPLAY REVEAL CASED Weatherproofing for exterior door openings is similar to
PLINTH
window weatherproofing. TRIM

OPENING TYPES DOOR OPENING COMPONENTS


6”
MIN.
6” MIN.
OVERLAP
TRANSOM MOISTURE BARRIER OVERLAPPED
(FANLIGHT TO DIRECT MOISTURE AWAY FROM
SHOWN) STRUCTURE/FRAMING

CAP/BRICK MOLD

41 / 2 ” CASING/TRIM
MIN., HEAD CASING/TRIM
TYP.

TRANSOM FOLDED OR SOLDERED


BAR HEAD FLASHING
FOLDED OR WITH DRIP EDGE
SOLDERED
SILL FLASHING
DOORFRAME
6”
MIN.
6”
SIDELIGHT 6” MIN.
15 / 8 ” WITH MIN.
MIN., GLASS
TYP. LIGHT

13/8” 6”
THICKNESS, MIN.
TYP.
HINGED
DOOR

8”
MIN., WINDOW
TYP. UNIT
NOTE JAMB CASING/TRIM

1. Caulking, sealant, adhesive, or gasket APRON


seals window framing and wall joints
to form air barrier.
10”, 12”, 14”, 15”, 16”, SILL (SLOPED TOP) EXTERIOR
18” COMMON SIZES 2. These principles are also applicable to OVERHANGS APRON FINISH
door weatherproofing. APPROXIMATELY 1” MATERIAL

DOOR ACCESSORIES WINDOW WEATHERPROOFING PRINCIPLES

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

DOOR AND WINDOW OPENINGS 10


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394 Wood Doorframe Installation Details

WOOD SIDING HEADER FLASHING


OVER PLYWOOD (TURN UP
SHEATHING 6”, MIN.)
TRIM
GYPSUM
WALLBOARD DRIP CAP
SHIM SPACE OVER TRIM
FLASHING (TURN
UP 6” ON
FRAME FRAME
INSIDE FRAME)

SLIDING DOOR DOOR DOOR

HEAD HEAD HEAD

TRIM GYPSUM
WALLBOARD TRIM
SEALANT
TRIM
SHIM SPACE
ROUGH SHIM SPACE
VINYL-CLAD
BUCK
WOOD FRAMES

ALUMINUM FRAME
SCREEN AND FRAME
FRAME DOOR

JAMB JAMB JAMB


WEATHER
STRIPPING DOOR WITH
WEATHER
FLUSH STRIPPING
METAL
TRACK DOOR
METAL
SEALANT SADDLE
SADDLE
FLASHING (OPTIONAL)
BLOCKING UNDER
BLOCKING UNDER FINISH JOINT BETWEEN
JOINT BETWEEN FLOORING SILL AND
SILL AND SUBFLOOR
SUBFLOOR
UNDERCUT
HEADER AS REQUIRED FLASHING UNDER
WOOD SILL
SILL SILL SILL
SLIDING DOOR IN WOOD FRAME INTERIOR SWING DOOR IN WOOD FRAME EXTERIOR SWING DOOR IN
WOOD FRAME
DOORFRAME DETAILS IN WOOD WALL CONSTRUCTION
SHEATHING GYPSUM
CMU WALLBOARD
LINTEL FLASHING

WOOD FLASHING
STEEL LINTEL
BUCK
SEALANT FLAT
SHIM SPACE BRICK
SHIM SPACE ARCH
WOOD FRAME (FILL REMAINING
WITH APPLIED VOIDS WITH
STOP INSULATION) SEALANT

DOOR DOORFRAME
DOORFRAME
DOOR

HEAD HEAD HEAD


CMU WALL
CMU
GYPSUM
WALLBOARD SEALANT
OF FURRING
CHANNELS SEALANT
SHIM SPACE
SHIM SPACE
DOORFRAME
TRIM DOORFRAME

DOOR
WOOD FRAME

JAMB JAMB JAMB


SADDLE REQUIRED
IF TRANSITION METAL METAL
BETWEEN SADDLE SADDLE
DIFFERENT WOOD SILL
FLOOR MATERIALS
NEEDED FLASHING
CARPET ON
UNDERLAYMENT
PLYWOOD PRECAST
SEALANT
SUBFLOOR SILL
MASONRY
SILL
FLASHING
BLOCKING
SILL SILL SILL
INTERIOR SWING DOOR IN MASONRY WALL SWING DOOR IN MASONRY VENEER SWING DOOR IN SOLID MASONRY

DOORFRAME DETAILS IN MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.


Richard J. Vitullo, AIA; Oak Leaf Studio; Crownsville, Maryland

10 DOOR AND WINDOW OPENINGS


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Flush Doors 395


HOLLOW METAL DOORS INTERIOR: 1’-6”, 2’-0”,
Hollow metal doors are available in steel gauges ranging 2’-4”, 2’-6”, 2’-8”, 3’-0” VISION PANEL
EXTERIOR: 2’-6”, SIZED PER
from 20 to 12; which gauge to use depends on where and 2’-8”, 3’-0” FIRE-RESISTANCE
how a door will be used. Consult local codes and governing INTERIOR: 13/8 ”, 13 / 4” REQUIREMENTS
EXTERIOR: 13/4 ”, 2 1/ 4”
authorities for minimum gauges that may have been estab-
lished. Some manufacturers will custom make doors to a
specific design if an order is large enough.
ALTERNATE
For security, exterior moldings on exterior doors should be HINGES (2 OR 3, VISION PANEL
AS NECESSARY) LOCATION
welded into the door and all exposed fasteners should be
tamperproof.

EXTERIOR: 6’-8”, 7’-0”, 8’-0”


LATCH SET LATCH SET
FINISHES LOCATION LOCATION
Hollow metal doors should receive at least one shop coat of

INTERIOR: 6’-8”, 7’-0”


rust-inhibitive primer before delivery to the job site. In very
corrosive atmospheres, such as saltwater beach locations, FLAT SURFACE
the doors and frames should be hot-dipped galvanized for WITH NO TRIM LOUVER
LOCATION
additional protection.

Doors can be purchased from the manufacturer with fac- SWING


DIRECTION HINGES (2 OR 3,
tory-applied paint finishes in various colors. SYMBOL AS NECESSARY)

FLUSH WOOD DOORS NOTE


CORE MATERIAL Louvers are sized per mechanical requirements. Fire-resis-
SOLID CORE: wood block, single specie, maximum 21/2 in. tance regulations require closable louvers or preclude instal-
width, surfaced two sides, no spaces or defects impairing lation in smoke-barrier doors and certain fire-rated doors.
strength or visible through hardwood veneer facing. TYPICAL FLUSH DOOR SIZES AND VISION OR LOUVERED DOOR
CHARACTERISTICS
HOLLOW CORE: wood, wood derivative, or class A insula-
tion board. OPEN TOP/ CLOSURE
INVERTED CHANNEL OR
CHANNEL OPTIONAL
SPECIAL CORES CAP
PERIMETER
SOUND-INSULATING CORE: thicknesses of 13/4 and 21/4 CHANNEL OR
in.; sound transmission class rating of 36 for 13/4 in. and 42 TUBULAR TOP RAIL
FRAME
for 21/4 in. barrier faces separated by a void or damping
compound to keep faces from vibrating in unison. Special “C” OR “Z” HINGE STILE
stops, gaskets, and threshold devices may be required. CHANNEL, OR
TRUSS MEMBER
LOCK STILE
LEAD-LINED CORE: 1/32 in. to 1/2 in. continuous lead sheet- HONEYCOMB
ing from edge to edge inside door construction; may be FIBER, FOAM, OR
STRUCTURAL CENTER
reinforced with lead bolts or glued. (See UL requirements.) MINERAL CORE PANEL,
HONEYCOMB
GROUNDED CORE: wire mesh at center of core, grounded LATCH RAIL CORE
with copper wire through hinges to frame. REINFORCING
METAL FACE METAL
WOOD FACE TYPES SHEET FACE PLY
LAMINATED
Standard thickness face veneers range from 1/16 in. to 1/32 TO CORE
SEAMLESS
in.; they are bonded to hardwood with a crossband (1/10 in. SPOT-WELDED, EDGE,
to 1/16 in.) and are the most economical and widely used MECHANICAL
INTERLOCKING
CONTINUOUS
veneer type. Face veneers inhibit checking in the finish but WELD FILL
OR HEMMED AND GRIND
are difficult to refinish or repair. They can be used on all SEAM SMOOTH
cores.
HOLLOW METAL DOOR WITH HOLLOW METAL DOOR WITH STILE
Bonded to a crossband, 1/8 in. sawn veneers are easily refin- STIFFENED CORE AND RAIL
ished and repaired.
WOOD EDGE WOOD EDGE
Staved-block and stile-and-rail solid cores take 1/4 in. sawn BANDING BANDING
veneers. These are the same as 1/8 in. sawn veneers but do FRAME FRAME
not have a crossband on stile-and-rail solid cores with hori-
EXPANDABLE
zontal blocks. Faces can be cut with decorative grooves. BONDED, CELLULAR OR
STAGGERED HONEYCOMB
BLOCKS, FIBER,
LIGHT AND LOUVER OPENINGS EITHER INTERLOCKED
VERTICAL OR STRIPS OR
Custom made to specifications, this type of door has wood HORIZONTAL; IMPLANTED
beads and slats that match the face veneer. Space BONDED TO BLANK CORE
FACE PANELS
between the opening in the door and the edge of the door AND FRAME
can be no less than 5 in. LATCH RAIL

In hollow-core doors, the cutout area can be at most half HARDBOARD


CROSSBAND
the height of the door. Doors with openings greater than PLY (EACH SIDE) CROSS RAIL/
40% are not guaranteed. Weatherproofing of exterior doors REINFORCING
is required to prevent moisture from leaking into the core.

FACTORY FINISHING HARDBOARD


FACE PLY OR CROSSBAND
VENEER
Partial finishing is available, with sealing coats in place but (FINISH FACE
PLIES (EACH SIDE)
the final finish applied on the job. Complete factory finish- OF DOOR)
ing requires the door to be prefit and premachined.
FACE PLY/
VENEER;
SPECIAL FACING FINISH FACE

For opaque finishes only, high or medium-low density over- NOTE


lay faces of phenolic resins and cellulose fibers can be For bonded blocks, stave core is the most economical and
fused to the inner faces of a hardwood door to serve as a widely used. Other materials include particleboard (heavier,
base for the final finish. more soundproof, economical) and mineral composition NOTE
(lighter, difficult cutouts and detailing, lower screw Acoustical materials may be used to cut sound transmis-
1
Laminated plastic ( /16 in. thick, minimum) can be bonded to strength). sion.
a wood back of two or more plies (1/16 in., minimum).
WOOD SOLID CORE DOOR WOOD HOLLOW CORE DOOR
Hardboard, 1/8 in. thick and smooth on one or both sides,
can be used as a facing.
4. Tolerances: height, width, thickness, squareness, and 6. Premachining: doors mortised for locks and cut out for
GENERAL NOTES: WOOD DOORS warp per NWWDA standards; vary with solid vs. builtup hinges when so specified.
construction. 7. Premium: for transparent finish; good/custom: for paint
1. Kiln-dried wood: moisture content at 6–12%.
5. Prefit: doors at 3/16 in. less than width and 1/8 in. less in or transparent finish; sound: for paint, with two coats
2. Type I doors: fully waterproof bond, exterior and interior. height than nominal size, ±1/32 in. tolerance, with vertical completely covering defects.
3. Type II doors: water-resistant bond, interior only. edges eased.

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

WOOD AND PLASTIC DOORS 10


RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:16 PM Page 396

396 Stile and Rail Doors

GENERAL BUILTUP MEMBERS GLAZING


OR PANEL
Panel doors consist of a framework of vertical (stile) and The core and edge and end strip material is similar to the STOP
horizontal (rail) members that hold solid wood or plywood material used in flush doors. Face veneer is typically hard-
panels, glass lights, or louvers in place. wood at 1/8 in. minimum thickness. CORE
MATERIAL

CONSTRUCTION STICKING, GLASS STOPS.


Doors are made of solid or builtup stiles, rails, and vertical AND MUNTINS TUBULAR
METAL
members (muntins), doweled as in NWWDA standards. Typical profiles used are cove, bead, or ovolo. PERIMETER
Stock material includes ponderosa pine or other Western STILE
pine, fir, hemlock, or spruce and hardwood veneers. Hard- OR RAIL
board, metal, and plastic facings are available in patterns PANELS FINISH
simulating panel doors. METAL
Flat panels are typically 3-ply hardwood or softwood. FACE
Raised panels are constructed of solid hardwood or soft- SHEET

GRADES wood built up of two or more plies. Doors 1 ft 6 in. wide or


less are one panel wide.
Premium (select) grade is used for natural, clear, or stained
finishes. Exposed wood is free of defects that affect
appearance. ADA ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES
Standard grade is used for opaque finishes. Defects, discol- For opening width compliance, use doors 3 ft 0 in. wide. STRUCTURAL
FACE PLY
oration, mixed species, and finger joints are permitted if Door projections, such as Dutch door shelves, may be no
undetectable after finishing. more than 4 in. if more than 27 in. above finished floor.
Thresholds and saddles must be no higher than 1/2 in. with BEVEL
EDGE
beveled edges. Kickplates are recommended outdoors CHANNEL
GLAZING along accessible routes.

All glazing in doors must be safety glazing. Insulated glazing HOLLOW METAL DOOR STILE AND
is available. RAIL DETAIL
RAIL (HORIZONTAL MEMBERS)

GLAZING, EITHER
TOP RAIL SINGLE-GLAZED PANEL
WITH REMOVABLE
MUNTINS OR
STILE (VERTICAL MEMBERS) INDIVIDUALLY GLAZED
PANES WITH TRUE
DIVIDED LIGHT
HINGE STILE MUNTINS

LOCK STILE
FULL GLAZED PANEL
(TEMPERED GLASS
(STORM/SCREEN DOOR, ADD 1”)

MEETING STILE (PASSIVE/


STATIONARY LEAF) AS REQUIRED)
LOCK (CROSS) RAIL
PANEL (DISTINCT SECTION
ENCLOSED BY FRAMEWORK)

GLAZING PANEL
6’-8”, 7’-0”, AND 8’-0”

FLAT PANEL
FULL LOUVERED PANEL
RAISED PANEL

MUNTIN (NONSTRUCTURAL
MEMBER WITHIN FRAME
OF DOOR)

BOTTOM RAIL

INTERIOR: 1’-0”, 1’-4”, 1’-6”, NOTE


2’-0”, 2’-4”, 2’-8”, 3’-0”
EXTERIOR: 2’-6”, 2’-8”, 3’-0”
Tempered or laminated safety glass

INTERIOR: 13/8 , 1 3/ 4” should be used in glazed panels.
EXTERIOR: 13/4” , 21 / 4”
STORM/SCREEN DOOR: 11/8”, 13/8”
TYPICAL SIZES AND CHARACTERISTICS FRENCH DOOR GLAZED/LOUVERED DOOR
STILE AND RAIL DOOR TYPES
VENEERED WOOD PANEL GLAZING (TEMPERED,
INSULATED, ETC. AS
NECESSARY)
VENEERED
BEVELED
RAISED SOLID STILE/RAIL FRAME BEAD STOP
PANEL WITH INTEGRAL OR MOLDING FOR
APPLIED MOLDING INTERIOR USE

MOLDING
MOLDED MUNTIN
SOLID MOLDED
FRAME WITH FLAT
VENEERED PANEL
1
/8” MIRROR (TEMPERED
AS REQUIRED)
PUTTY STOP FOR
EXTERIOR USE
VENEER/ APPLIED MOLDING,
FINISH EACH SIDE
PLY
SOLID FRAME WITH
STILE INTEGRAL MOLDING
VENEERED STOP
OR RAIL FLAT PANEL

CROSS-BANDING PLY
VENEERED
HARDWOOD CORE BUILTUP FRAME

FINISH WOOD EDGE MIRRORED PANEL GLAZED DOOR


TYPICAL BEVELED RAISED PANEL STILE AND RAIL DOOR DETAILS
DOOR
Jeffrey R. Vandevoort, Talbott Wilson Associates, Inc.; Houston Texas
Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

10 WOOD AND PLASTIC DOORS


RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:16 PM Page 397

Door Leaf Characterisitcs 397


GENERAL DEFINITIONS SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Consider the following when designing a door: aesthetics ACTIVE LEAF: the primary operating leaf of a door pair. (VARIOUS DOOR WIDTHS—IN.)
(the design and look of the door), operation (how the door 34 36 38 40 42 44
moves), fire-resistance ratings/egress requirements, acces- AIR CURTAIN: a mechanically produced downward stream X 21 1/4 23 1/4 25 1/4 23 1/4 25 1/4 27 1/4
sibility for people with disabilities, size and weight, location, of air across a door opening intended to prevent transmis-
materials/method of construction, glazing requirements, sion of heat and weather. Y 12 3/4 16 1/4
special requirements (sound transmission, containment of Z 7 1/ 8 8 7/8
harmful material such as x-rays or projectiles), security AUTOMATIC DOOR: a door fully or partially operated with
issues, energy conservation, electrostatic grounding, hard- an external mechanism (door opener) triggered by sensor
PIVOT ARM
ware, and weatherproofing. or switch/button, as opposed to manual operation; refer to IN HEAD
accessibility and fire code requirements. PIVOT ARM AND FLOOR
AT FLOOR
Refer to local, state, and federal codes and trade associa- LOCATED
tion and manufacturers’ specifications and recommenda- HAND: denotes direction of door movement. IN JAMB C
L OF DOOR
tions for additional information and requirements. AND PIVOT
HARDWARE
LEAF: a door panel.
DOOR SWING
DIRECTION LEFT-HINGED DOOR: a door with hinges mounted on the
SYMBOL left stile of the active panel. Z
Y
PASSIVE/INACTIVE DOOR: a door that operates indepen-
dently of and secondarily to the active leaf of a door pair;
normally held closed with floor and head bolts; the strike X
plate of this door receives the latch of the active leaf.
HINGE
SIDE
PREHUNG DOOR: door and frame combination fabricated DOOR SWING
and assembled by the manufacturer and shipped to the NOTE ROUTE OF TRAVEL
site.
LATCH OR
A balanced door is a single-action swinging door mounted
STRIKE RIGHT-HINGED DOOR: a door with hinges mounted on the on offset pivots. The leaf operates independently of the
SIDE
right stile of the active panel. jamb, and the elliptical trajectory of the leaf requires less
clear floor space than a conventional swinging door.
STATIONARY (FIXED) DOOR: a nonoperational leaf. BALANCED DOOR
LOCKSET

STOPS PERMIT SWING


DOOR HINGE SIDE IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY
SWING OF DOOR AND SEAL OPENING
ROUTE OF THERMALLY AND
TRAVEL ACOUSTICALLY
PIVOT POINT (PIVOT
CLEAR HARDWARE IN
OPENING DOOR LEAF FLOOR AND HEAD
OR DOUBLE-ACTING
HINGES IN JAMB)
NOTE
Doors that swing, the most common type of door opera-
tion, rotate around an axis determined by hinges or pivots.
DOOR AND OPENING
CHARACTERISTICS

LATCH NO STOP
PARALLEL BEVEL RABBETED DOOR SWING OR STRIKE DOOR SWING USED
ROUTE OF SIDE OF ROUTE OF
TRAVEL DOOR TRAVEL
SINGLE-ACTING DOOR DOUBLE-ACTING DOOR
BEVEL “T” ASTRAGAL
NOTE Double-acting doors have a leaf that operates in two direc-
tions. There is usually no stop present to restrict the motion
The single-acting door, the most common door type, has a of the door, but when the door can be stopped, it can be
leaf that operates in a swinging or sliding motion in only released mechanically to permit access in an emergency.
STRAIGHT ASTRAGAL one direction.
MEETING EDGE TYPES FOR DOUBLE SINGLE DOOR LEAF TYPES
DOOR LEAVES
PASSIVE (INACTIVE) LEAF
RECEIVES ACTIVE LEAF
LATCH; MAY HAVE FLOOR
AND HEAD THROW BOLTS

THROW BOLT

MEETING EDGES
MEETING EDGES
ACTIVE
LEAF ACTIVE LEAF
ACTIVE LEAF

DOOR SWING
ROUTE OF DOOR SWING
TRAVEL, TYP. ROUTE OF
TRAVEL, TYP.

SPECIAL
DOUBLE-EGRESS
FRAME

DOUBLE-EGRESS DOORS DOUBLE OR PAIRED DOORS

NOTE
Double-egress doors have a pair of swinging leaves that Double or paired doors have two leaves (of equal or dently. They create a doorway with variable widths suitable
operate in opposite directions, permitting equal access to unequal size). that operate either together or indepen- for differing occupancy/egress requirements.
two or more means of passage.
DOUBLE DOOR LEAF TYPES
Richard J. Vitullo, AIA; Oak Leaf Studio; Crownsville, Maryland
Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

WOOD AND PLASTIC DOORS 10


RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:16 PM Page 398

398 Swinging and Sliding Doors

SWINGING
DOOR

SILL OR
THRESHOLD
DOOR SWING
ROUTE OF TRAVEL
POCKET DOOR SURFACE-MOUNTED DOOR BYPASS DOORS
NOTE
Swinging doors rotate on hinges or pivots, require adequate
NOTE
floor space to accommodate outswing, and are used for Wood, metal, or glass doors that slide horizontally or verti- floor space requirements of swinging doors. See codes for
egress openings. See codes for requirements. cally on tracks create totally clear openings without the egress requirements.
SWINGING DOORS SLIDING DOORS
TOP LEAF MAY
METAL CLIPS,
2’-7”, 2’-9” SWING 180° CONCEALED
AS NECESSARY,
3’-1” 5’-0”, 6’-0” 8’-0”, 9’-0” HINGES
FASTENED TO
WALL STRUCTURE
6’-8”, 7’-0”, 8’-0”

METAL TRACK
SHELF

TOUCH LATCH ADJUSTABLE


OR CONCEALED TROLLEY (2 PER
CLOSER DOOR)

SLIDING DOOR
BOLT TO DOOR TRACK
ENABLE
ROLLER
SWINGING DOOR SIZES BOTH HALVES
TO WORK
TOGETHER

BEVELED EDGES
ON TRIM TO ROLLER
PERMIT OPERATION ROLLER STRIP
DUTCH DOOR CONCEALED DOOR FLOOR GUIDES
SPECIAL SWINGING DOORS HARDWARE FOR BYPASS DOORS
WOOD
FRAME
HEADER
METAL TRACK STRUCTURE

METAL TRACK
HEAD
ADJUSTABLE
TROLLEY
BYPASSING
SEALANT AND DOORS
BACKER ROD
WOOD CASING
CONCEALS HEAD
SUPPORT
SHIM AS ABOVE
REQUIRED HEAD
SHIM SPACE

GLAZED 2X STUDS
DOOR TURNED
SIDEWAYS
AT 16” O.C.

JAMB CASING
WITH OPTIONAL
RETRACTABLE RECESS
JAMB JAMB DOOR PULL JAMB
IN DOOR EDGE

SCREEN DOOR FLOOR GUIDE


AND FRAME SLIDING DOOR
CLIPS, AS
UNIT NECESSARY

OPTIONAL
THRESHOLD RECESSSED
ROLLER AND
TRACK FOR
HEAVY OR
LARGE DOORS
SILL SILL SILL

DETAIL—EXTERIOR SWINGING DOOR DETAIL—SLIDING POCKET DETAIL—BYPASS DOOR

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

10 WOOD AND PLASTIC DOORS


RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:16 PM Page 399

Folding, Glass, and Combination Doors 399

RECESSED WOOD OR METAL TUBULAR


2’-6”, 2’-8”, STILE AND RAIL DOOR
METAL TRACK 2’-6”, 3’-0” HOLLOW METAL 3’-0” (THICKNESS: 13/8”, 13/4”)
FRAME
(THICKNESS: 13/4”)
ROTATING CLEATS
2” (6” MIN. PER PANEL)

WOOD
BLOCKING AS LATCHSET OR
NECESSARY CONCEALED
INTERCONNECTED

6’-8”, 7’-0”, 8’-0”


HEAD AND
3’-0”, 5’-0”, 6’-0”, SILL BOLTS
ACCORDION 10’-0”, TYP.

6’-8”, 7’-0”, 8’-0”


DOOR HEAD FRAMED
GLAZED
STORM
GLAZING, PANEL;
TEMPERED TEMPERED
AS REQUIRED AS
REQUIRED
31/4” MIN.

FRAMED
SCREEN PANEL
11/4”
6’-8”, 7’-0”, 8’-0”

TYPICAL FRAMED DOOR


SOLID RAIL/STILE
WOOD FRAME
2’-6”, 3’-0” HEAD LOCK
(METAL TUBE
BOLT
SIMILAR)

ROTATING CLEATS
CONTINUOUS
ACCORDION DOOR TOP RAIL
(THICKNESS: SOLID WOOD
(WOOD, METAL,
13/4”) FRAME WITH
FABRIC-COVERED,
INTEGRAL
PLASTIC, ETC.)
NOTE GLAZING STOP

Accordion doors are multipaneled units of relatively narrow CORNER PATCH


wood or fabric that are hinged together. Track-guided hang- RAIL TOP AND TEMPERED
BOTTOM GLAZING
ers/trolleys and optional jamb-side pivots allow the entire OR SCREEN
(OPTIONAL)
assembly to fold together like an accordion. The stacking
distance of the panels when open may encroach upon the
clear opening dimension or be concealed in a recessed PUSH/PULL DETAIL
6’-8”, 7’-0”, 8’-0”

pocket. Sizes vary from traditional doorways to room divid- BARS


ers. Accordion doors require less floor space than swing
doors. Refer to codes for egress requirements.
TEMPERED DOOR WITH REMOVABLE STORM/
TYPICAL ACCORDION DOOR GLAZING SCREEN PANEL
REQUIRED
7
/8” TO 13/4” 2’-6”, 2’-8”,
ROLLER (OR 3’-0”
SLIDING PIVOT) CONTINUOUS
BOTTOM RAIL
13
/16” TO (THICKNESS: METAL
13/4”) TUBULAR
11/4” METAL TRACK STILE AND
SURFACE-MOUNTED RAIL FRAME
(THICKNESS:
SILL LOCK BOLT 11/8”, 13/8”, 13/4”)
1’-6”, 2’-0”, METAL
2’-6”, 3’-0” TRACK
BIFOLD DOOR AT HEAD SUPPLEMENTAL
6’-8”, 7’-0”, 8’-0”
HEAD STRUCTURAL
ANGLES, AS
REQUIRED VERTICALLY
SLIDING MESH
CEILING SCREEN AND
FINISH GLASS
(TEMPERED AS
REQUIRED)
HEADER
PANELS
TUBE FRAME
2”±
1
/ 8” PIVOT
2” TO
6”
TOP RAIL
(THCIKNESS:
11/8” MIN.)
6’-8”, 7’0”, 8’-0”

HEAD
HOLLOW METAL
WALL TUBE FRAME
1
/8” MIN. (WOOD SIMILAR)
CLEARANCE
JAMB
METAL
1
/2” TO 3/4” TRIPLE-TRACK
WOOD TEMPERED GUIDE FOR
(OR METAL) GLAZING, VERTICAL
DOOR PANELS 1/ ” MIN.
8 TYP. SLIDING PANELS
(THICKNESS: CLEARANCE
11/8”, 13/8”, 13/4”) MEETING
EDGES
METAL BASE TRACK (OPTIONAL) WIRE OR PLASTIC
BOTTOM FABRIC SCREEN
RAIL
2” TO
NOTE 6” PIVOT
Bifold doors are wood or metal door pairs hinged together SILL
TEMPERED
with pivots at the jamb. Track-guided hangers/trolleys allow GLAZING PANELS
1
/4” MIN.
the doors to fold against each other when they open. Bifold CLEARANCE
LOCATION OF CONCEALED
doors require less floor space than swing doors, but the DETAIL
RECESSED FLOOR-MOUNTED
thickness of the door panels reduces the clear opening. CLOSER, IF DESIRED DETAIL
TYPICAL BIFOLD DOOR TYPICAL ALL-GLASS DOOR COMBINATION STORM/SCREEN DOOR

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

WOOD AND PLASTIC DOORS 10


RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 400

400 Upward-Acting Sectional Doors


STANDARD WIDTHS: STANDARD WIDTHS: STANDARD WIDTHS: HEADROOM FOR OPERATOR
8’-0”, 9’-0”, 10’-0”, 17’-0”, 8’-0”, 9’-0”, 10’-0”, 17’-0”, 8’-0”, 9’-0”, 10’-0”, 15’-0”, 16’-0”, 10’-8”
18’-0”, 20’-0”, 24’-0” 18’-0”, 20’-0”, 24’-0” 17’-0”, 18’-0”, 20’-0”, 24’-0” LINTEL
3”

1’-11/2”
STANDARD HEIGHTS:

DOOR HEIGHT
6’-6”, 6’-9”, 7’-0”

PLUS 1’-6”
(UP TO 18’-0”)

TRACK WITH

OPENING HEIGHT
CARRIAGE AND
CHAIN DRIVE MOTOR
OPERATOR
DRAWBAR WITH
EMERGENCY
RELEASE
CABLE
FLUSH PANELED/GLAZED RIBBED STOP MOLD
NOTES 2. Glazing may be safety glass, plexiglass, or wired glass.
1. Standard commercial doors are designed to wind loads 3. Motor operators may be turned on and off by remote
of 20 lb/sq ft. electrical switch, radio signal, photoelectrical control, or
key lock switch for security.
UPWARD-ACTING SECTIONAL DOORS INSTALLATION DETAILS
TRACK
PANEL

STILE SOLID WOOD TRACK


(HINGE STILES AT BRACKET
ATTACHED) HINGES
DOOR
WOOD
JAMB
SHIPLAP SHIPLAP
MEETING MEETING
RAILS MASONRY
RAILS JAMB

1
/ 4” 1” 8” MIN.
INSULATION
HARDBOARD CORE CENTER POST
PANEL DETAIL
(OR GLAZING) AT JAMB DOOR
SECTION

8” THICK
1/

STOP HARDBOARD,
EACH SIDE SECTIONAL
HINGE AT
JAMB

BOTTOM
RAIL BOTTOM
RAIL MEETING
RAIL
JOINT

WOOD FLUSH
PANEL 13/8” OR WOOD 1 3/ 4” 2”
13/4” DIAMETER
SIDE ROLLER
NOTE NOTE TRACK
Typical maximum width for wood panel sectional doors is Typical maximum width for flush wood sectional doors is
24 ft (6 panels); typical maximum height is 18 ft (9 sec- 24 ft (6 panels); typical maximum height is 18 ft (9 sec-
tions). tions). HINGE AND ROLLER AT JAMB
WOOD SECTIONAL DOORS SECTIONAL DOOR DETAILS
PANEL PANEL
PANEL

STILE CENTER STILE


STILE (HINGE
STRAP ATTACHED)
(HINGE
MEETING ATTACHED)
RAILS
STEEL OR
MEETING ALUMINUM
RAILS MEETING
GLAZED RAILS
OR SOLID
PANEL SMALL
RIBBED
PATTERN FIBERGLASS
PANEL
ALUMINUM
RAIL LARGE
(0.06” MIN. RIBBED
THICKNESS) STEEL RIBBED
SECTION PANEL
(2O GAUGE OR SECTION
24 GAUGE, TYP.)
BULB-TYPE
WEATHERSEAL
OPTIONAL REAR STEEL OR
STEEL PANEL ALUMINUM
FOR INSULATED BOTTOM
CORE SECTION RAIL
2” 2”
2”
ALUMINUM STEEL METAL AND
FIBERGLASS
NOTE NOTE NOTE
Typical maximum width for aluminum sectional doors is 18 Typical maximum width for steel sectional doors is 24 ft (7 Typical maximum width for metal and fiberglass sectional
ft (5 panels); typical maximum height is 14 ft (7 sections). panels); typical maximum height is 18 ft (9 sections). doors is 20 ft (6 panels); typical maximum height is 16 ft (8
sections).
METAL SECTIONAL DOORS

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

10 SPECIALTY DOORS
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 401

Windows: An Introduction 401


DEFINITIONS EMITTANCE: the ratio of the radiant energy emitted by a REFLECTANCE: the ratio of reflected radiant energy to inci-
surface to that emitted by a blackbody at the same temper- dent radiant energy.
ABSORPTANCE: the ratio of radiant energy absorbed by a ature and under the same conditions.
glazing system to the total incident radiant energy in it. R-VALUE: a measure of the resistance of a glazing material
GAS FILL: a gas other than air, usually argon or krypton, or fenestration assembly to heat flow. It is the inverse of
AIR LEAKAGE RATING: a measure of the rate of infiltration placed between window or skylight panes to suppress con- the U-factor (R = 1/U) and is expressed in units of hr x sq ft
around a window or skylight in the presence of a specific air duction and convection and thus reduce the U-factor. x °F/Btu. A high-R-value window has a greater resistance to
pressure difference. It is expressed in units of cubic feet heat flow and a higher insulating value than one with a low
per minute per square foot of window area (cfm/sq ft) or LIGHT-TO-SOLAR-GAIN RATIO (LSG): a measure of the R-value.
cubic feet per minute per foot of window perimeter length ability of glazing to provide light without excessive solar
(cfm/ft). The lower the air leakage rating of a window, the heat gain. It is the ratio between the visible transmittance SHADING COEFFICIENT (SC): a measure of the ability of a
more airtight it is. of a glazing material and its solar heat gain coefficient. window or skylight to transmit solar heat relative to that
ability for 1/8-in., clear, double-strength, single glass. This
COMPOSITE FRAME: a frame made of two or more materi- LOW-CONDUCTANCE SPACERS: an assembly of materials measure is being phased out in favor of the solar heat gain
als—for example, a frame that is wood on the interior and designed to reduce heat transfer at the edge of an insulat- coefficient. The SC is approximately equal to the SHGC
fiberglass on the exterior. ing window. Spacers are placed between the panes of multiplied by 1.15 and is expressed as a number without
glass in a double- or triple-glazed window. units between 0 and 1. The lower a window’s solar heat
DOUBLE GLAZING: in general, two thicknesses of glass gain coefficient or shading coefficient, the less solar heat it
separated by an air space within an opening intended to LOW-EMITTANCE (LOW-E) COATING: microscopically transmits and the greater shading ability it has.
improve insulation against heat transfer and/or sound trans- thin, virtually invisible metal or metallic oxide layers depos-
mission. In factory-made double-glazed units, the air ited on a window or skylight glazing surface primarily SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC): the fraction of
between the glass sheets is thoroughly dried and the space intended to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative incident solar radiation admitted through a window or sky-
is sealed airtight, eliminating possible condensation and heat flow. A typical type of low-E coating is transparent to light, including both directly transmitted radiation and that
providing superior insulating properties. the solar spectrum (visible light and short-wave infrared absorbed and subsequently released inward. The SHGC
radiation) but reflects long-wave infrared radiation. has replaced the shading coefficient as the standard indica-
tor of a window’s shading ability. It is expressed as a num-
ber between 0 and 1. The lower a window’s solar heat gain
coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits and the greater
its shading ability. The SHGC can be expressed in terms of
the glass alone or can refer to the entire window assembly.

SPECTRALLY SELECTIVE GLAZING: a coated or tinted


glazing with optical properties that are transparent to some
wavelengths of energy and reflective to others. Typical
DORMER
spectrally selective coatings are transparent to visible light
WINDOW and reflect short-wave and long-wave infrared radiation.
Usually the term spectrally selective is applied to glazings
that reduce heat gain while providing substantial daylight.

SUPERWINDOW: a window with a very low U-factor, typi-


cally less than 0.15, achieved through the use of multiple
CLERESTORY glazings, low-E coatings, and gas fills.

INTERNAL TRANSMITTANCE: the percentage of radiation that can


DORMER pass through glazing. It can be defined for different types of
light or energy, e.g., visible light transmittance, UV trans-
mittance, or total solar energy transmittance.
SKYLIGHT
RIBBON
WINDOW U-FACTOR (U-VALUE): a measure of the rate of nonsolar
heat loss or gain through a material or assembly. It is
expressed in units of Btu/hr x sq ft x °F (W/sq m x °C). Val-
ues are normally given for NFRC/ASHRAE winter conditions
of 0°F (18°C) outdoor temperature, 70°F (21°C) indoor tem-
perature, 15 mph wind, and no solar load. The U-factor may
be expressed for the glass alone or the entire window,
which includes the effect of the frame and the spacer
materials. The lower the U-factor, the greater a window’s
resistance to heat flow and the better its insulating value.

VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE (VT): the percentage or fraction


of the visible spectrum (380 to 720 nanometers) weighted
by the sensitivity of the eye that is transmitted through the
glazing.
MUNTINS
MULLION
PICTURE
WINDOW
TOP RAIL
STILE

WINDOW
WALL

BORROWED
LIGHT AT
PASS-THROUGH
WINDOW

BAY WINDOW

BOW WINDOW
SASH

WINDOW SEAT
WINDOW FRAME
ORIEL WINDOW
BOTTOM RAIL

3. INTERNAL DORMER: a vertical window set below the


NOTES
NOTES
line of a sloped roof. 1. MULLION: a slender vertical member separating lights,
1. BORROWED LIGHT: an interior wall opening or window sashes, windows, or doors.
that allows light to be transferred into another space. 4. ORIEL WINDOW: a bay window supported by brackets,
corbeling, or cantilevers. 2. MUNTIN: nonstructural members separating panes
2. CLERESTORY: the portion of a wall above an adjacent within a sash; also called a glazing bar or sash bar.
roof level; a fixed or operable window located in this part 5. WINDOW WALL: a continuous series of fixed or opera-
of a wall. ble sash, separated by mullions, that form an entire non- 3. SASH: the basic unit of a window, consisting of frame,
load-bearing wall surface. glazing, and gasketing; may be stationary or operable.
WINDOW CONFIGURATIONS PARTS OF A WINDOW
John Carmody, University of Minnesota; Minneapolis, Minnesota
Stephen Selkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Berkeley, California

WINDOWS 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 402

402 Windows: An Introduction


WINDOW SELECTION TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS
Architects choose fenestration products based on many A series of innovations has resulted in more energy gain and
INSULATED
unique priorities and circumstances. Nonetheless, a number loss control in the window assembly or glass itself. Some GLAZING UNIT
of common considerations apply to most situations. Factors technological innovations currently appearing in fenestration
affecting window choice are products are outlined here:
LOW-EMITTANCE
COATINGS
APPEARANCE: size and shape, operating type and style, 1. Glazing unit structure: Additional layers of glass or sus-
frame materials, glass color and clarity. pended plastic film improve thermal resistance and reduce
heat loss attributed to convection between window layers. LOW-CONDUCTANCE
FUNCTION: visible light transmittance (provision of daylight), Additional layers provide more surfaces for low-E or solar GAS FILLS
glare control, reduction in fading from ultraviolet radiation, control coatings. SOLAR CONTROL
thermal comfort, resistance to condensation, ventilation, 2. Low-emittance coatings: Low-E coatings are highly trans- GLAZINGS AND
sound control, maintenance, and durability. COATINGS
parent and virtually invisible but have a high rate of
reflectance (low emittance) with long-wavelength infrared SUSPENDED
ENERGY PERFORMANCE: U-value; solar heat gain coefficient radiation. This reduces long-wavelength heat transfer PLASTIC FILM
(SHGC), which is replacing the shading coefficient; air leak- between glazing layers by a factor of 5 to 10, which reduces WARM EDGE
age; annual heating and cooling season performance; and total heat transfer between the layers. Low-E coatings may SPACERS
peak load impacts. be applied directly to glass surfaces or to plastic film, which
is then suspended in the air cavity between the interior and
COST: initial cost of window units and installation, mainte- exterior glazing layers.
nance and replacement costs, effect on heating and cooling
plant costs, and cost of annual heating and cooling energy. 3. Low-conductance gas fills: When a low-E coating is used,
Many designers and homeowners find it difficult to assess the heat transfer across a gap is dominated by conduction and
impacts of choosing a more energy-efficient window. natural convection. While air is a relatively good insulator,
Although some basic thermal and optical properties (U-factor, other gases (such as argon, krypton, and carbon dioxide)
solar heat gain coefficient, and air leakage rate) can be identi- have lower thermal conductivities. Using one of these non-
toxic gases in an insulating glass unit can reduce heat THERMALLY
fied if a window is properly labeled (see AGS page that IMPROVED
discusses NFRC labels), this information does not tell how transfer between glazing layers.
SASH AND FRAME
these properties influence annual energy use for heating and 4. Solar control glazings and coatings: To reduce cooling loads,
cooling. This must be determined by using an annual energy specify new types of tinted glass and new coatings that IMPROVED
rating system or by computer simulation. reduce the effect of the sun’s heat without sacificing views. WEATHER STRIPPING
Spectrally selective glazings and coatings absorb and reflect MANUFACTURED WINDOW
the infrared portion of sunlight while transmitting visible COMPONENTS
MANUFACTURED WINDOW UNITS daylight, thus reducing solar heat gain coefficients and
resultant cooling loads. Solar control coatings can also have
The manufactured window units discussed here have a self- low-emittance characteristics.
contained frame and glazing assembly that can be installed in
a wall or roof opening. Used in almost all residential buildings, 5. Warm edge spacers: Heat transfer through metal spacers
100
manufactured window units are fabricated with a variety of used to separate glazing layers can increase heat loss and
glazing, frame, and operating types. cause condensation to form at the edge of the window.
90
“Warm edge” spacers use new materials and better design
Technical innovations in glazing and frame design have to reduce this effect. E 1
80 NOT

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)


improved window performance considerably in recent years, 6. Thermally improved sash and frame: Traditional sash and
and determining window performance regarding heat loss, frame designs contribute to heat loss and can represent a 70 2
TE
heat gain, and daylight can be complex. Key window perform- large fraction of the total loss when high-performance glass NO
ance characteristics are the U-value, which indicates the rate is used. New materials and improved designs can reduce 60
of heat loss and gain; the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), this loss. TE
3 4
which indicates the rate of heat gain; the air leakage rate; and 50 NO TE
7. Improved weatherstripping: Weatherstripping today is NO
visible transmittance, which indicates the amount of daylight made of more durable materials that will provide improved
that passes through the window. The SHGC is replacing the reduction in air leakage over a longer time period than did 40
shading coefficient (SC) as an index for measuring heat gain materials in the past. 5
through windows. 30 TE
O
N
When selecting windows, it is important to remember that 20
these characteristics are sometimes given for the glazing STANDARDS
alone and sometimes for the whole window unit. To reduce 10
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL MANUFACTURERS
confusion, the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) ASSOCIATION (AAMA)
certifies and labels the performance of manufactured window -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
and skylight units based on whole window values. AAMA 910-93, Voluntary Life Cycle Specifications and Test
Methods for Architectural Grade Windows and Sliding Glass OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE (°F)
Doors.
NOTES
AAMA 1503-98, Voluntary Test Method for Thermal
GLASS Transmittance and Condensation Resistance of Windows, 1. Triple-glazed windows with two low-E coatings and
Doors and Glazed Wall Sections. argon gas fill.
STAINLESS STEEL
SPACER (LOWER AAMA TIR-A10-1992, Wind Loads on Components and 2. Double-glazed windows with a low-E coating and argon
CONDUCTIVITY
Cladding for Buildings Less Than 90 Feet Tall. gas fill.
THAN ALUMINUM)
3. Double-glazed windows with a low-E coating.
PRIMARY sealant AAMA CW-RS-1-96, The Rain Screen Principle and Pressure
DESICCANT Equalized Wall Design. 4. Double-glazed windows.
SECONDARY AAMA CW 11-1985, Design Wind Loads for Buildings and 5. Single-glazed windows.
SEALANT Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Testing.
WARM EDGE SPACER CONDITIONS THAT LEAD TO
ANSI/AAMA/NWWDA 101/I.S. 2-97, Voluntary Specifications CONDENSATION ON WINDOWS
for Aluminum, Vinyl (PVC), and Wood Windows and Glass
GLASS
Doors.
ANSI/AAMA 1002.10-93, Voluntary Specifications for CONDENSATION POTENTIAL
METAL SPACER Insulating Storm Products for Windows and Sliding Glass
(ALUMINUM, TYP.)
Doors. The chart above shows the potential for condensation on glaz-
ing (at the center of glass) at various outdoor temperature and
DESICCANT NATIONAL FENESTRATION RATING COUNCIL indoor relative humidity conditions. Condensation can occur at
(NFRC) any point on or above the curves. (Note: All air spaces are 1 /2
SEALANT NFRC 100 (1997 edition), Procedure for Determining in.; all coatings are E = 0.10.)
Fenestration Product Thermal Properties (Currently Limited to
U-Values). EXAMPLE: At 20°F (-7°C) outside, condensation will form on
CONVENTIONAL SPACER
NFRC 100-91, Section B: Procedure for Determining Door the inner surface of double glazing when the indoor relative
System Product Thermal Properties (Currently Limited to U- humidity is 52 percent or higher. It will form at an indoor rela-
NOTE Values). tive humidity of 70 percent or higher if a double-pane window
with a low-E coating and argon fill is used.
The layers of glazing in an insulating unit must be held apart NFRC 200-95, Procedure for Determining Fenestration
with spacers. Conventional metal spacers reduce the ther- Product Solar Heat Gain Coefficients at Normal Incidence.
mal performance of the glazing unit, but new “warm edge”
spacers reduce heat loss and condensation with the use of NFRC 300-94, Procedures for Determining Solar Optical
new designs and materials. The spacer must accommodate Properties of Simple Fenestration Products.
stress induced by thermal expansion and pressure differ- NFRC 301-93, Standard Test Method for Emittance of
ences, provide a moisture barrier that prevents fog in the Specular Surfaces Using Spectrometric Measurements.
unit, prevent loss of any low-conductance gas from the air NFRC 400-95, Procedure for Determining Fenestration
space, and create an insulating barrier that reduces the for- Product Air Leakage.
mation of interior condensation at the edge.
INSULATED GLASS EDGE SPACER
John Carmody, University of Minnesota; Minneapolis, Minnesota
Stephen Selkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories; Berkeley, California

10 WINDOWS
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 403

Energy Performance of Glazing Assemblies 403


GENERAL PROPERTIES OF COMMON WINDOW ASSEMBLIES
The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) has developed SOLAR HEAT
a fenestration energy rating system based on whole product GLAZING U-FACTOR GAIN COEF- VISIBLE
performance. The system accurately accounts for the energy- FRAME NUMBER OF DESCRIP- GAP (BTU/HR-SQ FICIENT TRANSMIT-
TYPE* GLAZINGS TIONS† (IN.) GAS‡ FT-ºF) (SHGC) TANCE(VT)
related effects of all of a product’s component parts and
prevents misleading comparisons of information about a single AL 1 Clear NA NA 1.25 0.76 0.74
component with whole product properties. At this time, NFRC AL 1 Bronze NA NA 1.25 0.65 0.56
labels on window units give ratings for U-value, solar heat gain AL 2 Clear 0.375 Air 0.79 0.68 0.67
coefficient, visible light transmittance, and air leakage.
AL 2 Bronze 0.375 Air 0.79 0.57 0.50
In 1989 the NFRC was established to develop a fair, accurate, AL 2 HP tint 0.375 Air 0.79 0.46 0.57
and credible rating system for fenestration products. State AL 2 HS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.64 0.64 0.62
energy codes began to incorporate NFRC procedures in 1992,
and the National Energy Policy Act provided for the develop- AL 2 MS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.61 0.49 0.62
ment of a national rating system. The U.S. Department of AL 2 LS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.60 0.38 0.57
Energy has certified the NFRC procedures as the national rat- ATB 1 Clear NA NA 1.08 0.70 0.69
ing system, and it is referenced in and being incorporated in ATB 1 Bronze NA NA 1.08 0.60 0.52
the Model Energy Code and ASHRAE Standards 90.1 and 90.2.
ATB 2 Clear 0.50 Air 0.64 0.62 0.62
ATB 2 Bronze 0.50 Air 0.64 0.52 0.47
World’s Best
Window ATB 2 HP tint 0.50 Air 0.64 0.41 0.53
Company ATB 2 HS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.52 0.58 0.57
Millennium ATB 2 MS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.49 0.45 0.58
2000+Casement ATB 2 LS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.48 0.34 0.53
Vinyl-Clad Wood Frame W/V 1 Clear NA NA 0.90 0.63 0.64
• Double Glaze W/V 1 Bronze NA NA 0.90 0.54 0.48
• Argon Fill W/V 2 Clear 0.50 Air 0.49 0.56 0.58
• Low-E
W/V 2 Bronze 0.50 Air 0.49 0.46 0.44
ENERGY Performance
W/V 2 HP tint 0.50 Air 0.49 0.37 0.49
• Energy savings will
depend on your W/V 2 HS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.36 0.52 0.53
specific climate, W/V 2 MS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.33 0.40 0.53
house, and lifestyle W/V 2 LS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.32 0.30 0.50
• For more information, call [manufacturer’s phone number] or W/V 3 MS super 0.50 Argon 0.26 0.38 0.46
visit NFRC’s Web site at www.nfrc.org W/V 3 LS super 0.50 Argon 0.24 0.25 0.40
INS 2 Clear 0.50 Air 0.44 0.59 0.62
ENERGY
RATING INS 2 Bronze 0.50 Air 0.44 0.49 0.47
FACTORS RESIDENTIAL NONRESIDENTIAL INS 2 HP tint 0.50 Air 0.44 0.38 0.53
U-factor .32 .31 INS 2 HS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.30 0.55 0.57
Solar heat gain .45 .45 INS 2 MS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.27 0.42 0.58
coefficient
INS 2 LS low-E 0.50 Argon 0.26 0.31 0.53
Visible .58 .60
INS 3 MS super 0.50 Argon 0.18 0.39 0.49
transmittance
Air leakage .3 .3 INS 3 LS super 0.50 Argon 0.17 0.26 0.43
Manufacturer stipulates that these ratings conform to applica- Source: John Carmody et al., Residential Windows: A Guide to New Technologies and Energy Performance, 2d ed. (W. W. Norton, 2000).
ble NFRC procedures for determining whole product energy *Frame Types: AL = aluminum; ATB = aluminum, thermally broken; W/V = wood/vinyl; INS = insulated frame
performance. NFRC ratings are determined for a fixed set of
†Glazing Descriptions: HP = high performance; HS = high-solar-gain low-E (e=0.15-0.20); LS = low-solar-gain (or “spectrally selective”)
environmental conditions and specific product uses.
low E (e=0.04); MS Super = 3-layer insulating glazing, two layers with high solar gain low-E coatings; LS Super = 3-layer insulating
NOTES glazing, two layers with low-solar-gain low-E coatings
1. Ratings of the basic thermal and optical properties of all fen- ‡Argon gas consists of 10% air, 90% argon.
estration products (windows, doors, skylights) must include NOTE
the effects of the glass, the sash, and the frame and be in
accordance with the appropriate National Fenestration The data are average properties for several commercially available products. Specific products will perform slightly above or below the
Rating Council (NFRC) standard. Products must be labeled average properties defined here. Users are encouraged to use these numbers only as a general guide and to use specific manufacturer’s
with ratings for these properties, and the manufacturer data (i.e., NFRC U-factors and solar heat gain coefficients) whenever possible.
must certify they are in accordance with the NFRC Product
Certification Program.
2. The NFRC standards for the basic thermal and optical prop-
erties of fenestration products are as follows: NFRC 100 for
the U-factor, NFRC 200 for the solar heat gain coefficient
(SHGC), NFRC 300 for visible light transmittance, and NFRC
400 for air leakage

NFRC WINDOW PRODUCT


IDENTIFICATION MARK

FRAME
GRID
BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL
GLAZING GLAZING
UNIT
MONOLITHIC BETWEEN EDGE OF
INSULATED MUNTINS GLASS
GLAZING EDGE
UNIT SPACER

CENTER OF
GLASS

MUNTIN MUNTIN

SIMULATED DIVIDED SIMULATED DIVIDED TRUE DIVIDED LIGHTS


LIGHT—MUNTINS LIGHTS—MUNTINS NOTE
ON ONE SIDE ON BOTH SIDES
The total window U-factor takes into account the glass
NOTE (edge of glass and center of glass) and the frame in a verti-
The energy performance of a window unit with muntins on muntins if the grid set between the lights is at least 1/8 in. cal position. Changing the mounting angle can affect the U-
both sides can be comparable to that of a unit with no away from both panes of glass. factor of a window.
DIVIDED LIGHT TYPES ZONES FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS
IN WINDOW ASSEMBLY
John Carmody, University of Minnesota; Minneapolis, Minnesota
Stephen Selkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories; Berkeley, California

WINDOWS 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 404

404 Energy Performance of Glazing Materials


PROPERTIES OF gamma rays. Beyond red light are the near-infrared, given solar heat gain should transmit adequate light in the visible por-
off by very hot objects, the far-infrared, given off by warm tion of the spectrum but exclude unnecessary heat gain from
GLAZING MATERIALS USED IN room-temperature objects, and the longer microwaves and the near-infrared part of the solar spectrum. On the other
MANUFACTURED WINDOW UNITS radio waves. hand, a window optimized for collecting solar heat gain in
Three things happen to solar radiation as it passes through winter should transmit the maximum amount of visible light
a glazing material: some is transmitted, some is reflected, Glazing types vary in their transparency to different parts of as well as heat from the near-infrared wavelengths in the
and the rest is absorbed. These three components deter- the spectrum. On the simplest level, a glass that appears to solar spectrum, while blocking the lower energy radiant heat
mine many of the other energy-performance properties of a be tinted green as you look through it toward the outside in the far-infrared range (an important heat-loss component).
glazing material. Manipulating the proportion of transmit- will transmit more sunlight from the green portion of the These are the strategies of low solar gain (spectrally selective)
tance, reflectance, and absorptance for different wave- visible spectrum and reflect/absorb more of the other col- and high solar gain (low-emittance) coatings, respectively.
lengths of solar radiation has been the source of much ors. Similarly, bronze-tinted glass will absorb the blues and
recent innovation in window energy performance. The four greens and transmit the warmer colors. Neutral gray tints
basic properties of glazing that affect radiant energy trans- absorb most colors equally. PERFORMANCE OF COMMON
fer are transmittance, reflectance, absorptance, and emit- GLAZING TYPES
tance. This same principle applies outside the visible spectrum.
Most glass is partially transparent to at least some ultravio- The figures on this page illustrate the solar heat gain and
Before the recent innovations in the technology of glass, let radiation, while plastics are commonly more opaque to visible light transmittance for common glazing types used
the primary property of glass was its ability to transmit visi- ultraviolet. Glass is opaque to far-infrared radiation but gen- in manufactured windows. The figures are for the center of
ble light, and its quality was judged by how clear it was. erally transparent to near-infrared. the glass only; the characteristics of the frame must be
However, as attention focused on improving the total included to obtain performance information on the whole
energy performance of glass, it became clear that transpar- With the recent advances in glazing technology, manufac- window unit. The darker arrows indicate the total transmit-
ency to visible light is only part of the picture. turers can control how glazing materials behave in different ted and total rejected solar energy. The lighter arrows indi-
areas of the spectrum. The basic properties of the sub- cate the amount of transmitted and reflected daylight.
Visible light is a small portion of the electromagnetic spec- strate material (glass or plastic) can be altered, and coatings Daylight that is neither transmitted nor reflected is
trum. Beyond the blues and purples lie ultraviolet radiation can be added to the surfaces of the substrates. For exam- absorbed. Not all low-E coatings are the same; use NFRC
and other higher energy short wavelengths, from X rays to ple, a window optimized for daylighting and for reducing rated and labeled values.

1/
2 ”

SOLAR
SOLAR RADIATION:
SOLAR RADIATION: heat
RADIATION: 76%
heat heat 73% TRANSMITTED
86% TRANSMITTED
TRANSMITTED SOLAR
SOLAR SOLAR
RADIATION: RADIATION:
RADIATION: 27%
14% 24%
REJECTED REJECTED
REJECTED
VISIBLE VISIBLE
VISIBLE LIGHT: LIGHT:
LIGHT: light 81%
68%
light 90% light TRANSMITTED TRANSMITTED
VISIBLE TRANSMITTED VISIBLE
LIGHT: VISIBLE LIGHT:
8% LIGHT: 13%
REFLECTED 7% REFLECTED
REFLECTED
CLEAR 1
/ 8”
BRONZE TINT 1
/ 8” CLEAR 1
/ 8” CLEAR 1
/8”

NOTE NOTE NOTE AIR

U-value=1.11; SHGC=0.86; SC=1.00; VT=0.90 U-value=1.11; SHGC=0.73; SC=0.85; VT=0.68 U-value=0.49; SHGC=0.76; SC=0.88; VT=0.81
SINGLE GLAZING—CLEAR GLASS SINGLE GLAZING—BRONZE TINT DOUBLE GLAZING—CLEAR GLASS
1
/ 2”
1
/ 2”
1
/ 2”

SOLAR SOLAR
SOLAR RADIATION:
heat RADIATION: heat RADIATION: heat
62% 54%
46% TRANSMITTED
TRANSMITTED TRANSMITTED
SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR
RADIATION: RADIATION: RADIATION:
38% 54% 46%
REJECTED REJECTED REJECTED

VISIBLE VISIBLE VISIBLE


light LIGHT: light LIGHT: LIGHT:
62% 69% light 75%
TRANSMITTED TRANSMITTED TRANSMITTED
VISIBLE VISIBLE
LIGHT: VISIBLE
LIGHT: LIGHT:
9% 13%
REFLECTED 12%
REFLECTED REFLECTED
spectrally
BRONZE 1
/ 8” CLEAR 1
/ 8” selective CLEAR 1/

8 CLEAR WITH CLEAR 1/

tint 1/8” LOW-E COATING 1/
8 ” 8
AIR AIR
NOTE NOTE NOTE ARGON

U-value=0.49; SHGC=0.62; SC=0.72; VT=0.62 U-value=0.49; SHGC=0.46; SC=0.54; VT=0.69 U-value=0.26; SHGC=0.54; SC=0.62; VT=0.75
DOUBLE GLAZING—HIGH SOLAR GAIN LOW-E
DOUBLE GLAZING—BRONZE TINT DOUBLE GLAZING—SPECTRALLY DOUBLE GLAZING—LOW-E COATING
COATING
SELECTIVE TINT 1
/4” 1/4” 1
/ 4” 1/ 4”
1
/ 2”

SOLAR SOLAR
SOLAR RADIATION: RADIATION:
heat RADIATION: heat h eat 43%
68%
40% TRANSMITTED TRANSMITTED
TRANSMITTED
SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR
RADIATION: RADIATION: RADIATION:
60% 32% 57%
REJECTED REJECTED REJECTED

VISIBLE VISIBLE VISIBLE


LIGHT: LIGHT: LIGHT:
light light 74% light
72% 62%
VISIBLE TRANSMITTED TRANSMITTED TRANSMITTED
VISIBLE VISIBLE
LIGHT: LIGHT:
11% LIGHT:
20% 14%
REFLECTED REFLECTED REFLECTED
CLEAR WITH krypton
SPECTRALLY AIR CLEAR WITH
SELECTIVE CLEAR 1
/ 8” 1
/ 8”
COATING 1/8” CLEAR 1
/ 8” CLEAR 1
/ 8” LOW-E COATING
ARGON AIR SUSPENDED
NOTE NOTE NOTE PLASTIC FILM
U-value=0.24; SHGC=0.40; SC=0.47; VT=0.72 U-value=0.39; SHGC=0. 68; SC=0.79; VT=0.74 U-value=0.14; SHGC=0.43; SC=0.50; VT=0.62
DOUBLEGLAZING—LOW
DOUBLE GLAZING—SPECTRALLY
SOLAR GAIN (SPECTRALLY TRIPLE GLAZING—CLEAR GLASS TRIPLEGLAZING—CLEAR
TRIPLE GLAZING—CLEAR ANDAND SUSPENDED
GLASS
SELECTIVE LOW-E
SELECTIVE) COATING
COATING TWO LOW-E
PLASTIC FILM COATINGS
WITH TWO LOW-E COATINGS
PERFORMANCE OF 1/8-INCH THICK GLASS IN A MANUFACTURED WINDOW ASSEMBLY

John Carmody, University of Minnesota; Minneapolis, Minnesota


Stephen Selkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Berkeley, California

10 WINDOWS
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 405

Window Frame Types 405


GLAZING GLAZING GLAZING

OPERABLE
SASH
UNIT
OPERABLE OPERABLE
SASH SASH
UNIT UNIT

FRAME
UNIT

THERMAL
BREAK

FRAME
UNIT
FRAME INTERIOR
UNIT COMPONENT ALUMINUM
(WOOD)
EXTERIOR
COMPONENT
(ALUMINUM OR
THERMOPLASTIC)
WOOD HYBRID

GLAZING
GLAZING GLAZING

OPERABLE
SASH
UNIT

OPERABLE OPERABLE
SASH SASH
UNIT UNIT

FRAME FRAME
UNIT UNIT

FRAME
UNIT

VINYL OR
METAL
STEEL
CLADDING

WOOD WITH CLADDING VINYL OR FIBERGLASS

WINDOW FRAME DETAILS


WINDOW FRAME TYPES
FRAME TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MAINTENANCE FINISHES HEAT TRANSFERENCE SUSTAINABILITY NOTES
Wood Solid members; ease of Rot prevention: Oil or latex paint, stains, oils, Low Renewable resource; Traditional and typical
milling into complex shapes; attrac- refinish in 5 to or varnishes; preservatives; requires high-quality material; variety of
tive and traditional appearance 10-year cycle or polyurethane resin coatings; solid stock species available; easy
U-factor: 0.3–0.5 permanent finish prefinished or site finished repair
Wood with Metal- or plastic-clad wood Minimal See metal and plastic frames Low with vinyl cladding, slightly Use of less desirable Wood for stability/
cladding U-factor for vinyl clad: 0.3–0.5; higher with metal wood materials; sal- strength, cladding for
for metal clad: 0.4–0.6 vageable cladding maintenance
Hybrids Wood interior, metal or See wood, metal, See other categories Low with vinyl/wood hybrid, Use of lower Good interior look
plastic exterior and plastic slightly higher with metal/wood quantities of any one with good exterior
U-factor for vinyl/wood: 0.3–0.5; categories hybrid material performance and low
for metal/wood: 0.4–0.6 maintenance
Steel Thin bar/ angle steel profiles; cast, Rust prevention: Galvanizing, zinc-phosphate High, unless thermal break is Non-renewable, High strength/smallest
extruded, forged refinish in 5 to coatings; primed; painted; installed salvageable frame profiles of all types;
U-factor: similar to that of 10-year cycle or factory finishes: baked stainless steel available
aluminum permanent finish enamel, fluoropolymer, but expensive
polyurethane coatings
Aluminum Box profiles; extrusions; Minimal Natural; factory-applied: High unless thermal break is Non-renewable, High strength, no
lightweight baked enamel, epoxy, installed salvageable maintenance
U-factor: 1.0 (with thermal break), anodized, electrostatic
1.9–2.2 (without (powder), fluoropolymer
thermal break) coatings
Vinyl (PVC) High impact resistance; box profiles; Minimal Integral when fabricated Low Non-renewable, UV/sun protection from
multi-chambered extrusions (limited colors) petroleum-based discoloration may be
U-factor for hollow: 0.3–0.5; required; salt air and acid
for insulated: 0.2–0.4 resistant
Fiberglass Box profiles, polymer-based Minimal Integral when fabricated Low Spun glass in resin More expensive but more
thermoplastic; dimensionally stable binders structurally stable than
U-factor for hollow: 0.3–0.5; vinyl
for insulated: 0.2–0.4

John Carmody, University of Minnesota; Minneapolis, Minnesota


Stephen Selkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Berkeley, California

WINDOWS 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 406

406 Window Operation Types

SASH OPENS SASH OPENS SASH OPENS SASH OPENS


TO OUTSIDE TO OUTSIDE TO INSIDE TO INSIDE

AWNING/PROJECTED DOUBLE DUAL ACTION GREENHOUSE HOPPER


CASEMENT/PROJECTED

HORIZONTAL SLIDER JALOUSIE VERTICALLY PIVOTED HORIZONTALLY PIVOTED VERTICAL SLIDING


(SINGLE- AND
DOUBLE-HUNG)

WINDOW OPERATION TYPES

CHARACTERISTICS OF WINDOW OPERATION TYPES


WEATHER EGRESS (CLEAR CLEANABILITY
SCREEN MAXIMUM PROTECTION OPENING SIZE (EXTERIOR
OPERATION TYPE DIRECTION LOCATION OPENING (%) (WHEN OPEN) GOVERNS) FROM INTERIOR) NOTES
Awning/projected Swings outward from Interior 100 Limited Not possible without Difficult Not for use adjacent to
hinge or pivot at top special hardware walkways
Casement/projected Swings outward or Interior or 100 Poor Good Single units are When outswinging, not
inward from a hinge or exterior (wind-buffeting) difficult, paired suitable for use adja-
pivot on the side windows easier cent to walkways
Dual action Swings inward from Exterior 10 usually Good Good Easy
hinge or pivot on bottom (100 when
(hopper for ventilation, casement)
casement for cleaning)
Greenhouse May swing outward but Depends on Depends on Good Poor Difficult Unit projects from
(may be combined with may not be operable window window building; primarily
other operation types) operation type operation type residential use
Hopper/projected Swings inward with Exterior 100 Good with side Not without special Easy
hinge or pivot at bottom vents hardware
Horizontal sliding Slides sideways with a Exterior 50, for Poor Good Difficult (easy Horizontal or square
guide at top and bottom equal-sized with tilt-in feature) units operate more
sash easily than tall units
Jalousie Swings outward from Interior 100 Limited Poor Tedious Translucent/opaque
pivots on the side (interior storm panes provide addi-
windows available) tional sun-screening;
high air leakage
Pivoted/reversible Swings around vertical Rare, but 100 Poor Poor (size of clear Easy
(horizontally and or horizontal axis special-shaped (wind-buffeting) opening restrictions)
vertically pivoted) screens
Vertical sliding Slides up and down along Exterior 50, for equal- Poor Good Difficult (easy
(single- and double-hung) guide on the side sized sash (but good with with tilt-in feature)
hospital sills)

John Carmody, University of Minnesota; Minneapolis, Minnesota


Stephen Selkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Berkeley, California
Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

10 WINDOWS
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 407

Awning, Hopper, and Projected Windows 407

FLASHING FLASHING

TRIM

STEEL
LINTEL
AWNING

WINDOW
FRAME

WINDOW
FRAME
HEAD
PROJECTED
HEAD SEALANT

RIGID
INSULATION

HOPPER

SEALANT
OPERABLE
WINDOW
SASH
OPERABLE
WINDOW
SASH
JAMB
OUTWARD- AND INWARD-SWINGING JAMB
WINDOW TYPES
DEFINITIONS WOOD
STOOL
AWNING WINDOW: a unit (or series of mechanically inter-
connected units) that swings outward from top-mounted
pivots or hinges.
FLASHING
HOPPER WINDOW: a unit (or series of mechanically inter- FLASHING
connected units) that usually swing inward from bottom-
mounted pivots or hinges; they may have side-mounted tri- BRICK
angular draft barriers. BRICK
SILL
SILL
PROJECTED WINDOW: a window, which operates simi- SILL SILL
larly to awning or hopper windows, in which the hinge or
pivot side of the sash frame slides along a track toward the STEEL PROJECTED WINDOW IN ALUMINUM HOPPER WINDOW IN
latch side as the window is opened. MASONRY CONSTRUCTION BRICK VENEER CONSTRUCTION
SHEATHING

MASONRY
LINTEL
SEALANT FLASHING

VINYL
FRAME
WINDOW EXTERIOR
FRAME INSULATION
FINISH
SYSTEM
OPERABLE
SASH

HEAD HEAD HEAD

2 X 6 WOOD SEALANT,
STUD TYP.
CONSTRUCTION

WINDOW
TRIM
FRAME
INSECT
SCREEN OPERABLE
WINDOW
SASH

JAMB JAMB JAMB


OPERABLE
VINYL SASH
OPERABLE
VINYL WINDOW WOOD
FRAME SASH SILL

MARBLE
STOOL FLASHING

FLASHING

TRIM USED CAST


AS APRON FLASHING STONE
SILL
WOOD SIDING
SILL SILL SILL
VINYL WINDOW IN METAL-CLAD WOOD WINDOW ALUMINUM WINDOW IN EXTERIOR
WOOD STUD CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD CONSTRUCTION INSULATION FINISH SYSTEM ON MASONRY
AWNING WINDOW INSTALLATION DETAILS

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

WINDOWS 10
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408 Casement and Pivot Windows


DEFINITIONS FLASHING FLASHING
CASEMENT WINDOW: a window unit or pair that operates
like a door, either on hinges or pivots attached to the jamb
FIXED
or by sliding along tracks at the head and sill. ALUMINUM
FRAME
CREMO(R)NE BOLT: an exposed or concealed fastening
mechanism composed of sill and head bolts and strikes SHIM
OPERABLE SPACES
connected by rods to a centrally mounted turn-knob device.
PIVOTING
SASH
FRENCH WINDOW: a pair of tall casements that may serve
as a door onto a balcony, porch, or terrace.
TRIM
LEVER OPERATOR: a gearless mechanism in which a rod
sliding through a clasp positions and secures the sash. HEAD HEAD

OPERATING HARDWARE: hardware used to work a win-


dow, including stays, lever operators, roto-operators, and SEALANT
cremo(r)ne bolts. PIVOT AT
SIDE JAMB

PIVOT WINDOW: a unit with sash that rotate either verti-


cally or horizontally around center-mounted pivots.

ROTO-OPERATOR: a geared crank-and-worm drive mecha- TRIM PLUNGER


nism that positions and secures the sash. TYPE LATCH

STAY: a bar that holds the sash open in various positions.

JAMB JAMB

STONE PIVOTING
SILL SASH

MARBLE
STOOL FLASHING

FLASHING

SHEATHING
SILL SILL
VERTICALLY PIVOTED ALUMINUM WINDOW HORIZONTALLY PIVOTED WOOD
PIVOTED WINDOW IN BRICK VENEER CONSTRUCTION WINDOW IN WOOD CONSTRUCTION
CASEMENT (VERTICAL PIVOT SHOWN)
CASEMENT AND PIVOT WINDOWS PIVOT WINDOW INSTALLATION DETAILS
GYPSUM FLASHING STEEL ANGLE
FLASHING BOARD

INSULATION
SHEATHING METAL STUD
HEAD TRACK

SHIM SPACE SEALANT

VINYL
FRAME
WINDOW
FRAME OPERABLE
SASH
HEAD HEAD
(JAMB SIMILAR)

INSECT
SCREEN
METAL STUD
CONSTRUCTION
WOOD BLOCKING
HEAD/JAMB
OPERABLE
SIMILAR
WINDOW TRIM
SASH

OPERABLE
WINDOW
SASH
MULLION JAMB

WINDOW
OPERABLE FRAME
VINYL SASH
CASEMENT
OPERATOR
VINYL
FRAME SEALANT

FLASHING

FLASHING STUCCO

FLASHING
SILL SILL SILL
VINYL-CLAD WOOD IN VINYL WINDOW IN STUCCO AND ALUMINUM WINDOW IN MULTIWYTHE
WOOD CONSTRUCTION METAL STUD CONSTRUCTION MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
CASEMENT WINDOW INSTALLATION DETAILS

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

10 WINDOWS
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Vertical and Horizontal Sliding Windows 409


DEFINITIONS SASH RIBBON: a metal strip that connects the sash with
either weights or spring balances.
DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW: multiple operating sash in one
unit (also comes as triple-hung). SASH WEIGHT: a cast-iron or lead cylindrical counter-
weight.
HOSPITAL SILL: a raised stool that allows the meeting rails
to be separated for ventilation while the head and sill rails SINGLE-HUNG WINDOW: a pair of sash, only one of which
remain sealed to weather penetration. operates (by vertically sliding).

HORIZONTAL SLIDING WINDOW: a unit having at least SPRING BALANCE: a spring-loaded mechanism used in
two sash, one or more of which slides along horizontal place of a counterweight.
tracks at the top and bottom of the frame.
VERTICAL SLIDING WINDOW: a unit with sash that slide
POCKET COVER: a part of the jamb casing that can be vertically in jamb-mounted tracks. Weights, springs, or fric-
removed to reach the weights or balances for maintenance. tion-resistant jambs counterbalancing gravity or mechanical
HORIZONTAL VERTICAL catches embedded in the jamb hold the sash open. The sin-
SLIDING WINDOW SLIDING WINDOW SASH CORD: a rope or chain that connects the sash weight gle-, double-, or triple-operating sash of these windows
(SINGLE- AND to the sash. may stack against each other or, when full ventilation is
DOUBLE-HUNG) required, be recessed in pockets above or below the win-
SLIDING WINDOW TYPES dow.

PLASTER CMU
FLASHING
FLASHING BRICK
SHEATHING
FLASHING
SEALANT ALUMINUM
ALUMINUM FRAME WITH
FRAME WITH THERMAL
THERMAL BREAK
BREAK

EXTERIOR HEAD
TRIM TRIM
(VARIES)

SEALANT
HEAD HEAD

SEALANT
SEALANT HORIZONTAL
AT TRIM SLIDING
(TYP.) SASH
PARTING
BEAD
JAMB
DOUBLE-HUNG
INSULATING SASH
GLASS

JAMB JAMB STONE


WOOD STOOL
SILL

SHEATHING
BRICK
INSULATION
SILL
INSULATION

BRICK
SILL FLASHING
FLASHING WOOD
STOOL SILL
SILL SILL ALUMINUM WINDOW IN
BRICK VENEER CONSTRUCTION
WOOD WINDOW IN BRICK ALUMINUM WINDOW IN
VENEER CONSTRUCTION MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

METAL
ANGLES PLYWOOD
SIDING AND FLASHING
SHEATHING
WOOD
FLASHING TRIM
CASING
(TURN UP
4” MIN. ON
INSIDE FACE) SLIDING
VINYL
SASH
FRAME
TRIM
AND
DOUBLE-HUNG SHIM INSULATING
WINDOW SPACE GLASS
HEAD INSULATING
(JAMB SIMILAR) GLASS HEAD
HEAD (JAMB SIMILAR)
(JAMB SIMILAR)
WEATHER
SEALANT STRIPPING SILL
PARTING
WOOD STOOL STOP
VINYL-CLAD
WOOD SILL
WOOD APRON

4” CMU FLASHING

FLASHING FLASHING
INSULATION
DRYWALL INSULATION
SILL
SILL SILL
VINYL WINDOW IN DOUBLE-HUNG VINYL-CLAD WINDOW DOUBLE-HUNG VINYL-CLAD WINDOW
MASONRY CONTRUCTION IN WOOD FRAME CONTRUCTION IN WOOD FRAME CONTRUCTION
VERTICAL SLIDING (DOUBLE-HUNG) WINDOWS HORIZONTAL SLIDING WINDOWS

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

WINDOWS 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:17 PM Page 410

410 Oriel and Dormer Windows


WOOD SIDING
BLOCKING
BUILDING PAPER
ON SHEATHING
TYP. CORNER
FLASHING
FLASHING
TYP. FLASHING COPPER ROOFING
AT WOOD SIDING
WOOD LOOKOUTS
COPPER ROOFING
AT 12 “ O.C.
FASTENED
TYP. TO WALL
FLASHING
AT BRICK WOOD
VENEER TRIM

METAL FLASHING

WOOD SIDING
JAMB AT WOOD SIDING
WOOD BLOCKING
TRIM FACE BRICK
LINTEL
WOOD STUDS
BLOCKING
WOOD
STOOL WOOD TRIM

WINDOW
STOOL

BLOCKING

WOOD
TRIM
CONTINUOUS
WOOD BRACKET WOOD
BLOCKING
WOOD LOOKOUTS
AT 16 “ O.C. SEALANT
FASTENED TO STUDS
WOOD TRIM
GENERAL
WOOD BRACKET
An oriel window is a window projecting from the wall face 4 ‘ - 0 “ O.C.±
of the upper story of a building and supported on brackets, WINDOW
FRAME
corbelling, or cantilevered. Oriels were often used in late
Gothic and Tudor residential architecture.
VERTICAL SECTION JAMB AT BRICK VENEER
ORIEL WINDOW
LINE OF METAL FLASHING WOOD CRESTING SCREW WITH
VALLEY FLASHING NEOPRENE WASHER

RIDGE BOARD METAL FLASHING


METAL FLASHING RIDGE
OVER WOOD BOARD LOOKOUT WOOD CRESTING
CRESTING FASTENED
TO RIDGE WOOD SHAKES
BOARD OR SHINGLES
BUILDING PAPER
ON SHEATHING
WOOD
METAL LOOKOUTS
FLASHING FASTENED
TO RIDGE
AND
METAL RAFTERS
FLASHING

BLOCKING
FASTENED
TO STUDS

WOOD TRIM DORMER RAFTER


8 “ MIN. DORMER RIDGE

METAL FLASHING

NOTE WOOD SHAKES


OR SHINGLES
Lap flashing 4” min. SIDING OR
at all joints. ROOFING SHINGLES BUILDING PAPER
8 “MIN. ON SHEATHING

6 “ MIN.
METAL
FLASHING APRON
RAFTER
WOOD TRIM
GENERAL METAL FLASHING
WOOD SIDING
A dormer is a vertical window projecting from the sloping BUILDING PAPER
roof of a building and having vertical sides or cheeks and a ON SHEATHING
gabled or shed roof. DORMER CORNER AND JAMB
VERTICAL SECTION

DORMER WINDOW

Richard J. Vitullo, AIA; Oak Leaf Studio; Crownsville, Maryland

10 WINDOWS
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 411

Skylight Construction 411

SKYLIGHTS 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 412

412 Skylights, Scuttles, and Vents


GENERAL SKYLIGHTS
Roof openings such as skylights, scuttles, and vents must Skylights provide daylight to interior spaces and can reduce
be detailed with care, considering they will be exposed to dependence on electrical lighting. In passive solar designs, explosion or relief
vent cover
the same external factors as the roof assembly itself. These skylights are used to admit direct solar radiation, enhancing
factors include wind pressure—both positive and nega- space heating, and, when vented properly, to induce con-
tive—which acts on the framing and/or glazing; rainwater vective airflow, reducing cooling loads through natural ven-
penetration; live loads from snow and ice; dynamic loads tilation.
from impact; daily cycles of thermal expansion and contrac-
tion; drainage of water and melting snow; and abuse from Skylights are available as preassembled units, which are
maintenance personnel. In addition, measures must be shipped to the site ready to be installed, or as framed
specified to keep people from falling through these open- assemblies of stock components, which arrive prefabri-
ings. cated for site assembly. Both fixed and hinged skylights are
manufactured. The hinged variety can be opened manually AUTOMATIC MELTDOWN TYPE/
DOMED or by remote control devices for venting. Frames are typi- OPENING TYPE EXPLOSION RELIEF
(OR SLOPED cally mounted on a built-up prefabricated or site-built curb, VENT
AND FLAT) with integral counterflashing; they can be assembled with
GLAZING
or without insulation. FIRE AND SMOKE VENTS
Self-flashing skylight units are available with or without
curbs. Those without curbs are intended only for pitched
FIRE AND SMOKE VENTING
roof assemblies and are not recommended for roof assem- In certain building types and occupancies, such as those
SCREENING, blies with finished spaces below. with large expanses of unobstructed space, fire and smoke
SHADES vents that open automatically with a fire-induced tempera-
VENTING Framed skylight assemblies are custom designed by manu- ture increase are required. Roof vents are often required
UNIT
facturers to meet the necessary wind, roof, and dead loads over stairs, elevator hoistways, high-hazard occupancy
of the assembly itself. When a skylight is pitched beyond a areas (to offer explosion relief), and in areas behind the
certain angle, it must be designed to resist environmental proscenium in theaters. The vents permit smoke, heat, and
factors as does a curtain wall assembly. Roof drainage for volatile gases to escape, lower the temperature at floor
rain- and storm water can limit skylight dimensions. Con- level, and reduce water damage by limiting active sprinkler
densate gutters are needed in the body of the skylight heads to those in the immediate area of the fire.
assembly and around its perimeter.
There are two basic types of fire and smoke vents, both
FRAMING, GLAZING, AND GASKETS commonly available with integral curbs and flashing:
SCREENING,
SHADES The heart of a well-designed skylight unit or skylight framed 1. Meltdown: plastic glazing that softens and drops out of
assembly is the detailing of frames, glazing, and sealant the frame when exposed to high temperatures (unit must
NOTE systems. Thickness, size, and geometric profile of all glass be replaced once exposed to fire).
and acrylic glazing materials should be carefully selected for
In determining the desired form and size of the skylight compliance with building codes and manufacturers’ recom-
unit/assembly, consideration should be given to 2. Automatic opening: solid or glazed cover with springs
mendations. The following glazing materials are considered held by a fusible link that melts when the temperature
resistant to impact and breakage and are generally rises, releasing the springs and opening the vent.
1. Environmental conditions, including orientation and win- approved by codes (listed in descending order of cost):
ter and summer solar penetration angles at the site
Enough vents must be distributed over the entire roof area
2. Prevailing wind direction and patterns 1. Formed acrylic with mar-resistant finish to ensure early venting of a fire, regardless of its location.
3. Precipitation quantity and patterns 2. Formed acrylic The size and spacing of the vents must be determined for
3. Polycarbonates each building according to its size and use and the degree
4. Adjacent topography and landscaping (shade trees, etc.) 4. Flat acrylic of hazard involved. When UL- or FM-listed vents are
5. Coordination with HVAC system 5. Laminated glass required, choice of size is generally limited to stock sizes.
6. Use of shading, screening, or light reflecting/bouncing 6. Tempered glass Venting is based on moving a specific number of cubic feet
devices 7. Clear polished wire glass of air per minute through the vents. Consult building codes
8. Textured obscure wire glass for required capacity, size, and spacing.
7. Views desired relative to view obstructions, streetlights,
etc.
Framed skylights require somewhat greater mullion widths
SKYLIGHTS when glazed with acrylics in order to accommodate the
expansion and contraction characteristics of plastics. When 1
glazed with glass, framed skylight mullions are spaced 2
according to the standard glass widths: laminated glass (48
in., maximum), wire glass (60 in., maximum), and tempered 3
glass (72 in., maximum). High-performance insulating glass 3
is generally used in preassembled units (and sometimes
framed assemblies) and provides important energy savings.
4
For economy, tinted acrylics should be limited to 1/4 in.
thickness. A combination fiberglass sheet and aluminum
frame system with high insulating value and good light dif-
fusion can be a cost-effective alternative. Domed acrylic
SINGLE LEAF glazing is almost self-cleaning, as the sloped shapes facili-
tate rain washing of the surface.
PERCENTAGE OF ROOF AREA
Frame systems must be engineered to carry the total REQUIRED FOR SKYLIGHTING
resultant forces of the loads imposed on the skylight in
accordance with all building codes. Framing, glazing, and LIGHT DESIGN LEVELS (FC)
gaskets also must be able to resist exposure to airborne LIGHT
ZONE 30 60 120
pollutants. Frames with thermal breaks incorporated have
better energy performance. 1 3.3 5.2 13.3
2 2.8 4.3 10.8
DOUBLE LEAF Finishes for aluminum frame components are available as
3 1.8 3.2 6.9
mill finish, clear anodized, duranodic bronze or black, acrylic
SCUTTLES enamel, and fluorocarbon. 4 1.5 2.8 4.0
SCUTTLES
Gaskets are especially subject to degradation from solar Typical roof vent area requirements are 0.67% roof area for
Scuttles, often referred to as roof hatches, provide roof ultraviolet rays. Excessive expansion and contraction of low heat release occupancies, 1% roof area for moderate
access for maintenance personnel using ladders, a built-in acrylic glazing can cause “rolling” of the gasket between heat release occupancies, and 2% roof area for high heat
ship’s ladder, or stairs; an emergency escape route in the metal framing. Small valleys created at the bottom of the release occupancies.
event of a fire; and access for moving large equipment into sloped glazing and the horizontal glazing cap will hold
or out of the building, possibly eliminating the need for water, which increases the chance of gasket breakdown Generally, several small units satisfy the total venting area
extra-large doors in rooms and corridors below. and subsequent water infiltration. requirement better than a few larger ones (NFPA #204).
Roof scuttles are available that may also serve as fire and
Scuttles come as preassembled units, often with integral SECURITY AND SAFETY smoke vents. Consider the spacing of vents relative to inte-
curbs, and are usually made with spring-assisted openings. rior spaces and their uses, proximity to exits, and, if glazed,
When glazing is introduced, scuttles can function as sky- Frames or screens to protect glazing from impact, fire their role in daylighting.
lights as well. For use as smoke/fire vents, scuttles must brands, or forced entry can be designed into the skylight
have automatic opening capability. system. To avoid forced entry, a framed skylight should Explosion relief vents are a type of fire and smoke vent that
include deterrents to disassembling the framing, removing opens automatically when interior pressure rises above a
If scuttles are to serve as a required means of egress, con- the snap-on cover, and melting the glazing (acrylics can eas- predetermined level. Plastic glazed units deform under
sult building codes for number, size, and location required; ily be burned with a torch). Metal security screens may be higher than normal air pressure and are released from their
type of access permitted (ship’s ladder, stair, etc.); and type required. frame.
of operation permitted (manual force required to open unit
or powered opening).

Richard J. Vitullo, AIA; Oak Leaf Studio; Crownsville, Maryland

10 SKYLIGHTS
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 413

Door Hardware Types and Finishes 413


DOORFRAME
LOCK JAMB
HIGH/LOW SIDELIGHT DOOR SWINGS
DOOR OR GLASS PANEL IN EASILY EITHER
TOP RAIL DOOR TO IMPROVE
OF DOOR LIGHTING AND
12” (305 mm) WITHOUT CLOSER
MIN. OR WITH TIME-
CONCEALED ALLOW VIEW OF DELAY CLOSER
CLOSER ONCOMING TRAFFIC (5 SEC. MIN. DELAY)
cl
SURFACE
MOUNTED
CLOSER cl

HINGE STILE
EASY-TO-READ,
OF DOOR
LEVER-TYPE HIGH CONTRAST
HINGE JAMB HARDWARE RAISED LETTERS
AND BRAILLE
HINGE MOUNTED TO
LOCK LATCH SIDE

mm)
LOCK STILE
OF DOOR AUXILIARY HANDLE
48” MAX.
TO AID IN CLOSING

60” (1525
DOORSTOP MOUNTING
DOOR, IF NO AUTO-
AT PERIMETER KICKPLATE HEIGHT FOR
CLOSER INSTALLED
OF FRAME AT LOWER PART HARDWARE
OF DOOR, BOTH SIDES REQUIRED
STRIKE FOR
OPENING NO THRESHOLD
PASSAGE OR MINIMAL
FLOOR LEVEL CHANGE
16” 1
CLOSER /4” MAX.
PIVOTS - TOP
AND BOTTOM
60”
BOTTOM RAIL NONSLIP FLOOR MANEUVERING
OF DOOR SURFACE AND/OR SPACE
MAT RECESSED
INTO FLOOR
WEATHER STRIPPING
32” CLEAR WIDTH, MIN. 24”
DOOR SILENCER MANEUVERING
THRESHOLD SPACE

PARTS OF A DOOR IDEAL ACCESSIBLE DOOR


GLOSSARY
NOTES
Coordinator: A device used on a pair of doors to ensure that
the inactive leaf is permitted to close before the active 1. See also Hollow Metal Frames and Doors.
leaf. 2. Face the outside of the door to determine its hand. The
Cylinder (of a lock): The cylindrical shaped assembly con- outside of the door is the "key side," or that side which
taining the tumbler mechanism and the keyway, which would be secured should a lock be used. This would usu-
can be actuated only by the correct keys. ally be the exterior of an entrance door or the corridor
Cylinder lock: A lock in which the locking mechanism is side of an office door.
controlled by a cylinder.
Deadbolt (of a lock): A lock bolt having no spring action or
bevel, and which is operated by a key or turnpiece. LEFT HAND RIGHT HAND
Door bolt: A manually operated rod or bar attached to a
door providing means of locking.
Doorstop: A device to stop the swing or movement of a
door at a certain point.
Electric strike: An electrical device that permits releasing of
the door from a remote control. LEFT HAND RIGHT HAND
Exit device: A door locking device that grants instant exit REVERSE REVERSE
when someone presses a crossbar to release the locking
bolt or latch. MORTISE BOLT NOTE
Flush bolt: A door bolt set flush with the face or edge of the In the architectural hardware industry, the position of the
door. NOTE hinges on a door — right or left as viewed from outside the
Hand (of a lock, etc.): A term used to indicate the direction A miniature deadlock, with bolt entryway — determines the hand.
of swing or movement, and locking security side of a EXTENSION projected or retracted by a turn
door. FLUSH BOLT of the small knob.
Lock set: A lock, complete with trim, such as handles,
escutcheons, or knobs. BOLT MECHANISMS HANDS OF DOORS
Mortise: A cavity made to receive a lock or other hardware;
also the act of making such a cavity. DOOR FINISHES
Mortise lock (or latch): A lock designed to be installed in a NEAREST U.S. BHMA
mortise rather than applied to the door's surface. EQUIVELENT CODE FINISH DESCRIPTION BASE MATERIAL
Rabbet: The abutting edges of a pair of doors or windows, USP 600 Primed for painting Steel
shaped to provide a tight fit. US1B 601 Bright japanned Steel
Reversible lock: A lock that, by reversing the latch bolt, may US2C 602 Cadmium plated Steel
be used by any hand. On certain types of locks, other US2G 603 Zinc plated Steel
parts must also be changed. US3 605 Bright brass, clear coated Brass*
Rose: A trim plate attached to the door under the handle; US4 606 Satin brass, clear coated Brass*
sometimes acts as a handle bearing. US9 611 Bright bronze, clear coated Bronze*
US10 612 Satin bronze, clear coated Bronze*
Shank (of a handle): The projecting stem of handle into US10B 613 Oxidized satin bronze, oil rubbed Bronze*
which the spindle is fastened. US14 618 Bright nickel plated, clear coated Brass, Bronze*
Spindle (of a handle): The bar or tube connected with the US15 619 Satin nickel plated, clear coated Brass, Bronze*
knob or lever handle that passes through the hub of the US19 622 Flat black coated Brass, Bronze*
lock or otherwise engages the mechanism to transmit US20A 624 Dark oxidized, statuary bronze, clear coated Bronze*
the handle action to the bolt(s). US26 625 Bright chromium plated Brass, Bronze*
Stop (of a lock): The button, or other small device, that US26D 626 Satin chromium plated Brass, Bronze*
serves to lock the latch bolt against the outside handle or US27 627 Satin aluminum, clear coated Aluminum
thumb piece or unlock it if locked. Another type holds the US28 628 Satin aluminum, clear anodized Aluminum
bolt retracted. US32 629 Bright stainless steel Stainless steel 300 series
US32D 630 Satin stainless steel Stainless steel 300 series
Strike: A metal plate or box that is pierced or recessed to - 684 Black chrome, bright Brass, Bronze*
receive the bolt or latch when projected; sometimes - 685 Black chrome, satin Brass, Bronze*
called "keeper."
Three-point lock: A device sometimes required on 3-hour NOTE
fire doors to lock the active leaf of a pair of doors at three * Also applicable to other base metals under a different Builders’ Hardware Manufacturers Association code number.
points.

Richard J. Vitullo, AIA; Oak Leaf Studio; Crownsville, Maryland

HARDWARE 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 414

414 Door Handles, Plates, Locks, Stops, and Holders


PROJECTION
MIN. 21/4” MAX. 21/2” FOR 23/8” AND 13/8” - 2”
21/2” BACKSETS C
L DEADLOCK
MAX. KNOB STRIKE
DIA. 21/8” CL HOSPITAL
ARM PULL
(LOWER BASE)
AND PUSH PLATE

21/4”
C
L PUSH BAR

DIAMETER
2 1/8” KNOB MAX. AND PULL
FOR 23/8” BACKSET C
L STRIKE FOR

405/16”
CL KNOB LOCKS,
HANDLE SETS,

42”

45”

48”
1 ” - 11 / 8 ” BACKSET ROLLER LATCHES,
AND EXIT DEVICES
BORED

CASE DEPTH
31/2” OR 35/8”
DOOR
DOORKNOB (TYP.) BOTTOM OF FRAME
NOTE 13/4”

Doorknobs are not allowed 3” STANDARD; DOOR HARDWARE LOCATIONS


LARGER
on accessible doors. WIDTHS
AVAILABLE CYLINDER
IN KNOB

13/4”
PROJECTION CL
MAX. 21/2”
10”, 12”, 14”, 16”, AND 20”

BACKSET
3
2 / 4” 21/2” - 6”
PREASSEMBLED
1
/ 8”
NOTE
Installation requires notch cut in lock side of door to suit 1/
2”
case size. Complete factory assembly eliminates much
adjustment on the job.
5” - 7” USUAL

1”

33/4” TO 37/8”
11/4”

53/4”
ENTRANCE HANDLE PUSH PLATE STOPS
DEADBOLT
NOTE C
L OF
8”

CL
STRIKE BACKSET
Complete lockset for entrance door handle includes mor-
tise lock, handle outside, and knob and rose inside. 11 / 4 ” SPINDLE
LATCH ROSE
PROJECTION
LENGTH 1
1 / 4”

CASE
ROSE
33/8” THIMBLE KNOB
41/8”
SHANK
ROSE 47 / 8 ”

LEVER HANDLE
PROJECTION: 1 3/4 to 2 1/2 in. MORTISE
LENGTH: 2 to 4 in.
ROSE: Maximum diameter 1 1/2 to 3 in. NOTES COMBINATION
STILE: Larger stile takes larger rose 1. Installation requires mortise opening in door.
2. See American Standards Association Lock Strikes A-
115V-1959 for metal doorframes. To determine lip
NOTE length, measure from centerline of strike to edge of jamb
and add 1/4 in. Outside strike dimensions standard for all
Local codes may require a return or special clearance on lock types shown. 4” TO 7”
lever handle (e.g., fire codes may require return to prevent
fire hose from catching behind lever handle). Also, push-
type mechanisms and U-shaped handles are acceptable GENERAL NOTES
designs. Consult ANSI and ADAAG and manufacturers’ cat-
alogs for other approved designs. Maximum height for Based on use characteristics, there are four main types of
accessible hardware is 48 in. above finished floor. latches and locks: passage, privacy, entry, and classroom.
(In all cases, latch bolt can be operated by handle from
LENGTH = either side.) 31 / 2 ”
DOOR WIDTH LESS ONE STILE
1. PASSAGE: Latches can be operated by handle from HOLDERS
either side at all times.
2. PRIVACY: Outside handle is locked by push-button inside
6 ” - 8”

(or if deadbolt latch, by a turn) and unlocked by emer- STRIKE FOR BOLT
gency key outside. INSTALLATION
3. ENTRY: Outside handle is made inoperative by mechani-
cal means, other than a key, on inside; latch bolt is oper-
MAX. PROJECTION 21/2” ated by key in outside handle or by manual means at
PUSH-PULL BAR inside handle.
4. CLASSROOM: Outside handle is locked from outside by
NOTE key; when outside handle is locked, latch bolt may be
Double push-pull bars may be used on the pull side of sin- retracted by key from outside or by rotating inside han-
gle-acting doors or on either side of double-acting doors. dle. RUBBER SHOE
PLUNGER-TYPE HOLDER OR BOLT
KNOB, HANDLES, PLATE, AND BAR LOCK TYPES STOPS AND HOLDERS

Richard J. Vitullo, AIA; Oak Leaf Studio; Crownsville, Maryland

10 HARDWARE
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Door Hinges 415


TIP OF LEAF NO
HINGE PIN SWAGING PIN
OPEN HINGE WIDTH TIP
113/4” MAX. TOP HINGE: (VARIES INDEPENDENT
11 3/4” MAX. FROM OF HEIGHT)
C
L JAMB RABBET TO
PIN TIP
CENTERLINE
(BUTTON-TYPE
OF HINGE
SHOWN)

HEIGHT (VARIES)
EQUAL SCREW STEEPLE BALL BUTTON OVAL HOSPITAL
HOLE
THIRD HINGE:
CENTERED SECURITY
C
L BETWEEN TOP STUD AND
TYPES OF HINGE PIN
AND BOTTOM HOLE
HINGES

HEIGHT (VARIES)
PIN
EQUAL

BEARING
BOTTOM HINGE: (2 FOR
JAMB DOOR
13” MAX. FROM STANDARD,
C LEAF LEAF
L FINISHED FLOOR 4 FOR HEAVY)
TO CENTERLINE
13” MAX. OF HINGE NOTES
1. Swaging is a slight offset of the hinge at the barrel,
LEAF WIDTHS MAY
which permits the leaves to come closer together and VARY INDEPENDENT DOOR
improves the operation and appearance of the door. OF HEIGHT

NOTES 2. A leaf is one of the two attaching plates that, when fas-
tened together by the hinge pin, form a complete hinge.
1. Use three hinges for doors as high as 7 ft 6 in. Add one 3. Bearings (ball, oil-impregnated, or antifriction) offer the CLEARANCE
hinge for each additional 30 in. in height. best ease of operation and durability.
2. In specifying hinges, the following design criteria are 4. Nonrising pins are a feature of quality hinges. Also avail-
important: door material, weight, and dimensions; hinge able: nonremovable pins (NRP), with set screws; spun
weight (standard or heavy), material, finish, and special pins (FSP), without tips; and floating pins (FTP), with tips
features (e.g., swing clear, spring hinge, etc.); "clear- FULL MORTISE
driven in both ends. JAMB LEAF DOOR LEAF
ance," that is, distance between door and frame when
5. Tolerances: Close tolerances, especially in the pins, pre-

HEIGHT (VARIES)
door is opened 180°; frequency of use; conditions of use
(e.g., exterior, corrosive atmosphere, potential for abuse vent excessive wear and are characteristic of high-qual-
or vandalism, etc.); type of pin tips; and type of screws. ity, heavy-duty hinges.
6. A security stud, with matching hole in opposite leaf, is
attached to a hinge to prevent door removal even if the
pin is removed.
HINGE LOCATION AND SPECIFICATION
7. Hinges are available in brass, bronze, stainless steel, and
carbon steel.
HINGE WIDTH
1 1/ 2” DOOR LEAF
THICKNESS CLEARANCE OPEN WIDTH CHANNEL
WIDTH VARIES
OF DOOR REQUIRED* OF HINGES IRON FRAME
WITH HEIGHT
(IN.) (IN.) (IN.) ELEMENTS OF A HINGE DOOR
1 3/8 11/4 31/2
13/4 4 CLEARANCE
1 3/4 1 4
32” (815 mm) MIN.
11/2 41/2 CLEAR WIDTH
2 5 PER ADA
3 6
HALF-MORTISE
2 1 41/2 JAMB LEAF DOOR LEAF
11/2 5

HEIGHT (VARIES)
21/2 6
2 1/4 1 5
2 6 SWING CLEAR
AVAILABLE
2 1/2 3
/4 5 IN SINGLE
13/4 6 AND DOUBLE
3 3
/4 6 ACTING
23/4 8 DOOR LEAF
4 /4
3 10 1 1/ 2” WIDTH VARIES
WITH HEIGHT
CHANNEL
NOTE INVISIBLE SPRING IRON FRAME
* Clearance is computed for door flush with doorframe. DOOR
ONLY
KNUCKLE FOR HIGH
EXPOSED SECURITY CLEARANCE
WHEN DOOR AND VERY
CLOSED HIGH USE
APPLICATIONS
HINGE TYPE
TYPE OF
BUILDING AND DAILY HINGE OLIVE KNUCKLE CONTINUOUS GEAR FULL SURFACE
DOOR FREQUENCY TYPE JAMB LEAF DOOR LEAF
HEIGHT (VARIES)
HIGH FREQUENCY Heavy weight SPECIALTY HINGES
Large department store
entrance 5000
Large office building
HINGE HEIGHT
entrance 4000 THICKNESS WIDTH OF HEIGHT OF
School entrance 1250 (IN.) DOORS (IN.) HINGES (IN.)
School toilet room 1250 Doors 3/4 to 1 cabi- Any 2 1/2
Store or bank entrance 500 net
Office building toilet DOOR LEAF
1 1/8 screen or To 36 3 WIDTH VARIES
door 400
combination WITH HEIGHT
AVERAGE FREQUENCY Standard DOOR
1 3/8 To 36 3 1/2
School corridor door 80 weight anti- THROUGH-
Over 36 4 BOLTS
Office building corridor friction bear-
door 75 ing (except on 1 3/4 To 41 4 1/2 CLEARANCE
Store toilet door 60 heavy doors) Over 41 4 1/2 heavy
Dwelling entrance 40 1 /4 to 2 /4
3 1
Any 5 heavy
LOW FREQUENCY Plain bearing Transoms
Dwelling toilet door 25 hinges may 1 1/4 and 1 3/8 3
Dwelling corridor door 10 be used on 1 3/4 3 1/2
HALF-SURFACE
Dwelling closet door 6 light doors 2, 2 1/4, and 2 1/2 4
TYPES OF HINGES

Richard J. Vitullo, AIA; Oak Leaf Studio; Crownsville, Maryland

HARDWARE 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 416

416 Door Hinge and Handle Placement

ASTRAGAL DOTTED LINE INDICATES


DOOR BEVEL
RABBETED STILE CONDITION

RAIL CORE
13/8” DOOR - NO JAMB
BEVEL REQUIIRED MATERIAL
BACKSET
3 7
1 /4” DOOR - BEVEL /64”
21/4” DOOR - BEVEL 9
/64”

BASIS OF STANDARD
BEVEL - 1/8” IN 2”
MIN. 4” FOR USE WITH KNOB 3” STILES - MIN.
MIN. 3” WITH LEVER HANDLE BACKSET 11/2”

4” STILES - 25/8” AND 21/2” BACKSET - MAX. KNOB DIA. 2”


DOOR BEVELS 41/4” STILES (43/4” FOR RABBETED STILES) - 23/4” BACKSET, MAX. KNOB DIA. 21/2”

3/ ” CLEARANCE
DOUBLE DOORS WITH FLAT ASTRAGAL (ALSO APPLIES
8 TO DOOR WITH RABBETED MEETING STILES)
FOR HINGE 3/
8” CLEARANCE
TRIM
NOTE TRIM FOR HINGE
4” MIN. STILE Allow 2 /2 in. knob clearance
1
3” MIN. STILE
STOCK DOOR USUALLY 41/4” for screen door installation. STOCK DOOR USUALLY 3”

BACKSET BACKSET

STOP STOP
1 1/ ”
/ 2” 2

4” STILES - 25/8” AND 21/2” BACKSET - MAX. KNOB 2” MIN. BACKSET 11/2”

41/4” STILES - MIN. 23/4” BACKSET - MIN. KNOB 2”, MAX. KNOB 21/2”

DOOR WITH LEVER HANDLE OR KNOB USING CYLINDER LOCK DOOR WITH LEVER HANDLE USING CYLINDER LOCK

DOOR STILES

WOOD DOOR WITH WOOD OR KALAMEIN HOLLOW METAL


WOOD JAMB DOOR WITH HOLLOW DOOR AND FRAME
METAL FRAME

FULL MORTISE NONTEMPLATE FULL MORTISE TEMPLATE FULL MORTISE TEMPLATE

KALAMEIN DOOR AND KALAMEIN DOOR KALAMEIN DOOR


KALAMEIN JAMB WITH HOLLOW WITH CHANNEL
METAL FRAME IRON FRAME

HALF-SURFACE TEMPLATE HALF-SURFACE TEMPLATE FULL SURFACE TEMPLATE

COMPOSITE DOOR TUBULAR STEEL HOLLOW METAL


WITH HOLLOW DOOR WITH DOOR WITH
METAL FRAME CHANNEL IRON JAMB CHANNEL IRON JAMB

FULL MORTISE TEMPLATE FULL SURFACE TEMPLATE HALF MORTISE TEMPLATE

MORTISE TEMPLATES

Richard J. Vitullo, AIA; Oak Leaf Studio; Crownsville, Maryland

10 HARDWARE
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 417

Door and Window Weather Stripping 417


GENERAL Avoid creating conditions that interfere with the operation
DOOR
of other hardware. In particular, consider potential difficul-
Installation of a suitable type and quality of noncorrosive ties that may arise for handicapped users. Also, weather
weather stripping around exterior door and window open- stripping must be coordinated with door and frame types. THRESHOLD
ings can have a significant effect on energy savings in virtu- Benefits gained through the use of quality weather strip-
ally any building. Weather stripping seals joints between a ping can be virtually wasted if an uninsulated hollow metal
sash or door and its frame, blocking air infiltration. Weather door is used.
stripping may also be used at interior openings to create
smoke, light, or sound seals between spaces. To meet accessibility standards, changes in level greater
than ½ in. (13 mm) must be ramped at a 1:2 (rise:run) slope. BRUSH WEATHER STRIP
Materials used for weather stripping include felt, neoprene, Any vertical change in level (perpendicular to floor) shall not
pile/brush, kerf-in foam, sponge neoprene, silicone, butyl, exceed ¼ in. (6.5 mm) in height. NOTE
and vinyl. Weather stripping should be continuous around Brush weather stripping is ideally suited for applications
the entire perimeter of a door or window, including a Since most windows are manufactured with frames, sash, requiring low closing force. Nylon brush blocks smoke and
weather strip-type threshold at doors. High-quality closers and weather stripping preassembled as a unit, weather air infiltration and can be used on overhead doors, sliding
used on exterior doors can ensure that no door is left open. stripping details are not shown. However, if custom win- doors, and automatic doors.
In extreme climates, consider using double weather strip- dows are specified, any appropriate door weather stripping
ping, combining a neoprene gasket with pile-type sweeps. material and configuration may be used. BRUSH WEATHER STRIPPING
OUT-OPENING OR OUT-OPENING WOOD
IN-OPENING DOOR DOOR WITH PANIC
EXIT HARDWARE

DOOR
HOOK
STRIP
DOOR
SEALANT
SEALANT

INTERLOCKING LATCH TRACK


DOOR
STOP OUT-OPENING
WOOD DOOR
OUT-OPENING DOOR

ADJUSTABLE ADHESIVE
JAMB JAMB
WEATHER STRIP WEATHER STRIP BUMPER
STRIP
DOOR STOP
J-HOOK

SEALANT SEALANT

INTERLOCKING AT LEVEL CHANGE FLAT SADDLE


DOOR

OUT-OPENING IN-OPENING OR
DOOR DOOR OUT-OPENING
DOOR

VINYL
DOOR VINYL INSERT INSERT
STOP (MOUNT ON
FLOOR OR
BOTTOM OF
DOOR DOOR)
KERF STOP

FLEXIBLE FOAM FLEXIBLE FOAM VINYL INSERT VINYL INSERT


WEATHER STRIP WEATHER STRIP

JAMBS THRESHOLDS

SILICONE SILICONE
SILICONE BRUSH
WEATHER STRIP WEATHER
WEATHER
STRIP
STRIP WEATHER STRIP

DOOR
DOOR DOOR
DOOR
DOOR
DOOR DOOR
DOOR

ASTRAGALS

Daniel F. C. Hayes, AIA; Washington, D.C.

HARDWARE 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 418

418 Glass Products


DEFINITION OF GLASS grids, and other regular and random patterns, which provide HEAT-ABSORBING
translucency and a degree of obscurity. Usually only one
Glass is a hard, brittle amorphous substance made by melt- side of the glass is imprinted with a pattern. Patterned
OR TINTED GLASS
ing silica (sometimes combined with oxides of boron or glass is available in thicknesses of 1/8, 3/16, and 7/32 in. This type of float glass was developed to help control solar
phosphorus) with certain basic oxides (notably sodium, heat and glare in large areas of glass. It is available in blue,
potassium, calcium, magnesium, and lead) to produce WIRE GLASS bronze, gray, or green and in thicknesses ranging from 1/8 to
annealed flat glass by a controlled cooling process. Most 1
/2 in. The glass absorbs a portion of the sun’s energy
glasses soften at 932 to 2012°F (500 to 1100°C). The brit- Wire glass is available as clear polished glass or in various because of its admixture contents and thickness (see
tleness of glass is such that minute surface scratches in patterns such as square welded mesh, diamond welded graphic); it then dissipates the heat to both the exterior and
manufacturing greatly reduce its strength. mesh, and linear parallel wires. Some distortion, wire dis- interior. The exterior glass surface rejects some heat,
coloration, and misalignment are inherent. Some 1/4 in. depending on the sun’s position. Heat-absorbing glass has
wired glass products are recognized as certified safety glaz- a higher temperature when exposed to the sun than does
INDUSTRY QUALITY STANDARDS ing materials for use in hazardous locations (for example, clear glass; thus the central area expands more than the
fire-rated windows, doors, and skylights). For applicable fire cooler shaded edges, causing edge tensile stress buildup.
ASTM Standard C1036: Specification for Flat Glass. and safety codes that govern their use, refer to ANSI Z97.1. When designing heat-absorbing or tinted glass windows,
ASTM Standard C1048: Specification for Heat-treated Flat consider the following:
CATHEDRAL GLASS
Glass—Kind HS, Kind FT Coated and Uncoated Glass.
Cathedral glass is known also as art glass, stained glass, or 1. To minimize shading problems and tensile stress buildup
UL Standard 752: Bullet-resistive Material. opalescent glass. It is produced in many colors, textures, at the edges, provide conditions in which glass edges
and patterns. Cathedral glass is usually 1/8 in. thick and is warm as rapidly as the exposed glass (for example, fram-
UL Standard 972: Burglary-resistive Glazing Material. used primarily in decorating leaded glass windows. Spe- ing systems with low heat capacity and minimal glass
cialty firms usually contract this type of glass. grip or stops). Structural rubber gaskets can be used.
AAMA Standard No. 12: Structural Properties of Glass, Alu- 2. The thicker the glass, the greater the solar energy
minum Curtain Wall Series. OBSCURE GLASS absorption.
Obscure glass is used to obscure a view or create a design. 3. Indoor shading devices such as blinds and draperies
ASTM Standard E1300: Practice for Determining the Mini- The entire surface on one or both sides of the glass can be reflect energy back through the glass, thus increasing
mum Thickness of Annealed Glass Required to Resist a sandblasted, acid etched, or both. When a glass surface is the temperature of the glass. Spaces between indoor
Specified Load. altered by any of these methods, the glass is weakened shading devices and the glass, including ceiling pockets,
and may be difficult to clean. should be vented adequately. Heating elements always
CPSC Standard 16CFR 1201: Standard on Architectural should be located on the interior side of shading devices,
Glazing Materials. directing warm air away from the glass.

ANSI Z97.1: establishes standards for testing safety glazing


STRENGTHENED GLASS 4. The glass can be heat-treated to increase its strength and
Glass can be strengthened by either a controlled heating resistance to edge tensile stress buildup.
material.
and cooling process or by immersion in a chemical bath.
ASTM C1172: Specification for Laminated Architectural Flat Both processes have glass thickness, size, and use restric-
SOLAR
Glass. tions that should be verified. ENERGY

NOTE HEAT-TREATED GLASS


Consult glass manufacturers for current information Heat-strengthened (Kind HS) and tempered (Kind FT) glass
because processes, qualities, finishes, colors, sizes, thick- are produced by reheating annealed float glass close to its
ness, and limitations are revised continually. The following softening point and then rapidly quenching (cooling) it with
information represents one or more manufacturers’ guide- high velocity blasts of air. Both types have greatly increased
lines. mechanical strength and resistance to thermal stresses.
Before it is heat-treated, the glass must be fabricated to its
exact size and shape (including any holes), because neither INDOORS
BASIC TYPES OF CLEAR GLASS type of glass can be altered after heat treatment.

SHEET GLASS Most manufacturers heat-treat the glass using a horizontal


Sheet glass is manufactured by a horizontal flat or vertical process that can introduce warpage, kinks, and bowing into
the finished product, which may create aesthetic or techni- TRANSMITTED
draw process, then annealed slowly to produce a natural 32 TO 49%
flat fired, high gloss surface. It generally is used in residen- cal concerns. A vertical process may still be available that OUTDOORS
tial and industrial applications. Because it is not mechani- produces tong marks or depressions into the glass surface
cally polished, inherent surface waves are noticeable in near the suspended edge. The heat treatment quenching
sizes larger than 4 sq ft. For minimum distortion, larger pattern on the surface of the glass can become visible as a
sizes are installed with the wave running horizontally. The pattern of light and dark areas at certain oblique viewing REJECTED
angles and with polarized light. This effect can be more pro- 5 TO 6%
width is listed first when specifying.
nounced with thicker glass and may be an aesthetic consid-
Sheet glass for architectural applications is either single eration. Refer to ASTM C1048 for allowable tolerances and
strength (0.101 in. thick) or double strength (0.134 in. thick). other properties.
Very little glass is produced in the United States by this pro-
cess; almost all sheet glass is produced by the float pro- Heat-strengthened glass is generally two to three times
RADIATED RADIATED
cess. stronger than annealed glass. It cannot be cut, drilled, or AND
AND
altered after fabrication. Unlike tempered glass, it breaks CONVECTED CONVECTED
FLOAT GLASS into large, sharp shards similar to broken annealed glass. 45 TO 33% 18 TO 12%
Heat-strengthened glass is not acceptable for safety glazing
Generally accepted as the successor to polished plate applications.
glass, float glass has become the quality standard of the
glass industry. It is manufactured by floating molten glass TEMPERED GLASS
on a surface of molten tin, then annealing it slowly to pro-
duce a transparent flat glass, thus eliminating grinding and Tempered glass is generally four to five times stronger than
polishing. annealed glass. It breaks into innumerable small, cube-
shaped fragments. It cannot be cut, drilled, or altered after
This process produces a glass with very uniform thickness fabrication; the precise size required and any special fea-
and flatness, making it suitable for applications requiring tures (such as notches, holes, edge treatments, etc.) must
be specified when ordering. SOLAR PERFORMANCE OF
excellent optical properties, such as architectural windows, HEAT-ABSORBING OR TINTED GLASS
mirrors, and specialty applications. It is available in thick-
nesses ranging from 1/8 to 7/8 in. Float glass is made to the Tempered glass can be used as a safety glazing material
specification requirements of ASTM C1036, and its mini- provided it complies with the ANSI and CPSC references
listed on the following “Glass Products” page under the
SPANDREL GLASS
mum thickness to resist wind load is established using
ASTM E1300. “Laminated Glass” heading. Tempered glass can be used Spandrel glass is available tinted or with reflective, ceramic
in insulating and laminated assemblies and in wired, pat- frit (patterned and solid colors), direct-to-glass polyvi-
PLATE GLASS terned, and coated processes. All float and sheet glass 1/8 nylidene fluoride (Kynar 500 resin) coatings. It can be heat-
in. or thicker may be tempered. treated or laminated and is available as insulating glass
Transparent flat glass is ground and polished after rolling to units. Insulation and vapor retarders can be added to span-
make plate glass. Cylindrical and conical shapes can be CHEMICALLY TREATED GLASS drel glass; consult with spandrel glass manufacturers for
bent to a desired curvature (within limits). Only glass for guidelines.
specialty applications is produced by this method; it is not Chemically treated glass is produced by submerging
produced for widespread use in architectural applications. annealed float glass in a bath of molten potassium salts.
The larger potassium ions in the bath exchange places with
the smaller sodium ions in the glass surface, creating a sur-
SOUND CONTROL GLASS
VARIATIONS OF face compression layer that strengthens the glass. Chemi- Laminated, insulating, laminated insulating, and double lam-
cally treated glass breaks into large, sharp shards similar to inated insulating glass products commonly are used for
BASIC GLASS TYPES broken annealed glass. It does not have the visual distortion sound control. STC ratings from 31 to 51 are available
PATTERNED GLASS that can be caused by a heat-treated strengthening pro- depending on glass thicknesses, air space size, polyvinyl
cess. At present, chemical strengthening is primarily limited butyral film thickness, and the number of laminated units
Patterned glass is known also as rolled or figured glass. It is to the glass lights of laminated security glass. used in insulating products.
made by passing molten glass through rollers that are
etched to produce the design. Designs include flutes, ribs,

Thomas F. O’Connor, AIA, FASTM; Smith, Hinchman & Grylls; Detroit, Michigan

10 GLAZING
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 419

Glass Products 419


DEPENDING ON DEGREE ULTRACLEAR GLASS WIRING FROM PHOTOVOLTAIC
OF SECURITY PROTECTION GLASS TO BUILDING POWER
REQUIRED, THICKNESS CAN The high clarity and high visible light transmittance that SYSTEM CONCEALED
RANGE FROM 1” (25 MM) characterize ultraclear glass comes from the special soda IN MULLION
TO APPROXIMATELY 43/4” lime mixture it is made from, which minimizes the iron con-
(121 MM) CURTAIN WALL
tent that normally gives a slight greenish color to clear flat MULLION
MULTIPLE LAYERS OF glass. Ultraclear glass is generally available in thicknesses
GLASS AND/OR from 1/8 in. to 3/4 in. (3 mm to 19 mm). It can be heat MAINTENANCE
POLYCARBONATE strengthened, tempered, sand blasted, etched, or assem- ACCESS FOR
WIRING
PLASTIC bled into laminated glass. Ultraclear glass is used for com-
mercial display cases, museum cases, display windows,
frit-coated spandrel glass, aquariums, mirrors, shelving,
security glass, and other uses in which clarity and better
color transmittance are required.

LAMINATED GLASS
A tough, clear plastic polyvinyl butyral (PVB) sheet (interlay-
ered), ranging in thickness from 0.015 to 0.090 in. (0.381 to
2.3 mm), is sandwiched, under heat and pressure, between
lights of sheet, plate, float, wired, heat-absorbing, tinted,
reflective, low emissivity, or heat-treated glass or combina-
tions of each. When laminated glass breaks, the particles
tend to adhere to the plastic film. Laminated glass is manu-
factured to the specification requirements of ASTM C1172.
Laminated safety glass should be manufactured to comply
with ANSI Z97.1 and CPSC 16CFR 1201.
EDGE SPACER
AND AIR SPACE DEPENDING ON PVB AND GLASS
LIGHT THICKNESS, LAMINATED
TYPICAL INSULATING OR SPACED GLASS CAN VARY FROM 1/4” (6 MM)
CONSTRUCTION SECURITY GLASS TO 3/4” (19 MM) IN THICKNESS
PROFILE
POLYVINYL BUTYRAL
DEPENDING ON DEGREE OF SECURITY (PVB) THICKNESS
PROTECTION REQUIRED, THICKNESS RANGES FROM MULLION
CAN RANGE FROM 3/8”(10 MM) TO 0,03” (0.8 MM) TO PRESSURE
APPROXIMATELY 21/2” (64 MM) 0.09” (2.3 MM) BAR CAP
BONDING LAYER, POLYVINYL
BUTYRAL (PVB) FOR GLASS
LAYERS AND
POLYURETHANE FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC
POLYCARBONATE GLASS
PLASTIC LAYERS
INACTIVE PHOTOVOLTAIC
AREA FOR PRESSURE
BAR SHADOW PATTERN
ON GLASS SURFACE

PHOTOVOLTAIC GLASS (IN A


PRESSURE BAR FRAMING SYSTEM)
Pressure bar or structural silicone flush glazed curtain walls
and skylights, awnings, sunshades, light shelves, and roof
GLASS THICKNESS panels are some of the systems that can incorporate PV
RANGES FROM glass. For curtain walls and skylights, the pressure bar type
1
/8” (3 MM) TO allows easy concealment of the wiring. Shadow patterns
3
/8” (10 MM) from the cap on the PV glass surface must be considered in
system design. Flush glazed systems have no shadow pat-
LAMINATED GLASS PROFILE terns, but wiring concealment is more difficult and the PV
module on the glass must be kept from reacting with the
structural silicone sealant. Both types of PV glass are used
MULTIPLE LAYERS BENT GLASS for opaque curtain wall spandrel panels and can be used for
OF GLASS AND/OR
POLYCARBONATE Clear, tinted, ceramic frit-coated spandrel, pyrolitically curtain wall or skylight vision glass if the quality of daylight-
PLASTIC coated, patterned, laminated, and wire glass are among ing and visibility is acceptable. Consult PV glass and metal
glass types that can be bent in thicknesses to about 1 in. framing system manufacturers to determine availability,
TYPICAL MULTILAYER SECURITY (25 mm) and to a minimum radius of about 4 in. (102 mm). suitability, and cost for a particular application.
GLASS PROFILE Sharp angle bends to 90°, edgework, pattern cutting, and
tempering (meeting safety glazing standards) and heat-
SECURITY GLASS strengthening are also available. Bent glass can be fabri- DECORATIVE SILK-SCREENED
Security glass is composed of multiple layers of glass and/ cated into insulating glass units. Bent glass tolerances must (OR FRIT) GLASS
or polycarbonate plastic laminated together (under heat and be compatible with the glazing system. Size, configuration,
and product availability vary by fabricator. Annealed clear or tinted glass is washed and ceramic frit
pressure) with a polyvinyl butyral (for glass) or polyurethane paint (in standard or custom color) silk-screened on its sur-
plastic (for polycarbonate) film. It is available in multilayer face in a standard or custom pattern or design (such as
laminated glass, insulating, laminated insulating, and double dots, holes, lines, or a logo) and then dried in an oven. The
laminated insulating or spaced configurations, generally in PHOTOVOLTAIC GLASS frit-coated glass is then subjected to very high tempera-
thicknesses from 3/8 in. (10 mm) to 21/2 in. (64 mm) as a lam- There are two types of photovoltaic (PV) glass: crystalline tures in a tempering furnace to fire the ceramic frit perma-
inated product and up to about 43/4 in. (121 mm) for insulat- silicon sandwiched between two lights of glass and thin- nently to the glass surface. As a result, silk-screened glass
ing and spaced construction products. Bullet-resistant glass film amorphous silicon applied to an interior facing glass will be either heat strengthened or tempered after firing.
should be tested to UL 752 and burglar-resistant to UL 972. surface. When these arrangements are exposed to sun- Reflective and low emissivity coatings can also be applied
Consult manufacturers for blast-resistant glass. Security light, they generate either DC or AC power, which is trans- to the glass surface. Silk-screened glass can be used mono-
glass products, depending on type, are subject to size limi- ferred by concealed wiring to the building’s power system. lithically or for insulating or laminated glass products.
tations, and some are not recommended for exterior appli-
cations; consult with the manufacturer for glazing
requirements and restrictions on use. AVERAGE PERFORMANCE VALUES OF 1/4 IN. (6 MM) UNCOATED GLASS
% TRANSMITTANCE %
REFLECTANCE
COATED GLASS AVERAGE AVERAGE SHADING
A reflective or low emissivity coating can be applied to the
GLASS TYPE DAYLIGHT TOTAL SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET DAYLIGHT COEFFICIENT
surface of monolithic glass. Generally, only pyrolitically Ultraclear 91 89 85 8 1.04
applied "hard" coatings, which have scratch resistance, are Clear 89–88 78–76 71–62 9–8 0.95–0.94
used on exposed glass surfaces. During glass manufacture,
pyrolitic coatings are sprayed onto the glass before it cools, Clear laminated 86–84 67–64 <1 8–7 0.86–0.83
which integrates them with the glass surface. Magnetically Green 77–75 42–47 42–30 8–7 0.70–0.67
sputtered or "soft" coatings can also be applied to the glass Blue-green 75–71 49–35 32–28 7 0.72–0.60
surface but must be protected from the elements as part of
an insulating or laminated glass product. The range of coat- Blue 55 47 41 6 0.70
ing types, aesthetic appearances, and thermal performance Bronze 55–51 51–48 23–31 6 0.74–0.71
available for pyrolitic coatings is generally less than that Gray 46–43 49–42 25–32 5–6 0.72–0.66
available for sputtered coatings.

Thomas F. O’Connor, AIA, FASTM; Smith, Hinchman & Grylls; Detroit, Michigan

GLAZING 10
RGSp351-505 12/13/02 10:18 PM Page 420

420 Decorative, Leaded, and Stained Glass


LEADED STAINED GLASS FACETED STAINED GLASS
1 1
Decorative stained glass is characterized by pieces of glass VARIES /8” TO / 2” A 20th century development in the art of stained glass
joined together with cames (H-shaped strips) of various introduced the use of glass dalles 8 x 12 x 1 in., cast in hun-
widths. Varying the widths adds to the window’s decora- dreds of different colors that can be cut to any shape and
tive effect. Joints are soldered on both sides of the panel. LEAD CAME used, in combination with opaque matrix of epoxy resin or
To prevent leakage, a mastic waterproofing material is reinforced concrete 5/8 to 1 in. in thickness, to create trans-
inserted between the glass and came flange. lucent windows and walls of great beauty.
GLASS
Another method of joining the pieces of glass is banding SIZE LIMITATIONS
the edges of the glass with a copper foil tape burnished to
the glass and then soldered with a continuous bead of sol- No single panel of faceted glass should exceed 16 sq ft.
der on both sides. The length to width ratio of each panel should not exceed
4:1. Large openings must have horizontal supports to sup-
Bracing bars are fastened to the sash at frequent intervals port the weight of stacked panels. When panels are to be
to strengthen and support the leaded glass. Round bars stacked vertically, a minimum matrix thickness of 3/4 in. is
tied to the leaded glass with twisted copper wires are the recommended. Joints between panels should be sealed
most flexible and resilient, allowing for great amounts of with flexible caulking, as described below.
thermal movement. Where this system is not suitable, gal-
vanized steel flat bars can be soldered to the surface of the INSTALLATION
leaded glass. Faceted glass can be installed in frames of masonry, metal,
or wood. Frames must be detailed to support the weight of
When the glass requires detail painting, shading, or textur- the glass and matrix (approximately 10 to 13 lb/sq ft) and
ing, it must be done with special mineral pigments and fired the thicker edge of epoxy panels. A stained glass studio
at temperatures of 1000 to 1200°F or higher to ensure should be consulted for the location of division bars and
absolute permanency. mullions to coordinate with the design.

OUTSIDE PROTECTION GLASS


DECORATIVE GLASS PANELS Because of its high resistance to breakage, waterproof con-
INSTALLATION
LEAD ZINC OR
struction, and excellent insulating qualities, faceted glass
It is recommended that decorative glass be installed into BRASS H-SHAPED does not usually need outer glazing. If protection is
specially designed metal frames provided with glazing CAMES BURNISHED required, 3/4 to 1 in. ventilated space between the outer sur-
beads and sealed with a modern flexible glazing material. TO GLASS, SOLDERED face of the faceted glass and the inside surface of the pro-
However, with proper maintenance, high-quality wood AT JOINTS tection glass is recommended. Divisions in the protection
frames with suitable division bars are acceptable. glass should be designed by the artist to complement the
design.
A stained glass studio should be consulted for the location
of division bars, mullions, and muntins to best complement GLAZING SEALANTS
the artistic design. Decorative glass weighs approximately
4 lb/ sq ft. Faceted glass panels should be set into a non-hardening
caulking such as butyl, acrylic, silicone, or polysulfide, used
DEPTH OF CAMES
VARIES TO THICKNESS
both as a bedding and finish bead. For spaces in excess of
1
OF GLASS. WIDTH /4 in. between faceted glass and frame, fillers such as
OF CAMES VARIES ethafoam are recommended under the caulking bead. A
OUTSIDE PROTECTION GLASS TO SUIT DESIGN clearance of 3/16 in. should be allowed between frame and
Properly made decorative glass does not necessarily need panel edge for proper expansion and contraction. Neoprene
additional glazing to make it waterproof, but it is valuable H-SHAPED CAME METHOD spacers are used to ensure proper clearance.
for insulating purposes and to afford some protection from
external damage. Frames should be designed with a 3/4 in. COPPER FOIL TAPE
Further information is available from the Stained Glass
ventilated space between glass and should be arranged for BURNISHED TO EDGE Association of America.
the protection glass to be installed from the exterior and OF GLASS AND CONCRETE OR EPOXY
the decorative glass from the interior. Clear glass or tex- SOLDERED RESIN MATRIX
tured glass 3/16 to 1/4 in. thick is most successful. CONTINUOUSLY±
BOTH SIDES FACETED GLASS
Depending on geographic location and economics, insulat-
5
ing glass should be considered as the protective outside /8” TO 1”
glazing. TAPE

Acrylic and polycarbonate are two types of plastic protec-


tion material that can be employed when protection from
vandalism is needed. Outside protection glass should be SOLDER
installed by the stained glass studio whenever possible to
ensure an integrated system.
COPPER FOIL METHOD
POLYCARBONATE DECORATIVE
GLAZING SEALANTS SHEET GLASS
GLASS
Exterior decorative glass must be pressed into a deep back INSULATING
bed of mastic compound or glazing tape. When outside pro- GLASS
tection glass is used, a watertight seal is not required, and
foam tape compressed between the glazing bead and glass
may suffice.

SIZE LIMITATIONS
DECORATIVE GLASS DECORATIVE GLASS
Decorative glass panels should not exceed 12 sq ft, making WITH DOUBLE WITH INSULATING
it necessary to divide larger openings with metal division PROTECTIVE GLAZING GLAZING
bars: tee bars for single glazed windows, and special chan-
nel bars for windows with outside protection glass. ALUMINUM FRAMES FOR DECORATIVE
GLASS FACETED STAINED GLASS
GLASS COLORS
INSULATING DECORATIVE POLYCARBONATE FACETED
Machine-made and blown glass from the United States, OR GLASS SHEET GLASS
GLASS GLASS
England, France, and Germany are available in most solid
5
colors; also mixed colors and textures. Uniformity of color /8” TO 1”
SEALANT
will vary from glass of different batches. Special colors are
derived by “sumping,” or kiln firing.

WORKERS’ PROTECTION
Work in decorative glass studios involves handling and stor-
age of many toxic substances and waste such as lead,
fluxes, patinas, cleaners, and solvents. The Occupational ALUMINUM MASONRY
Safety and Health Administration has established guide- FRAME WALL
lines for use by studios, including blood testing, cleaning,
air purification, respirators, work clothing, and toxic waste
handling. WOOD FRAMES FOR DECORATIVE FACETED GLASS WITH PROTECTIVE
GLASS GLAZING

Randall S. Lindstrom, AIA; Ware Associates, Inc.; Chicago, Illinois


Joseph A. Wilkes, FAIA; Annapolis, Maryland
Bobbie Burnett Studio; Annapolis, Maryland

10 GLAZING