Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 522

Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

880×1230 mm 16# 18pieces


1st Edition in 2014. 5 1st Print

SHANDONG LINGONG CONSTRUCTION


MACHINERY CO.,LTD

Address: Linyi Economic Development Zone


Tel: 86-0539-8785688
Fax: 86-0539-8785698
Postal code:276023
Website:www.sdlg.cn
Services Tel:8008607999 4006587999 0539-8785800
Services Fax:86-0539-8785671
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
Safety & Environment ..................................................................................................................................... 1

0General ........................................................................................................................................................ 0-1

1Repair & Maintenance ............................................................................................................................... 1-1

2Engine System............................................................................................................................................. 2-1

21Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 2-1

22 Lubrication System.............................................................................................................................. 2-7

23Fuel Supply System .............................................................................................................................. 2-8

24Cooling System .................................................................................................................................. 2-10

25Intake and Exhaust System................................................................................................................. 2-12

26DPF Module ....................................................................................................................................... 2-14

27EGR Module ...................................................................................................................................... 2-15

28Disassembly and Assembly of Engine ............................................................................................... 2-16

29Disassembly and Assembly of Fuel Tank ........................................................................................... 2-52

3Electrical & Information System .............................................................................................................. 3-1

31Electrical System .................................................................................................................................. 3-1

32Electrical Principle and Fault Analysis............................................................................................... 3-12

33Distribution of Loader Wiring Harnesses ........................................................................................... 3-47

4Transmission System .................................................................................................................................. 4-1

41 Transmission Box System ................................................................................................................... 4-2

42Transmission Shaft System ................................................................................................................ 4-32

43Drive Axle System.............................................................................................................................. 4-38

44Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Fault of Transmission Syste .................................................. 4-47

5Brake System .............................................................................................................................................. 5-1

51Service Brake ....................................................................................................................................... 5-2

52Parking Brake ..................................................................................................................................... 5-26

52Deflation of Brake System ................................................................................................................. 5-30

53Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of Brake System ......................................................... 5-31

6Steering System........................................................................................................................................... 6-1

61General ................................................................................................................................................. 6-2


Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

62Disassembly and Assembly of Steering System.................................................................................... 6-7

63Deflation of Steering System .............................................................................................................. 6-25

64Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of Steering System....................................................... 6-26

7Frames, Tires & Working Device .............................................................................................................. 7-1

71General .................................................................................................................................................. 7-2

72Disassembly and Assembly of Counterweight ...................................................................................... 7-3

73Disassembly and Assembly of Frame Junction ..................................................................................... 7-4

74Disassembly and Assembly of Front and Rear Tires........................................................................... 7-10

75Disassembly and Assembly of Working Device ................................................................................. 7-12

76Disassembly and Assembly of Quick-Change Bucket ........................................................................ 7-19

8Cab & Covering Parts System ................................................................................................................... 8-1

81Cab Description..................................................................................................................................... 8-2

82Air Conditioning System Description ................................................................................................... 8-4

83Disassembly and Assembly of Cab Assembly ...................................................................................... 8-8

84Disassembly and Assembly of Engine Hood ...................................................................................... 8-22

85Disassembly and Assembly of Left and Right Platform Assembly..................................................... 8-33

86Disassembly and Assembly of Air Conditioning System .................................................................... 8-36

87Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of A/C System ............................................................. 8-52

9Working Hydraulic System ........................................................................................................................ 9-1

91Components, Locations ......................................................................................................................... 9-1

92Principle Diagram of Hydraulic System, Description ........................................................................... 9-2

93Hydraulic System Components, Description, Disassembly and Assembly .......................................... 9-6

94uick-Change Device Hydraulic System .............................................................................................. 9-40

95Independent Radiating Hydraulic System ........................................................................................... 9-40

96Boom Stabilization Module ................................................................................................................ 9-40

97 Pressure Measuring Methods and Standards of Working Hydraulic System ..................................... 9-40

98 Service Precautions For Working Hydraulic System ......................................................................... 9-41

99 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of Hydraulic System ................................................... 9-43


Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
Safety & Environment ................................................................................................... 1
Preface.......................................................................................................................... 1
Function Checking ....................................................................................................... 2
Safety When Handling the Loader .............................................................................. 3
Safety Regulations for Maintenance............................................................................ 6
General ................................................................................................................... 7
Maintenance Position 1.......................................................................................... 9
Working under Elevated Boom ................................................................................. 10
Fire Prevention Measures .......................................................................................... 10
Notes for Tire ............................................................................................................. 12
Safety When Lifting and Supporting the Complete Machine ................................... 14
Methods for Front Axle ....................................................................................... 14
Methods for Rear Axle ........................................................................................ 15
Safety for Operation of the Battery ........................................................................... 15
Starting with a Boosting Battery................................................................................ 17
Safety When Dealing with Oil and Fuel .................................................................... 18
Safety When Dealing with Refrigerant ..................................................................... 19
Safety When Operating Accumulator (If installed)................................................... 21
The Safety of Hydraulic System ................................................................................ 22
Checking after Experiencing a Fire or Heating ......................................................... 23
Health Hazard from Paint, Plastic and Rubber .......................................................... 24
Environment............................................................................................................... 27
Waste Disposal .................................................................................................... 27
Environmental Method ........................................................................................ 27
Environmentally Hazardous Liquids ................................................................... 29
Work in a Polluted Environment ......................................................................... 29
Decontamination .................................................................................................. 30
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Safety &

Environment

Preface
This booklet is a part of Service Manual for
LG938L Wheel Loader. Please carefully read this
part.

WARNING
Be sure to read “Safety” part in the manual
before operating.
Security Related to Everyone
You should always comply with the instructions in
Operation and Maintenance Manual for
LG938L Wheel Loader.
SDLG is aimed at the design and manufacture of
safety and efficient machines. However, if the
operators do not carefully read the safety
instructions, or do not comply with these provisions
or use wrong tools for this operation, then our
efforts will be wasted.
To keep the functions of machine safely and
effectively, you must always use the appropriate
spare parts designed for this loader (SDLG original
authentic parts). If you use unauthorized spare parts,
we will not be responsible for the damage of the
loader, and also offer the free repair and
compensation.
Staff should be with strong safety consciousness,
and keep the loader well-maintained. In this way we
1
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

cannot only realize safety and efficiency, but also


produce profit.
If the operators do not comply with safety
instructions, and do not pay attention to warning
instructions in this manual, they should ensure their
methods of operation are safe and reliable.
Otherwise, there is the risk of accidents, and even
leading casualties.

Function Checking
Please check the functions after safety-related
electrical system operations are carried out, to
ensure safety.
Safety-related electrical systems
Check the safety-related electrical system of the
followings:
Parking brake
Service brake
Transmission box
Lifting function
Please refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader for details.

2
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Safety When Handling the Loader


Shandong Lingong Construction Machinery Co.,
Ltd. is responsible only for the following
conditions:

- Properly use and maintain the loaders based


on the instructions described in Service
Manual for LG938L Wheel loader and
Operation and Maintenance Manual for
LG938L Wheel Loader.

- Carry out the required examinations and


checking in specified interval.

- Comply with the provisions about lubrication


of the machine in the manual.

- No security seal is opened by unauthorized


persons.

- All maintenance and repair work is carried


out by the way defined by SDLG.

- Only use original authentic parts, accessories


and attachments required by SDLG.

WARNING
Operation personnel must fully understand and
master the contents in Operation and
Maintenance Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader
before operating the machine.
It is essential that drivers should carefully read
Operation and Maintenance Manual for LG938L
Wheel Loader and follow its instructions.
Untrained personnel to drive the loader may
cause serious injury or death.
Do not operate the loader if Operation and
Maintenance Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

is not in place.
Be familiar with warning labels, symbols, and
driving instructions on the machine before using
it.
Several simple safety rules
 Resolve the safety problems and faults as soon
as possible.
 Always wear protective items, such as helmet
made of hard materials, safety glasses, gloves,
boots, and security supplies for operation.
 When the engine is running, do not stand in
front or rear of it.
 Ensure that the surface of the pedal,
maintenance sites, handrails and anti-skidding
parts are clean and without oil, diesel fuel,
sludge and snow, etc., and ensure that if these
parts are damaged or lost, timely replace and
repair them.
 Check regularly whether all anti-skidding
protection devices are secure. If not, firmly
install or replace them.
 Always face the machine and use pedals and
handrails when climbing on the machine.
Always use the three-point contact, namely two
hands and one foot, or two feet and one hand.
Do not jump up and down!
Fig. 1 Entering/leaving the machine
Here are some important rules:
 Perform all safety inspection measures in
Operation and Maintenance Manual for
LG938L Wheel Loader.

WARNING
If you feel tired or influence of alcohol,
drugs or affected by other drugs, do not

4
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

drive the machine.


 Before starting the engine, make sure there is
adequate ventilation. The machine is equipped
with diesel engine and the emission gas is
harmful to your health. Therefore, do ensure
adequate ventilation. If ventilation is
insufficient, please avoid running the engine
unless it is absolutely necessary.
 Before operation or maintenance on the
machine, please read all signs and instructions
Fig. 2 Read Operation and
as well as the contents in Operation and
Maintenance Manual for LG936L
Wheel Loader before operating the Maintenance Manual for LG938L Wheel
machine Loader. Each sign contains information about
safety, treatment and maintenance.
 Use the seat belt during operation.
 Always sit on the operator seat when starting
the engine.
 Before the machine is used, make sure a ready
for use, all functions should be intact and
effective, and all the faults that may cause an
accident should be ruled out.
Seat belt
 If the seat belt is worn, or the seat belt has been
subjected to force when the machine has an
accident, then this seat belt should be replaced
immediately.
 Modifications on seat belt and mounting parts
are absolutely prohibited.
 Seat belt is designed for only one adult, and it
cannot be used for a couple of people.
Fig. 3 Use the seat belt during operation
 When the belt is not in use, it should always be
in rolled-up state.

5
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

When the engine is running


 Pay attention to warning lights. For red one,
apply immediate actions or pay special
attention to it. Refer to the gauge part in
Operation and Maintenance Manual for
LG938L Wheel Loader for details.
 Before using the parking brake button, confirm
attachment/attachment brackets have been
placed on the ground.
 Be sure all the levers and handles are in the
neutral position, and gear shifting handle is in
the neutral position before leaving the machine.

WARNING
Risk of serious injury
 Do not stand near the hinged part between the
front and rear frame, unless it is already locked
with a locking lever frame.
 Before driving it on the road, empty the bucket.
 When leaving the machine and nobody watches
it, it should be parked on level ground, and put
the working device down on the ground, turn
off the engine and remove the key.
When rollover danger is involved
For the cab with ROPS, if there is a risk of rollover,
on the premise firmly fastened seat belt, and do
grasp the wheel. Do not jump!
Cab emergency exits
The cab has two emergency exits, namely, the door
and the right window.

Safety Regulations for Maintenance


This section includes the general safety rules about
inspection and maintenance.
6
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Other rules, information and warnings are offered in


Operation and Maintenance Manual for
LG938L Wheel Loader.
Incorrect maintenance may be very dangerous.
Before starting any maintenance work:
Make sure you have maintenance certificate, the
correct information, the right tools and equipment in
good condition to correctly perform maintenance
work.
ATTENTION
Before mastering the correct knowledge about
correct repair techniques and how to carry out
maintenance on the machine, you are prohibited
doing anything on the loader.

General

 If there is someone else to take over your


maintenance work, ensure the person to get
detailed information on the progress of work,
how much has been done, and how much needs
to be done.
 When you use high pressure tap to wash the
machine, do not aim the nozzle directly at the
coated anti-skipping surface or the signs
attached on the vehicle.

WARNING
Step on special pedals when walking up and
down the machine; refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader.
 When working on the machine, do not wear
loose cloth that may be stuck, in order to avoid
personal injury.
Fig. 4 Do not step on the engine hood
 Always wear protective caps, goggles, gloves,

7
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

protective boots and other safety that your work


needs.
 Always turn off the engine for maintenance
unless the marking and signs of the vehicle or
this manual have other instructions.
 Do not stand near the hinged frame, unless it is
already locked with a locking lever frame.
Fig. 5 Wear protective items
 Before opening the engine cover, radiator tanks
and similar parts, turn off the engine. Make sure
that no tools or items that may cause damage
left on the machine.
 When the engine is running and the machine is
in operation, the engine cover should be kept
closed.

8
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Maintenance Position 1

Stop the machine on a level and hard surface, as


shown in the following figure:

Fig.6 Maintenance position 1


1. Put attachments on the ground.
2. Turn off the engine and take down the ignition key.
3. Release the pressure in pressurized pipe and oil tank to prevent accidents.

WARNING
If the system pressure is not reduced before opening, oil will spray under high pressure,
and may cause serious personal injury accidents.
4. The steering wheel should be connected with yellow black warning flag (a red warning flag
may be used in the United States).
5. Make sure the frame lock lever is connected.
6. Press the parking brake button, so that the vehicle is in the parking brake status and wedge the
loader.
7. Battery cut-off switch is off.
9
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

8. Let the machine cool down.

WARNING
If you have to operate on the machine before it is cooled down, pay attention to hot liquid
and components, in order to avoid burns.

Working under Elevated Boom


Before starting operation, always use the support
frame. Support frame must be mounted on a sturdy
and flat surface.

WARNING
Pay attention to the exact location of the support
under the boom.
If the support is placed too forward, it will be
Fig. 7 Fix the boom firmly
overwhelmed when the attachment fixator tilts
forward.

Fire Prevention Measures


 Even if only the fire may happen, if
circumstances permit, and remember your
personal safety, you can take the following
measures:
- Start the machine, leaving the fire or
hazardous sites.
- Lower the lift arm to its lowest position, so
that the attachments stay on the ground.
- Turn the ignition key to turn off the engine.
- Leave the cab.
- Disconnect the battery switch.
Fig. 8 When filling the fuel or the fuel - Start to put out the fire, and call for the fire
is exposed to air, absolute prevention
of fireworks is needed department when necessary.
 When fill the machine with oil, or when the fuel
is exposed to air, the machine should not be

10
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

near fireworks.
 Diesel fuel is flammable and cannot be used to
clean the machine. Clean the machine with
approved cleaning agent.
 Some cleaning agents may cause fire or irritate
the skin. Do avoid absorbing vapors of cleaning
agent.
Cleanliness
 Cleanness is one of critical factors to keep safe
and reliable operation of the system. Therefore,
we should keep maintenance site clean.
 Make daily inspection of machinery and
equipment to ensure no dust and oil, which may
reduce the risk of fire, and easy to find
defective parts or loose parts.
If cleaning with high pressure water, must be
extremely careful, because the electronic
components and cable insulation may be damaged
at a relatively moderate pressure and water
temperature. Please protect the cable.
Electrical system
 Check whether the cable is scratched, and
ensure that the cable will not suffer such
damage. This is particularly important for the
cable without fuse. For example , the cables
between the following components:
- Battery
- Battery–starter motor
- Alternator–starter motor
- Warm-up coils from cable to the engine.
 If the cable without fuse is ever disconnected,
do check whether the wires are connected again,
and make sure wire connections can greatly

11
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

prevent from being scratched. The cable


without fuse cannot be close to oil or fuel hoses.
 For installing any optional equipment, be sure
that all wires are connected through a fuse and
make sure the layout of wiring and fixing of
wire can avoid being scratched.
Fuel, hydraulic and brake system
 Check and make sure fuel, hydraulic and brake
hoses are not scratched.
Welding and grinding
For carrying out any welding work, fire
extinguisher must be readily available.
 Welding and grinding operations can only be
carried on clean parts of the machine, and
cannot be in a position with combustible
liquids, such as fuel tanks and hydraulic pipe.
If welding or grinding on such parts is
inevitable, be especially careful.
 When welding on the paint surface, you should
first remove the painting. Welding on the
painting surface not only produces health
harmful gases, but also cause poor welding or
malfunction, resulting in accidents.
 Use personal protective equipment. If
conditions are permitted, you can use the
exhaust fan to drain the poisonous gas
produced by the welding and grinding.

Notes for Tire

WARNING
When inflating the tires installed on a
disconnect-type rim, explosion may occur,
leading to serious injury.

12
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Inflation
 Do not stand near the wheel side when inflating
the tires installed on a disconnect-type rim.
When inflating, you can use the automatic
locking air nozzle, and use a long enough hose
so that you can stand outside the danger zone.
 When inflating the tires, verify that no person
Fig. 9 Do not stand near tires when stands in danger zone.
inflating  Check the tire pressure only when the loader is
unloaded.
 Spare tire should be inflated only enough to
maintain the rim parts in position.
 When the tires are inflated, use a box and a
rope or chain to fix the loose wheels. Before
removing the box, check whether the tire is
correctly installed on the rim.
 After inflation, do not adjust the side ring or
lock ring.
 If tire pressure installed on the machine is less
than 80% of the normal pressure, and wheel
rim or tire is damaged, you should remove the
tire.
Install tires and rims
 Only trained technicians are allowed to handle
the tires.
 Before removing the tire from the rim, you
should deflate tire firstly.
 If the tire and the rim do not match with each
other, you cannot install the tire on the rim.
 Do not install rims parts with different sizes
together, and do not use damaged and failed
components.
 If you use the repaired wheel assembly, be

13
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

very careful. Failed or incorrect welding,


heating or fusing may damage the strength of
component, resulting in failure of the future.
 Before installing the lock ring, you should
confirm the lock ring in the rim groove free of
dirt and dust.
 When installing the tire on the rim, use the
lubricant recommended by the tire
manufacturer.
Repair tires and wheel rings
 Do not cut, weld or heat the wheel assembly in
any way.
 Be careful to use wheel rim remover and
hydraulic jacks. When removing impurities
from the tires, stand outside the danger zone. It
is extremely dangerous to loosen the rim
remover, which may cause serious personal
injury and death.

Safety When Lifting and Supporting


the Complete Machine
Place the machine on the maintenance position, and
always use the jacks and support equipment with
sufficient bearing capacity.
Other works must be carried out after the front and
rear axles are supported in a safety way.

WARNING
When the machine is only supported by jack, it
is prohibited to entering the machine or walking
under the machine.
When replacing tires and brakes, always keep
operating on one axle a time.

Methods for Front Axle


14
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Lift the machine by operating the working


equipment, and then use special tools to support it.

Methods for Rear Axle

After jacking up the machine with a jack, support


the counterweight with special tooling and put
wood block between the axle and the frame to
prevent the swing of rear axle.
ATTENTION
Before falling down the machine, do not forget to
remove the wood block.
Machine must be supported by tooling and jacks
with sufficient bearing capacity.
In the case that two wheels are lifted, you can more
easily rotate the hub to set the wheel nut in place.

Safety for Operation of the Battery

WARNING
Serious risk of corrosion!
Battery contains sulfuric acid, and is extremely
corrosive for loader parts and the human body.
As to all the work involved in vehicle battery, the
mixture of explosive gases and corrosive sulfuric
acid will greatly increase the risk of accidents.
Therefore, when you operate the battery, you should
carefully read and follow these rules.
For operation the battery, please follow these
instructions:
 Battery will release explosive gases. Do not
smoke near the battery.
 Before removing the battery, firstly disconnect
Fig. 10 Corrosive sulfuric acid
the ground wire. To reduce the risk of fire
hazards, when installing the battery, connect

15
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

the ground wire at last.


 Do not tilt the battery in any direction. Battery
electrolyte may leak.
 Do not connect the discharged battery and fully
charged batteries in series. It will be with the
risk of explosion.
 Do not allow metal objects (such as tools, rings,
watches) contact with the battery terminals. It is
with risk of fire and personal injury.
 When working near the battery, cover the top of
the battery with cloth or other non-conductive
material.
 Always install the caps of battery terminal.
 Battery includes substances harmful to health
and the environment. Therefore, disused
batteries must be dealt with in accordance with
local/national regulations.
Battery charging
Risk of explosion
Explosive oxyhydrogen mixtures will be produced
during charging. So any short circuit, open flame or
sparks near battery can cause powerful explosion.
Before disconnecting the charging clamps, always
turn off the charging current. Keep it ventilated,
especially charging in an enclosed space.

WARNING
Serious risk of corrosion!
Corrosive sulfuric acid
Battery electrolyte includes corrosive sulfuric acid.
If electrolyte is splashed on exposed skin, you
should immediately wash it away. Clean the
affected area with soap and plenty of water. If
electrolyte gets into your eyes, or any other
16
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

sensitive parts of the body, immediately flush it


with water and seek help for doctor.

Starting with a Boosting Battery

ATTENTION
Check and make sure that the voltage of battery
pack and any other step-up power supply are
same.

WARNING
If a fully charged battery is connected to a
depleted battery, the battery may be burst open
due to power surges, it may cause personal
injury accidents.
Follow these steps when starting with a booster:
1. Open the engine hood.
2. Open the battery cover.
3. Turn off the battery switch.
4. Do not disconnect the machine's battery cables.
5. Remove the caps from the battery terminal.
6. Connect the positive cable boosting battery or
other power source to positive terminal of the
battery.
7. Connect the negative cable boosting battery to
the engine block.
8. Turn on the battery switch.
9. Use the ignition switch in the cab to start the
engine.
10. For charging the boosting battery with the
alternator, firstly remove the jumper starter
cable from the negative terminal of boost
battery and the ground. Then remove the
jumper starter cable between the positive

17
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

terminals.
ATTENTION
If the alternator is not charging, use switch to
turn off the machine and check the reason.
11. Recover the machine.

Safety When Dealing with Oil and


Fuel

WARNING
Risk of scalding! Use protective gloves.
 Replace hydraulic oil inside the engine and
transmission, remember that the oil is very hot
and may cause burns/scalds.
 Engine and gearbox oil, hydraulic oil and diesel
fuel are corrosive for the mucous membranes,
such as the eyes, throat and skin. So be
especially careful to keep these sensitive parts
of the body away from the oil.
 For evacuation or discharge oil or fuel, do take
measures to avoid unnecessary spilling. In a
place that is impossible to use the container to
collect the oil, use an absorbing pump or hose
as security measures. Casually releasing oil and
fuel is not only harmful to the environment, but
also cause fire.
 Waste oil should be handled by an authorized
company.
 Remember that fire hazards!

18
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Safety When Dealing with


Refrigerant
Overview
Before turning on the air-conditioning system,
repair work and further work should be carried out
by personnel with special qualifications. Many
countries also require that the repair person should
be specially trained and officially recognized.
Understand the regulations and comply with them
in the country.
Refrigerant R134a is used for the air conditioning
unit.
Type and filling amount of refrigerant are marked
on the labels.

ATTENTION
R134a will aggravate the greenhouse effect, and
don’t expose it to the air intentionally.
Person protective equipment
When there is a danger of skin exposure to
refrigerant, please use: tight goggles and protective
gloves, and protect other exposed skin (frostbite
hazard).
Danger

WARNING
Fig. 11 When a risk of touching These gases are odorless and tasteless; even it
refrigerator is involved, do wear
can cause serious damage to the lungs at low
protective googles and gloves
concentrations.
If it is not handled correctly, R134a refrigerant can
cause serious personal injury and environmental
hazards. Therefore, be very careful when operating
the air conditioning unit! In order to avoid injury to
personal in touch with refrigerant, the rules given

19
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

below will be of great help:

WARNING
There is a danger of frostbite! Use protective
gloves.
 Liquid refrigerant can cause frostbite.
 Low-concentration gaseous refrigerant has a
certain impact, especially on the nervous
system.
 The high-concentration gaseous refrigerant has
anesthetic effect.
 Air conditioning units are of high pressure, and
the refrigerant will inadvertently leak. Do not
disconnect the hose or remove oil filling plug
on the compressor.
If you suspect the leakage of some parts, you
should contact with an authorized repair station
approved and trained personnel to troubleshoot
and repair it.
 Refrigerant gas is heavier than air and it will
sink to the ground. Therefore, ensure that any
escaping gas should be released before you start
working.
In the working site during operation of refrigerant,
smoking, welding or other open flames are not
permitted. Refrigerant gas will burn and form a
toxic gas. And it is very dangerous to breathe it. The
gas formed by heating the refrigerant is pungent at
high concentration.
Symptoms may appear after being exposed to the
gas after a few hours (Maybe up to 24 hours).
Actions taken when the accident occurs
Inhale
If you suspect any as leakage, please leave
20
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

immediately, and try to find fresh air and move


affected persons out of the danger zone. A small
amount of refrigerant R134a vapor will have a
certain impact, particularly on the nervous system.
When the amount of the gas is large, the gas will
have anesthetic effect. In serious cases, seek for
immediate medical attention.
Skin contact
If frostbite occurs, rinse with warm water. If
unprotected skin contacts with large amounts of
liquid refrigerant, keep the damage zone warm with
warm cloth or warm water. If the symptoms persist,
seek for immediate medical.
Splashing into the eyes
Rinse the damaged zone with warm water until
stimulation feeling disappears. Seek for medical
help immediately.

Safety When Operating


Accumulator (If installed)
Only qualified service personnel are allowed to
operate.

WARNING
If the pressure is not reduced before open it, oil
will spray under high pressure and cause serious
injury.
Before removing the accumulator from the machine,
the system should be depressurized.
Even some accumulators are removed from the
machine, they still contain pressure, that is so-called
pre-charge pressure. Therefore, be very careful in
dealing with accumulator and operating on the
accumulator.

21
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

When taking any measures on the accumulator, the


pre-charge pressure must be reduced to atmospheric
pressure.
Avoid exposing the accumulator to high
temperature, do not handle roughly.

WARNING
Discarded accumulator without perforation may
still contain high-pressure, be always extremely
careful to handle it.
The pressure in scrapped accumulator should be
released before being crushed, in order to avoid
explosion.

The Safety of Hydraulic System


Loader hydraulic system runs at very high pressure.
To avoid serious personal injury, it is very
important to repair the system in the right way, and
all personnel that contact with the machine should
be very careful in their work, and pay close attention
to any deficiencies.
To avoid accidents, please comply with the
following requirements.
General
 The pressure of pressure limiting valve must
not be adjusted to the value higher than the
level recommended by the manufacturer.
 Bulgy hydraulic hose (for example, at the joint)
may crack, so replace the hose as soon as
possible! Note the leakage condition of
hydraulic hoses and connections. Repair the
parts before rupture!
 Discarded accumulator should be pierced
before disposal to prevent explosions.

22
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

WARNING
If the system pressure does not reduce, oil will
spray under high pressure and cause serious
injury.
Release the pressure (pressure relief)
After engine is shut down, there will be pressure left
in system. Before loosening or opening hose
connectors, plugs, etc. in hydraulic system or
braking system, you must release the pressure of the
system.
If the engine is stopped, release the pressure of the
accumulator by moving the lift lever back and forth
several times.
 All pressurized tanks/containers should be
opened carefully to release any remaining
pressure.
 Only after the system is fully relieved can you
check whether leakage pipes and connections
are tightened.

WARNING
Leaked hydraulic hoses under high pressure
may cause serious injury. The spilled liquid is
very penetrating on the exposed skin.
 When checking leakage, check it with steel or
cardboard, and do not use hand.

Checking after Experiencing a Fire


or Heating
 As a precaution, the sealing ring (O-ring or an
axle/shaft seals) should always be dealt with as
made of the fluorine rubber, and refer to
"fluorine rubber" part.

23
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

WARNING
When washing burned machine, avoid splashing
with water! Therefore, do not clean with
high-pressure liquid.
 If there is a chance that the burnt parts may be
exposed to melt polymer, do not directly touch
them with hands. Wash it with plenty of lime
water (a kind of solution or suspension of
calcium hydroxide, namely slaked lime).
 Use thick protective rubber gloves and goggles
to protect your eyes.
 If your skin may be exposed to burnt fluorine
rubber, seek for medical help. The skin should
be treated with anti-hydrofluoric-acid burnt
cream or similar drugs. Symptoms may appear
a few hours later after touching fluorine rubber.
 Discard protective gloves, cloth, and other
items that may be exposed to fluorine burnt
rubber.
 During operations, maintain good ventilation.
 If the eyes are hurt, rinse them immediately
with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.
Then seek for medical treatment.

Health Hazard from Paint, Plastic


and Rubber
Working on the paint surface
Do not weld or cut on paint surface. All paints after
heating will decompose and produce a large amount
of different substances, and it is very harmful to
health if exposing in such an environment
frequently.
Take the following security measures:
24
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

 Remove the paint on 10cm (4 in) area around


working point with abrasive paper (use
respirator mask).
If the paint cannot be sanded off, it should be
removed by other methods, such as using paint
remover.

ATTENTION
If the paint is removed with agent, use an
exhaust fan, and wear a respirator mask and
protective gloves.
 The grinding machine with high-speed disc will
heat the paint and it can only be used for paint
removing when an exhaust fan is placed. And
wear a mask or other respiratory protection
equipment at the same time.
Rubber and plastics

WARNING
Heated rubber and plastic will emit substances
harmful to health and the environment.
Must observe the following safety rules:
 Without insulation measures taken in advance,
do not weld or cut near polyester material
(plastic or rubber) with a flamethrower.
 Do not burn polymeric materials when
scraping them.
 After a fire or heating, the machine should be
handled carefully.
 Always use gloves, goggles and face shields,
or other respiratory protective equipment.
Fluoride rubber

WARNING
Serious risk of corrosion!
25
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

WARNING
Hydrofluoric gas will be produced when heating
the fluoride rubber and it may cause severe
corrosion of the respiratory tract after
breathing this gas.
Some seals are designed to withstand high
temperatures (i.e. the seals in the engine, gearbox,
axle, brake, hydraulic motors and pumps member),
which are made of fluoride rubber, and they will
generate hydrogen fluoride and Hydrofluoric acid
when heated to high temperature.
Hydrofluoric acid is strongly acidic and corrosive,
and it cannot be washed from the skin. And it would
cause very serious burning and corrosion damage,
and it takes a long time to recover. As a general
principle, the injured tissue must be surgically
removed.
Hydrofluoric acid will remain on the machine parts
after the fire for long time (several years).

ATTENTION
After contacting with hydrofluoric acid, the
symptoms may appear after a few hours.
If swelling, redness or burning happens due to
contacting with heated fluoride rubber, immediately
seek for medical advice.
If the machine or machine parts suffered a fire or
other intense heating, it can only be handled by
trained service personnel.
When operate a machined suffered a fire, be sure to
wear gloves made of strong rubber and effective
safety googles.

WARNING
Burning painted, plastic or rubber parts will be
26
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

harmful to health.
Decontamination
For the area subjected to heating, if you suspect it is
made of fluorine rubber, use a lot of lime water
(calcium hydroxide, blended hydrated lime) to
thoroughly wash it to remove toxic substances.
After the decontamination, gloves must also be
cleaned in lime water, and then scrap it.

Environment

Waste Disposal

For the treatment of waste, comply with the


following steps.
REUSE is best method from an environmental point
of view.
MATERIAL RECYCLING is also a good
environmental choice of means for use of new
products.
Fig. 12
ENERGY RECOVERY is a good alternative to
burn it as combustible materials when recycling it
is impossible.
DESTRUCTION can be used in hazardous waste.
Destruction must be operated in a special place.
DEPOSITION is the worst way from an
environmental point of view, and should be
avoided.
STORAGE is a temporary measure and deal with it
until a suitable recycling technology is developed.

Environmental Method

Always select a most suitable method for


environmental protection as long as there is a
possibility, for example, use biological oil.

27
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Always comply with national and local


environmental regulations.
All waste should be handed over to authorized
waste disposal company.
Liquid and oil
Do not reuse the old liquid oil, such as coolant, and
collect it in sealed container and leave it to destroy
department.
Filter
Oil and fuel filter should be drained and then placed
in a sealed container and then leave it to destroy
department.
Refrigerant R134a
Refrigerant R134a contains substances affecting
greenhouse effect and should not be released into
the atmosphere. Recycle it.
Battery

WARNING
Serious risk of corrosion!
Batteries contain environmentally harmful
substances and corrosive sulfuric acid. And should
be handed over to recycling department.
Chemicals
Chemicals, paints, adhesives, detergents, etc.,
should be left to recycling department for disposal
or destroy.
Rubber and plastics
Rubber and plastic parts should not be burned, and
should be handed over to recycling department.
Tires should be based on special provisions to deal
with.
Electronic components

28
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

Electrical and electronic waste parts, such as circuit


boards, bulbs, should be handed over to recycling
department.

Environmentally Hazardous Liquids

Note whether fuel, oil and other fluids harmful to


the environment leak from the machine.
Take appropriate measures immediately to prevent
leakage, and eliminate the pollution of
contaminated sites as soon as possible.
Oil and fuel
When emptying or draining the oil and fuel, take
appropriate measures to prevent unnecessary
spilling. If a container cannot be used, use a pump or
hose.
Air conditioning unit
Refrigerant R134a contains substances affecting
greenhouse effect and should not be released into
the atmosphere.
The personnel in charge of refrigerant maintenance
must not only understand the country's relevant
laws/regulations, but also understand the
international rules.
Recommend that all maintenance for the air
conditioning must first be trained. Many countries
require the man with a certificate of authority can
perform such operation.

Work in a Polluted Environment

When operate the machine in a polluted/unhealthy


site, special devices for operating in such
environments should be equipped with.
After operating in the environment with asbestos or
other toxic dust, used cab and engine air filter must
29
Service Manual for LG936L Wheel Loader

be placed in sealed plastic bags ( packed new filter


bag), and leave them to the destruction department.

Decontamination

Clean the contamination up as soon as possible.


Certain substances will soon be scattered into the
environment.
Clean-up after the leakage/spilling
Use suitable absorbent material to collect leaking
oil or fuel, such as absorbent pads.
Prevent leaked oil/fuel discharged into sewer with
the rain/flood.
Contaminated soil and materials on the ground must
be removed and collected in a suitable container.
Collected soil and absorbent material should be left
to the destruction department.
Clean-up after the accident
If possible, seal up the leakage of the machine.
Use drainage barriers to isolate the leakage site.
Add the absorption material, such as sand or
sawdust water.
Prevent leakage of liquid so that leaked oil/fuel will
not discharge into sewers with the rain/floods.
Collect absorbent material and dirt floating layer in
a sealed container, and leave them to the destruction
department.
Clean up after the fire
First put out fire.
Deal with it in accordance with the post-accident
clean-up measures.

ATTENTION
Be careful of the toxicity of certain substances
after ignited.
30
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
0 General................................................................................................................. 0-1
01 Product Introduction ............................................................................................ 0-1
02 Specification ........................................................................................................ 0-6
03 Tools .................................................................................................................. 0-11
04 Marks ................................................................................................................. 0-12
05 Maintenance and Replacement Criterions ......................................................... 0-13

I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

0 General

01 Product Introduction

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Fig. 0-1 The loader is large construction machinery mainly
1 Counterweight for heavy-duty shoveling and loading of bulk ores..
2 Engine hood It is widely used in mineral yards, construction,
3 Rear tire roads, freight yards and ports, mainly for shoveling
4 Cab and short distance transport of bulk materials, such
5 Front tire as loosened soil, sandy soil, dinas, coal and
6 Bucket cylinder garbage. It can be used for dragging, flattening the
7 Rocker arm ground, piling and stacking operations. Definitely
8 Quick-change support it is a kind of multifunctional, efficient
9 Quick-change bucket construction machinery. Replace the working
device and the loader can be used for wood
clamping, snow removal and block material
forking.

0-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Table 0-1 Overall performance parameters

Items Parameters Items Parameters


Min. steering radius (external
Bucket capacity (m3) 1.8 5503
part of rear wheel) (mm)
Moving levelly radius
Rated operating load
3000 (external part of bucket) 5955
(kg)
(mm)
Max. dragging force
(provided by engine) ≥90.5 Max. breakout force (kN) ≥73
(kN)
Tipping load (kN) 66 Max. climbing angle (°) 28
Gears Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ
Speed Forward (km/h) 0~7 0~11.5 0~22.7 0~36.4
Reverse (km/h) 0~7 0~11.5 0~22.7 ---

Table 0-2 Main dimensions and weight


Items Parameters Items Parameters
Overall length (bucket on the
7450 Bucket width (mm) 2520
ground) (mm)
Height (mm) 3234 Wheel base (mm) 1865
Width (external part of wheel)
2310 Shaft base (front/rear) (mm) 2850
(mm)
Max. dump height (-45o dump
2800 Operation weight (kg) 10500
angle) (mm)
Correspond dumping reach (-45o
1245 Number of shafts 2
dump angle) (mm)
Min. ground clearance (mm) 370

Table 0-3 Engine

Items Parameters Items Parameters


Model TCD6.1L6T4 Number of cylinder 6
Turbocharged and Cylinder bore/stroke
Type 101/ 126
inter-cooling (mm)
Min fuel consumption
Rated power (kW) 120 202
(g/kWh)
Rated speed
2200 Max torque (Nm) 720
(r/min)
Stage IIIB/Tier
Displacement (ml) 6060 Emission standard
4i

0-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Table 0-4 Transmission system

Items Parameter/contents
Single stage 4-element double-turbine
Type
hydraulic torque converter
Torque coefficient 2.9
Torque Oil cooling type Forced air cooling
converter
Inlet oil pressure of converter
0.85
(MPa)
Outlet oil pressure of converter
0.5
(MPa)
Type Fixed shaft electronic-hydraulic shift

Shifting gears Forward-4-Reverse-3


Forward I 3.996
Forward II 2.368
Forward III 1.126
Transmission Transmission
box Forward IV 0.626
ratio
Reverse I 3.996
Reverse II 2.368
Reverse III 1.126
Variable-speed pump model Build-in
Shifting pressure (MPa) 1.6~1.8

Main Type Spiral bevel gear, single reduction


transmission Reduction ratio 6.167

Wheel Type Planetary gear, single reduction


reducer Reduction ratio 3.12
Type Four-wheel-drive
Drive axle Tire specification 17.5-25
and tire Tire pressure Front wheel 0.34±0.01
(MPa) Rear wheel 0.28±0.01
Service brake type Full hydraulic dry-type brake
Brake system Brake oil pressure (MPa) 10.3
Parking brake type Pressure release type caliper disc brake

0-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Table 0-5 Steering system


Items Parameter/contents

Type Loading sensing steering system

Priority valve VLH-240S-14


Steering pump HGP3100/1016RC
Steering cylinder bore diameter×piston rod
HSGL-80*45*327-594
diameter×stroke (mm)
Steering gear BZZ6-630A
Steering angle (°) 37°
System working pressure (MPa) 14

Table 0-6 Working device


Items Parameters/contents
Type Hydraulic pilot operated
Boom cylinder bore diameter×piston rod
HSGF-125×70×771
diameter×stroke (mm)
Bucket cylinder bore diameter×piston rod
HSGF-140×80×502
diameter×stroke (mm)
Working pump HGP3100/1016RC
Multitandem valve model D32A-16
Pilot valve model HC-RCL-5A-VIA
System working pressure 16MPa
Bucket lifting time (full load) ≤5.6s
Bucket lowering time (no-load) ≤3.85s
Bucket unloading time (no-load) ≤0.89s
Sum of three operations time ≤10.34s

Table 0-7 Service refill capacities


Items Parameters Items Parameters
Fuel tank 140L Engine 15L
Hydraulic system 128L Transmission box 35L
Axle (Main transmission
2×18L
and wheel reducers)

0-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig. 0-2

0-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

02 Specification

Standard tightening torque

Table 0-8 Tightening torque of common bolts

Bolt Yield Bolt nominal diameter (mm)


strength strength 6 8 10 12 14
grade N/mm2 Tightening torque (Nm)
4.6 240 4~5 10~12 20~25 36~45 55~70
5.6 300 5~7 12~15 25~32 45~55 70~90
6.8 480 7~9 17~23 33~45 58~78 93~124
8.8 640 9~12 22~30 45~59 78~104 124~165
10.9 900 13~16 30~36 65~78 110~130 180~210
12.9 1080 16~21 38~51 75~100 131~175 209~278

Bolt Yield Bolt nominal diameter (mm)


strength strength 16 18 20 22 24
grade N/mm2 Tightening torque (Nm)
4.6 240 90~110 120~150 170~210 230~290 300~377
5.6 300 110~140 150~190 210~270 290~350 370~450
6.8 480 145~193 199~264 282~376 384~512 488~650
8.8 640 193~257 264~354 376~502 521~683 651~868
10.9 900 280~330 380~450 540~650 740~880 940~1120
12.9 1080 326~434 448~597 635~847 864~1152 1098~1464

Bolt Yield Bolt nominal diameter (mm)


strength strength 27 30 33 36 39
grade N/mm2 Tightening torque (Nm)
4.6 240 450~530 540~680 670~880 900~1100 928~1237
5.6 300 550~700 680~850 825~1100 1120~1400 1160~1546
6.8 480 714~952 969~1293 1319~1759 1694~2259 1559~2079
8.8 640 952~1269 1293~1723 1759~2345 2259~3012 2923~3898
10.9 900 1400~1650 1700~2000 2473~3298 2800~3350 4111~5481
12.9 1080 1606~2142 2181~2908 2968~3958 3812~5082 4933~6577

0-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Table 0-9 Tightening torque table when the connected part is made of cast iron or aluminum

8.8 10.9
Bolt grade and torque
Torque ( Nm ) Torque ( Nm )
Bolt specification
Cast iron Aluminum Cast iron Aluminum
M8 20~25 15~20 28~33 15~20
M10 45~50 25~30 55~60 25~30
M12 70~80 50~55 100~105 50~55
M14 110~125 80~90 150~165 80~90
M16 160~180 120~140 220~240 120~140
M18 205~230 165~180 295~320 165~180

Table 0-10 Tightening torque of joint body

Joint body with copper washer sealing or screw sealing Joint body with O ring
Joint body Joint body Tightening torque
Tightening torque Nm
specification specification Nm
M14, G1/4 34±5 M12×1.5 35±3.5
M18, G3/8 73±10 M14×1.5 45±4.5
M20, G1/2 93±10 M16×1.5 55±5.5
M24 142±20 M18×1.5 70±7.0
M27, G3/4 205±30 M20×1.5 80±8.0
M33, G1 421±49 M22×1.5 110±10
M42 872±98 M27×2.0 170±17
M33×2.0 310±31
M36×2.0 310±31

Table 0-11 Tightening torque of 24o cone sealing

Tightening torque of 24°cone sealing pipe nuts


Specification Tightening torque Nm
M12×1.5 20±5
M14×1.5 30±5
M16×1.5 35±5
M18×1.5 45±5
M20×1.5 50±5
M22×1.5 65±10
0-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

M24×1.5 70±10
M26×1.5 85±10
M30×2 115±15
M36×2 145±15
M42×2 210±20

Table 0-12 Tightening torque of hinged bolt


Specification Tightening torque Nm
M10×1 25~35
M12×1.5 60~75
M14×1.5 80~100
M16×1.5 105~115
M18×1.5 20~130
M22×1.5 140~155
M24×1.5 160~180
M27×2 190~230
M33×2 270~320

Conversion of unit tables

Table 0-13 Length

Unit CM M KM IN. FT YD Mile


CM 1 0.01 0.00001 0.3937 0.03281 0.01094 0.000006
M 100 1 0.001 39.37 3.2808 1.0936 0.00062
KM 100000 1000 1 39370.7 3280.8 1093.6 0.62137
IN. 2.54 0.0254 0.000025 1 0.08333 0.02777 0.000015
FT 30.48 0.3048 0.000304 12 1 0.3333 0.000189
YD 91.44 0.9144 0.000914 36 3 1 0.000568
Mile 160930 1609.3 1.6093 63360 5280 1760 1
1mm = 0.1cm 1μm = 0.001mm

0-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Table 0-14 Area

Unit CM2 M2 KM2 ARE FT2 YD2 IN2


CM2 1 0.0001 - 0.000001 0.001076 0.000012 0.155000
M2 10000 1 0.000001 0.01 10.764 1.1958 -
KM2 - 1000000 1 10000 1076400 1195800 -
ARE 0.01 100 0.0001 1 1076.4 119.58 -
FT2 - 0.092903 - 0.000929 1 0.1111 144.000
YD2 - 0.83613 - 0.008361 9 1 1296.00
IN2 6.4516 0.000645 - - 0.006943 0.000771 1
1Ha =100Ares 1mile2=259Ha =2.59km2

Table 0-15 Volume

Unit CM3 M3 DM3 IN3 FT3 YD3


ML 1 0.000001 0.001 0.061024 0.000035 0.000001
KL 1000000 1 1000 61024 35.315 1.30796
L 1000 0.001 1 61.024 0.035315 0.001308
IN3 16.387 0.000016 0.01638 1 0.000578 0.000021
FT3 28316.8 0.028317 28.317 1728 1 0.03704
YD3 764529.8 0.76453 764.53 46656 27 1
1 gallon (U.S.) = 3,785.41 cm3 = 231 in3 = 0.83267 gallon (British)

Table 0-16 Weight

Unit G KG MT OZ Ib. (pound)


G 1 0.001 0.000001 0.03527 0.0022
KG 1000 1 0.001 35.273 2.20459
MT 1000000 1000 1 35273 2204.59
OZ 28.3495 0.02835 0.000028 1 0.0625
Ib. (pound) 453.592 0.45359 0.000454 16 1
1 ton (metric) = 1.1023 tons (U.S.) = 0.9842 ton (British)

0-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Table 0-17 Pressure

Unit KIP/CM2 Bar Pa= N/m2 KPa Lbf/inch2 Lbf/ft2


KIP/CM2 1 0.98067 98066.5 98.0665 14.2233 2048.16
Bar 1.01972 1 100000 0.001 0.00015 0.02086
Pa= N/m2 0.00001 0.001 1 0.001 0.00015 0.02086
KPa 0.01020 0.01 1000 1 0.14504 20.886
Lbf/inch2 0.07032 0.0689 6894.76 6.89476 1 144
Lbf/ft2 0.00047 0.00047 47.88028 0.04788 0.00694 1
1 Kg/cm2 = 735.56 dry measure (mmHg) = 0.96784 atm

Table 0-18 Unit description

Unit Abbreviation
Newton metre Nm
Kilopound metre kpm
Kilopascal kPa
Megapascal MPa
Kilowatt kW
Kilojoule kj
British thermal unit Btu
Calorie ca

0-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

03 Tools

Table 0-19
Common
Specification Quantity Application
tools
Choose the specification
Pneumatic
BQ8, BQ10, BQ16, BQ30, MI-17HE 1 set according to size of different
wrench
assembled bolts
Choose the specification
sleeve 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 21, 24, 36, 46 1 set according to size of different
assembled bolts
Hit slightly when
Soft hammer 1 assembling some parts with
interference.
5.5×7, 8×10, 10×13, 11×13, 12×14,
Choose the specification
Solid 13×15, 13×16, 14×16, 16×17, 16×18,
1 set according to size of different
wrench 17×19, 18×24, 18×21, 22×24, 24×27,
assembled bolts
24×30, 27×32, 30×34, 36×41, 41×46
Hit slightly when
Copper rod 1 assembling some parts with
interference.

Feeler gauge 1 set For clearance adjustment

Flat tip screw


1 Slotted screw
driver
Cross head
1 Cross screw
screw-driver

Plier 1

Clyburn
1
spanner

Crowbar 1

Special tools Specification Quantity Application

Prepare the operation platform if it is Install or remove working


Support 2
not offered. device and axle assembly
Install or remove axle
Trolley 1
assembly

Wood blocks 12 Fix the machine for repair

0-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

04 Marks

In order to emphasize the significance of safety and


quality visually, we design the following signs as
marks.
Table 0-20

Marks Items Notes

Be careful for the safety during the operation.


Safety
Be quite careful for the safety if there is pressure inside
during the operation.
Emphasize the technical requirements to ensure that the
Attention operation can meet the requirements of standard during
operation.
Weight and installation means of parts or device.
Weight
Carefully select hanging tools and the operation gesture.

Tightening Pay more attention to the tightening torque of assembly


torque parts.

Carefully note the parts need to be coated with grease or


Coating
adhesion agent.

Oil, water Fill a certain amount of water, oil and fuel.

Be careful for the parts where water and oil need to be


Draining
drained, and judge their volume.

0-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

05 Maintenance and Replacement


Criterions

051 Visual Inspection or Hand


Touching

1. Never further use the parts which are seriously


bumped, having fracture and crack, or losing
function.
2. Never further use the oil seals, dust ring,
O-ring and seal gasket disassembled owing to
leakage and because of low reliability and
short service life in repeated use.
3. Never further use the bolts, nuts, washers, plug
screws, pipe joints if they have serious
corrosion, the screw couldn’t be tightened, or
the screw is damaged, worn out or slipping.
4. Never further use locking steel wire in the
connection of bolt after disassembled.
5. Never further use the bearings if they could
not be turned smoothly by hand, crack exists
on their components or the ball race is
seriously worn.
6. Never further use the gears and the teeth of
spline with crack, sheet exfoliation, collision
or over wearing.
7. Never further use the shell with crack, bearing
holes with crack, wear, elliptic or sheet
exfoliation, and screw damaged which doesn’t
work well in tightening operation.
8. Never further use bearing seat, oil seal
pedestal with crack, wear, elliptic, collision or
sheet exfoliation on the mating surface and
spigot.

0-13
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

9. Never further use the pins with serious wear,


collision or crack.
10. Judge the oil by visual and touching primarily,
it should be replaced if hydraulic oil appears
the following situation in the process of use
and inspection: present milk white in color,
accompany with acid stink, turn yellow or
appear turbidity.

052 Measure

If it is hard to identify by visual inspection or hand


touching, check it by measurement.
Table 0-21

Judgment standard
Oversize
Parts Check items Dimension
Allowable limit measures
(Tolerance)
ID tolerance About 0~-0.02 +0.02
Bearing Replace
OD tolerance About 0~-0.02 -0.04
12 % of the reference
Wear loss of teeth
Gear About 0~0.10 circle thickness (usually Replace
thickness
1.2~1.4)
OD used in common Tolerance Recommend: 0.3T less
Common assembly denoted by T than lower limit
Replace
parts ID used in common Tolerance Recommend: 0.3T more
assembly denoted by T than upper limit
Fitting clearance
Multitandem
between valve element >0.02 Replace
valve
and valve hole
Fitting g clearance
Steering between valve element >0.02 Replace
gear and valve hole
Stator and rotor >0.08 Replace
Fitting g clearance
Monostable
between valve element >0.02 Replace
valve
and valve hole
Fitting clearance
Priority
between valve element >0.02 Replace
valve
and valve hole

0-14
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
1 Repair & Maintenance ......................................................................................... 1-1
11 Lubricant, Fuel and Other Liquids ...................................................................... 1-1
111 Lubricant ...................................................................................................... 1-1
112 Fuel .............................................................................................................. 1-1
113 Coolant......................................................................................................... 1-2
114 Selection of Oil ............................................................................................ 1-4
12 Repair................................................................................................................... 1-5
121 Notes before Repair ..................................................................................... 1-5
122 Periodic Maintenance .................................................................................. 1-8
123 Maintenance and Repair ............................................................................ 1-13

I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1 Repair &

Maintenance

Regular maintenance is necessary for high


performance of the machine. The viewpoint that the
machine doesn’t need to be checked regularly if the
machine can be used normally is absolutely wrong.
Proper examination and maintenance not only can
extend the working life of the machine, but also find
the malfunctions and deal with them in time, in this
way, the maintenance time and cost can be reduced
significantly.
11 Lubricant, Fuel and Other
Liquids

111 Lubricant

 Lubricant can help to prevent the wear of fitting


surface and noise.
 The connectors (pipe joint, connecting set) that
are not involved in this manual are only for
overhauling and not need to add lubricant. But
be sure to fill the lubricant if some parts are
difficult to operate after a long time using.
 Clear the spilled lubricant after filling.

112 Fuel

 Fuel pump is precise device, and it will not


work normally if the fuel is mixed with water
and other impurities.

1-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

 Be careful to replace or fill the fuel. Never mix


it with impurities.
 Related requirements in this manual must be
complied with when choosing fuel brand.
 Fuel will freeze at low temperature (especially
below -15oC), so choose the fuel according to
ambient temperature.
 To avoid condensed water from entering into
fuel tank, fill the fuel tank fully after work.
 If the engine fails to absorb fuel during starting
process or the filter is just replaced, drain the
air in the circuit first.

113 Coolant

 To avoid the incrustant from affecting the


performance of radiator or blocking the
radiator. Be sure to use the antifreeze specified
by SDLG all year round. Never use water as
coolant.
 If the engine is overheated, cool the engine and
then fill the coolant.
 Coolant should be filled to specified level. Too
low level will result in overheating of engine
and corrosion of cooling system.
 If ambient temperature is above 30oC in
summer, park the wheel loader in shade
because the engine may overheat.
 After operation, run the engine at idle for 5
minutes in order to prolong the service life of
engine and stop the engine until the water
temperature falls down.
 Antifreeze agent is inflammable and you
should keep it away from flame when filling.
 Antifreeze should be replaced every year.
1-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

 Never use 100% antifreeze as coolant.


 Choose different antifreeze according to
ambient temperature condition, recommended
range:
-25# is used for ambient temperature≥-15℃
-35# is used for ambient temperature≥-25℃
-45# is used for ambient temperature≥-35℃
ATTENTION
Never mix the different brands of oil. If there is
only one brand for selection and it is different
from the using one. Use it after draining all the
used oil out.
 Due to the severe working conditions (high
temperature and high pressure) of the
wheel loader and dusty in external service
environment, the oil is easy to be
deteriorated. If so, replace the oil at once.
 Fill the required volume of oil. Adding oil
too much or too little will cause failure.
 Clean or replace filter when filling the oil.
 Just after operating the engine, all kinds of
oil and coolant are hot. Do not open the cap
before it is cooled. After cooling, slowly
open the cab to release the internal
pressure.

1-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

114 Selection of Oil

Please use the oil specified by Shandong Lingong


Corp. and chose the oil according to the oil grades
as follows:
Table 1-1
Type Recommended types and application standards Qty. Oiling location

Engine oil Diesel engine oil Delo 400 LE Synthetic 16L Engine

Hydraulic
Transmission box,
transmission Caltex Delo Gold Multigrade 15W-40 49L torque converter
oil

Heavy duty vehicle gear oil(GL-5) 85W-90 Main drive and


Gear oil 2×18L
GB13895 wheel side brake

Caltex Superfine anti-grinding hydraulic oil


Hydraulic oil 128L Hydraulic oil tank
46

Ambient temperature≥4oC 0#Regular diesel


Oil DB11/239
Ambient temperature≥-5oC -10# Regular
diesel Oil DB11/239
Fuel 140L Fuel tank
Ambient temperature≥-14oC -20# Regular
diesel Oil DB11/239
Ambient temperature≥-29oC -35# Regular
diesel Oil DB11/239

Pin in the each joint


2# or 3# common lithium-base grease
Grease 2kg point of the working
GB7324
device

Ethylene glycol-based engine coolant


Antifreeze 35kg Radiator
SH0521

1-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

12 Repair

121 Notes before Repair

Park the wheel loader in maintenance position 1


(Refer to Page 9 in Safety & Environment)
 Repair should be performed on solid and flat
ground.
 Working device should on ground and bucket
should be laid flat.
 Stop the engine and pull out the key.
 All operation handles should be set in the
neutral position.
 Press the parking brake button to keep the
wheel loader in the state of parking brake.
 Put the blocks under the tires.
 Lock the front and rear frame with frame lock
lever.
 Turn off the battery main switch.
Hang warning tag
Attach the warning tag near the starting switch
before maintenance to prevent someone starting the
engine during maintenance.
Spare parts preparation
Use only parts specified by Shandong Lingong
Corp.
Oil and fuel preparation
Choose oil and fuel specified in this manual
according to ambient temperature.
Use specified oil and fuel
Keep containers of oil and fuel clean and use
specified oil and fuel.
Keep the wheel loader clean
Always keep the wheel loader clean. Especially
1-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

cleanness of oil filling parts, such as grease cups, oil


filling ports, and prevent impurities from
infiltrating into those places.
Pay attention to the hot oil and coolant
It is very dangerous to drain hot oil and coolant or
remove the filters immediately after the engine just
stopped. Make sure the engine is cool. The
temperature of the oil drained is appropriately about
20oC~40oC. If it is lower than this temperature, be
sure to warm it up to this temperature before
draining it.
Check the oil and filters
After the oil is changed or filters are replaced, check
the replaced oil and filters. If large amounts of
metallic particles or impurities are found, consult
the maintenance personnel.
Fuel coarse filter
Do not remove the fuel coarse filter while fueling.
Oil replacement
Change oil in dust-free places to keep impurities out
of the oil.
Welding guide
 Turn off the starting switch of the engine and
remove the battery cables.
 Keep the distance between the grounding cable
and welding area more than 1m.
 Avoid welding near the seal rings and
bearings.
 Never weld any pipe or tube while there is fuel
gas or oil in them.
Fire prevention
Clean the parts with uninflammable cleaner or light
oil. Keep spark or cigarette light away from them.

1-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Seals
When replacing O-ring or sealing gaskets, clean the
sealing surfaces first, and make sure the O-ring or
sealing gaskets are in the correct assembly position.
Check the frame
After a long time of stone shoving and transporting
operation, check the frame for damage and check
whether the connecting nuts and bolts are loose and
damaged.
Notes for washing machine
 Wash machine after complete cooling of the
engine.
 Do not splash water on electric components.
Checking in raining and snowing circumstances
Clean the machine immediately after working in
rain and snow. Lubricate and coat anti-rust oil to
more parts.
Dusty circumstances
Do the following items when the machine works in
dusty circumstances:
 Inspect and clean the air filter frequently to
avoid blocking.
 Clean the radiator frequently to avoid blocking.
 Clean and replace the fuel filter frequently.
 Clean the electric components, especially the
starting motor and generator, to avoid
accumulation of dust affecting dissipation of
heat.
Refer to the bring-in Operation and Maintenance
Manual of Diesel Engine for replacing and
maintaining air filter.

1-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

122 Periodic Maintenance

Refer to Fig. 1-1 for periodic maintenance points.

Fig. 1-1
Every 10 Hours (Daily) Maintenance
1. Check the sealing performance of working
device, steering system and brake system.
2. Check the flexibility and reliability of the
brakes.
3. Check whether the electric circuits are correct
and the electric components are normal.
4. Check the oil level in the fuel tank and the
coolant level in the water tank.
5. Add grease to the engine fan shaft, hinge joints
between front and rear frames, transmission
1-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

shafts, hinge joints of oscillating frame and


working device.
6. Check if there are other abnormalities.
7. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual of Diesel Engine for maintaining the
engine.
Every 50 Hours (Weekly) Maintenance
1. Carry out the periodic maintenance of every 10
hours with this maintenance operation at the
same time.
2. Check oil level in transmission box and
hydraulic oil tank.
3. Check and tighten all connecting bolts of each
transmission shaft.
4. Check and tighten all connecting bolts of the
rim and brake caliper.
5. Check and tighten all connecting bolts of
bucket teeth.
6. Check and lubricate the accelerator controller,
parking brake and gearshift control system. In
addition, do the extra maintenance in the first
50 hours as follows:
 Check and clean the air vent of the
transmission box.Check and clean filter
elements in speed changer-torque
converter assembly oil line.
 Check if there is leakage in the hydraulic
system. Check and clean the air vent of
the hydraulic tank. Check and clean the oil
return filter of hydraulic tank.
 Check if there is leakage in the brake
system.

1-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Every 100 Hours Maintenance


1. Carry out the periodic maintenance of every 10
and 50 hours with this maintenance operation
at the same time.
2. Clean the radiator components.
3. Clean fuel tank filling filter.
4. In addition, do the extra maintenance in the
first 100 hours as follows:
 Check and clean the air vent of
transmission box. Clean transmission oil
sump. Replace oil absorption filter
element in transmission oil sump. Replace
the filter elements in torque
converter-transmission box oil circuit.
Replace transmission oil.
 Replace the gear oil in the front and rear
axles.
Every 250 Hours (Monthly) Maintenance
1. Carry out the periodic maintenance of every 10,
50 and 100 hours with this maintenance
operation at the same time.
2. Check the storage battery. Clean surface and
terminals of the battery then coat Vaseline on
them.
3. Check whether connecting bolts of frames and
working devices are loose. Check whether
welding seams are cracked.
4. Check whether the connections between front
and rear axles, engine, transmission box and
frame are loose.
5. Check the tire pressure. Inflation pressure of
front tires should be (0.33~0.35)MPa, while
that of rear tires should be (0.27~0.294)MPa.

1-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. In addition, do the extra maintenance in the


first 250 hours as follows:
 Check if there is leakage in the brake
system.
Every 500 Hours (Seasonally) Maintenance
1. Carry out the periodic maintenance of every 10,
50, 100 and 250 hours with this maintenance
operation at the same time.
2. Check and adjust the brake clearance of
parking brake system.
3. Check the wear condition of brake disc and
friction plates. Replace them if necessary.
4. Clean the silencer of the brake electromagnetic
valve.
5. Clean transmission oil sump, clean the air vent,
replace the oil absorption filter element in
transmission oil sump, replace the filter
elements in torque converter-transmission box
oil circuit, replace transmission oil.
6. In addition, do the extra maintenance in the
first 500 hours as follows:
 Check if there is leakage in the hydraulic
system. Check and clean the air vent of
hydraulic tank. Replace the oil return filter
element of hydraulic tank. Replace pilot
filter element.
 Check the quantity and cleanness of
hydraulic oil. Filter the oil if possible. Add
them if insufficient and replace if
necessary.
Every 1000 Hours (Biannually) Maintenance
1. Carry out the periodic maintenance of every 10,
50, 250 and 500 hours with this maintenance
operation at the same time.
1-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. Replace the gear oil in the front and rear axles.


3. Check the clearance and wear condition of
pin-sleeve fitting in each hinge joint.
4. Replace the oil return filter element of
hydraulic tank. Replace pilot filter element. (If
installed)
5. In addition, do the extra maintenance in the
first 1000 hours as follows:
 Check if there is leakage in the hydraulic
system. Check and clean the air vent of
hydraulic tank. Clean hydraulic oil tank.
Replace hydraulic oil. (Do the
maintenance every 2000h thereafter)
Every 2000 Hours (Yearly) Maintenance
1. Carry out the periodic maintenance of every 10,
50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 hours with this
maintenance operation at the same time.
2. Replace the antifreeze, replace it every 2000
working hours or once a year, whichever
comes first.
3. Check if there is leakage in the hydraulic
system. Check and clean the air vent of
hydraulic tank. Clean hydraulic oil tank.
Replace hydraulic oil.
4. Check performance of the torque converter
and transmission box, differentials of front and
rear axles and the wheel side reducers.
5. Check the sealing performance of multitandem
valve and hydraulic cylinder by measuring the
natural sedimentation volume of the cylinder,
and measure the system pressure.
6. Check the welding seams of rim and other
stress areas and adjust the deformation.
7. The maintenance principles listed above are
1-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

the basic requirements. The maintenance time


should be determined by the closer one
between two the maintenance schedules. If the
working condition is very severe, please
shorten the maintenance cycle and increase the
maintenance times according to the real
conditions.

123 Maintenance and Repair

Brake check
Observe whether its appearance is normal, such as
oil leakage.
Draining of drive axle oil
If you cannot determine whether the fuel is cooled
or not, please wear protective cloth in case of
burning.
1. Make sure the drain plug is at lowest position,
1
Fig. 1-2 you can rotate the wheel if necessary. (Refer to
1 Oil drain plug (keep it at the lowest Fig. 1-2)
place while draining)

2. Place the container under the main reducer and


aside the hub to drain the oil. Check and clean
the plugs and O-rings, replace them if
necessary. ( Refer to Fig. 1-3)

1
Fig. 1-3
1 Oil drain plug on axle housing

1-13
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Draining of oil in the hydraulic tank


1. Wait until the engine is cooled, and wear
protective equipment.
2. Connect the hose to hydraulic oil draining port
and the other end should be diverted to empty
container (Place an empty container aside and
the total volume of the tank is 128L, refer to
1
Fig.1-4)
Fig. 1-4
1 Oil drain valve of hydraulic tank 3. Open the valve and drain oil to the empty
container.
4. Disconnect the hose.
Draining of hydraulic transmission oil in
transmission box
Do the maintenance after the machine is cooled.
Remove the drain plug, and drain the oil to the
empty container. (Refer to Fig. 1-5)

1
Fig. 1-5
1 Oil drain plug of transmission box

Engine oil draining


Do the maintenance after the machine is cooled.
Place the empty container under the engine and
remove the oil drain plug. (Refer to Fig. 1-6)

1 2
Fig. 1-6
1 Spare oil drain plug
2 Oil drain plug

1-14
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Adjustment of engine valve clearance


1. Place the machine in maintenance position 1.
(Refer to page 9 in Safety & Environment)
2. Disassemble the engine, as shown in Fig. 1-7.
3. Rotate the engine to valve overlap position of
cylinder 1 with rotation tools. (Cylinder 1 and
flywheel are on the same side, refer to Fig.
1 1-7)
Fig. 1-7
Overlap means the exhaust valve is about to
1 Flywheel
open and inlet valve will be closed. At this
position, you cannot rotate any pushrods of
related cylinders with hand.
4. Mark all the positions of dampers.
5. From cylinder 1, the valves are numbered as 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 in turn.
6. Adjust the valves of 3, 6, 7, 10, 11 and 12 one
by one.
7. Loosen the nuts of rocker arm.
8. Install a protractor on the adjusting screw.
9. Rotate adjusting screw until there is no
clearance between rocker and valve.
Reset the protractor to zero.
10. Rotate the adjusting screw anti-clockwise
(according to requirements).
11. Fix the adjusting screw and tighten the
locknut.
12. Rotate the crankshaft for one round until the
valve of cylinder 6 overlaps. Adjust the valve
clearance of 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9 in order.
13. Recover the engine.

1-15
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Replacement of fuel filter


1. Remove two filters with filter wrench (Refer to
Fig. 1-8, Fig. 1-9)
2. Coat the seals of new filters with engine oil.
And tighten them according to the guides in
the manual.
3. Deflate the fuel system after replacing the
filters.
1
Fig. 1-8
1 Coarse fuel filter

Replacement of engine oil filter


Maintenance it after it is cooled.
1. Replace the engine oil filter.
2. Smear new engine oil on the new filter. (Refer
to Fig. 1-9), tighten it according to the
requirements described in the manual.
1 2
Fig. 1-9
1 Second-stage fuel filter
2 Engine oil filter

Replacement of engine air filter


1. Replace the main filter at least once a year, or
replace it when the filter is blocked and alarm.
During replacing, clean the filter cover hood,
because it is used to contain the particle that is
not filtered by filter.
2. Check and ensure that all the hoses and
connectors from air filter to engine manifold
1
Fig. 1-10 have no leakage problem. Check and tighten
1 Air filter the clamps.
3. Replace the safety filter at least every other
year or when the main filter is replaced 3 times.
(Refer to Fig. 1-10)

1-16
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Replacement of transmission lubricant filter


Overhaul the machine after it is cooled.
1. Drain the oil out and then remove the filter.
(Refer to Fig. 1-11)
2. Install new filter and tighten it according to the
instructions described in the manual.

1
Fig. 1-11
1 Engine oil filter

Clean the oil absorption filter screen of


transmission box
1. Remove the cover and clean the internal parts.
Check and ensure the parts are not damaged.
2. Install a new gasket between cover hood and
transmission box
3. Install the absorption screen again. (Refer to
Fig. 1-12)
1 2
Fig. 1-12
1 Oil drain plug
2 Oil screen location

Engine oil filling


Fill the engine oil of specified volume (Refer to
Fig. 1-13)

1 2
Fig. 1-14
1 Oil dipstick
2 Engine oil filling port

1-17
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Transmission belt checking


Check tension of belt and whether the tensioning
rod is worn. (Refer to Fig. 1-14)

1
Fig. 1-14
1 Belt
Replacement of vent filter of hydraulic tank
Replace the filter. (Refer to Fig. 1-15)
Replacement of oil-return filter of hydraulic
tank
1. Remove the cover and hood. (Refer to Fig.
1-15)
2. Remove the filter.
3. Install new filter.
1 2 3 4
Fig. 1-15 4. Check the sealing ring in cover hood when
1 Upper oil absorption flange installing it.
2 Ventilation filter
3 Hydraulic oil filling port Hydraulic oil filling
4 Oil absorption flange 1. Fill the hydraulic oil to the specified level.
(Refer to Fig. 1-15)
2. Control the oil level by using round oil pointer.

Transmission oil filling


Fill oil about 49L.

1
Fig. 1-16
1 Filling port of transmission oil

1-18
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Drive axle oil filling


1. Keep the wheel side draining plug in tire
horizontal shaft position.
2. Fill specified gear oil via the oil draining ports
on the two wheel sides of drive axle and the
filling port in the middle of axle housing.
3. Fill the oil until the level gets the edge of oil
level plug.

1
Fig. 1-17
1 Filling port of axle housing

Replacement of internal circulation filter and


external circulation filter in the cab
1. Open the side cover. (Refer to Fig. 1-18)
2. Rotate the fixing parts aside and then remove
external circulation filter and put it aside.
3. Rotate the fixing parts aside, and then remove
the lower shell. Remove the internal
circulation filter and put it aside.
Fig. 1-18
4. Install new filters, shell and new prefilter and
then close the cover.

Reset the engine to working state after checking


and adjusting
1. Reset the machine at maintenance position.
2. Heat the machine.
Start the engine.

1-19
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Walk around the machine, and check and


ensure there is no leakage.
Check any warning about low oil level on the
instrument panel.
3. Turn APS controller to “adjustable wrench”
position.
4. Heat the machine, check capacity and pressure.
Depress foot brake and release the parking
brake device fully. Check the information
about low oil level in the system. Before
preheating, fill more hydraulic oil in related
system. Heat the working hydraulic equipment
to 60-80oC (140-176oF). Lift the boom to half
and then raise it to top position over and over
again to accumulate the preheating process.
Engage forward gear III, and increase the
speed to 1,800 rpm, until the working
temperature of engine and transmission gets
50–90oC (122-194oF).
Reduce the pressure of boom against the
ground.
Use the parking brake device and run the
machine at low idle speed.
Transmission lubricant level checking
When the machine is at working temperature and
the engine runs at idle status, the oil level of
transmission oil level should be in the rated range
marked by the feeler lever. (Refer to Fig. 1-19)

1
Fig. 1-19
1 Feeler lever

1-20
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Hydraulic oil level checking


Keep the boom at the lowest position. Observe the
oil level via the round oil pointer.

1
Fig. 1-20
1 Round oil pointer
Engine oil level checking
Oil level should be between “max” mark and “min”
mark on the oil dipstick.

1
Fig. 1-21
1 Dipstick

Coolant level checking


Oil level should be between “max” mark and “min”
mark on the oil dipstick.
If you fill the coolant, do not open the cover when
the coolant is hot. Wait until it is cooled.

1 2
Fig. 1-22
1 Highest level
2 Lowest level

1-21
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Checking of battery, cable and connectors


Touch the liquid of battery will cause severe
chemical burning.
Wear protective gloves, goggles and clothes when
maintaining the battery.
1. Open the battery cover. Open one hood each
time.
Fig. 1-23 2. Check and clean the connectors of cable and
terminals and bolts of battery, and coat the
external surface with grease as anticorrosion,
such as Vaseline. (Refer to Fig. 1-23)
3. Check the liquid level, and the green color
means normal.

Radiator and condenser cleaning


1. Open the engine hood and remove the grille
shield device.
2. Clean the fins of radiator and condenser with
compressed air along the rotating direction.
(Refer to Fig. 1-24)
Install the grid shield device.
If it is not dealt properly, the fins of radiator
may be damaged.
3. If the air conditioning is installed, remove the
Fig. 1-24 cover, and clean the condenser with
compressed air from outside.
Install the cover hood.

1-22
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
2 Engine System ..................................................................................................... 2-1
21 Overview.............................................................................................................. 2-1
211 Engine Functions ......................................................................................... 2-1
212 Engine Identification ................................................................................... 2-1
213 Product Model Composition and Significance............................................ 2-2
214 Cylinder Number ......................................................................................... 2-2
215 Engine Working Principle ........................................................................... 2-2
216 Engine Block ............................................................................................... 2-3
217 Cylinder Cover ............................................................................................ 2-4
218 Overall Engine Performance Parameters .................................................... 2-5
22 Lubrication System .............................................................................................. 2-6
23 Fuel Supply System ............................................................................................. 2-7
231 Low Pressure Circuit ................................................................................... 2-7
232 High Pressure Circuit .................................................................................. 2-8
233 Fuel Return .................................................................................................. 2-8
24 Cooling System.................................................................................................... 2-9
241 Function of Cooling System ........................................................................ 2-9
242 Thermostat ................................................................................................. 2-10
25 Intake and Exhaust System ................................................................................ 2-11
251 Intake System ............................................................................................ 2-11
252 Exhaust System.......................................................................................... 2-11
253 Turbocharger ............................................................................................. 2-12
26 DPF Module ...................................................................................................... 2-12
27 EGR Module ...................................................................................................... 2-13
28 Disassembly and Assembly of Engine .............................................................. 2-14
281 Disassembly of Engine .............................................................................. 2-14
282 Assembly of Engine .................................................................................. 2-27
29 Disassembly and Assembly of Fuel Tank ......................................................... 2-39
291 Disassembly of Fuel Tank ......................................................................... 2-39
292 Assembly of Fuel Tank ............................................................................. 2-41
210 Disassembly and Assembly of Radiator .................................................... 2-43
I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2101 Disassembly of Radiator .................................................................. 2-43


2102 Assembly of Radiator ....................................................................... 2-47
211 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Engine Common Problems ................ 2-50
2111 Engine Fails to Start ......................................................................... 2-50
2112 Engine Power is not Sufficient ......................................................... 2-50
2113 Exhaust Exceptions (Black Smoke, White Smoke, Blue Smoke) ... 2-51
2114 Engine Oil Pressure is Too High or Too Low ................................. 2-52
2115 Large Consumption of Engine Oil ................................................... 2-53
2116 High Coolant Temperature ............................................................... 2-53

II
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2 Engine System

21 Overview

211 Engine Functions

This loader is equipped with DEUTZ TCD 6.1 L6


engine, in compliance to US EPA Tier4i emission
standard.
Features of DEUTZ products are: high torque, easy
to cold start and full load running, compact
structure, low weight, easy to be assembled on the
vehicle, low fuel consumption, low emission, low
noise and low vibration, etc. DEUTZ TCD 6.1 L6
engine adopts the internationally advanced DPF
and EGR exhaust aftertreatment system to reduce
the engine emissions to meet the US EPA T4i
standard.

Fig. 2-1 Engine

212 Engine Identification

The serial number is printed on nameplates, which


are located on the engine cylinder block and the top
of engine respectively.
You must indicate the engine type and serial
number when ordering spare parts.

2-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

213 Product Model Composition and


Significance

TCD 6.1 L6
No. of cylinders
In-line engine
Displacement in
liters (rounded)
Diesel engine
Charge air cooled
Turbo charged

214 Cylinder Number

The cylinders are numbered in sequence, starting


from the flywheel. Ignition sequence: 1-5-3-6-2-4.
From the point of view of flywheel, the rotating
direction of engine is anti-clockwise.

Fig. 2-2 Cylinder number

215 Engine Working Principle

The diesel engine is designed with four strokes,


every working cycle consists four processes, i.e.
intake, compression, power and exhaust.
Specifically speaking, during air intake, engine
inhales fresh air continuously until the piston
approaches the bottom dead center (BDC),
marking the end of intake. Then, the compression
stroke begins as the piston starts moving upwards,
during which the fresh air is compressed by the
piston and its temperature rises. When the piston
approaches the top dead center (TDC), the diesel is
atomized and then injected into combustion
chamber via injector, where it is mixed with high
temperature gas (i.e. gas mixture is formed) and

2-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

combusts automatically and quickly. When the


pressure generated from self-combustion forces the
piston to move downwards, the power stroke
begins, which will be ended as the piston gets close
to BDC. Following this, the exhaust stoke starts as
the piston moves upwards by the force of inertia,
and when it approaches TDC, all remaining waste
gas resulted from mixture combustion is
discharged, marking the end of exhaust stroke.
That’s the whole working circle of the diesel
engine.

216 Engine Block

An optimized engine block is designed. Low


pressure combustion chamber is casted in cylinder
block or provided by the oil supply pipes mounted
on the cylinder block.

1
Fig. 2-3
1 Engine block

2-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Merits: Make the layout of the whole machine


more reasonable, leakage is avoided, and fuel can
be preheated in advance. The convenience of
service and maintenance has been adequately
considered in the design process, all attachments
except starter, booster and EGR module are
arranged in the same side with engine.

217 Cylinder Cover

Cylinder cover is casted from gray cast iron and


applied unitary structure.

1
Fig. 2-4
1 Cylinder head

Cylinder cover is used to seal the top of the


cylinder and integrated with the piston crown and
the cylinder wall to form a combustion chamber.
Besides, cylinder cover is fixed on the engine
block with bolts. Intake and exhaust valve, valve
rocker and fuel injector, etc. are installed on the
cylinder cover in accordance with different
situation.
2-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

218 Overall Engine Performance Parameters

Table 1 Engine parameters


Items Parameters Items Parameters
Model TCD 6.1L6 Number of cylinders 6
High pressure
Cylinder diameter/stroke
Type common, charge 101/126
(mm)
intercooler
Minimum specific fuel
Rated power (kw) 120 202
consumption (g/kwh)
Rated speed (r/min) 2200 Maximum torque (Nm) 710
Displacement (ml) 6060 Emission standard EPA Tier 4i

2-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

22 Lubrication System

The oil pump absorbs engine oil from the oil sump,
and then flows throughout the engine via the oil
pipes. For components which have relative motion,
wherein oil film will be formed, the abrasion
between parts can be significantly reduced and
service life of engine is lengthened. The engine is
also equipped with piston cooling nozzle to reduce
working temperature of the piston.

Fig. 2-5 Route diagram of


force-feed lubrication
1 Engine oil
2 Oil pump
3 Oil radiator
4 Backflow throttle valve
5 By-pass valve
6 Pressure control by-pass valve
7 Drain valve
8 Oil filter
9 Main oil gallery
10 Bearing of crankshaft
11 Rocker arm
12 Turbocharger
13 Air compressor

2-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

23 Fuel Supply System

This engine applies high pressure common rail,


direct injection technologies, effectively improved
the fuel economy, enhanced engine’s power and
exhaust performance.

Fig. 2-6 Fuel system


1 Fuel tank
2 Fuel prefilter
3 Diesel pump
4 Diesel filter
5 To oil delivery pipe of high-pressure pump
6 Fuel control valve
7 Fuel injection pump
8 Common rail
9 Injector
10 Oil return pipe to tank
11 Pipe to diesel pump

231 Low Pressure Circuit

Firstly, the diesel pump 3 pumps fuel from fuel


tank 1 to fuel injection pump 7 through filter 4 and
inlet pipe of the injection pipe. Some of the fuel
enters into high pressure circuit, namely, high
pressure circuit – injector – combustion chamber,
while most of the fuel goes into the oil return
chamber of cylinder block via injection pump to
form low pressure circuit, the pressure in low
pressure circuit is 5bar. Stabilized pressure in low
pressure circuit is vitally important for engine

2-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

power output. If the situation of under-capacity of


engine occurs, check the oil pressure in low
pressure circuit first.
The fuel control valve is used to control oil
pressure in low pressure circuit. The major cause to
oil leak (cavitation) of injector is insufficient
pressure of low pressure circuit, so ensure the
cleanness of fuel filter and replace it if necessary.

232 High Pressure Circuit

The fuel in low pressure chamber enters into the


injector via a short high-pressure oil pipe 8 from
injection pump 7, once the pressure rises up to
220bar, injector 9 begins to work to inject fuel into
the combustion chamber.

233 Fuel Return

Due to the oil supply rate of fuel delivery pump is


more than ten times larger than the capacity of
injector, a lot of excess fuel will return back to fuel
tank via the pressure control valve, leaked fuel
from injector during working gap returns to fuel
tank too, which has the effect of cooling the
combustion. Moreover, air in oil line can be bleed
out under the action of large amount of return fuel,
self-bleeding function is available.

2-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

24 Cooling System

The coolant pump intakes low temperature water


from an attached radiator through the thermostat,
the cooling water flows through engine oil radiator,
then enters into the water jacket in the cylinder
block to cool the cylinder liner, then the water
enters into water jacket of cylinder cover through
water channel, finally returns to the radiator.

Fig. 2-7 Cooling system


1 Water pump
2 Engine oil radiator
3 Water channel in engine body
4 Water channel in cylinder
5 Water channel in air compressor
6 Heat exchanger
7 Water channel in exhaust pipe
8 Temperature sensor
9 Thermostat
10 Compensation water tank
11 Radiator

241 Function of Cooling System

When the engine is running, a large amount of heat


is generated by fuel combustion and friction
between moving parts, some parts are subjected to
strong heat, especially the parts exposed to burning
gas directly, without proper cooling, the normal
working of engine cannot be guaranteed. The
purpose of cooling system is to keep the engine
working under proper temperature.
TCD 6.1L6 is water cooling engine. Water is the
direct heat-transfer medium, then the heat is passed

2-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

down to air. That is, using a small amount of water


in engine water jacket to absorb excess heat, in a
continuously circulating way, and then dissipate
the heat in the radiator. Because of the temperature
difference between inlet and outlet of water jacket
is small, so the bottom of cylinder wouldn’t be
undercooling, besides, the cooling intensity can be
easily adjusted to keep the engine working under
normal temperature. In winter, hot water can be
used to preheat the engine to make the engine easy
to start.

242 Thermostat

The function of thermostat is to change the


circulating intensity (route and flow) along with
engine load and water temperature. Meanwhile, it
is also used to shorten the engine warm-up time, to
reduce fuel consumption and abrasion between
parts.

2-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

25 Intake and Exhaust System

251 Intake System

Air is absorbed in through air filter, and then flows


into turbocharger. After the air outflows from
turbocharger, it will be cooled in the air cooler.
Before the air enters into cylinder through the
intake manifold and intake valve, it passes through
the preheater first. When operator turns starting
key to position 1 and the temperature of engine
coolant is too low, the fan heater starts to work.
Preheating process stops after the engine started.
Fig. 2-8 Intake and exhaust system
1 Air filter At this point, if the engine still needs to be heated,
2 Turbocharger extra preheating and post preheating processes will
3 Charge air cooler
be activated. The extra preheating and post
4 Preheat mechanism
5 Intake manifold, with charge air preheating time is controlled by the engine control
temperature sensor and charge system. This approach has the metrics of easier
pressure sensor
starting and less white smoke exhaust. When the
preheating coil is in use, the preheating sign on
instrument panel will be lighted.

252 Exhaust System

The engine exhaust system has an off-gas


treatment system. The exhaust gas is discharged
from exhaust manifold and enters into turbocharger,
then enters into DPF module to reduce the
combustion particles, finally discharged via the
exhaust tailpipe.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-9 Exhaust system
1 Exhaust tailpipe
2 DPF module
3 Turbocharger
2-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

253 Turbocharger

The turbocharger is driven by exhaust gas, the


exhaust gas flows through the turbine housing on
its way to DPF module.
Exhaust airflow drives the turbine rotor in the
turbine housing. The compressor rotor and turbine
rotor locate on the same shaft, the former located in
the housing that connected between air filter and
intake manifold.
When compressor rotor rotates, it will absorb air
from the air filter. The turbocharger is equipped
Fig. 2-10 Turbocharger
Red — Exhaust with an exhaust by-pass valve. The exhaust by-pass
Blue — Filtered air valve is controlled by pressurized air. It is allowed
1 Turbine housing that a small amount of exhaust passes by the
2 Compressor housing
3 Waste gate turbine rotor at a high engine speed (high
pressure-charging air pressure).

26 DPF Module

In fact, DPF is a kind of air filter, only what it


filters is high pressure exhaust gas. Its interior is a
honeycomb-like structure, wherein the channels are
closed alternatively to force the exhaust gas to go
through in wall-penetrating mode, thereby particles
will be blocked in tiny pores. Once the particles
accumulated to a certain degree, DPF takes effect
to clear up those particles, and this clean process is
the so-called regeneration process.
LG938L is equipped with initiative regeneration
Fig. 2-11
1 Combustion chamber 2 Air compressor DPF; normally it can work automatically.
3 Fuel controller 4 Corrugated tube
5 Exhaust temperature sensor
6 Fuel oxidation converter
7 Pressure sensor 8 Particles filter
9 NO sensor

2-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

27 EGR Module

EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation): Under the


precondition of maintaining the engine power
performance, EGR sends a part of exhaust gas back
to intake pipe according to engine load and
temperature, mixed with fresh gas to begin the next
combustion. It is used to lower the combustion
reaction and reduce the amount of NOx the
combustion generates.

Fig. 2-12
1 Exhaust by-pass pipe (uncooled)
2 Cooling water inlet pipe
3 Actuator
4 EGR cooling pipe
5 Throttle valve
6 Cooling water return pipe
7 Intake pipe
8 EGR exhaust gas intake pipe (cooled)

2-13
1 Preparation
2 Drain cooling water
3Drain engine oil 1 Starter wiring harness
4 Engine hood 2 Air compressor wiring harness
5 Hydraulic oil tank 3 Bus wiring harness
281 Disassembly of Engine

6 Engine related wiring harnesses 4 Air condition compressor wiring harness


7 Air condition pipes 5 Generator wiring harness
8 Fuel suction pipe 6 ED wiring harness
Engine 9 Fuel return pipe
engine needs to be replaced, examined or repaired.

2-14
10 Fan heater water pipe
28 Disassembly and Assembly of Engine

11 Intake hose
12 Water inlet/outlet pipe
13 Inter-cool hose
1 DPF module
14 Connect DPF pipes
2 Air filter
15 Speed changer - torque converter assembly
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3 Water valve of fan heater


16 Fixing bolts of engine support
4 Air condition compressor
17 Accessories
These following steps could be referred to disassemble the engine from the machine when the
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Start the machine and drive it to the


maintenance place. Keep the bucket flat on
ground. Press the parking brake switch on the
operation box. Turn the key of the electrical
lock to shut down the engine, and turn off the
electrical power of the whole machine 5min
later. Wedge the tires with wood blocks.
★ Do the following operations after the
loader cools down. During the processes of
1 2
Fig. 2-13 disassembly, all the pipeline joints should
1 Wood block be wrapped up to avoid the debris entering
2 Tire into the pipelines.
For T4 vehicles, there will be 2min after
run time needed to record information
about this operation, it is strictly
prohibited to turn off the ECU power in
this process; otherwise, irreversible error
may occur and can cause the scrappage of
the ECU.
2. Open the water drain valve of radiator. Drain
1 2 the cooling water out and contain it with clean
Fig. 2-14 vessel.
1 Water drain valve
2 Radiator Cooling water (Coolant)

3. Open the oil drain plug on engine sump and


drain the engine oil, contain them with a clean
vessel.
Engine oil

1 2
Fig. 2-15
1 Engine oil sump
2 Oil drain plug
2-15
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Remove the engine hood.


Refer to 842 Disassembly of Engine Hood.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-16
1 Engine hood 2 Air filter
3 Expansion water tank
5. Remove the hydraulic oil tank.
Refer to 931 Hydraulic Oil Tank.

1
Fig. 2-17
1 Hydraulic oil tank
6. Disconnect the air compressor wiring harness,
A/C compressor wiring harness and flywheel
shell upper wiring harness.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-18
1 Air compressor wiring harness
2 A/C compressor wiring harness
3 Flywheel shell upper wiring harness

2-16
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7. Disassemble the ECU ED bus wiring harness


and generator wiring harness.

1 2
Fig. 2-19
1 ED bus wiring harness
2 Generator wiring harness

8. Cut off the connection between A/C hoses and


the compressor.
Keep the maintenance area well ventilated.
The serviceman should stay away from the
machine when the refrigerant is releasing.

1 2
Fig. 2-20
1 Compressor to condenser pipe
2 Evaporator to compressor pipe

9. Remove the clamp of fuel absorption pipe, and


take down the pipe.

1 2
Fig. 2-21
1 Fuel absorption pipe
2 Clamp

2-17
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

10. Remove the clamp of fuel return pipe, and take


down the pipe.

1 2
Fig. 2-22
1 Fuel return pipe
2 Clamp

11. Disassemble the clamp, and then disconnect


the water return pipe of fan heater.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-23
1 Water valve 2 Clamp
3 Water return pipe of fan heater

12. Disassemble the clamp, and then disconnect


the water inlet pipe of fan heater.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-24
1 Water inlet pipe of fan heater
2 Clamp 3 Water valve
3 Water return pipe of fan heater

2-18
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

13. Remove the clamps of turbocharger intake


hose and air compressor intake hose, and
disconnect the two hoses. Take down the
turbocharger intake hose.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 2-25
1 Clamp
2 Air compressor intake hose
3 Turbocharger intake hose
4 Clamp

14. Disconnect the water outlet and return pipes


from the engine.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-26
1 Water outlet pipe
2 Water return pipe 3 Engine

15. Disconnect the intercooler intake hose.

1 2
Fig. 2-27
1 Intercooler intake hose
2 Engine
2-19
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

16. Disconnect the water refill pipe and vent pipe


of expansion water tank.

1 2
Fig. 2-28
1 Water refill pipe
2 Vent pipe

17. Disconnect the exhaust steel pipe that


connected to DPF module.

1 2
Fig. 2-29
1 Exhaust steel pipe
2 Clamp

18. Disconnect the two wiring harnesses of DPF


module.

1 2
Fig. 2-30
1 DPF module
2 Wiring harness of DPF module * 2

2-20
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

19. Lift the DPF support up (including DPF


module).
Refer to 843 Disassembly of DPF Support.

1 2
Fig. 2-31
1 DPF support
2 DPF module
20. Hang the engine with a lifting rope, open
torque converter hood, remove the connecting
bolts between flywheel disc and torque
converter intermedium ring, and remove the
connecting bolts and gaskets between flywheel
shell and torque converter.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-32
1 Nut between flywheel disc and torque
converter intermedium ring
2 Gasket 3 Bolt between flywheel
shell and torque converter

21. Remove the fixing bolts of the engine


supporting seat.

1 2
Fig. 2-33
1 Engine
2 Fixing bolt

2-21
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

22. Remove the fixing bolt used to fix the clamp


of fan heater water return pipe.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-34
1 Water return pipe of fan heater
2 Bolt 3 Clamp

23. Remove the fixing bolt used to fix the clamp,


take down the pipe.

1 2
Fig. 2-35
1 A/C compressor
2 Bolt

24. Remove the fixing bolt used to fix the clamp,


disconnect the ED bus wiring harness from
engine, and take down ED bus.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-36
1 Clamp
2 ED bus wiring harness
3 Fixing bolt

2-22
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

25. Lift down the engine.

★ ATTENTION: Ensure all connecting


parts are removed from the engine, and no
interference involved during lifting.

1
Fig. 2-37
1 Engine

26. Disassembly of engine accessories.


1) Disassembly of DPF module.
a) Disconnect DPF intake steel pipe.

1 2
Fig. 2-38
1 Intake steel pipe
2 Clamp

b) Lift the DPF support up.


Refer to 843 Disassembly of DPF
Support.

1 2
Fig. 2-39
1 DPF support
2 DPF module

2-23
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

c) Disconnect the DPF wiring harness.

1 2
Fig. 2-40
1 DPF wiring harness
2 DPF module

d) Remove fixing bolts of DPF guard plate,


take down the guard plate.

1 2
Fig. 2-41
1 DPF guard plate
2 Fixing bolt

e) Remove the clamp, take down DPF


module.

1 2
Fig. 2-42
1 Clamp
2 DPF module

2-24
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2) Disassembly of air filter.


a) Remove the clamp of air filter intake pipe.
b) Remove the clamp of turbocharger intake
pipe.
c) Take down the air filter.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-43
1 Air filter
2 Clamp 3 Clamp

3) Disassembly of the water inlet and return


valves of fan heater.
a) Remove fan heater water inlet valve.

1 2
Fig. 2-44
1 Fan heater water inlet valve
2 Engine oil radiator

b) Remove fan heater water return valve.

1
Fig. 2-45
1 Fan heater water return valve

2-25
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4) Disassembly of A/C compressor.


a) Remove the nuts, loosen the adjusting
block.
b) Rotate the A/C compressor and take down
V belt.
c) Remove the fixing bolts, take down
compressor.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 2-46
1 V belt 2 Adjusting nut
3 A/C compressor
4 Fixing bolt

5) Disassembly of expansion water tank.


a) Disconnect the water level sensor.
b) Disconnect the water refill pipe and vent
pipe of expansion water tank.
c) Remove the fixing bolts and take down
the tank.

1 2 3 4 5
Fig. 2-47
1 Water level sensor
2 Vent pipe joint
3 Water refill pipe joint
4 Expansion water tank
5 Fixing bolt

2-26
1 Double end stud
1 Connect the tray to flywheel 2 Hang the engine up
2 Cover plate of speed changer – torque 3 Speed changer - torque converter assembly
converter assembly
4 Fixing bolts of engine
282 Assembly of Engine

5 Engine wiring harnesses


1 Starter wiring harness
6 Fuel suction pipe
2 Air compressor wiring harness
7 Fuel return pipe
3 Air condition compressor wiring harness
8 Fan heater water return pipe
4 Bus wiring harness
9 Air condition compressor pipes Engine
Refer to the following steps to recover the engine.

2-27
5 ED connector
10 Fan heater water inlet pipe
11 Hose to inter-cooling pipe
12 Intake hose
13 Engine water inlet/outlet pipes
1 Install air filter 14 Hydraulic oil tank
2 Install fan heater water valve 15 Engine hood
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3 Install air condition compressor 16 Accessories


4 Install DPF module 17 Filling antifreeze fluid
18 Filling engine oil
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Hang up the engine and put it on the relevant


position of frame so as to assemble the speed
changer – torque converter assembly.

1
Fig. 2-48
1 Engine
2. Pre-tighten the double end studs.

★ Smear some diesel on the studs before


assembling.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-49
1 Flywheel 2 Double end stud
3 Flywheel shell
3. Connect the speed changer - torque converter
assembly to the engine.
1) Smear a layer of sealant on the end face of
engine. Remove the top cover plate of the
speed changer-torque converter assembly.
Connect the torque converter to the engine
with bolts and gaskets.
Tightening torque: 40±5Nm
1 2 3
Fig. 2-50 2) Connect the flywheel to speed changer -
1 Speed changer - torque converter torque converter assembly with nuts.
assembly
2 Fixing bolt 3 Engine
★ Tighten the all connection bolts in
round-group-bolts way. Avoid debris enter
into the torque converter when connecting
the intermedium ring.
2-28
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Install the top cover plate of torque converter


After check is finished, assemble the top cover
plate and tighten it.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 2-51
1 Flywheel shell 2 Cover plate
3 Cover plate fixing bolt
4 Speed changer - torque converter
assembly

5. Install and tighten the fixing bolts of engine.


Tightening torque: 120~105Nm

1 2 3
Fig. 2-52
1 Engine
2 Connecting bolt of engine support
3 Rubber shock absorber

6. Connect the starting motor power wiring


harness and control wiring harness.

1 2
Fig. 2-53
1 Starting motor power wiring harness
2 ECU control wiring harness
2-29
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7. Fix the engine related wiring harnesses with


ties.

1 2
Fig. 2-54
1 Engine wiring harness
2 Wiring harness tie
8. Connect generator wiring harness.

1 2
Fig. 2-55
1 Generator wiring harness
2 Generator

9. Connect A/C compressor wiring harness

1 2
Fig. 2-56
1 A/C compressor
2 A/C compressor wiring harness

2-30
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

10. Connect the upper wiring harness of flywheel


shell.

1 2
Fig. 2-57
1 Upper wiring harness of the flywheel
shell
2 Wiring harness connector

11. Connect ED bus wiring harness and fix it on


the engine with clamp.

1 2
Fig. 2-58
1 Engine
2 ED connector

12. Connect engine fuel absorption pipe and fasten


the clamp.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-59
1 Fuel absorption pipe 2 Engine
3 Clamp

2-31
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

13. Connect engine fuel return pipe and fix it with


clamp.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-60
1 Fuel return pipe 2 Clamp
3 Engine

14. Connect fan heater water return pipe and fix it


with clamp.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-61
1 Fan heater water return pipe
2 Clamp 3 Water valve

15. Connect fan heater water inlet pipe and fix it


with clamp.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-62
1 Fan heater water inlet pipe
2 Clamp 3 Water valve

2-32
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

16. Connect the compressor pipes.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-63
1 A/C compressor
2 Compressor to condenser pipe
3 Evaporator to compressor pipe

17. Connect the intercooler intake pipe and fix it


with clamp.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-64
1 Intercooler intake pipe
2 Clamp 3 Engine

18. Connect the intake pipe of turbocharger and


fix it with clamp, then connect air compressor
intake pipe to turbocharger intake pipe and fix
it with clamp.

1 2 3 4 5
Fig. 2-65
1 Air compressor intake pipe
2 Clamp
3 Turbocharger intake pipe
4 Clamp 5 Turbocharger
2-33
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

19. Connect water outlet/return pipes of engine


and fix them with clamp.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-66
1 Clamp 2 Water return pipe
3 Water outlet pipe

20. Install hydraulic oil tank.


Refer to 931 Hydraulic Oil Tank.

1 2
Fig. 2-67
1 Hydraulic oil tank
2 Engine

21. Install engine hood.


Refer to 845 Assembly of Engine Hood.

1 2
Fig. 2-68
1 Engine hood 2 Air filter

2-34
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

22. Connect the water refill pipe and vent pipe that
between expansion water tank and engine and
fix them with clamps.
★ ATTENTION: Keep no less than 10cm
away from exhaust pipe when installing
those pipes exposed above to prevent
getting burned by high temperature.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 2-69
1 Water refill pipe 2 Clamp
3 Vent pipe 4 Clamp

23. Add coolant.


Coolant 35L
★ ATTENTION: Fill coolant to the
expansion water tank, start the machine
after filling up. Refill the box after the
machine runs for a while until the liquid
level stays between the scales “MIN” and
“MAX” stably.
1 2
Fig. 2-70
1 Coolant adding port
2 Expansion water tank
24. Add engine oil.
Engine oil: 15L
Keep away from open flame when
adding.
★ ATTENTION: Open the left side door
of the engine hood and add prescribed
engine oil from the engine oil adding port.
Run the engine at idle speed to check
1
Fig. 2-71 whether the oil filter and oil releasing plug
1 Engine oil adding port are leaky. Wait for 15 minutes after the
engine flameout to let the oil flow back to
the oil sump, and check the engine oil level
again.
2-35
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

25. Assemble engine accessories.


1) Install the water valve of fan heater.
★ ATTENTION: Coat the water
valve with sealant start from the
second thread for about 3~5 threads.
AT262 thread sealant

1 2
Fig. 2-72
1 Fan heater water valve
2 Engine

2) Install A/C compressor.


Refer to assembly of A/C compressor for
details.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 2-73
1 Engine 2 V belt
3 A/C compressor
4 Adjusting nut

3) Install the air filter.


a) Connect intake hose of air filter and fix it
with clamp.
b) Connect intake hose of turbocharger to the
air filter and fix it with clamp.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 2-74
1 Clamp 2 Air filter
3 Clamp 4 Intake hose

2-36
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4) Install DPF module.


a) Fix DPF module on DPF support with
clamp.

1 2
Fig. 2-75
1 Clamp 2 DPF module

b) Assemble the DPF guard plate and fix it with


bolts.
★ ATTENTION: Position the guard
plate and set all the bolts in the holes
first, and then tighten all the bolts
together.

1 2
Fig. 2-76
1 DPF guard plate 2 Fixing bolt

c) Connect the wiring harness between the


DPF module and DPF guard plate.

1 2
Fig. 2-77
1 DPF module
2 DPF wiring harness

2-37
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

d) Install DPF support.


Refer to 844 Assembly of DPF Support.

1 2
Fig. 2-78
1 DPF support 2 Engine

e) Connect the two DPF wiring harness

1 2
Fig. 2-79
1 DPF wiring harness
2 DPF module

f) Connect DPF intake steel pipe and the


corrugated pipe that linked to it, and
tighten them with clamps.
★ ATTENTION: The exhaust pipe
and corrugated pipe should be line up
on the same axis, and the
center-to-center distance between the
two V-shape clamps of corrugated
1 2 3 4
Fig. 2-80 pipe should be 345±5mm.
1 Clamp 2 DPF intake steel pipe
3 Engine 4 Corrugated pipe

2-38
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

29 Disassembly and Assembly of


Fuel Tank

291 Disassembly of Fuel Tank

1. Start the machine and park it on level


capacious ground. Lower the bucket and flat it
on ground. Press the parking brake button and
wedge the tires with wood blocks, cut off the
electrical power of the whole machine 5min
later.

1 2 ★ ATTENTION: Do the disassembly


Fig. 2-81 after the loader is cooled.
1 Tire 2 Wood block

2. Open the ball valve on the bottom of fuel tank


to drain the fuel. Contain the fuel with clean
vessel and covers it to avoid falling sundries.
★ ATTENTION: Fuel oil is inflammable.
In the processes of maintaining, the fire is
forbidden and the place should be far away
from fire. At the same time, prevent the
generation of fire, for example: Bumping
1 2
Fig. 2-82 brings spark.
1 Ball valve 2 Fuel Tank

3. Remove the oil level sensor of fuel tank.

1 2
Fig. 2-83
1 Oil level sensor 2 Fuel Tank

2-39
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Loosen the clamp of fuel absorption pipe and


take down the pipe from fuel tank.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-84
1 Fuel Tank 2 Clamp
3 Fuel absorption pipe

5. Remove the bolts and disconnect the fuel


return pipe.

1 2
Fig. 2-85
1 Fuel return pipe
2 Hollow bolt

6. Hang the fuel tank, disassemble the fastening


bolts and remove fuel tank from rear frame.

1
Fig. 2-86
1 Fastening bolt * 3

2-40
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7. Lift down the fuel tank.

★ ATTENTION: Ensure all


connecting parts are removed from the
tank, and no interference involved during
lifting.

1
Fig. 2-87
1 Fuel tank

292 Assembly of Fuel Tank

1. Lift and assemble the fuel tank.


Clean the fuel tank. Lift the fuel tank assembly
to rear-bottom site of the rear frame.

1
Fig. 2-88
1 Fuel tank

2. Fix the fuel tank on the rear frame with bolts.


Tightening torque: 450±50Nm

1
Fig. 2-89
1 Fastening bolt

2-41
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Fix the fuel return pipe of engine on the fuel


tank with bolts.

1 2
Fig. 2-90
1 Fuel return pipe
2 Hollow bolt

4. Connect fuel absorption pipe to the tank and


fix it with clamp.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-91
1 Fuel Tank 2 Clamp
3 Fuel absorption pipe

5. Install the oil level sensor on the fuel tank.

1 2
Fig. 2-92
1 Oil level sensor 2 Fuel Tank

2-42
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Add fuel.
Fuel 120L
Keep away from open flame when adding.

1 2
Fig. 2-93
1 Fuel adding port 2 Fuel tank

210 Disassembly and Assembly of


Radiator

2101 Disassembly of Radiator

1. Open the drain valve on the bottom of radiator.


Drain out the coolant and contain them with
clean vessel.
Coolant

1 2
Fig. 2-94
1 Water tank 2 Water drain valve
2. Hang the rear cover up.
Refer to 841 Disassembly of Rear Cover.

1 2
Fig. 2-95
1 Rear cover 2 Radiator
2-43
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Disconnect the transmission oil return pipe


from radiator.

1 2
Fig. 2-96
1 Transmission oil return pipe
2 Radiator
4. Disconnect the transmission oil inlet pipe from
radiator.

1 2
Fig. 2-97
1 Transmission oil inlet pipe
2 Radiator

5. Disconnect the hydraulic oil inlet/return pipe


from radiator.

1 2
Fig. 2-98
1 Hydraulic oil inlet pipe
2 Hydraulic oil return pipe

2-44
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Remove the upside pipes.


1) Disconnect water inlet pipe of radiator.
2) Disconnect intercooler exit pipe.

1 2 3 4 5
Fig. 2-99
1 Water inlet pipe 2 Clamp
3 Intercooler exit pipe
4 Clamp 5 Radiator

7. Disconnect the intercooler intake pipe from


radiator.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-100
1 Radiator 2 Clamp
3 Intercooler intake pipe

8. Disconnect engine water return pipe from


radiator.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-101
1 Radiator water inlet pipe
2 Clamp 3 Radiator

2-45
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

9. Disconnect the wiring harness of water


temperature sensor.

1 2
Fig. 2-102
1 Wiring harness of water temperature
sensor 2 Radiator

10. Disconnect oil pipe joints of hydraulic motor.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-103
1 DPF support
2 Oil pipe joint of hydraulic motor
3 Hydraulic motor

11. Remove the fixing bolts of radiator support so


as to disconnect the connection between
radiator and engine.

1 2 3
Fig. 2-104
1 Gasket 2 Radiator support
3 Bolt
2-46
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

12. Lift the radiator down.

★ ATTENTION: Ensure all connecting


parts are removed from the radiator, and
no interference involved during lifting.

1
Fig. 2-105
1 Radiator
2102 Assembly of Radiator

1. Clean the radiator and lift it up to place it on


the relevant position of the roader rear frame.

2. Tighten the radiator fixing bolts.


Tightening torque: 120±10Nm

1 2 3
Fig. 2-106
1 Gasket 2 Radiator support
3 Bolt

3. Connect oil pipe joints of hydraulic motor.


Tightening torque: 110±10Nm (The
left and right joints)
Tightening torque: 170±17Nm (The
rear joint)

1 2 3
Fig. 2-107
1 Oil pipe joint of hydraulic motor
2 Hydraulic motor 3 Radiator

2-47
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Connect the radiator downside pipes.


1) Connect intercooler intake pipe and fix it
with clamp.
2) Connect radiator water inlet pipe and fix it
with clamp.
★ ATTENTION: Lock the pipe with
clamp to the pipe is slight deformed.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 2-108
1 Clamp 2 Radiator
3 Intercooler intake pipe
4 Radiator water inlet pipe

5. Connect the radiator upside pipes.


1) Connect intercooler exit pipe and fix it with
clamp.
2) Connect radiator water inlet pipe and fix it
with clamp.
★ ATTENTION: Lock the pipe with
clamp to the pipe is slight deformed.
1 2 3 4 5
Fig. 2-109
1 Radiator water inlet pipe 2 Clamp
3 Intercooler exit pipe
4 Clamp 5 Radiator

6. Install radiator temperature sensor.


★ ATTENTION: Coat the sensor screw
with sealant start from the second thread
for about 3~5 threads.
AT545 anaerobic thread sealant

1 2
Fig. 2-110
1 Wiring harness of temperature sensor
2 Radiator

2-48
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7. Connect the oil inlet and return pipes to the


hydraulic oil radiator.
Tightening torque: 145±15Nm

1 2 3 4 5
Fig. 2-111
1 Joint of hydraulic oil inlet pipe
2 Hydraulic oil inlet pipe
3 Radiator
4 Joint of hydraulic oil return pipe
5 Hydraulic oil return pipe

8. Connect the transmission oil pipes.


Tightening torque: 145±15Nm

1 2
Fig. 2-112
1 Transmission oil return pipe
2 Radiator

9. Assemble the rear cover.


Refer to 846 Assembly of Rear Cover.

1 2
Fig. 2-113
1 Radiator 2 Rear cover

2-49
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

211 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Engine Common Problems

2111 Engine Fails to Start


 Caused by starting system
1 Power shortage of storage battery.
Solution: Check the battery carefully, recharge or replace it.
2 Damaged starting motor.
Solution: Repair or replace the motor.
 Caused by oil supply system
1 There is air in the oil system.
Solution: Unchoke the oil circuit (such as blow with high pressure air), tighten all joints and
discharge air.
2 Blockage of oil system.
Solution: Unchoke the oil circuit (such as blow with high pressure air), tighten all joints and
discharge air.
3 The diesel filter element is particularly dirty.
Solution: Replace the filter element.
4 Serious wear damage of plunger/delivery valve.
Solution: Repair the fuel supply pump professionally.
5 Damaged low pressure fuel supply pump.
Solution: Replace the fuel supply pump.
 Adjustment factors
1 Dislocated of fuel injection advance angle.
Solution: Adjust the fuel injection advance angle.
2 Change of valve clearance.
Solution: Check and adjust valve clearance.
3 Oil shortage when starting
Solution: Check the fuel supply pump professionally.

2112 Engine Power is not Sufficient


1 Blockage of fuel filter or fuel supply pump oil inlet pipe connector filter screen.
Solution: Clean or replace it/them.
2 Low injection pressure or bad atomization.
Solution: Troubleshoot the injector or replace inject nozzle matching parts.
3 Serious wear damage of precise inject nozzle matching parts.
2-50
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Solution: Regulate oil supply or troubleshoot plunger and barrel assembly.


4 Air infiltrate into the fuel system.
Solution: Discharge air of the fuel system.
5 Incorrect fuel injection advance angle.
Solution: Adjust the angle according provisions.
6 Nonuniform oil supply of each cylinder.
Solution: Adjust oil supply.
7 Blockage of air filter.
Solution: Clean or replace the filter element.

2113 Exhaust Exceptions (Black Smoke, White Smoke, Blue Smoke)


 The engine gives off blue smoke
1 High engine oil level of engine pan.
Solution: Drain redundant engine oil, and make sure the oil level is within specified range.
2 Diesel flows into oil pan due to oil-fuel injector needle-valve untightly closed or stucked in
open position.
Solution: Clean and adjust the injector or replace the needle valve matching parts.
3 Damaged fuel supply pump plunger bushing sealing ring (P pump), or bad sealing between
plunger bushing and pump body, the fuel flows into oil pan along engine oil passage.
Solution: Replace the sealing ring.
4 Damaged valve oil seal or excessive clearance between the valve and tube.
Solution: Replace all faulted valves, pipes and oil seal (the oil seal must be replaced once being
disassembled; if the clearance meets the requirements after the valve is replaced, you can spare
the tube).
5 Damaged sealing ring of turbocharger, engine oil burns after enters into the combustion
chamber along air inlet passage.
Solution: Repair or replace.
 The engine gives off white smoke
1 There is moisture in the fuel system.
Solution: Clean the fuel tank and filter, and use qualified diesel oil.
2 Abrasion of cylinder valve.
Solution: Replace it.
3 Bad atomization of injected fuel, the fuel fails to burn in the combustion champ.
Solution: Adjust the injector and fuel supply advance angle.
 The engine gives off black smoke

2-51
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1 Exhaust back pressure is too high or exhaust pipeline is blocked.


Solution: Reduce bend positions of pipeline; dust out the silencer.
2 The injection lags
Solution: Adjust fuel injection advance angle.
3 The injector doesn’t work normal or being damaged.
Solution: Dismantle, clean and check.
4 Poor quality of diesel or wrong brand.
Solution: Replace the diesel.
5 Severe wear of cylinder sleeve and piston group.
Solution: Replace worn parts

2114 Engine Oil Pressure is Too High or Too Low


 Engine oil pressure is too high
1 Malfunctioned engine oil display device.
Solution: Replace the display device.
2 High viscosity of engine oil
Solution: Choose specified brand engine oil, and take preheating action when starting the
machine in winter.
3 Too little gap in force-feed lubricating positions or blocked engine oil filter.
Solution: Adjust the gap, clean or replace the filter.
4 Misadjusted pressure restrict valve.
Solution: Readjust the spring force of the valve, so the engine oil pressure can drop to specified
value.
 Engine oil pressure is too low
1 Abrasions of engine oil pump or damaged sealing gasket.
Solution: Repair the pump and replace the gasket.
2 The absorbed oil reduces
Solution: Check oil capacity, add engine oil and clean the absorption filter.
3 Large engine oil leakage.
Solution: Check whether the lubricating pipe is broken; check and adjust the fitting clearance of
bearings in crankshaft and camshaft as required.
4 Blockage of engine oil filter or cooler.
Solution: Check and clean engine oil filter and cooler.
5 Low viscosity of engine oil
Solution: Choose specified brand engine oil.

2-52
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6 Misadjusted pressure restrict valve.


Solution: Clean the valve; readjust or replace the spring.
7 Low displaced engine oil pressure.
Solution: Check and replace engine oil pressure sensor and pressure gauge.

2115 Large Consumption of Engine Oil


1 Improper engine oil viscosity.
Solution: Choose proper engine oil.
2 High negative pressure in combustion chamber, result in engine oil spraying up to the chamber.
Solution: Examine the reason for high negative pressure and fix it.
3 Change of rotating speed and operating mode.
Solution: Test showed that with the increase of rotating speed, engine oil consumption rises
obviously, operate the engine according to the rules.

2116 High Coolant Temperature


1 Improper selection of coolant or shortage of cooling water.
Solution: Choose suitable coolant and add to specified level.
2 Blockage of water radiator.
Solution: Put the radiating fins back to their original positions with stalloy carefully, after they
return to flat shape, clean them with compressed air or water gun.
3 Wrong indication of water thermometer or warning light.
Solution: Use the water thermometer to measure the temperature of water temperature sensor
area, see whether the measured temperature is consistent with actual value.
4 Low rotating speed of fan, the blades are deformed or installed backwards.
Solution: Loosened rubber belt will lead to slipping, which result in low rotating speed of fan.
Adjust the belt if necessary; if the rubber layer aged, damaged or fractured, replace it. If the
blades are deformed, replace them.
5 Malfunction of cooling-water pump.
Solution: Replace the pump.
6 Malfunction of thermostat.
Solution: Replace the thermostat.
7 Damaged cylinder cover gaskets.
Solution: Replace them.
8 Overloaded operation of diesel engine.
Solution: Lower the load of engine.

2-53
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
3 Electrical & Information System ......................................................................... 3-1
31 Electrical System ................................................................................................. 3-1
311 Notes for Electrical System ......................................................................... 3-1
312 Description of Electrical System ................................................................. 3-2
313 Description of AC Generator....................................................................... 3-3
314 Power Switch ............................................................................................... 3-4
315 Description of Electronic Control System................................................... 3-4
316 Battery.......................................................................................................... 3-9
32 Electrical Principle and Fault Analysis ............................................................. 3-11
321 Battery Failure and Troubleshooting ......................................................... 3-11
322 AC Generator Failure and Prevention ....................................................... 3-12
323 Principle of Starter motor and Troubleshooting ........................................ 3-15
324 Overview of Loader Electrical Circuits..................................................... 3-18
325 Read and Fault Diagnosis of Loader Overall Circuits .............................. 3-23
33 Distribution of Loader Wiring Harnesses ......................................................... 3-47

I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3 Electrical & Information System

31 Electrical System

311 Notes for Electrical System

It is prohibited to change any part of electrical system without our permission.


Arbitrary modification can affect the performance of the machine, and result in severe
expiry and damage the machine.
Careless operation may cause severe death and injure, and damage the machine.
Before operating the electrical system, Read the following notes and instructions given for
the relative parts and obey them strictly.
Before start working on electrical system, remove your wrist watch, rings and others
metal objects from your arms.

Battery
1. For checking and repairing the faults in electrical system, please use fully-charged battery or
full-featured battery.
2. Ensure the poles of the battery are connected correctly when installing the battery.
3. To replace the battery, ensure the capacity of newly installed battery is consistent with the
previously used one. These batteries should have equal working life, because the charging
current will vary with the increasing of use life.

AC-generator
1. Before any test about AC-generator or regulator, you must check whether the battery and wires
are properly insulated, with no loose connections and corrosion. Also check the AC-generator
belt.
2. Do not disconnect the power cable of generator when it is running. Otherwise it can damage the
generator and regulator.
3. You should use secure connections to prevent sparks and transient change of voltage. If the
cable is disconnected, it will cause damage to the generator and regulator.
4. Carefully check the socket of generator, if it is in touch with the chassis. If they are in touch, it
can damage the generator and the regulator.

Electronic Equipment
3-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

ATTENTION! Electronic equipment is sensitive towards electromagnetic radiations


and will be damaged by static electricity from the human body or the tools. Following
instructions are carefully taken into consideration while operating electronic
components:
1. When the power of an electronic component is switched on, connection leading to the unit
should not be disconnected by any means. If disconnected, it may damage the electronic
components.
2. Before the maintenance of the electrical system, the tools used should be contacted with a metal
mechanical part on the frame to discharge the static electricity on the tools.
3. Do not touch the electronic components when plug is switched on.
4. When maintaining electrical systems, avoid touching the circuit board. If you have to touch it,
try only to grasp the edge of the circuit board.
5. Do not touch any electronic component while working.
6. When replacing any units, make sure the ground wire is securely connected.

Welding
1. Disconnect the terminals of battery to prevent explosion of battery.
2. Before performing any welding on the whole machine or engine, pull out the engine ECU plug
and transmission box ECU plug to prevent damage to control units.
3. While performing welding, sparks may fall directly on rubber hoses, wires or pressure pipe, and
these pipes may suddenly rupture, wire insulation may be damaged, so these pipes should be
covered.

312 Description of Electrical System


Electrical system includes battery, starter motor, AC generator, gauges, switches, lamps, air
condition circuits and other electrical equipment.
Machine system voltage is DC 24V, containing two batteries 12V in series, located in the left and
right side of the counterweight. Negative pole is grounded, and the wire applies single-line system.
For the relationship and working principle between electrical equipment, please carefully read the
electrical system circuit diagram.
Battery power switch is located near the left side battery. When the switch turns to "O" position, the
vehicle power is off; when the switch turns to "|" position, the vehicle power is turned on. For
parking the vehicle for a long term, turn off the power switch. Relays and fuses are mainly located
in the distribution box behind operator's seat, after the cover of distribution box is removed. You can
see that the relays in distribution boxes can be interchanged.
All connectors of components are marked with CN+digit+letter format, which is used to
3-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

differentiate them. A represents the plug, and B represents the slot. For example, I-ECU has two
connection units, CN6 and CN7. CN6-A represents plug, and CN6-B represents the corresponding
slot.

313 Description of AC Generator


The current of AC generator is 70A and its normal
charging voltage is 28V. It contains a built-in
charger.
AC generator is effective when then engine runs
above idle speed. Generator supplies the power to
all power consumption systems except for starting
power and also charges the battery. The regulator
Fig. 3-1 Wiring terminal diagram of
AC generator or voltage regulation device is used to adjust the
output voltage of the generator when the engine
speed changes and it keeps the voltage stable.
Rotation direction of generator: View from the
driving end is clockwise.
Generator operating ambient temperature:
o o
-40 C~85 C.
The generator works in parallel with battery, do not
Fig. 3-2 Generator circuit principle run generator when there is no load.
diagram
Applicative safety device should be installed
between generator output end (including battery)
and the load.

Fig. 3-3 Generator output characteristic


curve

3-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

314 Power Switch


The power switch is used to disconnect the
connection between electrical system and battery
voltage provided the machine is not used.
Battery switch-off switch is connected with the
battery negative pole (24V).
Operating ambient temperature -40oC~75oC,
relative humidity no more than 90%.

Fig. 3-3 Power switch 315 Description of Electronic Control


System
The control units of LG938L wheel loader includes
engine control unit E-ECU, instrument control unit
I-ECU and gear shift control unit. Engine control
unit is used to detect engine running status and
when a fault is detected, it will send a signal and
the corresponding information will be displayed on
the instrument panel.
Engine control unit E-ECU
Engine control unit E-ECU is located on rear side
of the cab, inside the trim panel (As shown in Fig.
3-5), including software used for controlling the
functions of engine. The engine control unit
receives data from engine own sensors and
information from data bus.
ECU main technical parameters:
Working temperature: -40oC~85oC
Rated voltage: 24VDC
Service voltage range: 16~32VDC
1 2 3
Fig. 3-5 Before performing any welding on the whole
1 E-ECU machine or engine, pull out the engine ECU plug to
2 Gear shift control unit
prevent damage to control units.
3 DC-DC transformer
The power must be cut-off when pulling the ECU
plug out.

3-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Instrument control unit I-ECU


Instrument control unit receives information from
sensors and other control units and display the
running status of the machine on the instrument
panel intuitively via the LCD, instruments and
indicating lamps.
I-ECU only receive signals and display them, it
does not give any output signal to control units.
Self-inspection process: When the power source is
turned on, the gauge pointers point goes at the
maximum values and then back to zero, finally
point reaches at the right value. Meanwhile, after
1.5s all lamps are on and the LCD will display
name and model of the instrument panel. When the
power is off, all pointers reset to zero.
Working timer description: Directly read the
working hour data sent from CAN and display
them on the LCD. When engine speed >350n/min,
Fig. 3-6 I-ECU
the hourglass begins to flicker, When engine speed
<30n/min, it stops flickering.

3-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

I-ECU gauges and indicators


Name Symbol Name Symbol

Engine
Fuel level gauge
tachometer

Torque
Engine water
converter oil
temperature
temperature
gauge
gauge

Steering Central alarm


indicator indicator

Low brake
Low fuel level
pressure alarm
indicator
indicator

Parking brake Safety lock


indicator indicator

Low gear
High beam
shifting pressure
indicator
indicator

Engine failure Regeneration


indicator inhibition

Air filter
blockage Regeneration
indicator

3-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Instrument panel function


a Gauges
Items Functions Signal
Range: 0~3000, red range: 2500~3000;
Engine tachometer
Unit: n/min.
Range: 99999.9 CAN
Working timer doesn’t record data, it directly read the communication
Working timer
working hour data sent from CAN and display them on
the LCD.
Engine water
Range: 40~120oC, red range: 110~120oC; Sensor
temperature gauge
Torque converter oil
Range: 40~140oC, red range: 120~120oC; Sensor
temperature gauge
Range: 0-1/8-1/4-3/8-1/2-5/8-3/4-7/8-1; red range:
Fuel level meter Sensor
0-1/8

b Alarm devices
Items Functions Color Signal
Always on before starting; Judge
Low engine oil CAN
according CAN information after Red
pressure alarm communication
started.

Low brake
Red Grounded
pressure alarm

Low gear shift


Red Grounded
pressure alarm
When voltage of D+ terminal is lower
than 10V and detected by instrument
panel, charging indicator lamp will be
Charging
on; When voltage of D+ terminal is Red D+ terminal
indicator alarm
higher than 10V and will be considered
normal, charging indicator lamp will be
off.
Oil-water According to the information sent form
CAN
separation CAN, the lamp will be on when there is Grounded
communication
alarm a fault detected.
According to the information sent form
Fuel coarse CAN
CAN, the lamp will be on when a fault Grounded
filtering alarm communication
is detected there.
Low fuel level When oil level lower than 1/8, the
Red Sensor
alarm alarming symbol will flash.

3-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Yellow: Engine failure, the lamp will


stay on when alarm information is
Engine failure received.
Yellow/Red Grounded
alarm Red: Engine failure, the lamp will flash
at the frequency of 1HZ when alarm
information is received.
Engine
According to the information sent form CAN
reproductive Yellow
CAN. communication
inhibition alarm
According to the information sent form
Air filter block CAN
CAN, the lamp will be on when a fault Yellow
alarm communication
is detected there.
When ignition key turned to “ON”, and
Transmission
water content in oil is higher than set
oil filtering Yellow Grounded
value, the alarm symbol will be
alarm
lightened.
Before started, this indicator will not
alarm though the low engine oil
pressure lamp and charging indicator
Central alarm lamp are on; Under other circumstance, Red
neither lamp mentioned above be
lightened will lead to alarm of this
indicator.
c Indicators
Items Functions Color Signal
F, N, R, 1, 2, 3,
Neutral—N, Forward—F, Reverse—R. Green Power source
4 gear indicator

Power cut-off This indicator will be on if the driving


Red Power source
indicator force of transmission box is cut off.

Pre-heat This indicator will be on when


Yellow Power source
indicator preheating the engine.
Turn on the warning lamp or left
Left steering
steering switch, this indicator will be Green Power source
indicator
on.
Turn on the warning lamp or right
Right steering
steering switch, this indicator will be Green Power source
indicator
on.
High beam When front combination lamp is set to
Blue Power source
indicator high beam, this indicator will be on.
Regeneration According to the information sent form CAN
Green
indicator CAN. communication

Turn on the mute switch, the alarming


Mute indicator sound will be off and this indicator will Yellow Grounded
be on.

3-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Parking brake This indicator will be on if Parking


Red Grounded
indicator brake is not relieved.
Safety belt This indicator will be on if the seat belt
Red Grounded
indicator is no buckled.

316 Battery

LG938L equipped with water-free, maintenance-free lead-acid storage battery.


Main parameters
Rated voltage: 12V
Rated capacity: 120A.h
Idle capacity: 230min
Low temperature starting current: 850A
Overall dimensions (mm): 406*172*211
Overall height (mm): 231

Rules for battery charging


1. Ensure that the battery terminals are clean and the charging circuit is properly connected.
2. Connect the positive terminal of the charger to positive terminal of the battery, and then
connect the negative terminal of the charger to negative of the battery. Be sure not to charger
two batteries in series (24V).
3. It is recommended to charge the battery with charger of constant voltage 16V and
current-limiting 25A to the “battery eye” turn green (fully charged). The max. charging voltage
should not exceed 16.2V, otherwise it will cause a lot of water to electrolyzed, the liquid level
drops down, “battery eye” turn white, finally scrap the battery.
4. If constant voltage is not available for charging, refer to the following rules to charge the
battery with constant current.
4.1 Choose 1/8~1/10 rated capacity as the charging current , charging voltage should set to but
not exceed 16V at the end of charging process (the “battery eye” will still indicate “dark” if
charging voltage is lower than 16V at the end). If a voltage lower than 16V cannot be
guaranteed during charging, then artificial monitoring is needed to check the charging once
per hour.
4.2 Correspondences between charging time and battery voltage before charging are listed
below:

3-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Battery voltage/V Charging time/h Battery voltage/V Charging time/h

12.55~12.45 2 11.80~11.65 8

12.45~12.35 3 11.65~11.50 9

12.35~12.20 4 11.50~11.30 10

12.20~12.05 5 11.30~11.00 12

12.05~11.95 6 Below 11.00 14

11.95~11.80 7

4.3 When the charging is finished, check the color of “battery eye”, if the “battery eye”
indicates green, it means the battery is fully charged; if the “battery eye” indicates black or
dark, then check whether the charging circuit is firmly connected, whether the terminals
are clean, whether the charging voltage gets to 16V at the end. Place the battery for 24h
and check the voltage again, recharge the battery according to the correspondence table
above.
4.4 If the “battery eye” turn white, then there might be bubbles in “battery eye”, waggle the
battery gently to drive the bubble away. If the “battery eye” still indicates “white” after
waggling, then the battery should be replaced.
4.5 For battery with voltage lower than 11V, charge failure may occur during the initial stage,
this is because the battery is short of electric severely, the density of sulfuric acid in the
battery is close to water, which leads to big internal resistance. At this point, decrease
charging current or choose a charger of larger power to proceed the charging, as the
density of sulfuric acid goes up during charging, try to increase charging current back to
normal gradually.
4.6 If a large amount of sulfuric acid spraying during charging, stop to check for reasons
immediately.
4.7 If the temperature of battery exceeds 45oC during charging, stop the charging until the
battery temperature drops to ambient temperature, then proceed the charging with half
charging current.
4.8 Check the status of “battery eye” once per hour during charging. If the “battery eye”
indicates green, it means the battery is fully charged, stop charging.
4.9 When the charging is finished and the test is passed, coat the terminals with grease or
Vaseline to prevent electric erosion.

3-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

32 Electrical Principle and Fault Analysis

321 Battery Failure and Troubleshooting


Battery voltage detection
Measure the battery voltage with a voltmeter or multimeter, to determine the technical condition of
the battery.
Firstly turn ignition key to “ON”, before starting the engine, battery terminal voltage reading on the
voltmeter should be 24V, for electrical system it should be within 22.8~25.2V. If the voltage is too
low, then it means the battery is short of electric severely or there is internal short circuit in the
battery. After the engine is started for 3~5s, the voltage reading should be within 18~22V, lower
than 18V means battery failure, and the battery should be repaired or replaced; If the voltage
reading higher than 22V, then it means the battery is in good condition.

Faults Phenomenon Possible causes Handling methods

Terminal post corrosion, On-condition


External
Breakage terminal post loose, casing maintenance or
fault
crack, electrolyte leakage replace

1. White, hard, insoluble 1. Long-term insufficient If the


coarse grained lead charge. vulcanization is
sulfate is produced on the 2. Not been able to charge not very serious,
surface. the battery in time after use equalizing
2. Battery charging discharging. charge method to
receptivity is bad, 3. Frequent overcharging or deal with the
voltage is built up too deep discharging in small battery: Charging
fast during charging (as current. with small current
Polar plate fast as 2.9V per division, 4. Impure electrolyte, high (1/40 voltage
vulcanized while the normal speed is self-discharge. capacity) for
about 2.7V per division). 5. Internal short circuit or 20~30h, Full
3. Battery voltage drops too too much water on the charging and
fast during discharging surface of battery that discharging for
(reach to 1.8V per leads to electrical leakage. several times;
division in 1~2h), the 6. Low electrolyte level, Seriously
battery capacity is clearly which causes vulcanized battery
less than normal vulcanization of polar need to be
batteries. plate exposed part. replaced.

Charge failure, no current


Battery 1. Damaged or cracked
display; Severe case of
open terminal post. Replace.
“spark phenomenon” may
circuit 2. Solder false.
occur in the battery.

3-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Short circuit caused by


lead leakage or cracked
partition.
1. Low voltage. 2. Impure electrolyte,
Battery 2. Undercapacity. crystallization of the
short 3. Battery voltage still impurity causes active Replace.
circuit below normal after fully material of polar plate
charged. softening and shedding
and stacked in the bottom
of battery, leads to short
circuit.

322 AC Generator Failure and Prevention


Maintenance and
Faults Phenomenon Possible causes
prevention
Short circuit can be 1. The stator didn’t been dip
divided into painted well, insulating paint
interphase short failed to fill up the groove gap,
circuit, inter-turn which lead to bad fixed action
Do the maintenance
short circuit and of the wire.
Short periodically, replace
iron winding short 2. Loose or ablated bearing caused
circuit or seriously loose
circuit, interphase by lubricating oil shortage,
open bearing in time.
short circuit and which lead to excessive radial
circuit of Replace or repair the
inter-turn short clearance of the bearing, stator
stator bearing if its outer
circuit can be eccentricity causes bumping
winding ring and inner ring
visual checked, and scraping between the stator
are worn.
generally coil and rotor, then local
burning and color temperature rise leads to short
changing can be circuit or mechanical open
seen. circuit.

1. Long term overloading of


generator (unreasonable match),
which results in burn of stator.
The generator Check fastening bolts
2. The fastening bolts of front and
shows block of front and rear end
Damaged rear end caps are not properly
phenomenon and caps are loose or lost,
stator core tightened or partially invalid,
produces bumping tighten them
which results in bumping and
noise. immediately.
damage to the stator.
3. Broken insulation leads to short
circuit.

3-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Loose weld or Replace the blush of


open circuit of 1. Loose weld of welding point of whose wear degree is
winding leading circuits and slip ring caused by bigger than 50%,
wire. bad welding and other reasons. replace the disabled
Open 2. Severe abrasion 2. The fit between slip ring and spring; For severely
circuit of or loose of brush rotor shaft are loose, leading ablated slip ring and
rotor wear. wire is broken. slip ring of runout
winding 3. Jammed or 3. Bad contact between slip ring bigger than 0.05mm,
brokered spring and brush wear, which makes turn it with lathe and
of brush wear. the generator fail to produce polish it, then scrub
4. Ablation of slip magnetic fields. its surface with ethyl
ring. alcohol.

1. Damaged voltage regulator


Short
leads to breakdown of the
circuit or Output Avoid installing other
diode.
open undervoltage or high-power electrical
2. Excessive forward or reverse
circuit of no-voltage of the equipment on the
working voltage and current
rectifier battery. loader.
that lead to breakdown of the
module
diode.

Generator fails to charge the battery


When the engine is working normally, the charging indicator is on and the pointer of ampere meter
points at negative value, then it means the generator fails to charge the battery.
The main causes include generator fault, regulator fault or electrical circuit fault etc. Remove the
wire connection from the generator field terminals, turn on the electric lock switch, and use the
multimeter (DC test lamp) to check the terminal. If there is electricity, the generator may be faulty.
Do further check to the components such as generator electric brush, slip ring, rotor and stator or
replace the generator. If there is no electricity, check the regulator field terminal. If the terminal is
electrified, the wire connecting the regulator and the generator can be open circuited; if the terminal
is not electrified, check the regulator live wire terminal. If the terminal is electrified, the regulator
may be faulty, and check or replace the regulator; if the terminal is not electrified, the electric lock
and the wire connecting the electric lock and the regulator can be open circuited etc.
Low charging voltage
When the engine is working, the charging indicator lamp flashes or the ammeter swings around the
zero, the starter runs weakly and even fails to drive the engine to run. The possible cause can be the
unusual or faulty regulator operating voltage, too loose belt, generator inside fault or battery fault.
First of all, set the multimeter to DCV to measure the voltage at both ends of the battery or
generator. If it is lower than the standard value, it shows the charging voltage is too low. Then,
check the fan belt for slippage due to loose tension. If too loose, readjust as required. If it is normal,
go on checking the generator and battery for fault. Method: Disconnect the battery ground wire
3-13
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

when the engine runs at a moderate or above speed; if the engine runs normally, it indicates that the
generator output power can meet the requirements of the ignition system and the powered devices,
and that the battery has faults; if the engine flames out, it indicates that both the battery and
generator has fault.
High charging voltage
If the generator voltage is too high, the bulb is easy to be burned out when the engine runs, and the
water consumption in battery electrolyte can be too quick which may result from the unusual or
faulty regulator operating voltage.
Start the generator and run it at a moderate speed, set the multimeter to DCV (25V) with the red
probe connected to the generator armature terminal post and the black probe to the generator
housing, and measure the voltage on both ends of the battery or the generator. If it is higher than the
standard value, then the charging voltage is too high. In this case, a new electronic regulator should
be replaced.

3-14
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

323 Principle of Starter motor and


Troubleshooting
General
The starter motor converts electrical energy from
the battery into mechanical energy to turn the
engine. Starter motor consists of DC motor,
transmission mechanism (as known as gear train)
and control device (as known as electromagnetic
switch). The function of DC motor is to convert
electrical energy into mechanical energy and
Control end
output electromagnetic torque. The function of
transmission mechanism is to transmit

Fig. 3-7 Starter motor circuit diagram electromagnetic torque to flywheel before engine
started, drive and start the engine, and to make the
driven gear self-slip after the engine is started to
prevent inverse drag, finally demeshing the
flywheel gear ring. Control device is used to
control the on-of state of the circuit from DC motor
to battery, also control the meshing and demeshing
between transmission mechanism flywheel.

Starter motor control circuit


Starter motor is controlled by E-ECU. When turn
ignition key to “START”, E-ECU will receive an
electrical signal and send a signal to starter motor
control end to energize the starter motor.

Fig. 3-8 Starter motor

3-15
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Operation and maintenance of starter motor


Starter motor doesn’t require too much maintenance work from operator. However, if some basic
requirements couldn’t be met, they may cause much bigger problems to the operator.
Notes:
1. The voltage drop of starter motor positive or negative cable from any cause can degrade the
starting performance, thus resulting in hard start and even start failure. Therefore, first of all,
keep all the terminal posts in the battery circuit clean, and connect them firmly to reduce the
contact resistance; secondly, check whether the engine housing and battery negative ground are
in good conditions because most of the starter motor housing are grounded; thirdly, the section
area of the cable and the materials in battery circuit should meet the requirements, and the cable
overall length should be as short as possible to reduce the conductor resistance.
2. The starter motor sealing elements such as dust cover and gasket should be installed properly in
case that the transmission lubricating oil and dust enters into the starter motor.
3. After the engine starts, the starter motor should stop running immediately to reduce wear and
battery electric energy consumption caused by the unnecessary running of starter motor.
Moreover, if the starter motor keeps running for too long, the temperature of the inside DC
motor winding can increase too high and make the motor get burned out, meanwhile, the
battery can subject to over-discharge, thus affecting the battery life span. In general, each start
should not exceed 5s. If the engine cannot get started at a time, stop for 15s and then try to start
again. If the engine fails to start for 3successive times, find out the cause, eliminate the fault
and then restart.
4. Before the start, turn off all the electrical devices irrelevant to the starting, meanwhile, engage
the road roller to N to increase the starting ability of the starter motor and decrease the engine’s
drag torque.
5. If hard starting is caused by too low ambient temperature, warm up the engine fully before the
start to reduce the viscosity of the engine lubricating oil and decrease the engine’s drag torque.
Diagnosis and elimination of common faults of starter motor
Starter motor fails to work
If the starter cannot work after it is powered on, the starting relay and starting switch may be turned
off, or the connecting wire is open-circuited; if the starter still cannot work after the
above-mentioned fault is eliminated, then the starter motor may have internal faults. In this case, the
possible causes can be the fault in the magnetic coil of the starter magnetic switch, the motor switch
ablation, poor contact, and motor electric brush, inverter, armature and magnetic field open circuit.
Starter motor underpower

3-16
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

The starter can drive the engine crankshaft to rotate, however, the running speed is too low and the
engine cannot start smoothly, indicating the decrease of loading capacity and the actual output
power. The possible causes can be battery feeding, looseness of battery connection terminal, poor
contact caused by oxidation corrosion, motor switch ablation, inverter ablation, too much wear of
electric brush or lack of spring, and local short circuit in motor armature and field winding; and too
large starting drag torque caused by too tight engine assembly or too low ambient temperature.
Starter motor cannot stop
If the starter cannot stop working after the power starting switch is released, the possible causes can
be the power starting switch fault, starting relay fault or motor switch bonding.
Starter motor idling
If the starter runs but the engine crankshaft cannot rotate, the possible causes can be the one-way
clutch slippage, fork mechanism malfunction or seizure, insufficient push-out by driving gear, too
much gear teeth collision or wear, and fork shaft loss etc. The fault can be eliminated as long as the
clutch is replaced.
Too large starting noise
If rhythmic crash is produced during the start, the possible causes can be the open circuit in
magnetic switch holding coil, starting relay damage, battery electricity shortage or poor pole contact
etc.; if the friction or whistling is constant, the possible causes can be motor sweep chamber caused
by bearing wear, armature shaft bend and rotor out-of-round, or inverter ablation and electric brush
poor contact etc.

3-17
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

324 Overview of Loader Electrical Circuits

Composition of electrical circuits


1. Power circuit
Power circuit is composed of battery, generator, regulator and working condition indicating
devices, circuit protection devices belong to power circuit as well.
2. Starting circuit
A circuit made up of starter motor, starting relay, starting switch, control circuit and starting
protection device.
3. Lighting and light signaling device circuit
This circuit consists of headlight, steering lamps, control relay and switches.
4. Instrument circuit
Instrument circuit is composed of instrument indicators, sensors, alarming lamps and controller.
5. Auxiliary device circuit
A circuit composed of various functional electrical devices used to improve safety and security
of the loader. Generally includes wiper and cleanser system, air condition system, cigarette
lighter and radio.
Circuit analysis
Circuit analysis method focuses on each circuit firstly, and then conducts the study in the order of
from part to whole successively. When study a specific circuit, you should be familiar with the
working principle of this circuit first. Use related connecting principles to analysis and master the
circuit.
Specific methods: You can analysis along the flow direction of working current, namely, from
power source to electric equipment, or you can analysis against the flow direction of working
current, namely, from electric equipment to power source. For some unfamiliar circuits, the latter is
more convenient.
The principles of “break up the whole into parts” and “closed loop circuit” are helpful for
understanding electrical schematic diagrams, also convenient for finding a specific wire between
two devices. This is helpful for troubleshooting electric circuit.
Features of electric circuit diagram:
1. Single wire system is adopted for loader electrical devices, when analyzing the principle of a
circuit, start from the one electrical device and check along the circuit to switches and
protective devices, finally to negative pole of power source. To form a complete loop, all
electrical equipment must be grounded, and do not forget the faults caused by bad grounding
during troubleshooting.

3-18
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. There are two power sources on the loader, namely, generator and battery, in parallel. Circuit
protectors are designed between them.
3. All electrical equipment are connected in parallel and controlled by individual switches. Two
control methods are involved: control power wire and control earth wire.
4. To prevent circuit trouble and electrical equipment trouble caused by short circuit or bad
grounding, all circuits must be designed with protectors.
Diagnosis and elimination of common faults of loader electrical circuit
Common faults in electrical circuit are: short circuit, open circuit, bad grounding, poor contact
connectors and controller failure.
Inspection of electrical circuit conditions
Do appearance inspection of the loader overall electrical circuits after a fault occurred, including:
1. Fixation condition: All electrical equipment and wires should be firmly fixed, outer shell should
be in good condition and parts should be intact.
2. Contact and cleanness condition: Check whether all connectors are tightly plugged, whether
grounding points are tightened, ensure all contact points are free of rust, greasy dirt and
ablation, and all wire surfaces should be free of oil, dirt and dust.
3. Insulation and shield condition: Make sure the insulation coat of the conductor wire is not being
damaged and aged, and exposed area should be properly warped with insulating tape. Make
sure the shielding layer of conductor wire is intact.
4. Fuse protector and relay: All fuses and relays should be firmly installed, and the conductor
wires should in good contact condition. The selected fuses and relays should all complete and
meet the requirements of related rated values.
5. Switch operating condition: Ensure all switches and buttons are flexible and free of jamming
and out of order problem.
Instrument monitoring
Inspect the electrical circuit with instruments or specialized detectors to accurately determine the
fault position and eliminate it. For electrical circuit involved electronic parts and components, it is
strictly prohibited to apply “short circuit method” to examine the circuit, use voltmeter and DC
current lamp instead.
1. Voltage detection
By measuring the voltage relevant component, technical conditions of starting and power system is
able to be determined. As one of the routine maintenance projects, handling the electrical system
correctly is vitally important for troubleshooting.
1.1 Measure the battery voltage: Keep the front lamp on for about 30s to remove the “float
voltage” of battery and then turn off front lamp then connect a voltmeter to positive and
3-19
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

negative terminals of the battery, its voltage should above 24.5V.


1.2 Check the connecting condition of battery and starter motor by measuring starting voltage.
Turn the ignition key to start the engine, the current-voltage of battery should get to 19.5V
in 15s, if lower than this value, faults may exist in the system: erosion of battery
connectors, bad contact, over discharging of battery or battery failure, or starter motor
failure.
1.3 Check the condition of generator regulator by measuring voltage. Run the engine at
2000r/min, connect a voltmeter to the two ends of battery of generator, the reading should
be within 27.4~29.5V. At this moment, the voltmeter in the cab is also available, it is
normal if the reading is 2V higher than that of before the engine is started. It indicates that
there is fault in regulator if the reading exceeds 30V. To get more accurate result, further
examination should be done: Turn on the headlamp or an auxiliary electrical device at this
point, if the reading lowers than 27V, then possible causes are loosened belt, corrosion of
conductor connectors or bad contact, regulator failure and generator failure.
2. Measure voltage drop in circuit
Voltage drop test can be used to detect conductor wires, battery cables and connectors. Although
ohmmeter is able to measure circuit resistance, the result tends to fail to reflect the fact due to low
voltage and small current. So it is more reasonable to measure voltage drop under normal current to
get circuit resistance indirectly. Set the circuit in working condition and choose a voltmeter of range
0~3V, precision 1.0 or above. Generally normal voltage drop for a normal circuit is 0.1V, no bigger
than 1V for starting circuit.
3. Battery leakage test
Battery leakage test is used to detect the faults of incorrect grounding and destruction of insulation.
Turn off all electrical equipment, measure the current between battery negative and bond strap,
usually no more than 30mA, for loader with electronic control system it shall no more than 300mA,
otherwise it indicates that there is leakage in battery circuit. Possible causes are leakage or bad
insulation in switches or wires, short circuit or oversized leakage in generator diode, faults in
regulator or electronic control unit, switch failure.
4. Inspection of open circuit and short circuit
4.1 Open circuit inspection
Use test lamp or specialized instrument for open circuit inspection, connect the test lamp or
specialized instrument to wire connector and bond strap, turn on related swathes, open
circuit fault exists if lamp cannot be lightened,
4.2 Short circuit inspection
When a short circuit occurs, fuses will be burnt out, be sure to find out the cause before
3-20
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

replacing the fuse. Common methods:


A Use a ohmmeter
Connect one probe to bond strap, the other to fuse connector, there must be short circuit if
the reading is zero or very small. Disconnect the electrical devices controlled by this fuse
one by one, if the reading increases to normal, then it indicates that the just disconnected
device is in short circuit.
B Use buzzer
There buzzer will ring if there is short circuit. Disconnect the controlled electrical devices
one by one, if the ring stops, then it indicates that the just disconnected device is in short
circuit. (All electrical devices are connected in parallel)
C Check with an interrupter and a magnetic flux gauge
Connect the interrupter to the two ends of fuse, detect the conductor pulsed magnetic field
along the circuit with the magnetic flux gauge, if the pointer stops, then it indicates that
there is short circuit nearby.

3-21
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig. 3-9 Power system circuit

3-22
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

325 Read and Fault Diagnosis of Loader Overall Circuits

Power system circuit


1. After the power supply switch is turned on, the current passes through battery → wire 56a →
fuse 60A → connector CN5 → wire 56 → connector CN57 → fuse 10A → wire 121 →
connector CN54 → connector CN60 → wire 121 → starter switch.
2. Turn starter switch to “ON”, terminal B and BR of starting switch will be connected, and wire
121 and 28 will be connected. The current passes through terminal BR → wire 28 → connector
CN59 → connector CN55 → wire 28 →main power supply1 and main power supply2, relay
closes. Wire 56 and 22C will be connected; fuses will be energized by wire 2/2C.
3. If the loader is in neutral gear, then transmission control unit will energize wire 59, the current
passes through CN53 → starting interlock relay, relay closes. Turn starter switch to “START” at
this moment, terminal B, BR and R2 will be connected, the current passes through R2 → wire
60 → connector CN60 → connector CN55 → terminal 87 of starting interlock relay, due to the
relay is already closed, the following route is: terminal 30 of starting interlock relay → start
auto protection relay → 22b → connector CN55, CN1 and CN2 → E-ECU, then E-ECU sends
starting signal to control end to activate the starter motor, after the engine is started, the
generator starts to generate electricity driven by belt.
4. After the engine is started, release the starting switch, the switch will automatically reset to
“ON”, and wire 60 will be disconnected, starting interlock relay will be deenergized, starter
motor stops.
5. Turn starter switch to “OFF”, wire 28 will be disconnected, and E-ECU will not be able to
receive signal from starting switch, the engine will be shut down.
6. Turn off power supply switch, the whole machine will be power off.
Composition and maintenance of main components
Starting switch
1. Starting switch, also called electric lock, is used to control the power on, power off, startup and
flameout of the loader.
Six pins are designed on starting switch, namely B, BR, R1, R2, C and ACC, they are
combined in different ways to fulfil specific functions. Refer to Fig. 3-9 for details.
2. Method to determine whether the electric lock is damaged.
Disconnect electric lock wires and take it down from the loader, then inspect with digital
multimeter omhs 200Ω range, the lock is fine if breakover, otherwise the lock is damaged, and
should be repaired or replaced.
Fuse

3-23
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fuse is an electric protection device with features of simple structure, easy to use and low price.
Fuse is connected in series in the to-be-protect circuit, when overload or short circuit occurs to the
circuit, the fuse will be burnt out to protect other component in the circuit.
When a fuse needs to be replaced, choose a new fuse with the same specifications. Never replace
with a copper wire for emergency. The colors and specifications of fuses are listed below:

Specification Color Specification Color

5A Orange 15A Blue

7.4A Brown 20A Yellow

10A Red 30A Green

Relay
When there is current in relay coil, the coil will generate magnetic field to pull in relay contacts;
when the coil is deenergized, relay contacts will be disconnected.
Method to determine whether the relay is broken: Measure the resistance between pin 85 and pin86
with multimeter ohms range and there should be relatively big resistance, resistance between pin 30
and pin 87 should be infinitely great. Connect pin 86 to positive of DC 24V and pin 85 to negative
of DC 24V, pin 30 and pin 87 should be breakover.
A freewheel diode is designed in the relay, so pin 85 must be grounded, do not ground pin 86,
otherwise the relay wouldn’t be able to work normally.

3-24
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Phenomenon, causes and handling methods of common faults in main circuit


Faults Phenomenon Possible causes Handling methods

1. Turn on battery main


switch.
1. Battery main switch is not 2. Replace battery main
on. switch.
2. Broken battery main 3. Recharge or replace
switch. the battery.
Turn on the electric 3. Over discharged battery. 4. Examine the circuit
Whole lock, but couldn’t 4. Fuse 60A or 10A is burnt carefully and find out
machine is hear the pull-in out. the cause before
power off sound of power 5. Damaged electric lock. replacing the fuse.
supply relay. 6. Broken power supply 5. Replace electric lock.
relay. 6. Replace power
7. Loose battery connectors. supply relay.
8. Loose wiring harness 7. Check and tighten the
connector. connectors.
8. Check and reconnect
the connectors.

1. Neutral gear is not


engaged.
Turn the electric 1. Engage neutral gear.
2. Faults in shift control unit,
Unable to lock to “START”, 2. Seek help from
fail to send “neutral gear”
startup the but fail to get any professional staff.
signal to starting control
machine response from the 3. Replace the start
circuit.
loader. interlocking relay.
3. Start interlocking relay
failure.

Starter 1. Electric lock is stuck and


1. Replace electric lock.
motor doesn’t work.
Electric lock 2. Replace starting
couldn’t be 2. Sintering of starting relay
couldn’t reset to relay.
stopped contact.
“ON”. 3. Repair or replace the
after engine 3. Sintering of starter motor
starter motor.
started control device contact.

3-25
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Recharge or replace
the battery.
2. Polish and clean the
1. Underpowered battery.
terminals and tighten
2. Oxidation, corrosion of
battery circuit.
terminals in battery circuit
Turn the electric 3. Find out the cause,
or bad contact.
Starter lock to “START”, restore the circuit or
3. Open circuit or bad contact
motor but starter motor replace faulty
in start control circuit,
doesn’t doesn’t response or components.
damaged electric lock,
work or runs at low speed, 4. Check whether there
damaged start relay.
powerless couldn’t start the are faults of short
4. Faults in starter motor
engine. circuit, open circuit,
control device.
ablation of bond strap
5. Faults in starter motor (DC
and terminals. Repair
motor).
or replace.
5. Examine the starter
motor.

1. Check whether the


overrunning clutch is
slipping.
2. Check whether
driving gear or
flywheel gear is
damaged.
Turn the electric 3. Check whether
lock to “START”, driving gear,
and the starter flywheel ring gear
Starter Faults in starter motor
motor can run in and armature neck
motor idling transmission mechanism.
high speed, but the bush are severely
engine running worn.
slowly. 4. Check whether
shifting fork is
snapped or
off-position.
5. Handle or replace the
starter motor
according to the
actual conditions.

3-26
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Underpowered battery or
battery failure.
2. Oxidation, corrosion of 1. Recharge or replace
terminals in battery circuit the battery.
or bad contact. 2. Polish and clean the
3. Faults in starter motor terminals and tighten
Inter-contact Turn the electric holding coil. battery circuit.
between lock to “START”, 4. Off voltage of related relay 3. Repair or replace the
starter and there is in start control circuit is starter motor.
motor Inter-contact too high. 4. Replace starting
driving gear between starter 5. Excessive gap between relay.
and motor driving gear driving gear and spacing 5. The latter three
flywheel and flywheel. ring. causes are all starter
6. Severe abrasion of driving motor internal faults,
gear, flywheel ring gear find out the cause and
and armature neck bush. repair or replace the
7. Forceless or snapped motor.
isolator spring, shifting
fork is out of position.

The loader can be 1. Straighten up the fuel


1. Bended fuel pipe leads to
started, but pipes.
Auto fuel supply failure.
automatically 2. Examine the
flameout 2. Faults in flameout control
flameouts in short flameout control
circuit.
time. circuit.

3-27
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Instrument system
Brief introduction to instrument monitoring-sensor system:
Instrument monitoring-sensor system of LG938L loader is composed of stepping combination
instrument, torque converter oil temperature sensor, transmission oil pressure sensor, fuel level
sensor, and low brake pressure alarm switch.

Fig. 3-10 Instrument monitoring-sensor system

3-28
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Main components and maintenance


Fig. 3-10 presents the gauges and indicator on
instrument panel that related to sensor system,
including oil temperature gauge, water temperature
gauge, fuel level gauge, low brake pressure alarm
lamp and transmission oil pressure alarm lamp.
Low brake pressure alarm switch
Low brake pressure alarm lamp should stop
flashing after the engine is started for 30s,
otherwise, stop the engine and find out the cause,
do not driving or operating until the fault is

1 removed. Otherwise, accidents may happen due to


Fig. 3-11 brake failure.
1 Low brake pressure alarm switch Low brake pressure alarm switch is installed on
emergency brake valve.

Torque converter oil temperature sensor


LG938L is designed with torque converter oil
temperature sensor to monitor oil temperature. The
sensor is a thermistor type senor, electric
conductivity of the thermistor increases as the
temperature rises, which means its resistance
reduces as the temperature rises.

Fig. 3-12 Torque converter oil


temperature sensor

3-29
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Transmission oil pressure alarm switch


Transmission oil pressure alarm switch of LG938L
is installed on speed change valve of transmission
box, is used to monitor transmission oil pressure,
when transmission oil pressure drops to 1.1Mpa,
the contacts will close and transmission oil
pressure alarm lamp will be on, buzzer will ring.

Fig. 3-13 Transmission oil pressure


alarm switch

Fuel level sensor


Actually the fuel level sensor on LG938L is a
resistor, its resistances reduces as fuel level goes up.
The sensor is installed on fuel tank.

Fig. 3-14 Fuel level sensor

1
Fig. 3-15
1 Parking brake indicator lamp

3-30
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Commons faults elimination


Abnormal reading of temperature gauge
Remove the sensing wire of torque converter oil
temperature sensor, if the meter displays full range
(infinitely great) when the sensing wire is
grounded, meanwhile the meter displays the
minimum reading when hang the sensing wire in
the air, then it indicates that the meter and circuit
are in good condition, the sensor is damaged,
please replace the sensor. Otherwise, check the
circuit, there must be faults in meter if the circuit is
fine.
Abnormal reading of fuel level gauge
Remove the sensing wire of fuel level sensor (#19
wire in the principle diagram), if the gauge
displays full range (infinitely great) when the
sensing wire is grounded, meanwhile the gauge
displays the minimum reading when hang the
sensing wire in the air, then it indicates that the
gauge and circuit are in good condition, the sensor
is damaged, please replace the sensor. Otherwise,
check the circuit, there must be faults in gauge if
the circuit is fine.

3-31
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Lighting circuit
Circuit of front and rear work lamp and rear headlamp
Turn rocker switch of front work lamp to “I” and terminal 1 and terminal 5 of rocker switch will be
connected, so do terminal 2 and terminal 6. The current passes through Fuse F27 → wire 39 →
Connector CN53, CN40 and CN68 → terminal 6, 2, 5, 1.

Fig 3-16 Circuit of front and rear work lamp and rear headlamp

3-32
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Current goes through wire 74 → CN40, CN54 → front lamp relay, the relay coil will be electrified
and the contacts will be pulled together. Pin 30 and pin 87 of relay will be connected, current passes
through Fuse F14 → wire 39 → pin 30 → pin 87 → wire 34 → Connector CN55 → Connector
CN9 → front lamp. Front lamp will be on.
Turn rocker switch of front work lamp to “I” and terminal 1 and terminal 5 of rocker switch will be
connected, so do terminal 2 and terminal 6. The current passes through fuse F24 → wire 45 →
Connector CN53, CN40 and CN69 → terminal 6, 2, 5, 1. The current flows out from wire 79 and
divided into two parts: one route goes through connector CN69, CN40, CN54 → Rear lamp relay,
the relay coil will be energized and the contacts will be pulled together. Pin 30 and pin 87 of relay
will be connected, current passes through fuse F25 → wire 47 → pin 30 → rear lamp relay →
Connector CN55, CN99 → rear lamp. Rear lamp will be on. Principle of the other route is similar,
we won’t give unnecessary details.
The most common fault for this circuit is the lamp couldn’t be lightened. We take front work lamp
for example, inspection methods for other lamps are similar.
1. Check whether the blub is blackened, if so, replace the damaged bulb.
2. Pull out the plug of front work lamp, and turn on the rocker switch of front work lamp, measure
the current between wire 34 and wire 0 with an ampere meter, the circuit is in good condition if
there is current. Then check the contact condition of front work lamp, there is internal
connection loose or bulb failure if the contact condition if good.
If there is no current, check according to the following procedures:
2.1 Check whether fuse F27 and Fuse 10A are burnt out.
2.2 Check whether all connectors and wiring harnesses are firmly connected.
2.3 Check whether rocker switch of front work lamp is in good condition.

3-33
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig. 3-17 Circuit diagram of combination lamps

3-34
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Turn combination switch to “turn left” and terminal 9 and terminal 11 will be connected, current
passes through fuse F2 → wire 21a → flasher → wire 33 → connector CN53, CN58 → terminal 11
and 9 → wire 7, current goes all the way to left steering lamp on the instrument panel, and finally
gets to left combination lamp through CN12 and CN13.
The most common fault for this circuit is the lamp couldn’t be lightened. We take left steering lamp
for example, inspection methods for other lamps are similar.
1. Check whether the blub is blackened, if so, replace the damaged bulb.
2. Pull out the plug of left steering lamp, and turn combination switch to “turn left”, measure the
current between wire 7 and wire 0 with an ampere meter, the circuit is in good condition if
there is current. Then check the contact condition of left steering lamp, there is internal
connection loose or bulb failure if the contact condition if good.
If there is no current, check according to the following procedures:
2.1 Check whether Fuse F6 and Fuse 15A are burnt out.
2.2 Check whether connector CN12, CN58, CN53 and wiring harnesses are firmly connected.
2.3 Check whether combination switch is in good condition.

3-35
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Bucket proximity switch and boom proximity switch


When bucket proximity switch is not on, the current passes through F19 → wire 42 → connector CN76
→ bucket valve → wire 63 → connector CN530 → bucket relay, looping in.
Turn on the switch, wire 42 and wire 65 will be connected, current route: F19 → wire 42 →
connector CN12, CN11, CN84 → wire 65 → connector CN84, CN11, CN12, CN5 → bucket relay,
bucket relay coil will be energized and the terminal 30 and 87a will be disconnected to deenergize
bucket valve.
Working principle of boom proximity is similar to the bucket one, and take the latter one for
reference.
Troubleshooting:
1. Check whether the circuits are well-connected, whether the connectors are loose.
2. Pull CN84 out, the resistance between connectors of bucket proximity switch should be
infinitely great, otherwise the bucket proximity switch is damaged.
3. Pull CN90 out, the resistance between connectors of bucket proximity switch should be
infinitely great, otherwise the bucket proximity switch is damaged.
4. Check whether fuse F19 is burnt out.
5. Check whether the electromagnetic valve is broken.
6. Check whether the relay is damaged.

Fig. 3-18 Principle diagram of bucket proximity switch circuit and boom proximity switch circuit

3-36
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Sprayer and wiper


Turn rocker switch of sprayer to position “I”, terminal 1, 3 and terminal 2, 4 will be connected, the
current passes through fuse F20 → wire 37 → connector CN53, CN9, CN50 → sprayer motor →
wire 37 → rocker switch of sprayer, sprayer starts to work.
Likewise, the principle of rocker switch of sprayer in position “II” is easy to understand.
Turn rocker switch of front wiper to position “I”, terminal 3, 5 and terminal 4, 6 will be connected,
the current passes through fuse F20 → wire 37 → connector CN9, CN64 → rocker switch of front
wiper → wire 25 → sprayer motor, and wire 37 directly supply power to sprayer motor
simultaneously, the motor begins to work.
Likewise, the principle of rocker switch of front wiper in position “II”, principle of rear wiper are
easy to understand.
Troubleshooting of sprayer and wiper
Wiper motor doesn’t work: Check whether fuse F20 is burnt out, check whether the connectors are
loose and whether the wiring harnesses are worn, check whether there is short circuit and open
circuit in wiper motor.
Sprayer doesn’t spray: Check whether the generator is running, whether the pump is able to pump
water, check whether the water pipe is cracked or blocked. Check whether the sprayer is blocked.

3-37
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig. 3-19 Principle diagram of wiper and sprayer circuit

3-38
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig. 3-20 Independent radiating control system

3-39
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Independent radiating system


Independent radiating system includes hydraulic
motor positive & negative system and radiating
control system.
Hydraulic motor positive & negative system
Hydraulic motor positive & negative system is
used to control the positive & negative of radiating
fan installed on the loader, when hydraulic motor
rotation switch is in position “I”, rotation direction
1 2
Fig. 3-21 Control valve solenoid valve won’t work; when hydraulic motor
1 Rotation direction solenoid valve rotation switch is in position “II”, terminal 1 and
2 Thermostatic radiator valve
terminal 5 are connected. Current route: Fuse F9
→ wire 155 → connector CN54 → wire 155a →
connector CN3 → rotation direction solenoid valve
will be energized. Radiating fan rotates inversely.
Independent radiating control system
Independent radiating control system is used to
control rotating speed of the fan. The controller is
able to judge the current radiating state by
analyzing the signals received from turbo
temperature sensor and water temperature sensor,
then sends signals to control thermostatic radiator
valve, different hydraulic oil flow results in
different rotating speed of radiating fan.
Fault phenomenon: Insufficient rotating speed,
bad radiating performance.
Possible causes:
1. Sensor failure, the radiator controller fails to
receive correct signals from the sensor.
2. Circuit trouble, bad contact.
3. Valve block of radiator controller is stuck.
4. Errors in controller program.
Fault phenomenon: Positive and negative of
hydraulic motor is irrealizable.
Possible causes:

3-40
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Circuit trouble, bad contact.


2. Hydraulic motor rotation switch is damaged.
3. Rotation direction solenoid valve is damaged.

Quick-change system
Electrical principle of quick- change system is shown in Fig. 3-22, when quick-change switch is in
position “II”, terminal 1 and terminal 5 will be connected, current passes through fuse F19 → wire
42 → CN53, CN 71 → quick-change switch → wire 90 → switch (1, 2) → wire 85 and 86 →
quick-change solenoid valve. Buzzer will ring at the same time.
Fault phenomenon: Quick-change system doesn’t work.
Possible causes:
1. Fuse F19 is burnt out.
2. Bad contact or open circuit in quick-change switch.

Fig. 3-22 Quick-change system circuit

3-41
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Parking brake electrical system

Fig 3-23 Parking brake electrical system

3-42
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

After parking brake is engaged, parking brake switch is off and there is electric current in parking
brake system, the loader is in parking brake state.
When removing the parking brake, parking brake switch will be on, and brake releasing switch will
be set to position “II”. At this time, the current: fuse F16 → wire 46/46a/46b → brake releasing
switch, the relay coil is electrified, pin 30 and 87 will be connected. Wire 46c not only energizes the
relay coil, but also supplies power to brake solenoid valve and emergency brake switch. Brake
releasing switch will reset to “OFF” automatically.
Possible faults:
1. Fuse burnt out.
2. Bad contact or open circuit.
3. When Parking brake is on, the brake is removed without brake releasing switch getting to
position “II”, it indicates that the relay is damaged, pin 87 is adhered.
4. Brake solenoid valve is damaged.

Auxiliary electric system (Electric horn, radio, top light)


The auxiliary electric system of LG938L includes electric horn, radio and top light.

Fig. 3-24 Electrical principle diagram of auxiliary electric system


Troubleshooting of electric horn
1. Check whether fuse F17 is burnt out.
2. Check whether connecters are well-connected.
3. Check whether wiring harnesses are worn.

3-43
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Check whether relay is damaged.


5. Check whether electric horn is damaged.
6. If the horn doesn’t work after the button is pressed down, check whether wire 153 is power on,
if so, the horn is damaged and replace it. If there is no power in wire 153, bad contact or worn
wiring harness may exist in the circuit. Check and remove the fault.
Troubleshooting of top light
1. Check whether fuse F4 is burnt out.
2. Check whether connecters are well-connected.
3. Check whether wiring harnesses are worn.
4. Check whether top light is damaged.
Troubleshooting of radio
1. Check whether fuse F10 is burnt out.
2. Check whether connecters are well-connected.
3. Check whether wiring harnesses are worn.
4. Turn on the radio and it doesn’t work, check whether wire 41 and wire 21 is power on, if so, the
radio is damaged and replace it. If there is no power in wire 41 and wire 21, bad contact or
worn wiring harness may exist in the circuit. Check and remove the fault.

3-44
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Voltage stabilizing module


Voltage stabilization module
relays

Voltage stabilization module


rocker switch
Terminal

Position

Transmission box controller

Voltage stabilization module

Fig. 3-25 Electrical principle diagram of voltage stabilizing module

3-45
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Voltage stabilizing system is powered via fuse F23, when rocker switch of voltage stabilizing
module is in position “II” and the loader runs at different gears, transmission box controller controls
the current in wire 270 and wire 280 to control on-off of the voltage stabilizing module relay. When
there is current in both wire 270 and wire 280, coil of relay 1 is energized, its contactor contacts pin
87, the contactor of relay 2 connects to its pin 87 as well. Due to relay 1 and relay 2 are differently
connected, when there is current in both wire 270 and wire 280, relay 1 is disconnected in voltage
stabilizing system, while relay 2 is connected, and wire 76a will be powered on, voltage stabilizing
module starts to work. Likewise, when there is current in wire 270 and no current in 280, the
voltage stabilizing module doesn’t work, at this point, the loader is running in forward gear I. When
there is no current in both wire 270 and 280, the voltage stabilizing module works too; when there
is current in wire 280 and no current in 270, the voltage stabilizing module still works.

3-46
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

33 Distribution of Loader Wiring Harnesses

7
6
8

5
4

2 3
1
15

14

13
12
11 9

10

Fig. 3-26 Wiring harnesses in rear frame

S/N Name S/N Name S/N Name

1 To generator B+ 2 To sensors of DPF 3 To frame


To brake
4 To brake valve block 5 electromagnetic 6 To cab shell
valve

7 Presser sensor 8 Transmission box 9 Torque converter

Torque converter oil Motor charging To rear engine hood


10 11 12
temperature sensor circuit wiring harness
To temperature
To water
13 Fuel level sensor 14 15 sensor of
temperature sensor
inter-cooling

3-47
To rear cover
S/N Wire No. S/N Wire No.
wiring harness
To battery
Torque converter oil Transmission box positive
temperature sensor pressure switch
Brake lamp
switch
Emergency
steering
signal line

Fig. 3-27 Design drawing of rear frame wiring harnesses


S/N Wire No. S/N Wire No. S/N Wire No. S/N Wire No.
To safety lock
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

solenoid valve
S/N
Wire
No.
S/N
Wire
No.
S/N
Wire
To instrument No.
S/N
wiring harnesses Wire
No.
CN33 Intake Nitrogen-oxygen
temperature sensor sensor
S/N S/N
S/N Wire No. S/N Wire No. S/N Wire No.
Wire Wire
No. No.
CN30 To water
level sensor

3-48
Emergency brake S/N
Wire
switch (SW2) No.
S/N
Wire
No.
Low brake pressure
alarm switch (SW1)
S/N
Parking brake Wire
No.
indicator switch To fan positive
(SW3) and negative
S/N
Wire
No.
S/N
Wire
No.
Brake solenoid
valve S/N
Wire
No.
Fuel level sensor
To fuel water
content switch
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Section area
Wire No. Name Color Comments
(mm2)

0 Grounding wire 5.0 Black AVS

0a Grounding wire 2.0 Black

0c Grounding wire 1.25 Black

2c ECU power wire 2.0 Red

2a/2b Generator charging wire 5.0 Red AVS

2 Wire between battery and fuse box 5.0 Red AVS

3 Power wire of the whole machine 2.0 White

4 Rear headlamp high beam wire 1.25 White

5 Rear headlamp low beam wire 1.25 White

6 Right steering lamp wire 0.85 White

7 Left steering lamp wire 0.85 White

8 Brake lamp wire 0.85 White

9 Reversing buzzer, reversing lamp wire 0.85 White

10 Front headlamp high beam wire 1.25 White

11 Front headlamp low beam wire 1.25 White

12 Horn button wire 0.85 White

13 Parking brake indicating lamp wire 0.85 White

14 Engine water temperature sensor wire 0.85 White


Torque converter oil temperature sensor
15 0.85 White
wire
Signal wire of transmission oil pressure
17 0.85 White
gauge
18 Signal wire of brake air pressure gauge 0.85 White

19 Fuel level sensor wire 0.85 White

20 Charging alarm lamp wire 0.85 White


Wire from electric lock to starting relay
22/22b 0.85 White
and oil cut-off valve relay
3-49
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

28 Battery relay coil positive wire 1.25 Red

30 Wire of width lamp and back light 0.85 White

31 Engine oil pressure alarm lamp wire 0.85 White

32 Brake air pressure alarm lamp wire 0.85 White

46 Brake power wire 1.25 Red

46c Brake electromagnetic valve power wire 1.25 Red


Connecting wire from brake valve to
54 1.25 White
emergency brake switch
56/56a To battery positive 5.0 Red AVS

61 Heater relay signal wire 0.85 White


Working timer signal wire of generator
73 0.85 White
end
80 Instrument panel power wire 0.85 Red

95 Safety lock signal wire 1.25 Red

96 Emergency steering signal wire 0.85 White

152 ECU power wire 0.85 Red

155a Power wire of fan positive & negative 1.25 Red

156 Power wire of oxygen-nitrogen sensor 1.25 Red

162 ECU power wire 1.25 Red

E8 Signal wire of intake temperature sensor 1.25 White

E22 Signal wire of intake temperature sensor 1.25 White

E26 Signal wire of fuel water-content sensor 1.25 White

E57 Power wire of ECU indicator lamp 1.25 Red

E62 Signal wire of water level sensor 1.25 White

E70 Power wire of fuel water-content sensor 1.25 White

X23-1 Terminal connecting wire 1.25 White

X23-3 Terminal connecting wire 1.25 White

3-50
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

X23-35
Terminal connecting wire 1.25 White
X23-36
X23-38
Terminal connecting wire 1.25 White
X23-39

Wire Wire
S/N S/N
Quick-change No. No.

button

Regeneration

Regeneration

stabilization
Quick-change
Safety lock

power source

Voltage
Preheat

module
Failure

switch
lamp

lamp

lamp
lamp
Ash

Back
-light

Back
-light
Back
-light

Back
-light
S/N A/C
Wire
No.
To pilot
solenoid valve S/N
Wire
No.

Buzzer

Cigarette lighter

S/N
Wire
No.

Parking brake
Independent
switch radiating port

S/N

Back
-light
Wire

Back

Back
-light

-light
Back

Back
-light

-light No.
Wire
S/N No.
Hydraulic fan
Diagnosis switch Power cut-off
positive and negative Brake relieve Emergency DC-DC
steering
connector
Wire
S/N No.

To starting switch Wire


S/N No.

S/N
Wire
No.

Wire Wire
S/N No. S/N No.
To instrument

Combination switch
panel

To centralized
control box
To front frame
wiring harness
connector
Wire Wire
S/N No. S/N No.

To alarm lamp Horn


switch button (Centralization lubrication
power source, reserved)
Wire
(Voltage stabilization module S/N No.
power source, reserved)
Wire
Wire Wire
S/N No.
S/N No. S/N No.

Wire Wire
S/N Wire
No. S/N Wire
No.
S/N No. S/N No.

To cab wiring To rear frame wiring


harness harness connector

Fig. 3-28 Instrument panel wiring harnesses

Section area
Wire No. Name Color Comments
(mm2)

0 Grounding wire 5.0 Black AVS

0c Grounding wire of instrument/sensor 1.25 Black

4 Rear headlamp high beam wire 1.25 White

6 Right steering lamp wire 0.85 White

7 Left steering lamp wire 0.85 White

8a Brake switch wire 0.85 White


3-51
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

9 Reversing signal wire 0.85 White

10 Front headlamp high beam wire 1.25 White

11 Front headlamp low beam wire 1.25 White

12 Horn button wire 0.85 White

13 Parking brake switch wire 0.85 White


Signal wire of torque converter oil
15 0.85 White
temperature gauge
17 Signal wire of transmission oil pressure 0.85 White

19 Signal wire of fuel 0.85 White

20 Charging alarm lamp wire 0.85 White

21 Upper wire of fuse box 0.85 Red

22 Starting signal wire 0.85 White

22b Starting interlock wire 0.85 White

23 Control wire of sprayer motor 0.85 White

23a Control wire of sprayer motor 0.85 White

24 Reset wire of front wiper 0.85 White

25 Front wiper low speed wire 1.25 White

26a Front wiper high speed wire 1.25 White

24a Reset wire of rear wiper 0.85 White

25a Rear wiper low speed wire 1.25 White

26a Wiper high speed wire 1.25 White

28 Battery relay coil wire 0.85 Red


Wire of backlight and width lamp rocker
30 0.85 Red
switch
31 Engine oil pressure alarm lamp wire 0.85 White

32 Brake air pressure switch wire 0.85 White

33 Signal output wire of flasher 1.25 White

3-52
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

34 Front lamp wire 2.0 White

35 Power wire of front headlamp 1.25 Red AVS

36 Power wire of air condition 3.0 Red

37 Power wire of wiper 1.25 Red

38 Reserved power wire 1.25 Red

39 Power wire of front lamp 0.85 Red

41 Power wire of radio 1.25 Red

42 Power wire of pilot valve 0.85 Red

45 Rear headlamp switch wire 0.85 Red

46/46a Brake power wire 1.25 Red

46b/46c Brake electromagnetic valve power wire 1.25 Red

47 Rear lamp switch wire 0.85 Red

48 Power wire of transmission control box 1.25 Red


Signal wire of front combination high
49 0.85 White
beam lamp
Signal wire of front combination low
50 0.85 White
beam lamp
56 Main power wire 5 Red AVS

57 Power cut-off signal wire 0.85 White

58 Reverse signal wire 0.85 White

58a Reversing signal output wire 0.85 White

59 Starting interlock output wire 0.85 White

59a Starting interlock output wire 0.85 White

60 Starting interlock signal wire 0.85 Red

62 Electromagnetic valve (boom) wire 0.85 White

63 Electromagnetic valve (bucket) wire 0.85 White

64 Proximity switch (boom) signal wire 0.85 White

3-53
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

65 Proximity switch (bucket) signal wire 0.85 White

71 Rear lamp wire 2.0 White

73 Signal wire of generator W end 0.85 Red

74 Signal wire of front lamp 0.85 White

75 Signal wire of rear lamp 0.85 White


76/76a/76
Power wire of voltage stabilizing module 1.25 Red
b
77/77a Power wire of cigarette lighter 1.25 Red

78 Power wire of ignitron 2 Red

79 Signal wire of rear headlamp 0.85 White

80 Instrument panel power wire 0.85 Red

85 Quick-change wire 0.85 White

86 Quick-change wire 0.85 White

87 Quick-change buzzer wire 0.85 White

90 Power wire of quick-change button 0.85 Red

95 Safety lock signal wire 0.85 White

96 Emergency steering signal wire 0.85 White

99 Mute switch wire 0.85 Red

121 Power wire of electric lock 1.25 Red

133 Power wire of independent radiator 1.25 Red

152 ECU power wire 1.25 Red

153 Power wire of horn 1.25 Red

155/155a Power wire of fan positive & negative 1.25 Red

156 Power wire of oxygen-nitrogen sensor 1.25 Red

161 Instrument panel power wire 1.25 Red

162 ECU power wire 1.25 Red

3-54
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

210 KD signal wire 0.85 White

240 Gearshift handle forward signal wire 0.85 White

270 Gearshift handle gear signal wire 0.85 White

280 Gearshift handle KD signal wire 0.85 White


Grounding wire of regeneration
E32 1.25 Black
simulator
Grounding wire of preheat indicator
E37 1.25 Black
lamp
E56 Grounding wire of fault indicating lamp 1.25 Black

E57 Power wire of ECU indicator lamp 1.25 Red

E60 Signal wire of detector switch 1.25 White


Grounding wire of regeneration indicator
E71 1.25 Black
lamp
Grounding wire of exhaust regeneration
E72 1.25 Black
indicator lamp
E73 Power wire of fault indicating lamp 1.25 Red

E81 Grounding wire of water level sensor 1.25 Black

E85 CAN 0 H 1.25 With shield

E86 CAN 0 L 1.25 With shield


Power wire of regeneration rocker
E91/E91a 1.25 Red
switch

3-55
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CN37 feedback Plug hole N0. Line No. Plug hole N0. Line No.

port for engine


diagonosis

Hole No.

Line No.

Hole No.
Plug hole No. Line No. Plug hole No. Line No.
Line No.

Instrument
wiring harness
port CN39-A

Hole No.

Line No.

Plug hole N0. Line No. Plug hole N0. Line No.

ECU power

Rear frame
wiring harness
connector

Fig. 3-29 E-ECU wiring harnesses

Section area
Wire No. Name Color Comments
(mm2)
0a Grounding wire 2.0 Black

2c Power wire 2.0 Red

59 Starting interlock output wire 0.85 White

E8 Signal wire of intake temperature sensor 0.85 White

3-56
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

E20 Power wire of electronic throttle pedal 0.85 Red

E22 Signal wire of intake temperature sensor 0.85 White

E26 Power wire of fuel water-content sensor 0.85 White

E29 Signal wire of electronic throttle pedal 0.85 White


Grounding wire of regeneration
E32 0.85 Black
simulator
Grounding wire of preheat indicator
E37 0.85 White
lamp
E43 Signal wire of starting protector 0.85 White

E56 Grounding wire of fault indicating lamp 0.85 White

E57 Power wire of ECU indicator lamp 1.25 Red

E60 Signal wire of detector switch 0.85 White

E62 Signal wire of water level sensor 0.85 White

E64 Starting power wire 0.85 Red

E67 Starting power wire 0.85 Red

E70 Power wire of fuel water-content sensor 0.85 White


Grounding wire of regeneration indicator
E71 0.85 White
lamp
Grounding wire of exhaust regeneration
E72 0.85 White
indicator lamp
E73 Power wire of fault indicating lamp 0.85 Red

E75 Signal wire of electronic throttle pedal 0.85 White

E81 Grounding wire of water level sensor 0.85 White

E82 CAN 1 H 0.85 White With shield

E83 CAN 1 L 0.85 White With shield


Grounding wire of electronic throttle
E84 0.85 White
pedal
E85 CAN 0 H 0.85 White With shield

E86 CAN 0 L 0.85 White With shield


Power wire of regeneration rocker
E91 1.25 White
switch
3-57
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

To right-rear
lamp To right horn

To front lamp
To top
alarm
lamp

Wire
To rear S/N No.
wiper
To raido

Top lamp
Top alarm Front and rear
Mute lamp Front wiper sprayer

-light
Back
-light
Back
-light

-light
Back

Back
To front lamp

To left-rear
lamp

To left horn
-light
Back
-light

-light
Back

Back
To front wiper Cab rear Cab front
To earth Rear wiper
working lamp working lamp
Wire
S/N No.

To sprayer S/N Wire


No. S/N Wire
No.

To instrument panel
wiring harness

Fig. 3-30 Cab wiring harnesses

Section area
Wire No. Name Color Comments
(mm2)
0 Grounding wire 2.0 Black

21 Normally powered-on wire 1.25 Red

23 Control wire of front sprayer motor 0.85 White

24 Reset wire of front wiper 0.85 White

25 Front wiper low speed wire 1.25 White

26 Front wiper high speed wire 1.25 White

23a Control wire of rear sprayer motor 0.85 White

24a Reset wire of rear wiper 0.85 White

25a Rear wiper low speed wire 1.25 White


3-58
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Wire of backlight and width lamp rocker


30 0.85 White
switch
34 Signal wire of front lamp 1.25 White

37 Power wire of wiper 1.25 Red

39 Power wire of front lamp 0.85 Red

41 Power wire of radio 1.25 Red

45 Rear headlamp switch wire 0.85 Red

71 Signal wire of rear lamp 1.25 White

72 Signal wire of top alarm lamp 0.85 White

74 Signal wire of front lamp 0.85 White

79 Signal wire of rear headlamp 0.85 White

99 Mute switch wire 0.85 Red

L+ Left horn positive signal wire 0.85 White

L— Left horn negative signal wire 0.85 White

R+ Right horn positive signal wire 0.85 White

R— Right horn negative signal wire 0.85 White

3-59
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Inter cooler temperature sensor

To independent radiator
controller

Water temperature sensor


To independent radiator control
valve

S/N
Wire
Line No.
No.

Fig. 3-31 Independent radiating controller wiring harnesses

Section area
Wire No. Name Color Comments
(mm2)
0 Grounding wire 1.25 Black

133 Power wire of independent radiator 0.85 Red


Positive signal connecting wire between
141 temperature sensor and controller of 0.85 White
inter-cooler
Positive signal connecting wire between
143 0.85 White
water temperature sensor and controller
Connecting wire between controller to
144 0.85 White
valve block
Connecting wire between controller to
145 0.85 White
valve block
Negative signal connecting wire between
147 temperature sensor and controller of 0.85 Black
inter-cooler
Negative signal connecting wire between
148 0.85 Black
water temperature sensor and controller

3-60
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

To horn

Quick-change device connector

Plug hole N0. Line No.

CN11-B proximity switch

S/N Wire No.


S/N Wire No. S/N Wire No.

To frame
Insulating
sheath

To horn

Front-left
combination lamp

Fig. 3-32 Front frame wiring harnesses

3-61
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Section area
Wire No. Name Color Comments
(mm2)
0 Grounding wire 2.0 Black

6 Right steering lamp wire 0.85 White

7 Left steering lamp wire 0.85 White

10 Front headlamp high beam wire 1.25 White

11 Front headlamp low beam wire 1.25 White

30 Width lamp wire 0.85 White

42 Pilot power wire 0.85 Red


Wire from boom proximity switch to
64 0.85 White
intermediate relay
Wire from bucket proximity switch to
65 0.85 White
intermediate relay
85 Quick-change signal wire 0.85 White

86 Quick-change signal wire 0.85 White

87 Power wire of quick-change buzzer 0.85 Red

153 Electric horn control wire 1.25 White

3-62
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
4 Transmission System ........................................................................................... 4-1
41 Transmission Box System ................................................................................... 4-1
411 Overview ..................................................................................................... 4-1
412 Basic Parameters of Speed Changer-Torque Converter Assembly............. 4-4
413 Mechanical Principles for Gear Shifting ..................................................... 4-4
414 KD Key Function Introduction.................................................................. 4-11
415 Operation and Maintenance for 4WG158 Power Shifting Transmission Box.
................................................................................................................ 4-13
416 Disassembly and Assembly of Transmission System ............................... 4-18
417 Troubleshooting of Transmission Box System ......................................... 4-31
42 Transmission Shaft System ............................................................................... 4-35
421 Overview of Transmission Shaft ............................................................... 4-35
422 Replacement of Transmission Shaft .......................................................... 4-36
43 Drive Axle System............................................................................................. 4-41
431 Overview of Drive Axle ............................................................................ 4-41
432 Maintenance of Drive Axle ....................................................................... 4-41
433 Disassembly and Assembly of Drive Axle................................................ 4-42
44 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Fault of Transmission System ............. 4-50
441 Fault Diagnosis and Solutions for Transmission Box ............................... 4-50
442 Fault Diagnosis and Solutions for Drive Axle .......................................... 4-51

I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4 Transmission System

Transmission system is composed of transmission box, transmission shaft, front and rear drive axles
and wheels. The principle diagram of transmission system is shown in Fig. 4-1.

Torque converter

Engine
Disc brake

Front axle
transmission
shaft
Rear axle
transmission
shaft
Parking brake
Wheel

Fig. 4-1 Principle diagram of transmission system

41 Transmission Box System

411 Overview

4WG158 power shift transmission box (with 4 forward gears, max. transmitted power 158KW) is
composed of hydraulic torque converter and rear fixed axis type transmission box with a multi-disc
friction clutch. The transmission box the loader used is forward-4-reverse-3 type. Since full
four-wheel drive is adopted, and also provides large center distance between input and output shaft,
4WG158 transmission box has been widely used in domestic manufacturing industries, such as wheel
loaders, bulldozers, graders, scrapers, etc.

4-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1 Connecting socket
2 Torque converter Shell

1 3 Transmission control valve

2 4 Pressure measuring port of


3 transmission box
4
5 Measuring port of torque
5
converter oil temperature
6
6 Oil outlet of transmission box
7
8 7 Oil absorption pipe

9 8 Transmission box casing


9 Nameplate
10 Lifting bolt

10 11 Oil filter

11 12 Auxiliary power takeoff

12 13 Main power takeoff


13 14 KV
14
15 KR
15
16 K2
16
17 K1
17

18 18 K3

19 19 K4
20 20 Speed sensor
21
21 Parking brake

Fig. 4-2

4-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig. 4-3

1 Auxiliary power takeoff 2 Variable speed pump


3 KVK1 clutch assembly 4 Intermediate shaft
5 KRK2 clutch assembly 6 K3K4 clutch assembly
7 Output shaft assembly

Fig. 4-4
1 M4 2 M3 3 M5 4 M2 5 M1
4-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

412 Basic Parameters of Speed Changer-Torque Converter Assembly

Table 4-1
Items Parameters/contents
Single phase three-component single turbine
Type
hydraulic torque converter
Torque ratio 2.9
Torque Type of cooling Circulating water cooling
converter
Torque converter inlet oil
8.5
pressure (bar)
Torque converter outlet oil
5
pressure (bar)
Type Fixed shaft electro-hydraulic shift
Gears Forward-4-reverse-3
Forward I 3.996
Forward II 2.368
Forward III 1.126
Transmission Ratio Forward VI 0.626
box
Reverse I 3.996
Reverse II 2.368
Reverse III 1.126
Variable speed pump
Built-in
model
Gearshift pressure (bar) 16~18

413 Mechanical Principles for Gear Shifting

1 Forward gear I
Z0 → ZV → ZV1 → Z1 → Z2 → Z3 → Zoutput
When electromagnetic valve M2, M3, M4 act, gear shifting pressure oil flows into clutch KV and K1,
push the pistons respectively and compress the clutch master-slave friction discs to form a
transmission assembling unit.
Power transmission route: driving gear Z0 → forward input gear ZV → forward gear clutch KV →
KV1 gear ring assembly ZV1 → gear I clutch K1 → gear I Z1 → gear II combination gear Z2 → gear
III Z3 → output shaft gear Zoutput → output. As shown in Fig. 4-5.

4-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Turbine

Engine

Zoutput
Rear Front
output output

Fig. 4-5
2 Forward gear II

Zoutput

Fig. 4-6

4-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

When electromagnetic valve M3, M4 act, gear shifting pressure oil flows into the KV, K2 clutch,
push the pistons respectively and compress the clutch master-slave friction discs to form a
transmission assembling unit.
Power transmission route: driving gear Z0 → forward input gear ZV → forward gear clutch KV →
KV1 gear ring assembly ZV1 → KR2 gear ring assembly ZR2 → gear II clutch K2 → gear II
combination gear Z2 → gear III Z3 → output shaft gear Zoutput → output. As shown in Fig. 4-6.
Z0 → ZV → ZV1 → ZR2 → Z2 → Z3 → Zoutput
3 Forward gear III
When electromagnetic valve M3 acts, gear shifting pressure oil flows into the KV, K3 clutch, push
the pistons respectively and compress the clutch master-slave friction discs to form a transmission
assembling unit.
Power transmission route: driving gear Z0 → forward input gear ZV → forward gear clutch KV →
KV1 gear ring assembly ZV1 → KR2 gear ring assembly ZR2 → K34 gear ring assembly Z34 → gear
III clutch K3 → gear III Z3 → output shaft gear Zoutput → output. As shown in Fig. 4-7.
Z0 → ZV → ZV1 → ZR2 → Z34 → Z3 → Zoutput

Zoutput

Fig. 4-7

4-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4 Forward gear IV
When electromagnetic valve M5 acts, gear shifting pressure oil flows into the K3, K4 clutch, push the
pistons respectively and compress the clutch master-slave friction discs to form a transmission
assembling unit.
Power transmission route: driving gear Z0 → forward input gear ZV → intermediate gear Zm → gear
IV Z4 → gear IV clutch K4 → K34 gear ring assembly Z34 → gear III clutch K3 → gear III Z3 →
output shaft gear Zoutput → output. As shown in Fig. 4-8.
Z0 → ZV → Zm → Z4 → Z34 → Z3 → Zoutput

Zoutput

Fig. 4-8
5 Reverse gear I
When electromagnetic valve M1, M2, M4 act, gear shifting pressure oil flows into the KR, K1 clutch,
push the pistons respectively and compress the clutch master-slave friction discs to form a
transmission assembling unit.
Power transmission route: driving gear Z0 → reverse input gear ZR → reverse gear clutch KR → KR2
gear ring assembly ZR2 → KV1 gear ring assembly ZV1 → gear I clutch K1 → gear I Z1 → gear II
combination gear Z2 → gear III Z3 → output shaft gear Zoutput → output. As shown in Fig. 4-9.
Z0 → ZR → ZR2 → ZV1 → Z1 → Z2 → Z3 → Zoutput

4-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Zoutput

Fig. 4-9
6 Reverse gear II

Zoutput

Fig. 4-10
4-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

When electromagnetic valve M1, M4 act, gear shifting pressure oil flows into the KR, K2 clutch,
push the pistons respectively and compress the clutch master-slave friction discs to form a
transmission assembling unit.
Power transmission route: driving gear Z0 → reverse input gear ZR → reverse gear clutch KR → KR2
gear ring assembly ZR2 → gear II clutch K2 → gear II combination gear Z2 → gear III Z3 → output
shaft gear Zoutput → output. As shown in Fig. 4-10.
Z0 → ZR → ZR2 → Z2 → Z3 → Zoutput.
7 Reverse gear III
When electromagnetic valve M1 acts, gear shifting pressure oil flows into the KR, K3 clutch, push
the pistons respectively and compress the clutch master-slave friction discs to form a transmission
assembling unit.
Power transmission route: driving gear Z0 → reverse input gear ZR → reverse gear clutch KR → KR2
gear ring assembly ZR2 → K34 gear ring assembly Z34 → gear III clutch K3 → gear III Z3 → output
shaft gear Zoutput → output. As shown in Fig. 4-11.
Z0 → ZR → ZR2 → Z34 → Z3 → Zoutput.

Zoutput

Fig. 4-11

4-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

The corresponding working conditions of electromagnetic valves and clutches in each gear are shown
in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2
●Electromagnetic valve is electrically charged
Forward gear Reverse gear Neutral gear
Gear 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4

M1 ● ● ●
M2 ● ● ●
M3 ● ● ●
M4 ● ● ● ● ● ●

M5 ●
Clutch KV KV KV K4 KR KR KR K3
Clutch K1 K2 K3 K3 K1 K2 K3

Pressure measuring ports for each gear are shown in Fig. 4-12.

Gear III

Reducing valve Gear shifting pressure

Gear II Gear IV

Gear I Forward

Reverse

Fig. 4-12

4-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

414 KD Key Function Introduction

(1) KD (Kick-Down) function, i.e. forced downshift function.


There is a button in the end of shifting handle, and it is KD key, which can make the loader
downshift from forward gear II to forward gear I.
(2) Gear I and gear II braking power cut-off function.
In the electric control system, two pressure cut-off switches can be connected (one is the service
brake pressure switch; the other is the emergency/parking brake pressure switch). When the
operator steps on the brake pedal to carry out braking, the service brake pressure switch will
connect the link between the power circuit and the computer (electronic control box) circuit
(equivalent to an electrical signal to the computer), then, the computer commands and activates
transmission control valve, cut off transmission box clutch pressure oil passage, that is to say, cut
off the power from engine to the transmission box. At this point, all the power of engine is
transferred to working pump. Therefore, when the loader is working under gear I and gear II, the
working hydraulic system of the loader will have more sufficient power to excavate, and which will
improve the efficiency of working device.
Besides, when you use the emergency/parking brake button, the emergency/parking brake pressure
switch can also work, pressure switch can connect the power circuit and the computer circuit, then,
the computer commands and activates transmission control valve. That is to say, power from engine
to the transmission box will be cut off when carrying out emergency braking, which can improve
brake performance.
(3) Neutral starting interlock function increases the loader security.
Gear shifting handle is designed and installed in the bottom left of the steering wheel, rotating this
handle can shift between gear I, II, III, IV. As shown in Fig. 4-13, push the handle forward can
achieve the loader moving forward; push the handle backward can achieve the loader moving
backward; when the gear shifting handle is in neutral position, loader will not move.

Fig. 4-13 Gear shifting handle of 4WG158 transmission box

4-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

The engine can be started only when neutral gear is engaged. When engaging in neutral gear and
turning electric lock with a key, an electric signal will sent to starting interlocking relay via the gear
shifting handle, and then starting circuit can be connected, otherwise, the engine can't start.
(4) KD key’s working process of 4WG158 transmission box
Using of KD function (i.e. forced downshift function) can greatly improve the working efficiency of
the loader. During working, the loader starts with gear II; then engage gear III to travel forward;
shift gear II when the bucker gets close to sand/stone pile; when shoveling materials, press KD key
(doesn’t need to turn the gear shifting handle), the loader speed will automatically downshift to gear
I. After the bucket is full loaded, pull the gear shifting handle backward to shift reverse gears, the
loader can be automatically converted to reverse gear II from forward gear I.
Retract the loader to appropriate position, then push the gear shifting handle forward to engage
forward gears, shift the gears according to the following orders: 2R → 2F → 3F → 2F; after the
loader gets to front of the tilting cart, unload the materials to the tilting cart, and then shift the gears
according to the following orders: 2F → 2R → 3R → 2R, the loader back to the starting point. KD
function will be relieved after turning gear shifting handle.
When shoveling materials, the operator doesn't need to turn the handle to choose gears, but
according to the following operations, as shown in Fig. 4-14:

Shift to reverse Shift to forward 2F


2F Press KD key 1F 2R
gear gear

Fig. 4-14

4-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

415 Operation and Maintenance for 4WG158 Power Shifting


Transmission Box

1 Notes for use


(1) When checking the oil level of the transmission box, the engine should be running at idle status
(about 1000 r/min), and the oil temperature should be within normal operating temperature.
(2) When the oil temperature is 40oC, the oil level should between the middle and the low scale
line of the oil dipstick.
When the oil temperature is 80oC, the oil level should between the middle and the top scale line
of the oil dipstick.
(3) Strictly follow maintenance requirements, replace the oil of the transmission box and the filter
regularly.
(4) Before starting the engine, ensure that the gear shifting handle is in the neutral position.
(5) Every time before driving, loosen the parking brake (relieve the brake) first.
(6) Connecting and disconnecting of the engine and transmission box, avoid torque converter
dropping down when lifting the transmission box
(7) When parking, put the gear shifting handle in the neutral position.
(8) Normal working oil temperature should be within 80~ 110oC and a short period of time up to
120oC is allowed under heavy load. Pay special attention to the control oil pressure of the
transmission box. If there is abnormal phenomenon occurred in the transmission box, stop and
check immediately.
(9) When the loader has problems and needs welding maintenance, you must unplug the cable on
computer controller—EST (Cut off the circuit leading to computer controller). Otherwise, the
impact current during electric welding may burn the computer controller.
2 Operation
(1) Preparations and maintenance before driving
Before the transmission box running, be sure to add the right amount of transmission oil with
specified brand. When adding transmission box oil for the first time, you must ensure that the oil
radiator, filter and the connecting pipeline are filled up with oil. Thus, the required amount of
transmission oil for the first time is more than that of normal maintenance. Since the oil in the
torque converter installed on the loader flows back to the transmission box through the radiator and
pipelines when the engine stopped, so when checking oil level, the loader should be stopped in
neutral position and let the engine run at idle status to keep the oil in transmission box stay in
normal working temperature.
4-13
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

The gear shifting handle must be in the neutral position before checking oil level. When checking
the oil level, you should insert the dipstick into the bottom of the pipe. When clean up the filter of
main oil circuit, you should prevent dirt and sediment from entering into the oil circuit. In addition,
use a piece of cover plate to prevent the parking brake soaking by oil.
Don't tighten too hard when installing the filter.
(2) Driving and shifting gears
When starting the engine, you must confirm that the gear shifting handle is in neutral position. For
safety's sake, before the engine started, the loader must be in the braking state, so the loader won’t
move after the engine started. After the engine started, remove parking brake state and adjust
traveling direction, then shift proper gear, stamp the accelerator pedal to move to loader. During
driving, torque converter supersedes main clutch. You can shift high gears when the road is clear.
If the loader has stopped moving and the engine is still running, engage a gear at this point, the
engine may not flameout, and on a flat road, the loader may crawl, that’s because tractive force can
be produced by the torque converter when the engine is running at idle status. The right
countermeasure is: place the parking brake in braking state every time you stop the loader.
If the loader needs to stop for a long time, the gear shifting handle must be in neutral position.
When the loader is travelling, be sure to remove the parking brake state, but what we learned from
experience is that it’s difficult for the operator to immediately find out the parking brake state is not
removed, that’s because the large output torque ratio produced by torque converter, which can
overcome braking torque and force the loader to move even under normal operating conditions.
Then the consequence is the torque converter oil temperature rising sharply and overheated brake.
Due to the influence of the torque converter, when shifting from high gear to low gear, the rotating
speed of engine will increase, especially when some gears are skipped. Therefore, if condition
permits, when shifting from high gear to low gear, the first thing you need to do is stamp the foot
brake and shift after the loader slows down. When changing driving directions at high running
speed, be sure to decrease the engine speed.
(3) Pausing and parking
There is no rigid connection between engine and torque converter output shaft, so when parking on
a slope (up/down) and the driver intends to leave, in order to prevent slide phenomenon occurred,
we suggest that you should not only use the parking brake, but also place wood blocks under the
tires.
(4) Towing
The maximum towing speed is 10 km/h, and the maximum towing distance is 10 km.
When the destination is far away, a truck is needed to transport the malfunctioned loader.
4-14
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

(5) Oil Temperature


The transmission box oil temperature must be monitored by a temperature sensor. The maximum oil
temperature of torque converter outlet cannot exceed 120oC, for trouble-free control components
and sufficient traveling-mileage transmission box, there will not be a high temperature problem. If
the oil temperature exceeds 120oC, the loader must be stopped, check whether there is oil leakage;
meanwhile, shift the transmission box to neutral position and run the engine at 1200~1500rpm, in
this way, the oil temperature will quickly decrease to normal range (it will take 2 to 3 minutes). If
the oil temperature doesn't decrease, there must be something wrong in the system and you must
exclude the malfunction before operation.
The normal range of the gear shifting oil pressure: 1.6~1.8MPa (16~18bar). In order to monitor the
pressure, a pressure gauge or monitor must be installed. If you engage a gear, and the pressure drops
to lower than the specified minimum pressure (in shifting moment, the pressure will temporarily
drop automatically) after using the clutch, the causes of the pressure drop must be removed. Too
low control pressure can damage the clutch, because there is no enough contact force for the clutch
friction discs, the friction discs will continuously rub each other and lead to overheating.
3 Maintenance
(1) Check the oil level
——Park the loader on a flat place.
——Put the gear shifting handle of transmission box in the neutral position "N", and the parking
brake should in brake position.
——Run the engine at idle status (about 1000r/min).
——Unscrew the oil dipstick anticlockwise, take it out and wipe it clean.
——Insert the dipstick back to the oil level pipe and tighten it; take it out after the dipstick reaches
the end for about 3 second (do the measurement at least twice).
——40oC, the oil level should be between the low scale line "cold" and the middle scale line.
——80oC, the oil level should be between the top scale line "hot" and the middle scale line.

ATTENTION

If the oil level lower than the minimum scale, be sure to add recommended transmission oil
until the oil level get to the required range according to the temperature. Check “Cold level”
can only make sure there is enough circulating flow for transmission box and torque converter,
the final criterion of oil level is to meets “Hot level”.

4-15
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

“Hot level” range

“Cold level” range

Fig. 4-15
(2) Oil replacement
After the first 100 working hours of the loader, the oil must be replaced. Since then, replace the oil
at least every 1000 working hours or every year. When replacing the oil, park the loader on a flat
place, the transmission box should be within working temperature, remove the oil draining plug and
seal rings, drain the old oil.
Table 4-3 Periodic table for replacing oil
Oil level
Parts First replacement Regular replacement Oil standard
check

After 100 working Every 1000 working SAEl5W-40


Transmission Every day
hours and replace hours, but cannot surpass Mobil
box before
the filter at the same for one year, and replace Delvac
(4WG158) operating
time the filter at the same time Super 1300

4-16
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Table 4-4 Other optional brands

Similar foreign brands


Chinese Brands
CALTEX MOBIL FUCHS ESSO SHELL

8# Caltex Mobil Delvac


Titan Standard
Transmission Delo Gold Super 1300
universal Torque Rotella 10W
oil Multistage (SAE
HD15W-40 Fluid G7
Q/SH303 064 15W-40 15W-40)

(3) Replace the oil filter


Every time you replacing the oil, the ZF fine filter must be replaced at the same time. Replace it
according to the following requirements:
——Smear a thin layer of oil on the seal ring.
——Press the filter until it contacts the sealing surface, then tighten it for 1/3 to 1/2 circles by hand.
——Refill.
——Start the engine.
——Run the engine at idle status (about 1000r/min), keep transmission box oil within normal
working temperature, and then check transmission box oil level.
——40oC, the oil level should be between the low scale line "cold" and the middle scale line.
——80oC, the oil level should be between the top scale line "hot" and the middle scale line.
——Check whether it is tightened; tighten it again with the hand if necessary.

4-17
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

416 Disassembly and Assembly of


Transmission System

Disassembly of transmission box


Refer to the following steps to remove the
transmission box off the machine:
1 Maintenance position
2 Remove engine hood
Refer to 8 Cab & Covering Parts System
3 Remove platforms and cab
4 Remove the side plates
5 Remove hydraulic tank Refer to 9 Working Hydraulic System
6 Disconnect hydraulic pump oil
outlet hose
7 Disconnect oil inlet and return 1 Transmission control
pipes of radiator valve circuit
2 Speed sensor
8 Disconnect wiring harnesses
Transmission box 3 Pressure sensor
9 Disconnect intermediate 4 Torque converter oil
transmission shaft temperature sensor
10 Disconnect rear transmission
shaft
11 Drain transmission oil
12 Remove oil filling pipe
13 Disconnect brake cylinder
14 Disconnect off engine
15 Disconnect off frame
16 Straighten out pipes, lift up

ATTENTION
 Wait until the transmission box is cooled
down to do the disassembly.
 In the process of disassembly, the joints of
each pipeline should be bound up to avoid
the sundries entering into the pipelines.
1. Put the loader in maintenance position.

Fig. 4-16

4-18
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. Disconnect the oil outlet hose of steering


pump.
 The pipe joints should be bound up to avoid
the sundries entering into the pipelines.

1
Fig. 4-17
1 Oil outlet hose of steering pump

3. Disconnect the oil outlet hose of pilot pump.


 The pipe joints should be bound up to avoid
the sundries entering into the pipelines.

1
Fig. 4-18
1 Oil outlet hose of pilot pump

4. Disconnect the radiator oil return pipe of


transmission box.
 The pipe joints should be bound up to avoid
the sundries entering into the pipelines.

1
Fig. 4-19
1 Radiator oil return pipe

4-19
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Disconnect the radiator oil inlet pipe of


transmission box.
 The pipe joints should be bound up to avoid
the sundries entering into the pipelines.

1
Fig. 4-20
1 Radiator oil inlet pipe

6. To avoid damaging the electrical components


like sensor, remove the sensor after
disconnecting a circuit, plug the sensor hole.
 Disconnect the wiring harness connector from
transmission control valve.

1
Fig. 4-21
1 Connecting socket

 Disconnect the circuit between transmission


box and output shaft speed sensor.

1
Fig. 4-22
1 Output shaft speed sensor

4-20
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

 Disconnect the transmission box pressure


sensor wiring harness from the rear frame.

1
Fig. 4-23
1 Transmission box pressure sensor

 Disconnect the torque converter oil


temperature sensor wiring harness off the rear
frame.

1
Fig. 4-24
1 Torque converter oil temperature
sensor

7. Disconnect the connection between


intermediate transmission shaft and
transmission box.

1 2
Fig. 4-25
1 Hexagon bolt
2 Intermediate transmission shaft

4-21
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

8. Disconnect the connection between rear


transmission shaft and transmission box.

1 2
Fig. 4-26
1 Rear transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

9. Remove oil drain plug and drain the


transmission oil out.
ATTENTION
 Use a clean vessel to contain the oil and
cover it up to prevent sundries falling in.
 Be careful of oil splashing.

1
Fig. 4-27
1 Oil drain plug

10. Loosen the bolts and remove the oil filling


pipe.

1 2
Fig. 4-28
1 Oil filling pipe
2 Bolt

4-22
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

11. Remove the connecting pin, and disconnect the


connection between parking brake cylinder
and parking brake.

1
Fig. 4-29
1 Parking brake cylinder

12. Remove the upper cover plate of torque


converter, and disconnect the connection
between transmission box intermedium ring
and engine flywheel disc.

1
Fig. 4-30
1 Connecting nut

13. Supper the engine with a suitable wood block


to prevent it from tilting.
14. Disconnect the connecting bolts between
engine and transmission box.
15. Connect the two lifting eyes of transmission
box with lifting appliance.

1
Fig. 4-31
1 Connecting bolt

4-23
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

16. Disconnect the transmission box off the frame.


17. Straighten out the pipes around the
transmission box, and lift the transmission box
up and put it on a proper place.
ATTENTION
Lift the transmission box smoothly to prevent
the torque converter slipping.

1
Fig. 4-32
1 Bolt

Assembly of transmission box


Refer to the following steps to install the
transmission box:

1 Lift up the transmission box,


preparation
2 Connect to the engine
3 Connect to the frame
4 Connect hydraulic pump oil
outlet hose
5 Install oil filling pipe
6 Connect brake cylinder
7 Install transmission shaft
1 Transmission
control valve circuit 8 Connect radiator oil inlet and
return pipes
2 Speed sensor 9 Connect wiring harnesses and Transmission box
3 Pressure sensor sensors
4 Torque converter oil 10 Install hydraulic tank
temperature sensor 11 Hang and install the cab
12 Hang and install engine hood
13 Install side plates
14 Install the platforms
15 Fill transmission oil
16 Check the function of
transmission box

4-24
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Connect the lifting appliance to the


transmission box.
2. Lift the transmission box to the right position.
ATTENTION
 Lift the transmission box smoothly to
prevent the torque converter slipping.
 Please be careful during operation and pay
special attention to the cables and hydraulic
hoses on the machine, otherwise, they may
be damaged by clamping or extruding.
1 2
Align the transmission box intermedium
Fig. 4-33
1 Lifting eye ring with the engine flywheel shell.
2 Transmission box

3. Install the two top connecting bolts between


the engine and the transmission box.
4. Install and tighten the connecting bolts
between the engine and the transmission box.
ATTENTION
Don’t let the nut and gasket fall into the
flywheel shell.
1
Fig. 4-34
1 Connecting bolt

5. Fasten the transmission box support to the


frame on both sides. Remove the lifting
appliance.
120~200Nm

1
Fig. 4-35
1 Connecting bolt

4-25
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Tighten the connecting bolts between the


transmission box intermediate ring and the
engine flywheel disc.

1
Fig. 4-36
1 Nut

7. Connect oil outlet hose of steering pump


ATTENTION
Check the O-ring of the hose joint before
installing.

1
Fig. 4-37
1 Oil outlet hose of steering pump

8. Connect the oil outlet hose of pilot pump.


ATTENTION
Check the O-ring of the hose joint before
installing.

1
Fig. 4-38
1 Oil outlet hose of pilot pump

4-26
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

9. Install the oil filling pipe, tighten the


connecting bolts. Check whether the sealing
gasket is intact before installing.

1 2
Fig. 4-39
1 Oil filling pipe
2 Bolt

10. Connect the parking brake cylinder to parking


brake.

1 2
Fig. 4-40
1 Parking brake cylinder
2 pin

11. Install the rear transmission shaft.


ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.
90±15Nm

1 2
Fig. 4-41
1 Rear transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

4-27
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

12. Install the intermediate transmission shaft.


ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.
90±15Nm

1 2
Fig. 4-42
1 Hexagon bolt
2 Intermediate transmission shaft

13. Connect the radiator oil return pipe of


transmission box.
Hose: 145±15Nm
Joint: 220±10Nm

1 2
Fig. 4-43
1 Radiator oil return pipe
2 Joint

14. Connect the radiator oil inlet pipe.


Hose: 145±15Nm
Joint: 220±10Nm

1 2
Fig. 4-44
1 Joint
2 Radiator oil inlet pipe

4-28
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

15. Connect the sensors


(1) When assembling the torque converter oil
temperature sensor, firstly wipe up the foreign
material in the screwed hole of the sensor with
no hair-falling tissue; then use AT755
high-efficiency detergent to spray around the
threaded hole edge, and coat the torque
converter oil temperature sensor with Aotai
1
AT545 pipe thread sealant. Coating processes
Fig. 4-45
1 Torque converter oil temperature are as follows:
sensor a. Coat the sealant along the outside screw
for one circle. The width of it is about 3~5
threads. Be sure the groove is full of
sealant and the beginning circle could not
be coated. Coat it just before you want to
assemble it. After the assembling, there
should be a whole circle of sealant
between the bolt and threaded hole edge.
b. The coated part should be tightened with
hand wrench rather than pneumatic impact
wrench. Tighten them in the
corresponding interface position of the
transmission box.
AT545 sealant
(2) Coat appropriate amount of sealant on the end
of pressure sensor connector and pressure
switch. Then install the connector follow the
left Fig., install the pressure switch on the joint.
When coating the sealant, starting with the
second circle of the external thread end, the
width of sealant is about 3~5 threads.
AT545 sealant
1
Fig. 4-46
1 Transmission box pressure sensor

4-29
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

 After assembling the cab, connect speed sensor


to wiring harness.

1
Fig. 4-47
1 Output shaft speed sensor

16. After assembling the cab, connect the


transmission control valve to wire harness.
Check the functions of transmission box.

1 2
Fig. 4-48
1 Connecting socket
2 Gear shifting control valve

4-30
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

417 Troubleshooting of Transmission Box System

Table 4-5
Problems Causes Solutions
Check whether the gear shifting handle is in
Shift neutral gear.
neutral position.
Whether the connection between EST
The wheel Press the plug, and there will be a
electronic control box and the electric plug
loader is sound of click.
is loose.
unable to start.
Whether the battery power is enough. Charge or replace the battery
Whether the starting circuit has faults; Restore the circuit back to
Whether starting fuse burnt out. normal.
Whether the transmission box is enough,
Adjust the oil level to normal.
check cold and hot machine oil level.
Check whether the electric plug of
Tighten the plug.
transmission control valve is tightened.
Whether the connection between EST
Push the plug, and there will be a
electronic control box and the electric plug
sound of click.
is loose.
Check whether the electric plug that
The wheel connected with gear shifting selector cable Insert the plug tight.
loader is able is loose.
to start, but is Whether the neutral locking switch of Turn on the neutral locking
unable to shifting selector is on. switch.
travel.
Whether the parking brake is removed. Remove the parking brake.
Check whether the gear shifting oil pressure
Check the oil pressure gauge.
on the dashboard is normal.
Check whether the ventilated valve on the Clean up the ventilated valve.
transmission box is blocked and whether Check whether the oil is too
there is oil overflow. much or too little.
Check whether the speed sensor plug is
Tighten the plug; wrap or replace
loose; check whether the speed sensor cable
the cable.
is severely worn.

The function of each component and general fault handling


 Electronic control box
Open the electric locking switch, and the gear shifting handle is in the neutral position, that is, the
electronic control box is in standby state. After the loader started, if you want to shift, turn the gear
shifting handle to select a gear, then the electronic control box can automatically determine whether
can shift to under the condition of the current speed according to the electrical signals from the

4-31
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

output speed sensors and the gear shifting handle. If the speed difference is too large, the computer
can command the magnetic valve to let the transmission box shift to a workable minimum speed
gear, then shift to the preselected gear by the cycle of 2.5 seconds. For example, when you shift
from gear I to gear III, after the computer receives electrical signals from the gear shifting handle,
then the computer recognizes the speed signals of the speed sensor, judges whether the speed
reaches the preselected gear, if not, automatically passes electrical signals to the magnetic valve
shifting the gear II firstly, when the loader speed reaches 14km/h, then it will shift the gear III
automatically, which can reduce the impact.
 Examples of general faults:
a) When maintaining the loader, after washing the loader with water and find that the loader
cannot shift a gear and couldn’t start. After checking, the circuit connection of electronic
control system is normal, and there is no mechanical failure. Originally when you splash water
to wash the loader, the electronic control box gets damp; after drying, the loader can travel
normally. Therefore, when washing the loader with water, pay attention to waterproof
protection of electronic control box and the handles.
b) The loader was working normally, and after parking to refuel, found that the engine can start,
but the loader couldn’t travel. After checking, the circuit connection of electronic control
system is normal, and gear shifting oil pressure is within the normal range. Later found that the
plug on bottom of electronic control box is not inserted in place. Since on the electronic control
box there is a clamp spring that used to fix the electronic control box’s plug, only when
inserting one end of the wire plug into the pin, there should be a sound of "click" after inserting
the other end, which means the clamp spring has clamped the plug in position. Otherwise when
the loader is running, vibration will cause the plug cannot be inserted tight.

1 2
Fig. 4-49
1 Plug socket 2 Electronic control box

4-32
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Electronic control box of 4WG158 transmission box


a) There are faults in the loader structure parts, after welding the loader structure parts, the loader
couldn’t start. After checking, the electronic control box is burnt out.
b) After driving, turn off the electric lock, a few minutes later the timer on the dashboard suddenly
discharges smoke and the loader couldn’t start. After checking, due to violating operating
regulations, turn off the electric lock too early when the engine isn’t flameout, at this time the
generator cannot charge the battery, sometimes the generator produces a very high surge
voltage, instantaneous current may be up to tens of amps, which leads to burn out of the
electronic control box; and if the generator connects battery circuit and can do the charging
work, it can play a role in circuit of voltage stability. Therefore, you should shut electric lock
after the engine totally flameout.
 The output speed sensor
The output speed sensor is used to record the rotation frequency of the output gear; so when shifting
a gear, the computer can compare the preselected speed with the existing speed, and then decides to
shift. Resistance of the output speed sensor is1200±100, if the resistance is 0 or infinitely great, it
indicates the sensor is short circuit or broken circuit and the sensor needs to be replaced.
 Examples of general faults:
a) The loader can shift gear I/II, but couldn’t shift gear III/IV. Inspection method: after turn off the
electric lock, unscrew the plug of the output speed sensor, then use a multimeter to check the
output speed sensor. If the resistance is 0, it shows that the speed sensor is damaged.
b) The loader couldn’t shift any gear. After checking, the oil level is normal, later find that the
cable from the electronic control box to speed sensor is worn out by metal. Rewrap the cable,
and then the loader returns to normal.
 The gear shifting handle
There are two main micro switches inside the handle. Select directions and speed by pushing and
pulling the handle forward and backward and turning the handle cover.
 Examples of general faults:
A customer complained that gear IV, the loader couldn't speed up to normal range. After checking,
the transmission box oil level is normal, and found that the line 8 of the 12-hole plug, which
connecting the gear shifting handle, was loose. It was line 8 contacted poorly. When he shifted to
fourth gear, the computer could only receive the electrical signals of the gear III. Therefore, there
was no gear IV.
 Other typical faults

4-33
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

After changing the transmission box oil, the loader starts travelling about 20 meters and then
couldn’t run. Shut down and restart the loader, it only can travel 10~20 meters again. After checking,
the circuit of electronic control system is normal and there is no mechanical failure. Later found out
that after changing oil, the user didn’t check the oil level follow the regulations, which results in a
seriously shortage of transmission box oil. After add oil to normal level, the loader can run
normally.

4-34
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

42 Transmission Shaft System

421 Overview of Transmission Shaft

1. Structure and function of universal transmission device


Universal transmission device of the loader is installed between the transmission box and the drive
axle. It usually consists of a universal joint assembly and transmission shaft, etc. (Universal
transmission device is customarily called the transmission shaft assembly). Some loaders also
equipped with intermediate support in universal transmission device. The structures of the front and
rear transmission shafts are shown in the following figures.
1 2 3 4

Fig. 4-50
1 Hexagon bolt 2 Front transmission shaft
3 Intermediate support 4 Intermediate transmission shaft

1 2

Fig. 4-51
1 Hexagon bolt 2 Rear transmission shaft
Since the axes of the loader transmission box output shaft and drive axle input shaft are difficult to
be aligned in line; moreover, during the loader operation process, due to the unfairness road and
work place, the relative position of the two axes changes frequently. So we can’t apply rigid
4-35
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

connection between the output shaft of the transmission box and the input shaft of the drive axle,
while we must adopt the universal transmission device, which is made of two cross universal joints
and a transmission shaft.
The function of the universal transmission device is to solve the uncoaxiality between the
transmission box and the drive axle, to meet the needs of angle changing between the transmission
box and the drive axle, and pass the power of transmission box to the drive axle.
2. Structure and characteristic of transmission shaft
The transmission shaft is an important part of the universal transmission device, usually used for the
connection between the transmission box and drive axle. Generally speaking, the transmission shaft
is composed of pipe sleeve fork assembly, universal joint fork and spline shaft assembly, etc.
During the operation of the loader, the relative position of the transmission box and drive axle
changes constantly, in order to avoid the movement interference, the transmission shaft has sliding
splined connection parts, which consisting of sliding fork and spline shaft, so that, to realize the
change of the length of the transmission shaft. In order to reduce abrasion, the transmission shaft is
equipped with filling grease oil cup, oil seal and spline sheath, etc. Make sure the lubrication of the
spline shaft in the sleeve fork, and prevent water and dust entering into the sliding spline.

422 Replacement of Transmission


Shaft

Replacement of front transmission shaft


assembly
1. Remove the connection between front
transmission shaft assembly and intermediate
support.
ATTENTION
 Put the loader in maintenance position
before disassembling.
 Press down parking brake switch.

1 2 3
Fig. 4-52
1 Front transmission shaft
2 Bolt 3 Supporting seat
4-36
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. Remove the connection between front


transmission shaft assembly and front drive
axle.

1 2
Fig. 4-53
1 Front transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

3. Assemble the connection between front


transmission shaft assembly and front drive
axle.
90±15Nm

ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.
1 2
Fig. 4-54
1 Front transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

4. Assemble the connection between front


transmission shaft assembly and intermediate
support.
90±15Nm

ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.

1 2 3
Fig. 4-55
1 Front transmission shaft
2 Bolt 3 Supporting seat

4-37
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Replacement of intermediate transmission shaft


assembly
1. Remove the connection between intermediate
transmission shaft assembly and transmission
box.

1 2
Fig. 4-56
1 Hexagon bolt
2 Intermediate transmission shaft

2. Remove the connection between intermediate


transmission shaft assembly and intermediate
support.

1 2 3
Fig. 4-57
1 Supporting seat 2 Bolt
3 Intermediate transmission shaft

3. Assemble the connection between intermediate


transmission shaft assembly and intermediate
support.

ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.

1 2
Fig. 4-58
1 Supporting seat
2 Intermediate transmission shaft
4-38
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Assemble the connection between intermediate


transmission shaft assembly and transmission
box.
90±15Nm

ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.

1 2
Fig. 4-59
1 Hexagon bolt
2 Intermediate transmission shaft
Replacement of rear transmission shaft
assembly
1. Remove the connection between rear
transmission shaft assembly and transmission
box.

1 2
Fig. 4-60
1 Rear transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt
2. Remove the connection between rear
transmission shaft assembly and rear drive
axle.

1 2
Fig. 4-61
1 Hexagon bolt
2 Rear transmission shaft

4-39
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Replace the transmission shaft with a new one.


Connect the rear transmission shaft assembly
to rear drive axle.
90±15Nm

ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.

1 2
Fig. 4-62
1 Rear transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

4. Connect the rear transmission shaft assembly


and the transmission box.
90±15Nm

ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.

1 2
Fig. 4-63
1 Rear transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

4-40
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

43 Drive Axle System

431 Overview of Drive Axle

Drive axle locates at the end of wheel loader transmission system and it is a general term that
describes all the transmission mechanisms between transmission shaft and driving wheel. Drive
axle is mainly used to transmit the torque of transmission shaft to driving wheels, make the rotate
speed of transmission output reduce and torque increase, and it also works as a differential to realize
differential speed of left side and right side wheels. Moreover, drive axle shell also plays a role of
load-bearing and stress-passing.

432 Maintenance of Drive Axle

1. Check the oil level


——Place the loader horizontally. Wipe up all oil filling positions before checking. Oil draining
shall be carried out after the loader travels for a period of time. When unscrewing the screw to drain
or add oil, be careful of hot oil splashing.
——Types of oil level: When check wheel side oil level, you should rotate wheel hub until the drain
plug is middle horizontal position. Fill oil until there is overflow.
Oil lever of the drive axle: Oil level is subject to overflow of plug hole or the oil filling port.
——Check: After a few minutes, if the oil level drops, add oil, until the oil level reaches to the
regulation lever and remains unchanged.
Check oil level once a month.
2. Change oil
After the new loader running 500 hours, replace the drive axle oil for the first time, since then
change the oil every 1,000 working hours, and oil should be change at least once a year.
If any of the following case is involved, we recommend you to replace the drive axle oil every 500
hours or at least once every six months.
 For loaders, operating brake very frequently or poor working conditions.
 For loaders, the ambient temperature of operating conditions exceeds 40oC.
3. Working temperature
Continuous working temperature for drive axle should not exceed 90oC. If the temperature exceeds
130oC, stop the loader to check the brake system and the drive axle.

4-41
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

433 Disassembly and Assembly of


Drive Axle

Disassembly of rear drive axle


1. Remove the two rear tires.
Refer to 7 Frames, Tires & Working Device -
741 Disassembly of Rear Tires.

1 2
Fig. 4-64
1 Lifting rope
2 Tire

2. Disconnect the connection between the rear


transmission shaft and the rear drive axle.

1 2
Fig. 4-65
1 Rear transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt
3. Remove the T-junction brake oil hose off the
rear drive axle.

ATTENTION
Put a vessel under the axle to contain the
hydraulic oil. Make good protection of the joint
after disassembly.
1 2
Fig. 4-66
1 Brake oil hose
2 Nut

4-42
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Hang the rear drive axle with the lifting


appliance, and the tightness of hoisting rope
should be moderate.

1 2
Fig. 4-67
1 Lifting rope
2 Rear drive axle

5. Remove the connecting bolts between the


auxiliary frame and the rear drive axle.

1 2
Fig. 4-68
1 Connecting bolt
2 Auxiliary frame

6. Operating the lifting appliance to make the


rear drive axle keep level and put it in suitable
position slowly.

1
Fig. 4-69
1 Drive axle

4-43
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Assembly of rear drive axle


1. Hang and put the assembled axle on a trolley,
and push the trolley under the frame.

2. Hang the rear axle to the suitable position with


the lifting appliance.

1 2
Fig. 4-70
1 Lifting rope
2 Rear drive axle

3. Connect the rear drive axle to auxiliary frame


with bolts and tighten the bolts up repeatedly
in accordance diagonally.
450±50Nm

1 2
Fig. 4-71
1 Connecting bolt
2 Auxiliary frame

4. Connect the T-junction brake oil hose to the


rear drive axle.

1 2
Fig. 4-72
1 Brake oil hose
2 Nut

4-44
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Connect the rear drive axle to rear


transmission shaft assembly.
90±15Nm

ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.
1 2
Fig. 4-73
1 Rear transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

6. Install the rear tires.


Refer to 7 Frames, Tires & Working Device -
742 Assembly of Rear Tires.
7. Put down the machine slowly.

1 2
Fig. 4-74
1 Tire
2 Lifting rope

8. Deflate the brake system.


Refer to 5 Brake System - 53 Deflation of
Brake System.

1
Fig. 4-75
1 Deflating valve

4-45
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Disassembly of front drive axle


1. Remove the two front tires.
Refer to 7 Frames, Tires & Working Device -
743 Disassembly of Front Tires.

1
Fig. 4-76
1 Support

2. Disconnect the connection between the front


transmission shaft and the front drive axle.

1 2
Fig. 4-77
1 Transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

3. Remove the T-junction brake oil hose off the


front drive axle.

ATTENTION
Put a vessel under the axle to contain the
hydraulic oil. Make good protection of the joint
after disassembly.

1 2
Fig. 4-78
1 Brake oil hose
2 Nut

4-46
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Hang the front drive axle with the lifting


appliance, and the tightness of hoisting rope
should be moderate.

1 2
Fig. 4-79
1 Front drive axle
2 Lifting rope

5. Remove the connecting bolts between the front


frame and the front drive axle.

1 2 3
Fig. 4-80
1 Bolt
2 Front drive axle
2 Front frame

6. Operating the lifting appliance to make the


front drive axle keep level and put it in suitable
position slowly.

1
Fig. 4-81
1 Drive axle

4-47
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Assembly front drive axle


1. Hang and put the assembled axle on a trolley,
and push the trolley under the frame.

2. Hang the front axle to the suitable position


with the lifting appliance.

1 2
Fig. 4-82
1 Front drive axle
2 Lifting rope

3. Connect the front drive axle to front frame


with bolts.
450±50Nm

1 2 3
Fig. 4-83
1 Front frame
2 Bolt
2 Front drive axle

4. Connect the T-junction brake oil hose to the


front drive axle.

1 2
Fig. 4-84
1 Brake oil hose
2 Nut
4-48
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Connect the front drive axle to front


transmission shaft assembly.
90±15Nm

ATTENTION
Align the orientation arrow of the two
transmission shafts.

1 2
Fig. 4-85
1 Transmission shaft
2 Hexagon bolt

6. Install the front tires.


Refer to 7 Frames, Tires & Working Device -
744 Assembly of Front Tires.
7. Put down the machine slowly.

1 2
Fig. 4-86
1 Tire
2 Lifting rope

8. Deflate the brake system.


Refer to 5 Brake System - 53 Deflation of
Brake System.

1
Fig. 4-87
1 Deflating valve

4-49
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

44 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Fault of Transmission System

441 Fault Diagnosis and Solutions for Transmission Box

1. Causes of gear shifting clutch faults


In the transmission box, the clutch is a vulnerable part. When the transmission box clutch engages,
the hydraulic pressure via the piston overcomes the spring force and presses the friction discs. And
the process is that with the increase of the hydraulic pressure, the friction discs and the steel disc
contact and compress gradually.
Every time you shift a gear, friction phenomenon will happen between friction plate and steel disc,
although in the design we have considered using cooling fluid to discharge friction heat, the cooling
effect is limited. As the discs thinning, the clutch requires more hydraulic oil to make the friction
discs and the steel disc full engagement, at this time we must further accelerate the diesel engine.
When the engine speeds up to a high idle speed, the time of the friction discs sliding on the steel
disc will lengthen, and the generated friction heat will be more. If hydraulic oil is heated to high
temperature enough to change the sealing performance of the transmission box, the transmission
box will produce internal leakage. And the internal leakage results in heat increase in two ways:
a) When high pressure oil flows through the sealing leakage area there will be friction, which
makes the oil temperature rise continuously;
b) Oil leakage will reduce the oil flow in the system, in order to fully engage the clutch, hydraulic
pump have to supply more oil to generate the necessary pressure to engage the clutch. That is,
the engine needs to be re-accelerated to make the pump output more oil. This is a vicious circle,
eventually leads to the clutch overheating or burnt, till completely ineffective.
2. Common fault diagnosis and solutions for transmission box and its oil system.
a) Couldn’t shift a gear
Fault analysis: The shifting gear position is inaccuracy; the clutch piston leaks; shift pressure is
low; the oil passage of transmission box is blocked.
Solutions: Re-engage the gear or check the transmission control valve; overhaul and replace the
seal ring; Refer to Fault b) for troubleshooting of low shifting oil pressure fault.
b) The shifting oil pressure is low
Fault analysis: Improper adjustment of the main pressure regulating valve or the spring is broken
to lose efficacy; the oil level of the transmission box is too low; the filter screen and the oil passage
is blocked; the clutch leaks.
Solutions: Re-adjust or change the spring; fill oil to specified level; clean or dredge; repair or

4-50
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

replace the seal ring.


c) Oil temperature is too high
Fault analysis: Operating time is too long; the oil is insufficient or overmuch; the clutch discs
sliding; the clutch couldn’t be disengaged.
Solutions: Stop the loader or idle running for a period of time; fill oil to overflow; check the oil
pressure and seal ring; check the clutch control oil passage or the position of operating handle.
d) Shifting oil pressure of a certain gear is low
Fault analysis: Damaged piston or seal ring of this gear; blockage or leakage of oil passage.
Solutions: Replace the seal ring; check, clean and eliminate the problem.
e) Disordered gears
Fault analysis: Leakage of the shaft end seal ring.
Solutions: Replace the seal ring.
f) System leakage
Fault analysis: Loose pipe joints; damaged seal ring.
Solutions: Tighten the joints; replace the seal ring.
g) The oil level of transmission box oil sump automatically rises
The reason for this phenomenon is that steering pump or working pump input shaft seal is damaged,
the oil of the hydraulic system flows through the torque converter gearbox to the transmission box
sump, leading to oil level rise. Replace the oil seal if necessary.

442 Fault Diagnosis and Solutions for Drive Axle

1. Drive axle produces abnormal sound


a) The phenomenon and its harm
The abnormal sound manifest in various forms: some sound continuously, some sound
intermittently; some sound when the speed changes, some sound when normal driving; some sound
when uphill, some sound when downhill; some sound dreary, some sound crisp.
The drive axle’s abnormal sound is an abnormal reflection of technical state between the drive axle
parts. If there is abnormal sound problem, the user should promptly identify the causes and
eliminate them, or it may cause bigger troubles even accidents.
b) The causes for drive axle abnormal sound and solutions
The cause of the drive axle sound is almost due to the collision or interference generated by some
parts in the rear axle (including the wheel reducer).
Since different parts in different states produce the sound with different intensity and characteristic,
4-51
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

you can base on the abnormal sound producing conditions and parts to estimate the sound source
and find out the sound reason.
 One reason is that the noise is produced by the loose connections and damaged parts, and this
kind of sound is much belong to the abnormal friction and collision between the parts, so the
sound is clear;
 The other is that the noise is produced by the abnormality of the bearing fit and gear
engagement.
 The abnormality of the gear engagement is that meshing clearance is too small or too large,
meshing position is not correct, meshing area is insufficient. At this time the gear can produce
continuous and clear sound, which increasing with the increase of rotational speed. The
abnormality of the bearing fit is that bearing clearance is too large or too small. When the
clearance is too large, the bearings can produce continuous sound, which increasing with the
increase of the speed.
 When the rear axle housing produces sound, in addition to checking whether the parts loose or
not, you should first check whether the meshing area of the main transmission bevel gear is
correct or not.
2. Drive axle is overheating
a) The phenomena and its harm
The drive axle overheating is that after the drive axle mechanically works a period of time, its
temperature exceeds the permissible normal temperature range. Generally speaking, when checking
by hand touch, you will have a hot feeling. The overheating mainly produces in the place of drive
axle housing (except the main drive and differential) and wheel reducer. The drive axle overheating
is the same as the abnormal reflection of technical state of the drive axle parts, or cooperative
relationship, or lubrication. You should promptly identify the reasons and eliminate them, in order
to avoid damaging the relevant parts.
b) The causes for drive axle overheating fault and solutions
 Causes: produce more heat; the heat can’t be dissipated in time.
 The heat source of the wheel drive axle mainly is friction heat, and that the friction heat can
only be caused by the too small fit clearance of the relative motion parts. The matching parts of
the drive axle have two categories: one is the bearing, the other is the gear. So the fundamental
cause of the overheating drive axle is too small clearance of bearing fit or of gear engagement.
 The main reason for heat dissipation problem of the drive axle is that the drive axle (and the
wheel reducer) is lack of lubricating oil or the oil is inferior oil. Lack of lubricating oil or
inferior oil not only makes the friction heat generated by the drive axle cannot be dissipated in
4-52
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

time, but also can make the relative movement parts are in a dry friction state, which makes the
friction heat increase greatly.
 When the drive axle is overheating, we can base on the overheating position to determine the
causes of overheating. If the bearing is overheating, we can ascertain that the fault is caused by
the bearing; when the whole drive axle housing is overheating, the reason may be caused by the
abnormal gear engagement or lubricating oil shortage; you should fill the specific lubricants
timely.
3. Oil leakage of drive axle
a) The phenomena and its harm
The oil leakage of the drive axle occurs mostly in the axle housing and wheel reducer, and mostly
leaking through the seal and the fitting surface.
b) The causes and solutions for oil leakage of drive axle
 The oil leakage of the drive axle mainly is caused by the damaged sealing elements and sealing
gaskets, for the former: such as the oil leakage caused by damaged final drive’s oil sealing; for
the latter: such as the oil leakage of the rear axle housing and wheel reducer fitting surface.
 Check the whether oil sealing is aged, cracked or damaged or not; don't widen the oil seal too
fiercely, to avoid the plastic deformation; try to warm the oil sealing with liquid that has the
same temperature as operating temperature, and then install it with special tools.

4-53
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
5 Brake System ....................................................................................................... 5-1
51 Service Brake ....................................................................................................... 5-3
511 Prefill Valve ................................................................................................. 5-4
512 Filter............................................................................................................. 5-7
513 Accumulator .............................................................................................. 5-10
514 Foot Brake Valve ....................................................................................... 5-15
515 Wheel Side Brake ...................................................................................... 5-19
52 Parking Brake .................................................................................................... 5-27
521 Brake Valve Block..................................................................................... 5-28
522 Hydraulic Parking Brake Cylinder ............................................................ 5-29
53 Deflation of Brake System ................................................................................ 5-31
54 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of Brake System ........................ 5-32

I
5
Brake System

5-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Pilot
system

Fig. 5-1 Hydraulic principle diagram of brake system


5-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig. 5-2 Brake system, components and location


1 Parking brake cylinder 2 Working pump 3 Foot brake valve 4 Service brake accumulator
5 Parking brake accumulator 6 Filter 7 Overflow valve 8 Prefill valve
9 Parking brake electromagnetic valve
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

51 Service Brake

Rear brake caliper

Foot brake valve Switch of brake lamp

Front brake caliper


Oil tank

Prefill valve

Accumulator

Relief valve
Gear pump

Filter

Fig. 5-3 Service brake system


This machine adopts full hydraulic wet brake system. During driving, the oil from working pump
flows into the accumulator through prefill valve. When the operator steps on the brake pedal, high
pressure oil stored in accumulator flows through the foot brake valve into front and rear axle wheel
side brakes to push the brake disc pistons, to generate great friction force between friction plates and
brake discs to achieve the purpose of slowing down or parking the vehicle. Loosen the brake pedal
to make the series pedal valve return back to neutral position, and the hydraulic oil in the wheel side
brakes of front and rear axle returns to oil tank through foot brake valve, then the brake will be
released.
The loader adopts double-circuit service brake, and front axle circuit is relatively independent to the
rear one, when a circuit fails, the other brake circuit can still carry out brake, which improves the
vehicle's safety.

5-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

511 Prefill Valve

When the oil pressure of accumulator in brake system reaches 138Bar, the prefill valve stops oil
supply to the brake system. When the oil pressure is lower than 114Bar, the prefill valve will turn to
supply oil to the brake system.
During charging the accumulator, oil flow to the next hydraulic component (O port) will reduce
slightly, but this wouldn’t significantly affect the operation of these components and the oil pressure
in the working circuit is guaranteed.

O P SW
Fig. 5-4 Prefill valve oil ports

A1 A2 T
Fig. 5-5 Prefill valve oil ports

5-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Prefill valve inner structure

Fig. 5-6 Prefill valve inner structure


1 Screwed plug 2 O-ring 3 Valve element 4 Seal ring 5 Spring
6 Pushrod 7 Screwed plug 8 Screwed plug 9 Pin 10 Spring
11 Ball retainer 12 Ball 13 Valve body 14 Seal ring 15 O-ring
16 Seal ring 17 O-ring 18 Bush 19 Valve element 20 Ball
21 Mandril 22 Spring 23 O-ring 24 Screwed plug 25 Gasket
26 Filter screen 27 Gasket 28 Valve seat 29 Lift valve 30 Spring
31 O-ring 32 Screwed plug assembly 33 Nut 34 Spring
35 Lift valve 36 O-ring 37 Shuttle valve bush 38 O-ring
39 Lift valve 40 Spring 41 O-ring 42 Screwed plug
Adjustment of prefill valve
1. Install the prefill valve correctly according to this manual, and install a precise pressure gauge
on each circuit where an accumulator is involved.
2. Start the machine, it is normal to take the 1 minute for the prefill valve starts to work (The
pressure shown in the oil pressure gauge is the pre-charge pressure of the accumulator). If the
valve doesn’t work, tighten the screwed plug (8) until the pressure gauge reading rises. Make
5-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

sure the pressure is able to work normally after every time adjusting the screwed plug (8).
When accumulator pressure drops to lower limit of the prefill valve, the prefill valve will
automatically charge the accumulator until its pressure gets to upper limit.
ATTENTION
Prefill valve inner structure is very complex, and maintenance personal is not allowed to
disassemble and adjust the valve.

Disassembly and assembly of prefill valve


ATTENTION
Before the disassembly and assembly operation, shut down the engine and stomp the brake
pedal repeatedly to decompress the accumulator, otherwise it may result in personal injury.

Disassembly of prefill valve


1. Remove the cover plate fixing bolts and take
down the plate.

1
Fig. 5-7
1 Cover plate

2. Disconnect all the rubber hoses that connected


to the prefill valve.
ATTENTION
Mark the hoses orderly to prevent confusion.
3. Remove the connecting bolts between prefill
valve and dead plate, and take down the valve.
4. Fix the prefill valve on a vise and remove the
1
joint of each oil port.
Fig. 5-8
1 Bolt

5-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Assembly of l prefill valve


1. Fix the prefill valve on a vise and connect all
the joints to the prefill valve.
2. Fix the prefill valve on dead plate with two
bolts.
3. Connect all the marked hoses to the
corresponding ports orderly.

1
Fig. 5-9
1 Bolt
4. Fix the cover plate on the machine with bolts.

1
Fig. 5-10
1 Cover plate

512 Filter

Nominal flow 110L/MIN


Nominal pressure 32MPa
Filtration accuracy 10um
Opening pressure of by-pass valve 0.6MPa

1
Fig. 5-11
1 Filter

5-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Disassembly and assembly of filter


ATTENTION
Before the disassembly and assembly operation, shut down the engine and stomp the brake
pedal repeatedly to decompress the accumulator, otherwise it may result in personal injury.

Disassembly of filter
1. Remove the cover plate fixing bolts and take
down the plate.

1 2
Fig. 5-12
1 Cover plate
2 Cover plate

2. Disconnect oil inlet and outlet pipe of filter.

3. Remove filter fixing bolts and take down the


filter.

4. Fix the filter on a vise and remove all the pipe

1 2 3 4 5 joints of oil inlet and outlet pipe.


Fig. 5-13
1 Bolt M10X20
2 Reducer union
3 Oil outlet pipe of brake pump
4 Reducer union
5 Oil inlet pipe of prefill valve

5-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Assembly of filter
1. Fix the prefill valve on a vise and connect the
joints (equipped with O-rings) to oil inlet and
outlet pipe.
310±31Nm

2. Fix the filter on dead plate with two M10X20


bolts.

3. Connect oil pipes (equipped with O-rings) to


1 2 3 4 5
the corresponding ports orderly.
Fig. 5-14
1 Bolt M10X20 45±5Nm
2 Reducer union
3 Oil outlet pipe of brake pump
4 Reducer union
2 Oil inlet pipe of prefill valve

4. Install the cover plate.

1 2
Fig. 5-15
1 Cover plate
2 Cover plate

5-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

513 Accumulator

Accumulator is used to store pressure oil for braking. Its principle is to store the pressure liquid and
capsule with pressure in a sealed housing and it is used to brake by absorbing and releasing the liquid
due to the changing pressure. When brake pump is working, it injects the pressure fluid into
accumulator through prefill valve to store energy. Then, the gas is compressed in the capsule, so that
the pressure of liquid is the same with that of capsule, to obtain energy reserves. The air in capsules is
nitrogen.
Technical parameters
Service brake accumulator
Nominal volume 1.6L
Pre-charge nitrogen pressure 6MPa
Parking brake accumulator
Nominal volume 1.6L
Pre-charge nitrogen pressure 6MPa

1 2 3
Fig. 5-16
1 Rear axle service brake accumulator
2 Parking brake accumulator
3 Front axle service brake accumulator

Fig. 5-17 Accumulator structure


1 Inflation valve 2 Locknut 3 Capsule 4 Shell 5 Bacterial type valve 6 Deflating plug
5-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Inflation method for accumulator


1. Firstly stop the machine on flat ground, continuously operate the service brake and parking brake
several times, and drain the high pressure oil in accumulators as far as possible. Then slowly
loosen the oil pipe on the bottom of accumulator and drain the residual pressure in the
accumulator.
2. Remove the protective cap of inflation valve from top of the accumulator.
3. Connect the end with pressure gauge of inflation tool to the inflation valve on top of accumulator,
and the other end should be connected with nitrogen cylinder.
4. Open switch of nitrogen cylinder. After the inflation pressure of inflation tools is stable, slowly
open the switch on the inflation tools, i.e., open the inflation valve in the accumulator and fill air
into the accumulator.
5. Pressure may be instantly achieved, then switch off the nitrogen cylinders, and see whether the
pressure value still reached 6MPa after the gauge of inflation tools come to stable. If not, then
refill it. If the pressure is high, drain the air through the inflation plug through inflation tools, and
reduce the pressure to the appropriate value.
6. After air is filled to required pressure (6MPa), firstly switch off nitrogen cylinders, and then close
the switch on inflation tools.
7. Remove the air inflation tool.
8. If accumulator leaks (Wipe accumulator head with oil, and if there is leakage, bubbles will come
out. Hit the inflation valve inside the accumulator with a hammer and a screwdriver. Pull it down,
and then quickly reset it until the sealing surface can be connected.
9. Install protection caps of accumulator inflation valve.

5-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Disassembly and assembly of accumulator


ATTENTION
Before the disassembly and assembly operation, shut down the engine and stomp the brake
pedal repeatedly to decompress the accumulator, otherwise it may result in personal injury.
Disassembly of accumulator
1. Remove the cover plate fixing bolts and take
down the plate.

1 2
Fig. 5-18
1 Cover plate 2 Cover plate

2. Remove the rubber hoses on the bottom of


accumulator.

1
Fig. 5-19
1 Rubber hose
3. Loosen the U-shape fixing bolts of
accumulator and take down the bolts, nuts and
gaskets, and then take out the accumulator.

4. Remove the accumulator cushion collar.

1 2
Fig. 5-20
1 U-shape bolt 2 Cushion collar
5-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Remove the connector and straight joint.

1 2 3
Fig. 5-21
1 Straight joint 2 Connector
3 Accumulator

Assembly of accumulator
1. Install the straight joint (with O-ring) and the
connector to accumulator.
Straight joint:
310±31Nm
Connector:
1 2 3 45±5Nm
Fig. 5-22
1 Straight joint 2 Connector
3 Accumulator

2. After installing the cushion collar on the


bottom of accumulator, put the accumulator on
the support, and fix it to the support with the
U-shape bolts, nuts, and gaskets.

1 2
Fig. 5-23
1 U-shape bolt
2 Cushion collar

5-13
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Install the cover plate.

1 2
Fig. 5-24
1 Cover plate
2 Cover plate

5-14
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

514 Foot Brake Valve

Step the brake pedal, port P communicates with port A, pressure oil in accumulator forced into
wheel side brake to carry out brake; release the pedal, port A communicates with port T, oil in the
brake will flows back to oil tank to remove the brake.

Fig. 5-25 Foot brake valve structure


1 Screwed plug 2 O-ring 3 Spring 4 Bolt 5 Gasket
6 Screwed plug 7 O-ring 8 Valve body 9 Valve element 10 O-ring
11 O-ring 12 Valve element 13 Valve body 14 Seal 15 Cup-shape seal
16 Locator 17 Gasket 18 Spring 19 Spring 20 Spring
21 Piston 22 Safety shield 23 Hexagon bolt 24 Retainer ring

5-15
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Foot brake valve inner structure

Fig. 5-26 Foot brake valve inner structure


1 Screwed plug 2 O-ring 3 Spring 4 Bolt 5 Gasket
6 Screwed plug 7 O-ring 8 Valve body 9 Valve element 10 O-ring
11 O-ring 12 Valve element 13 Valve body 14 Seal 15 Cup-shape seal
16 Locator 17 Gasket 18 Spring 19 Spring 20 Spring
21 Piston 22 Safety shield 23 Hexagon bolt 24 Retainer ring
ATTENTION
Foot brake valve inner structure is very complex, and maintenance personal is not allowed to
disassemble and adjust the valve.

5-16
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Disassembly and assembly of foot brake valve


ATTENTION
Before the disassembly and assembly operation, shut down the engine and stomp the brake
pedal repeatedly to decompress the accumulator, otherwise it may result in personal injury.
Disassembly of foot brake valve
1. Disconnect all rubber hoses that connected to
foot brake valve.
ATTENTION
Mark the hoses orderly to prevent confusion.

Fig. 5-27

2. Remove all the pipe joints of the foot brake


valve.

1 2 3
Fig. 5-28
1 Straight joint 2 Joint
3 Joint
3. Remove the connecting screws that used to
connect the valve base and cab baseboard, and
then take down the foot brake valve.

1
Fig. 5-29
1 Screw
5-17
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Assembly of foot brake valve


1. Fix the foot brake valve to cab baseboard with
three screws.

1
Fig. 5-30
1 Screw
2. Install all the pipe joints of the foot brake
valve.

1 2 3
Fig. 5-31
1 Straight joint 2 Joint
3 Joint

3. Connect all the rubber hoses to the foot brake


valve.

Fig. 5-32

5-18
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

515 Wheel Side Brake

The wheel side brake of this loader is caliper disc brake, which mainly composed of brake disc,
brake caliper and friction plates.

1 2 1 2 3
Fig. 5-33 Fig. 5-34
1 Deflating valve (air bleeding valve) 1 Wheel cylinder 2 Friction plate
2 Brake oil pipe 3 Brake disc

When not braking, the clearance between the friction plate and the brake disc is about 0.2mm, and
the brake disc does free rotation along with the wheels.
When braking, the brake oil enters into the four wheel cylinders of each brake caliper through the
oil pipe and inner oil passage. Under the effect of oil pressure, the wheel cylinder piston moves
outward to make the friction plate compress the brake disc, so as to generate braking torque to make
the wheel brake. At this point, the rectangular rubber seal ring edge can generate the trace amounts
elastic deformation under the action of piston friction force.
When release the brake, the oil pressure of wheel cylinder will disappear, and the piston will
self-return depending on elastic force of the rectangular rubber sealing ring to recover its original
clearance, making the friction plate and brake disc out of contact, so the brake is removed.
If the clearance between the friction plate and the brake disc becomes large due to abrasion, so
when braking, after the deformation of rectangular rubber seal ring reaches to its limitation, the
piston still can overcome the friction of seal ring to continue moving under the effect of oil pressure
till the friction plate compresses the brake disc. However, when the braking is removed, the distance
of piston pulled back by the rectangular seal ring is same with the distance before the abrasion of
friction plate, i.e. the brake clearance still remains the standard value. So besides the sealing effect,
the rectangular seal ring can make the piston return and automatically adjust the clearance.

5-19
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1 2 3
Fig. 5-35 When braking Fig. 5-36 When brake is relieved
1 Brake caliper 2 Rectangular seal ring 3 Piston

Disassembly and assembly of wheel side brake


Disassembly of wheel side brake
1. Disconnect the brake oil pipe, and then remove
the joint.

2. Remove the connecting bolts between the


brake caliper and the axle body, and lift down
the brake caliper.

1 2 3
Fig. 5-37
1 Bolt 2 Joint
3 Oil pipe

3. Remove the cotter pin of the friction plate


connecting pin shaft.

1
Fig. 5-38
1 Cotter pin
5-20
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Take down the pin.

1
Fig. 5-39
1 Pin

5. Remove the brake friction plates.

1
Fig. 5-40
1 Brake friction plate

6. Remove the connecting bolts and gaskets


between the inter caliper and outer caliper.

1
Fig. 5-41
1 Bolt

5-21
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7. Separate the inter caliper and outer caliper, and


take down the O-rings.

1
Fig. 5-42
1 O-ring

8. Remove the retainer ring of inter caliper.

1
Fig. 5-43
1 Retainer ring

9. Remove the dust cover.

1
Fig. 5-44
1 Dust cover

5-22
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

10. Remove the piston.

1
Fig. 5-45
1 Piston

11. Remove the rectangular seal ring.

1
Fig. 5-46
1 Rectangular seal ring
Assembly of wheel side brake
1. Install the rectangular seal ring of inter caliper.

1
Fig. 5-47
1 Rectangular seal ring
5-23
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. Smear a little amount of brake fluid on the


piston surface and hole surface, and then
install the piston.

1
Fig. 5-48
1 Piston

3. Install the dust cover.

1
Fig. 5-49
1 Dust cover

4. Install the retainer ring.

1
Fig. 5-50
1 Retainer ring

5-24
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Install the O-ring between the inter caliper and


outer caliper.

6. Assemble the outer caliper in the same way as


inter caliper.

1
Fig. 5-51
1 O-ring

7. Place the outer caliper horizontally, and put


the inter caliper on it.

Fig. 5-52

8. Install the connecting bolts between inter


caliper and outer caliper.

1
Fig. 5-53
1 Bolt

5-25
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

9. Install the friction plates.

1
Fig. 5-54
1 Friction plate

10. Install the connecting pin and cotter pin of the


friction plate.

1 2
Fig. 5-55
1 Cotter pin
2 Pin

5-26
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

52 Parking Brake

Brake valve block

Brake cylinder

Oil tank

Prefill valve

Accumulator

Fig. 5-56 Parking brake system


The system applies power-driven hydraulic-control inner-expanding-shoe brake.
When you press the parking brake switch, the electromagnet will be out of power, and the magnetic
exchange valve will be in the position as shown in Fig. 5-56, and hydraulic oil in the brake cylinder
will flow from port T into the tank through the magnetic valve to carry out braking.
When need to remove the parking brake, press the parking brake relieve switch; the electromagnet
will be electrified, the magnetic exchange valve changes direction, the high pressure oil stored in
the accumulator of parking brake circuit enters into brake cylinder from port A through the
electromagnetic valve port B, at this moment the brake is removed.

ATTENTION
Please refer to the service braking system for the related introduction of accumulator.

5-27
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

521 Brake Valve Block

There is a check valve between the port P and port A in order to prevent the hydraulic oil in the
accumulator flowing back to the dual prefill valve. The internal integration electromagnetic valve is
with the slide valve structure.

1 2 3
Fig. 5-57 Brake valve block Fig. 5-58 Pressure switch
1 Parking brake indicator lamp switch
2 Emergency brake switch
3 Service brake low pressure alarm switch

Parking brake indicator lamp switch


It is used to inspect the parking brake circuit oil pressure.
When the brake oil pressure is normal, pull the parking brake switch to carry out the brake, the
parking brake indicator lamp will be on; press the parking brake switch to remove the brake, the
parking brake indicator lamp will be off.
When the air pressure of parking brake circuit is low, the parking brake indicator lamp will be on.
At the moment, there may be something wrong with the parking brake circuit, so you should stop
for inspection.
Emergency brake switch
If the oil pressure in the accumulator of service brake circuit is less than 60Bar, this switch will
automatically cut off the power output, and set the transmission box in neutral. Meanwhile, the
power of parking brake electromagnetic valve is cut off, the hydraulic oil in the parking brake
cylinder returns to oil tank through the parking brake electromagnetic valve, and the parking brake
carries out the brake to make the loader emergency cut-off.

5-28
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Service brake low pressure alarm switch


In the operation process, if the system fails, which will lead to oil pressure in the accumulator of
service brake circuit lower than 115Bar, the low service brake pressure alarm lamp flashes and at
the same time, the alarm buzzer will sound. At this point, you should stop the operation, and carry
out the examination for loader. To check the loader, the loader should be parked on flat ground, and
lower the work equipment to the ground, and pull the parking brake electromagnetic valve switch.
ATTENTION
In a short time just after the loader is started, brake pressure alarm lamp flashes and the
alarm buzzer will sound. This is because at this time the oil pressure in the accumulator of
service brake circuit is still below the alarm pressure. After the pressure rises and exceeds
alarm pressure, the warning will stop automatically. The parking brake electromagnetic valve
switch can be pressed only after the warning is stopped.

522 Hydraulic Parking Brake Cylinder

Parking brake cylinder is mounted on the front left side of the transmission box, and its rod end is
connected with the brake cam pull rod.
When the system oil pressure is lower than that the brake cylinder spring force or the parking brake
electromagnetic valve switch is pulled up, the spring seat and the piston will be pushed upward due
to action of the spring, to pull the rod of the parking brake device, so that the parking brake device
is engaged to realize the brake of the loader.
When the system oil pressure reaches to the working pressure and the parking brake
electromagnetic valve switch is pressed, the pressure oil will enter the left chamber of brake
cylinder through the parking brake electromagnetic valve, and compress the spring to push the
spring seat and piston toward right end, and push the brake lever to relieve the brake.
WARNING
If the loader is out of order and cannot drive, and needs to be towed, you should remove the
pin of brake cylinder to make the parking brake get loose first.

5-29
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1 2 3 1 2 3
Fig. 5-59 Fig. 5-60
1 Parking brake 1 Oil port
2 Hydraulic parking brake cylinder 2 Support of parking brake cylinder
3 Pin 3 Nut

1 2 3
Fig. 5-61 Parking brake cylinder schematic diagram
1 Piston 2 Spring seat 3 Spring

5-30
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

53 Deflation of Brake System

After overhauling of brake system, there will be air in the pipeline, which will affect brake
performance. So air bleeding must be done after overhaul. Each wheel side brake is designed with
deflating valve (air bleeding valve), do the air bleeding according to the following instructions:
1. Park the loader on flat ground.
2. Set all control handles in neutral and run the engine idly, pull up the parking brake
electromagnetic valve switch.
3. Connect a transparent hose on each deflating valve of front drive axle left and right wheel side
brakes, and put the other end into an oil container.
4. Two personnel works coordinately, one person handles the deflating valve, loosen or tighten it
according to actual situation, and keeps an eye on deflation status; the other handles the brake
pedal. Firstly loosen the deflating valve, and the step the brake pedal to its maximum stroke,
release the pedal until there is large amount of oil overflow, and tighten the deflating valve at
the same time. Do the deflation several times until bubble-free oil overflows.
5. Deflate the rear drive axle in the same way.
6. After the deflation, pull up and press down the parking brake electromagnetic valve switch for
3~4 times to deflate the parking brake circuit.
7. Shut down the engine and pull up the parking brake electromagnetic valve switch. Loosen the
air bleeding plug on bottom of accumulator slowly, and there will be oil that containing bubbles
flows out, tighten the plug until the overflow oil is free of bubble.

1
1
Fig. 5-62
Fig. 5-63
1 Deflating valve
1 Air bleeding plug
5-31
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

54 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of Brake System

Table 5-1
No. Problems Diagnosis Solutions

1. Drain the air. There are deflating


valves on left and right wheel side
brakes of the drive axle and outlet
port on the accumulator, and drain
the air in these areas.
2. Check brake valve, detect whether
1. There is air in brake
the maximum braking pressure of
pipelines.
brake device outlet is the brake
2. Brake valve fails.
pressure required by the system. If
3. The pilot pump is too old to
the pressure is not normal, adjust
Insufficient work.
the brake pressure or replace the
1 foot brake 4. There is leakage in the
brake valve.
force brake lines.
3. Check the pressure or flow of
5. Prefill valve does not work.
pump.
6. Accumulator is damaged.
4. Check whether the brake pipelines
7. Friction disc of wheel side
and connectors leak. If the
brake is worn to the limit.
connector is loose, retighten it; if
the seal is damaged, replace it.
5. Replace prefill valve.
6. Check the accumulator
7. Replace friction disc of wheel side
brake device.

1. Check whether the brake pipelines


and connectors leak. If the
connector is loose, retighten it; if
the seal is damaged, replace the
1. Some parts of brake pipe
seal.
maybe leak.
2. Release the foot brake pedal, and
2. Brake valve fails.
detect whether there is still
Fail to 3. Pilot pump is too old to
pressure near the brake valve
2 engage a work.
outlet. If so, the brake fails, and
gear 4. Prefill valve does not work.
then repair or replace brake valve.
5. Accumulator is damaged.
3. Check the pressure or flow of
6. Electromagnetic valves or
pump.
pressure switch fails.
4. Replace the prefill valve.
5. Check the accumulator.
6. Check the electromagnetic valve
and power cut-off switch.

5-32
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Check whether the brake pipelines


and connectors leak. If the
1. Parking brake circuit leaks.
connector is loose, retighten it; if
2. Parking brake cylinder
the seal is damaged, replace the
leaks.
Parking seal.
3. Pilot pump is too old to
brake can’t 2. Replace the cylinder seals.
3 work.
be released 3. Check the pressure or flow of
4. Prefill valve does not work.
normally pump.
5. Accumulator is damaged.
4. Replace the prefill valve.
6. Electromagnetic valves or
5. Check the accumulator.
pressure switch fails.
6. Check the electromagnetic valve
and power cut-off switch.

Cycle filling
1. Pressure of accumulator 1. Check the air pressure in the
rate is too
4 capsules is too low. accumulator capsules.
fast for
2. Prefill valve does not work. 2. Replace prefill valve.
prefill valve

1. The clearance between


brake drum and brake shoe
Power of is too large.
1. Readjust it as required.
parking 2. There is oil on the brake
5 2. Clean brake shoe.
brake is not shoe.
3. Check the brake cylinder.
enough 3. The spring force of the
brake cylinder is not
enough.

1. There is no oil or oil level


is too low in hydraulic 1. Check the oil level in the tank.
Accumulator
tank. 2. Check the pump pressure or flow.
6 charging
2. Pump is too old to work 3. Drain the air.
fails
3. There is air in accumulator. 4. Replace the prefill valve.
4. Prefill valve does not work

1. Pump is too old to work


1. Check the pressure or flow of
Accumulator and cannot convey all flow
pump.
charging or pressure.
7 2. Replace the prefill valve.
time is too 2. Prefill valve does not work.
3. Remove, check or replace
long 3. Capsules are damaged and
capsules.
nitrogen leaks.

Detect whether the maximum pressure


of brake valve outlet is normal. If the
No inching
8 Brake valve fails. maximum pressure of export is much
braking
greater than required system pressure,
replace the brake valve.

5-33
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Low service
brake
1. System pressure is
pressure
inadequate, in the short
alarm lamp 1. Please wait that the alarm will stop
time of starting loader.
or low automatically if system oil
9 2. There are system faults in
emergency pressure is sufficient.
the working process of
brake 2. Stop the machine to check it.
loader and oil pressure
pressure
decreased.
alarm lamp
is on

1. The brake lamp is


damaged.
The brake
2. There are system faults in 1. Check the brake lights.
10 lamp doesn’t
the working process of 2. Stop the machine to check it.
work
loader and oil pressure is
decreasing.

5-34
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
6 Steering System ................................................................................................... 6-1
61 General................................................................................................................. 6-1
611 Steering System Principle Description ........................................................ 6-2
612 Steering Pump.............................................................................................. 6-4
613 Priority Valve .............................................................................................. 6-4
614 Steering Gear ............................................................................................... 6-5
615 Steering Cylinder ......................................................................................... 6-6
62 Disassembly and Assembly of Steering System ................................................. 6-7
621 Disassembly and Assembly of Steering Pump ............................................ 6-7
622 Disassembly and Assembly of Priority Valve ........................................... 6-12
623 Disassembly and Assembly of Steering Gear ........................................... 6-14
624 Disassembly and Assembly of Steering Column ...................................... 6-18
625 Disassembly and Assembly of Steering Cylinder ..................................... 6-21
63 Deflation of Steering System............................................................................. 6-26
64 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of Steering System .................... 6-27

I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6 Steering System
61 General

The loader is equipped with flow amplifying load sensing steering system actuated by single constant
displacement pump, working pressure of steering system is 14MPa. This system is composed of
steering gear pump, priority valve, load sensing hydraulic steering gear, steering cylinder and
pipelines. It has the advantages of compact structure, high sensitivity, good stability, flexible and
easy operation, shock absorption and free of extra lubricating device.

Fig. 6-1 Steering system principle diagram


1 Steering pump 2 Priority valve 3 Steering gear 4 Steering cylinder
6-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

611 Steering System Principle Description

The principle of hydraulic steering system is illustrated in Fig. 6-1. Steering pump absorbs oil from
hydraulic tank, and the oil enters into port P of priority valve, then the oil flows into steering gear
from port CF of priority valve. When turning the steering wheel, steering gear sends pressure oil
into steering cylinder to carry out front-wheel steering.
When the steering wheel is in neutral
If the engine flameout, the pump will stop supplying; the control spring of priority valve forces the
valve element right to connect CF oil line. After the engine is started, hydraulic oil in the tank flows
into priority valve through steering pump, the priority valve allocates oil to steering gear through port
CF, then it will result in pressure loss when the oil flows through steering gear neutral position
throttling orifice. The two ends pressure of steering gear neutral position throttling orifice pass to two
ends of priority valve element, then the resulting pressure can balance spring force and hydrodynamic
force to enable the valve element stay in an equilibrium position. Since steering gear neutral position
throttling orifice can generate great fluid resistance, very small flow is needed to generate enough
differential pressure to force the valve element left. When the valve element is forced left further,
opening degree of port EF increases, while port CF decreases, at this point, oil flow in CF oil line is
very small and most oil flows through port EF to working hydraulic system.

Steering gear

Priority valve

Main safety
valve
Filter Steering
pump

Oil tank

Fig. 6-2 Oil line when steering wheel is in neutral


6-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

When steering
When turning the steering wheel, the rotor and stator module of steering gear forms a cyclonical-pin
wheel engagement pair, to act as a meter during power steering, and ensures the oil flow in steering
cylinder is in direct proportion to turning angle of steering wheel. Valve element, valve bush and
valve body forms a follow-up revolute pair, used to control oil flow direction and send control
signal to priority valve to change oil supply rate as the turning speed of steering wheel changes. The
valve bush and steering gear stator is connected with a universal driving shaft to achieve
synchronous rotation, oil enters into port P of steering gear and the valve bush wouldn’t move, and
control valve communicates with valve bush oil channel, then the oil flows into metering motor, the
steering gear rotor starts to turn, valve bush oil channel communicates to valve element oil channel,
oil flows into steering cylinder through port L to push the piston to realize steering. At this point,
feedback force from port LS and the spring force jointly overcome feedback force of port CF to
push the valve element of priority valve, opening degree of priority valve port CF increases and that
of port EF decreases to supply more oil into steering system.

Steering gear

Priority valve

Main safety
valve
Steering
Filter pump

Oil tank

Fig. 6-3 Oil line when steering

6-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

612 Steering Pump

The pump steering system used is a double pump, the front one is steering pump, the rear one is
brake pump. Steering pump is connected to transmission box main PTO, it transmits input
mechanical energy from transmission box into oil pressure energy, and outputs pressure oil flow
into the system. It’s the power source of steering system.
Main technical parameters of steering pump:
Nominal displacement: 100ml/r
Rated pressure: 20Mpa

Gearbox

Hydraulic tank

Priority valve

Fig. 6-4 Location map of steering pump

613 Priority Valve

The priority valve is a constant differential reducing component. Regardless of the change in
loading pressure and oil supply, the priority valve can maintain almost the same pressure
differential between two ends of variable orifice, which can ensure the flow valve in the steering
gear always equal to the product of steering wheel rotating speed times steering gear displacement.
Port P of priority valve is connected to steering pump oil outlet hose, port CF is connected to port P
of steering gear, port EF is connected to port P of multitandem valve, and port LS is connected port
LS of steering gear.

6-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Main technical parameters of priority valve


Nominal flow rate: 240L/min
Introcontrol static signal,
Control pressure: 10.3Bar

Fig.6-5 Priority valve schematic diagram

614 Steering Gear

The load adopts static signal load sensing non- reactive steering gear.
Port P of steering gear is connected to Port CF of priority valve, port L and port R connect to
steering cylinder respectively, and oil flows out from port T into oil tank through radiator. Port LS
of steering gear is connected to Port LS of priority valve, and steering gear is connected to steering
column.

Main technical parameters of steering gear


Connection type: British involute spline
Displacement: 630ml/r
Max. inlet pressure: 17.2MPa
Max. continuous back pressure: 1.0MPa
The highest system temperature: 93oC
Steering torque: 1.7-2.8N.m

Fig.6-6 Steering gear schematic diagram


Steering gear is mainly composed of follow-up rotatory valve and metering motor. Follow-up
rotatory valve consists of valve element, valve bush and valve body; metering motor consists of
rotor and stator. The stator and rotor act as a hydraulic motor during normal steering, it can also act
as a manual pump when there is an engine failure or the oil supply stopped.
Functions of combination valve in steering gear
Inlet check valve: The check valve will be open when oil flows into steering gear. It is used to

6-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

prevent external impact at low steering speed; it can also prevent high pressure oil from flowing
back, which will lead to shake of steering wheel.
Bi-directional overload valve: When the steering cylinder is influenced by external shock,
pressure of oil in the cylinder will rise and if it gets to setting valve (20Mpa) of overload valve, the
valve will open to load off to protect the cylinder.
Bi-directional oil supplementary valve: When the steering cylinder is influenced by external
shock and produced transient negative pressure, the supplementary valve will open immediately and
supply oil to the left chamber or right chamber of steering cylinder to avoid cavitation phenomenon.
Normally bi-directional overload valve is overload when bi-directional supplementary valve opens.

615 Steering Cylinder

Steering cylinder is used to transmit pressure energy of hydraulic oil into mechanical energy of
reciprocal rectilinear motion. The cylinder barrel is fixed on the frame with pin, and steering
function is realized by stretching out and drawing back of cylinder piston. Steering cylinder is
mainly composed of cylinder body, piston rod, cylinder head and seals.

Fig. 6-7 Steering cylinder structure drawing


Table 6-1
S/N Name Qty. Comment S/N Name Qty. Comment
1 Piston rod 1 9 Cylinder block 1
2 Seal 1 Dust ring 10 Seal 1 O-ring
3 Seal 1 Seal ring 11 Seal 2 Bearing ring
Buffer
4 Seal 1 12 Seal 1 SPGO
sealing
FTFE baffle
5 Seal 1 13 Piston 1
ring
6 Seal 1 O-ring 14 Screw 1
7 Guide sleeve 1 15 Knuckle bearing 2
8 Seal 2 Bearing ring 16 Baffle ring 4
6-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

62 Disassembly and Assembly of


Steering System

ATTENTION
Before disassembling the steering system, please
park the machine in maintenance position
properly.
When dismantling the hydraulic pipeline, do not
screw off the nut connecting to the oil port
rashly. Loosen the nut gradually until the oil
spills out so as to prevent the oil splash due to
incomplete pressure relief.
During dismantling the steering system,
necessary protective measures should be taken
for each pipeline and oil port to prevent debris
like dust from entering the steering system.
During dismantling the steering system, please
collect the remnant hydraulic oil with
appropriate vessel when disconnecting a pipe,
and pour the collected oil into a dedicated
hydraulic oil recycling bin after the
maintenance work.
When assembling, be sure to replace the seal
with a new one, related standards of tightening
torque in this manual must be strictly followed.

621 Disassembly and Assembly of


Steering Pump

Disassembly of steering pump


1. Pressure relief.
Start the machine and drive it to a capacious
flat place. Raise the boom to the highest
position, tilt the bucket backward to its
Fig. 6-8
6-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

extreme position, and then shut down the


engine.
Push pilot valve control handle rightwards
slowly, let the bucket tilt forward under the
action of self-weight to drain the oil in bucket
cylinder out.
After the bucket getting to its extreme position,
push forward the handle gently. Let the boom
declines under the effect of self-weight to
drain the oil in the boom cylinder. Keep the
bucket flat on ground. Then push the control
handle all around for 5~6 times and turn the
steering wheel clockwise and anticlockwise for
5~6 times to drain the internal oil pressure of
the system.
2. Wedge the loader tires with wood blocks well.

3. Open the filling cap of hydraulic oil tank.

Fig. 6-9

4. Put an appropriate oil container under the


steering pump.

Fig. 6-10

6-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Remove the seat and seat-support. (Refer to


833 Replacement of Seat.)

6. Remove the bolts of cab platform maintenance


cover plate, and take down the cover plate.

Fig. 6-11

7. Remove the fixing bolts between the steering


pump oil inlet steel pipe and the steering
pump connecting flange; disconnect the oil
inlet steel pipe from the steering pump.
ATTENTION
During the disassembly process, do not screw
off the fixing bolt of the oil port connection
flange rashly. Loosen the bolt gradually until
1 2
Fig. 6-12 the oil spills out so as to prevent the oil splash
1 Bolt due to incomplete pressure relief.
2 Oil inlet steel pipe of steering pump
Necessary protective measures should be taken
for each pipeline and oil port to prevent debris
like dust from entering into the pipeline.

8. Loosen fission flange, remove the oil inlet


rubber hose of priority valve, and remove the
rubber hose of the relief valve to the steering
pump.

1.2 3 4
Fig. 6-13
1 Bolt 2 Fission flange
3 Oil inlet rubber hose of priority valve
4 Rubber hose of the relief valve to the
steering pump

6-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

9. Loosen the fixing nut of steering gear, take


down the nut and gasket, and remove the
steering pump and sealing gasket.
ATTENTION
In the process of removing the steering pump,
hang the steering pump stably to prevent falling
and crashing the machine.

1
Fig. 6-14 10. Remove the priority valve oil inlet steel pipe
1 Bolt and the brake pump joint.

Assembly of steering pump


1. Clean up the junction surface of transmission
box and steering pump, and clean the threaded
hole with AT755 high-efficiency detergent,
then smear AT545 anaerobic sealant for
sealing.

1
Fig. 6-15
1 Transmission box

2. Install the steering pump on the transmission


box interface and use gasket for sealing, then
fasten it with stud, nut and gasket.
Stud: 70~80Nm
ATTENTION
Before adding the sealing gasket, you should
check whether the sealing gasket is flat and
smooth, whether there is pimple, crack, or
1.2.3 4.5
bubble, whether there is exogenous impurity or
Fig. 6-16
1 Stud 2 Nut 3 Gasket other defects having bad effects on using,
4 Seal ring used for pump whether there are quality defects such as poor
5 Steering pump
toughness, easy breakage.

6-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Install the steering pump joint, seal it with


O-ring, and fasten it with bolts.
Bolt: 28±5Nm

1 2 3
Fig. 6-17
1.2 Bolt 3 Joint

4. Install the oil inlet steel pipe of priority valve,


seal the junction with O-ring, and fasten it with
the fission flange and bolt.
Bolt: 52±10Nm

5. Install the joint 4.


Joint: 45±5Nm
1.2 3 4
Fig. 6-18
1 Bolt 2 Fission flange
3 Oil inlet steel pipe of priority valve
4 Joint

6. Install the oil inlet rubber hose of priority


valve, seal the junction with O-ring, and fasten
it with the fission flange and bolt.
Bolt: 52±10Nm
ATTENTION
When installing seal ring, put the O-ring in the
O-ring groove by hand and planish it. Inspect
whether the gap between the flange and the
1.2 3 4
Fig. 6-19 junction surface is uniform via visual inspection
1 Bolt 2 Fission flange after the assembly.
3 Oil inlet rubber hose of priority valve
4 Relief valve to steering pump rubber
hose
6-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7. Install the relief valve to steering pump rubber


hose (steering pump end).
Bolt: 45±5Nm
8. Install the oil absorption steel pipe of steering
pump, seal the junction with O-ring, and fasten
it with bolts.
Bolt: 52±10Nm

1 2
Fig. 6-20
622 Disassembly and Assembly of
1 Bolt 2 Steel pipe
Priority Valve

Disassembly of priority valve


1. Start and drive the loader to a flat, spacious and
solid ground. Turn the steering wheel to drive
the loader in a straight line, and then stop the
loader after it is straightened. Put the bucket on
the ground horizontally and shut down the
engine. Turn the steering wheel clockwise and
anticlockwise for 5~6 times. Wedge the tires
with blocks well.
2. Open the filling cap.
3. Put an appropriate vessel under the priority
valve to contain the leakage of hydraulic oil.
4. Disconnect each pipe of the priority valve.
ATTENTION
During the disassembly process, do not screw
off the fixing bolt of the oil port connection
flange rashly. Loosen the bolt gradually until
the oil spills out so as to prevent the oil splash
due to incomplete pressure relief.
Necessary protective measures should be taken
Fig. 6-21
for each pipeline and oil port to prevent debris
like dust from entering into the pipeline.

6-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Remove the joint and O-ring from the each oil


port of priority valve.
Assembly of priority valve
1. Install the joints to each oil port.
Joint 1: 35±3.5Nm
Joint 7: 310±31Nm
Joint 6: 85±10Nm

1 2.3 4 5 67 8.9
Fig. 6-22
1.4.6.7. Joint 2 Bolt
3 Gasket 5 Priority valve
8 Plate 9 Rubber sheet

2. Fix the priority valve on the frame with bolts,


note that there are cushion rubber sheet and
steel plate in the junction.
ATTENTION
When assembling, gently hit until the rubber
sheet has a slight deformation.
3. Connect the steering pump to priority valve
rubber hose 3, seal the junction with O-ring,
12 34567 8
Fig. 6-23 and fasten it with fission flange and bolts.
1.3.4.5.8 Rubber hose Bolt: 52±10Nm
2 Joint 6.7 Bolt
ATTENTION
When installing seal ring, put the O-ring in the
O-ring groove by hand and planish it. Inspect
whether the gap between the flange and the
junction surface is uniform via visual inspection
after the assembly.
4. Connect the multitandem valve oil inlet rubber
hose 8 to the priority valve, seal the junction
with O-ring, and fasten it with fission flange
6-13
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

and bolts.
Bolt: 52±10Nm
ATTENTION
When installing seal ring, put the O-ring in the
O-ring groove by hand and planish it. Inspect
whether the gap between the flange and the
junction surface is uniform via visual inspection
after the assembly.

623 Disassembly and Assembly of


Steering Gear

Disassembly of steering gear


1. Start and drive the loader to a flat, spacious and
solid ground. Turn the steering wheel to drive
the loader in a straight line, and then stop the
loader after it is straightened. Put the bucket on
the ground horizontally and shut down the
engine. Turn the steering wheel clockwise and
anticlockwise for 5~6 times. Wedge the tires
with blocks well.
2. Put an appropriate vessel under the steering
gear to contain the leakage of hydraulic oil.
3. Disconnect the each pipe of the steering gear.
ATTENTION
During the disassembly process, do not screw
off the fixing bolt of the oil port connection
flange rashly. Loosen the bolt gradually until
the oil spills out so as to prevent the oil splash
due to incomplete pressure relief.
Necessary protective measures should be taken
Fig. 6-24 for each pipeline and oil port to prevent debris
like dust from entering into the pipeline.
4. Remove the joint and O-ring from the each oil
port of steering gear.
6-14
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Remove the fixing bolts of right and left


coaming at the bottom of instrument desk, and
take down the coaming.

1
Fig. 6-25
1 Coaming

6. Remove the four fixing bolts of steering gear,


and take it down.
ATTENTION
Hold the steering gear with hand or something
to prevent falling.

1
Fig. 6-26
1 Fixing bolt
Assembly of steering gear
1. Properly place the cross-shaped block into the
steering gear, hold up the steering gear and
align it with steering column (try to turn the
steering wheel left and right gently to align
them), fix them with bolts.

1
Fig. 6-27
1 Fixing bolt
6-15
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. Install the right and left coaming at the bottom


of instrument desk.

1
Fig. 6-28
1 Coaming

3. Install each joint of the steering gear, and seal


the junction with O-ring.
Joint 1: 80±8Nm
Joint 3: 35±3.5Nm

1 2 3 4 5
Fig. 6-29
1.3 Joint 2.4 O-ring
5 Steering gear

4. Install the steering gear oil outlet steel pipe,


and seal the junction with O-ring.
ATTENTION
Fasten it after adjusting the direction of steel
pipe.
Steel pipe A/B: 85±10Nm

1 2
Fig. 6-30
1 Steering gear oil outlet steel pipe A
2 Steering gear oil outlet steel pipe B

6-16
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Install the steering cylinder oil inlet rubber


hose.
Rubber hose: 65±10Nm

1
Fig. 6-31
1 Steering cylinder oil inlet rubber hose

6. Connect the priority valve to steering gear P


port rubber hose.
Rubber hose: 85±10Nm

1
Fig. 6-32
1 Priority valve to steering gear P port
rubber hose

7. Connect the priority valve to steering gear LS


port rubber hose.
Joint 1: Rubber hose: 45±4.5Nm
Joint 3: Assembly joint: 30±5Nm

1 2
Fig. 6-33
1 Priority valve to steering gear LS
port rubber hose
2 Assembly joint

6-17
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

624 Disassembly and Assembly of


Steering Column

Disassembly of steering column


1. Remove the steering wheel.

2. Remove the gear fender apron and front and


rear covers of steering column.

3. Remove the rubber sleeve

4. Remove the steering column bottom cover.


123 45 6
Fig. 6-34
1 Steering column bottom cover
2 Rubber sleeve
3 Steering column front cover
4 Gear fender apron
5 Steering column rear cover
6 Steering wheel

5. Remove the gear shifting control handle and


combination switch.

1 2 3.4 5
Fig. 6-35
1 Gear shifting control handle
2.3 Screw
4 Transitional support
5 Combination switch

6-18
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Remove the fixing bolts of steering column


pipe clamp and connecting bolts used to
connect the steering column and steering gear,
take down the steering column.
ATTENTION
Hold the steering column with hand or
something to prevent falling.

7. Remove the other clamps from the steering


1 2
Fig. 6-36 column.
1 Fixing bolt
2 Connecting bolt
Assembly of steering column
1. Install steering column pipe clamps with
gaskets, screws and bolts.

1 2 3.4.5 6
Fig. 6-37
1.2 Pipe clamp 3.6 Bolt
4 Nut 5 Gasket

2. Nest the cover plate on the steering gear,


connect the steering column, fixed support,
rubber block and steering gear, tight them with
bolts.

3. Nest the rubber sleeve on steering column and


fix it on fixed support with clamps and bolts.
1 234 5 6
Fig. 6-38
1 Steering gear 2 Rubber sleeve
3 Pipe clamp 4 Fixed support
5 Rubber block 6 Cover plate
6-19
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Assemble the steering gear and steering


column assembly to the cab.

1 2.3
Fig. 6-39
1.2 Bolt
3 Steel pipe

5. Install gear shifting control handle and


combination switch.

1 2 3.4 5
Fig. 6-40
1 Gear shifting control handle
2.3 Screw
4 Transitional support
5 Combination switch

6-20
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Install the steering column bottom cover.

7. Install the rubber sleeve.

8. Install gear fender apron and front and rear


covers of steering column.

9. Install the steering wheel.


123 45 6
Fig. 6-41
1 Steering column bottom cover
2 Rubber sleeve
3 Steering column front cover
4 Gear fender apron
5 Steering column rear cover
6 Steering wheel

625 Disassembly and Assembly of


Steering Cylinder

Disassembly of steering cylinder


1. Start the machine and drive it to a capacious
flat place. Turn the steering wheel to deflect a
certain distance towards the opposite direction
of the replacing steering cylinder for the
convenience of disassembling. Wedge the tires
with blocks well, keep the bucket flat on the
ground, and shut down the engine. Then turn
the steering wheel clockwise and
anticlockwise for 5~6 times to drain the
internal oil pressure of the system.
2. Put a clean vessel under the replacing steering
cylinder.
3. Disconnect the steering cylinder rod-side oil
inlet rubber hose.
6-21
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

ATTENTION
In the process of disassembling the hydraulic
pipeline, do not screw off the nut connecting the
oil port rashly. Loosen the bolt gradually until
the oil spills out so as to prevent the oil splash
due to incomplete pressure relief.
In the process of disassembling the hydraulic
pipeline, be sure to take protective measures for
each pipeline and oil port to prevent debris like
1
Fig. 6-42 dust from entering into the pipeline.
1 Steering cylinder rod-side oil inlet
rubber hose

4. Remove the steering cylinder piston-side oil


inlet steel pipe, and disconnect the piston-side
oil inlet steel pipe and the steering cylinder.
Fastening bolt

1
Fig. 6-43
1 Steering cylinder piston-side oil
inlet steel pipe

5. Remove the oil-through bolt and gasket of


Oil-through bolt grease pipe at the front of steering cylinder.

1
Fig. 6-44
1 Oil-through bolt

6-22
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Remove the fixing bolts of kingpin card board,


take down the card board and kingpin and take
down the bolts, gaskets and card boards (Don't
mix the front and back card board).

1 2
Fig. 6-45
1 Card board
2 Bolt

7. Gently knock the rear kingpin from down to


up with a copper rod and take it down; and
gently tap the front kingpin from up to down
and take it down.
ATTENTION
Don’t damage the grease nipple.

1
Fig. 6-46
1 Kingpin

8. Take down the steering cylinder.

1
Fig. 6-47
1 Steering cylinder

6-23
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Assembly of steering cylinder


1. Install the steering cylinder steel pipe, seal the
junction with O-ring, and tighten it with bolts.
ATTENTION
When installing seal ring, put the O-ring in the
O-ring groove by hand and planish it. Inspect
whether the gap between the flange and the
junction surface is uniform via visual inspection
after the assembly.

1234 Bolt 2,3: 65±10Nm


Fig. 6-48
1 Steering cylinder
2.3 Bolt 4 Steel pipe

2. Firstly, draw out one part of the steering


cylinder piston rod to make its total length be
nearly equal to the distance between the two
pin holes, and then put the steering cylinder
piston-side into the installation seat of rear
frame steering cylinder.
ATTENTION
Make the joint oil port of steering cylinder
towards inner side.
Fig. 6-49

3. Put the steering cylinder to the hinged position,


make the front hinged position align, and fix
the steering cylinder on the front frame with
the front kingpin and card board.
ATTENTION
Be selective when assembling the card board,
you need to select, and should give preference to
make the side of which is far distance from the
center line of hole stuck to the groove of
1
Fig. 6-50 kingpin.
1 Kingpin
6-24
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Adjust the extended length of piston rod, make


the rear hinged position align, and fix the rod
on the rear frame with the rear kingpin, gasket
and card board.
ATTENTION
Be selective when assembling the card board,
you need to select, and should give preference to
make the side of which is far distance from the
1 2
center line of hole stuck to the groove of
Fig. 6-51
1 Card board kingpin.
2 Bolt

5. Connect the front grease pipe with one


Oil-through bolt oil-through bolt and two gaskets.

1
Fig. 6-52
1 Oil-through bolt

6. Connect the steering cylinder piston-side oil


inlet steel pipe to its corresponding oil port.

Fastening bolt

1
Fig. 6-53
1 Steering cylinder piston-side oil
inlet steel pipe

6-25
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7. Connect the steering cylinder rod-side oil inlet


steel pipe to its corresponding oil port

8. Add lubricating grease to each pin connection


position of steering cylinder till there is grease
squeezed out from fitting surface.

1 9. Check the hydraulic oil, and add if necessary.


Fig. 6-54
1 Steering cylinder rod-side oil inlet
rubber hose

63 Deflation of Steering System

When replacing steering pump, steering gear, priority valve, steering cylinder and the hydraulic
pipes in steering circuit, air bleeding must be done by performing the following steps:
1. Park the loader on maintenance position properly, and then open the filling cap of hydraulic oil
tank.
2. Run the engine at idle for several minutes; do not use any hydraulic function during this
process.
3. After the hydraulic oil is fully circulated, turn the steering wheel left and right within a narrow
range for several times. Be sure not to let the steering cylinder gets to its stroke end.
4. Keep the engine run at idle, turn the steering wheel gently to let steering cylinders stretch out
and draw back in full stroke for 3~5 times to drain the air in the circuit out. If necessary,
disconnect the oil inlet or outlet pipe of steering cylinder to get sufficient draining effect. Do
not build up hydraulic pressure during air draining.
5. After air draining, set the machine and working device in standard position, check the oil level
and tighten the filling cap.
6. Stop the engine, check and ensure there is no leakage in hydraulic circuit.

6-26
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

64 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of Steering System

Table 6-2
1. The inlet check valve of steering gear is damaged and the inlet
is blocked.

2. Steering gear failure, the check valve steel ball is jammed and
couldn’t reset.

3. Priority valve LS pipe is twisted together or too long, the


damping hole is blocked or oil leakage.
4. The steering column is damaged and requires larger driving
torque.
5. Interference between steering column and steering gear
connecting part, extra axial or radial force is formed and acts
on steering gear valve element after assembling.

6. Low set pressure of priority valve relief valve, or the main


1. Steering hard valve element is jammed, or the damping hole is blocked.

7. Low set pressure of safety valve of steering gear combination


valves.

8. Oil return filter is blocked.

9. The pump is severely worn, whose volume efficiency, output


pressure and flow rate can no longer meet system requirement.

10. Somewhere in the steering circuit is blocked that results in


severe throttle.

11. Main valve element of priority valve is jammed or the main


spring rigidity is reduced.

12. Interference in front axle steering mechanism.

1. Check whether the connecting rod of steering cylinder is loose.

2. Internal leakage of steering cylinder.

3. There is large pressure differential between the two tires.


2. Vehicle off tracking
4. Leakage in one side of bi-directional oil supplementary valve
or bi-directional overload valve.

5. Oil contains too much air.

6-27
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. Check whether the connecting rod of steering cylinder is loose.

3. Self-steering when 2. Internal leakage of steering cylinder.


steering wheel is in
3. Leakage in one side of bi-directional oil supplementary valve
neutral.
or bi-directional overload valve.

4. Oil contains too much air.

4. Transient steering is not 1. The machine is off work for too long, large temperature
flexible after the machine differential between steering gear components and hydraulic
is just started. oil.

1. Too much air in the steering system.

2. Steering cylinder pin is loose.

3. Heat shock.
5. Steering is inaccurate.
4. Main valve element of priority valve is jammed.

5. Oil leakage in steering cylinder.

6. Low efficiency of steering pump results in unstable pressure.

6. Steering cylinder
1. Too much air in the steering system.
creeping

1. Nuts of steering wheel and steering column fall off.


7. Steering wheel can be
turned freely, but there is 2. The connection between steering column central spindle and
no force feeling or the steering gear valve element is failed.
machine fails to steer.
3. Low hydraulic oil level.

8. Steering wheel can be 1. Severe leakage in bi-directional oil supplementary valve or


turned easily, but the bi-directional overload valve.
machine doesn’t steer or
steers slowly. 2. Severe internal leakage of steering cylinder.

1. Nut of steering wheel is loose.

2. The connection between steering column and steering gear is


severely worn or damaged.

9. Idle motion of steering 3. Oil contains too much air.


wheel. 4. Leakage in bi-directional oil supplementary valve or
bi-directional overload valve.
5. The steering cylinder linkage is damaged or worn (big gap).

6. Leakage of steering cylinder.


6-28
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

1. The connection between steering column and steering gear is


too tight or interference exists.

2. Too large return backpressure results in bad return.


10. Bad return or dragging
turning of steering wheel 3. Big contamination particle enters into the gap between valve
bush and valve element that results in unable to return.

4. Steering gear spring sheet is damaged or with small rigidity.

1. Big and hard contamination particle enters into the gap between
stator and rotor.

11. Components of steering 2. Severe grind damage.


gear is damaged
3. Pull pin cracked

4. Heat shock. (50oC differential)

1. Wrong assembly relationship. For reassembly, corresponding


spline tooth in universal driving shaft pull pin groove should be
12. Steering wheel trembles aligned to rotor internal spline tooth concave.
or self-rotation
2. Connect the oil inlet pipe to port R or port L, and the steering
gear will self-rotate as the motor.
13. Steering wheel and the
machine turning in 1. Pipe of port L and port R are inversely connected.
opposite direction

14. Steering wheel rebound 1. The inlet check valve of steering gear is damaged.

6-29
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
7 Frames, Tires & Working Device ....................................................................... 7-1
71 General................................................................................................................. 7-1
Overview of Frame ............................................................................................. 7-1
711 Overview of Working Device ..................................................................... 7-2
72 Disassembly and Assembly of Counterweight .................................................... 7-3
721 Disassembly of Counterweight ................................................................... 7-3
722 Assembly of Counterweight ........................................................................ 7-3
73 Disassembly and Assembly of Frame Junction ................................................... 7-4
731 Disassembly of Frame Junction................................................................... 7-4
732 Replacement of Bearing .............................................................................. 7-6
733 Lower Frame Junction ................................................................................. 7-6
734 Upper Frame Junction ................................................................................. 7-8
735 Connect Front and Rear Frame.................................................................... 7-9
736 Upper Frame Joint ....................................................................................... 7-9
737 Lower Frame Joint ....................................................................................... 7-9
74 Disassembly and Assembly of Front and Rear Tires ........................................ 7-11
741 Disassembly of Rear Tire .......................................................................... 7-11
742 Assembly of Rear Tire............................................................................... 7-12
743 Disassembly of Front Tire ......................................................................... 7-12
744 Assembly of Front Tire ............................................................................. 7-13
75 Disassembly and Assembly of Working Device ............................................... 7-14
751 Disassembly and Assembly of Connecting Rod ....................................... 7-14
752 Assembly of Connecting Rod .................................................................... 7-15
753 Disassembly of Rocker Arm ..................................................................... 7-16
754 Assembly of Rocker Arm .......................................................................... 7-17
755 Disassembly of Boom................................................................................ 7-18
756 Assembly of Boom .................................................................................... 7-19
757 Disassembly of Quick-Change Device...................................................... 7-19
758 Assembly of Quick-Change Device .......................................................... 7-20
76 Disassembly and Assembly of Quick-Change Bucket ...................................... 7-22
761 Assembly of Quick-Change Bucket .......................................................... 7-22
I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

762 Disassembly of Quick-Change Bucket ...................................................... 7-24

II
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7 Frames, Tires &

Working Device

71 General

Overview of Frame

There are two kinds of frame, namely unitary


frame and articulated frame. Articulated frame
consists of front frame, rear frame, hinge pin and
auxiliary frame. (Refer to Fig. 7-1)
Articulated frame has the advantages of small
turning radius, flexible and can be used in narrow
space. Front and rear frame are connected with
hinge pin, the frame can turning around the pin
1 2 3
under the action of steering cylinder to realize
Fig. 7-1
1 Rear frame 2Main hinge pin steering.
3 Front frame

This machine has adopted articulated frame.


Front frame mainly support the working device and
front drive axle.
Rear frame support engine, speed changer-torque
converter assembly, cab and tank.
Rear frame is installed with auxiliary frame or
swing frame on rear frame, which can make the
rear drive axle have a certain swing angle (usually
10º~15º) to the frame.
1
Fig. 7-2 The loader adopts auxiliary frame. (See Fig 7-2)
1 Auxiliary frame

7-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

711 Overview of Working Device

Working device adopts Z inverted six-bar linkage,


with big digging-up force, high working efficiency,
and with large unloading height and distance.
Z inverted six-bar linkage is generally composed of
boom cylinder, boom, bucket cylinder, rocker arm,
connecting rod and bucket. (As shown in Fig. 7-3)
Rear-end of the boom is connected to front frame
with a pin, and the front-end is installed with
1 2 345 6 bucket, and the middle part is connected to boom
Fig. 7-3 cylinders. When boom cylinder retracts or extends,
1 Bucket 2 Rocker arm
the boom rotates around the rear-end pin to realize
3 Connecting rod 4 Bucket cylinder
5 Boom 6 Boom cylinder raising and lowering of the bucket. The middle part
of rocker arm is connected to boom, and its two
ends connect to bucket cylinder and connecting rod
respectively. When bucket cylinder retracts or
extends, the rocker arm rotates around its middle
pin to realize sursumversion and turnover of the
bucket.

The loader is equipped with quick-change bucket.


(Refer to Fig. 7-4)

1
Fig. 7-4
1 Quick-change bucket

7-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

72 Disassembly and Assembly of


Counterweight

721 Disassembly of Counterweight

1. Connect the counterweight to lifting rope.


2. Remove the four fixing bolts of counterweight.

380kg

ATTENTION
1 Make sure the lifting rope is vertical and
Fig 7-5 tensioned, and prevent counterweight swinging
1 Counterweight fixing bolt
and hurting people after fixing bolts are
removed.
3. Lower counterweight, remove it from the
machine, and then move it out.

722 Assembly of Counterweight

1. Hang the counterweight and place it on rear


frame properly for assembling.
2. Fix it on the frame with four bolts.
3. Remove the lifting rope.

7-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

73 Disassembly and Assembly of


Frame Junction

731 Disassembly of Frame Junction

1. Park the machine on the solid and flat ground.


2. Put the bucket on proper spacer bush, and
make sure it can move forward. ( See Fig. 7-6)
3. Step the brake pedal repeatedly (about 40
times) to release the pressure in the brake
system.
1 4. Move back and forth the operation handle
Fig. 7-6
repeatedly to release the pressure of hydraulic
1 Spacer
system.
5. Turn off the power switch of battery.

6. Put blocks under front and back of rear tires to


prevent the loader moving. (See Fig. 7-7).
7. Disconnect the transmission shaft, and remove
it from the machine.

1
Fig. 7-7
1 Wood block

7-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

8. Remove the fixing bolt of the steering cylinder


front pin, take down the pipe joint nut,
lubricating oil pipe, cardboard bolt and
cardboard, and press the pin out. ( See Fig.
7-8)
9. Disconnect the hoses from multi-way valve,
and plug all oil ports. Ensure that all other
connections are disconnected, except the pin
1 2 3 4 5 connection between front and rear frame.
Fig. 7-8
1 Lubricating pipe 2 Cardboard 10. Use two single jacks to support the rear part of
3 Cardboard bolt 4 Pin the rear frame.
5 Pipe joint nut
ATTENTION
Due to rear part of the rear frame is heavy.
11. Remove cab floormat and front part of the
floor from the cab.

12. Remove the copper pin and slotted nut. ( See


Fig. 7-9)
13. Put support under front part of the rear frame
and rear part of the front frame.
14. Remove the cotter pin and slotted nut. Knock
the lower hinge pin upward to remove it, cool
the pin with a refrigerator or similar device.

1 2 ATTENTION
Fig. 7-9 Knock the pin gently to prevent damaging it.
1 Cotter pin 2 Slotted nut

7-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

15. Remove lubricating pipe and fixing bolt of


upper pin, and knock the pin out with copper
rod, cool the pin in the refrigerator or similar
device. (See Fig. 7-10)

1 2 3
Fig. 7-10
1 Pipe connection bolt 2 Lubricating pipe
3 Pin fixed bolt

732 Replacement of Bearing

16. Place one jack under both sides of the machine,


push the front frame forward in horizontal
direction, until the frames are separated
enough to touch the location of bearing.

733 Lower Frame Junction

17. Mark the location of bearing cap. Remove the


upper and lower bearing cap and bush, and the
adjusting gasket under upper cap.(See Fig.
7-11)
18. Remove the seal and clean the bearing cap.
Guarantee that the mark is not washed off.
19. Remove the antifriction bearing and spacer
sleeve with installation tools.
1 23 4 5
20. Clean the internal surface of pin hole and
Fig. 7-11
1 Bush 2 Upper bearing cap apply proper volume grease on it. Replace
3 Adjusting gasket 4 Mark with new bearing and spacer sleeve. When
5 Lower bearing cap
installing, the narrow end of two bearing outer
ring should be face-to-face, and put the spacer
7-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

sleeve between them. Press the bearing-sleeve


assembly into the pin hole.

ATTENTION
Antifriction bearing should be refrigerated for 4
hours before assembling

21. Install each bearing cap with four cross-placed


bolts. Pre-tighten the bolts to ensure there is no
gap between lower bearing lower end face and
lower bearing cap upper end face. Then take
down the two bearing caps.

ATTENTION
The move is ensure there is no gap between
lower bearing lower end face and lower bearing
cap upper end face, not official assembly.

22. Use a depth vernier gauge to measure distance


A between upper bearing upper end face and
upper pin hole upper end face, and the first
floor depth of the baring cap B, install gaskets
on the bottom of upper cover, total thickness
Fig. 7-12
of gaskets is C. After assembly, B+C-A is
axial displacement of bearing inner ring, and
ensure it is within 0.1~0.2mm. (See Fig. 7-12)
23. Install bearing caps. Tighten the bolts in
diagonal way.
Torque: 90±20Nm

ATTENTION
Align the mark when installing the bearing cap.

7-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

24. Install the bush with a new seal ring, apply


proper volume grease on the bush and press it
into the upper bearing cap. (See Fig. 7-13)

1 2
Fig. 7-13
1Upper bearing cap 2 Bush

734 Upper Frame Junction

25. Remove the upper and lower bearing caps of


the lower bearing.(See Fig. 7-14)
26. Take the knuckle bearing out with installation
tool.
27. Clean bearing cap.
28. Clean the internal surface of pin hole and
1 2
Fig. 7-14 apply proper volume grease on the hole, and
1 Upper bearing cap install the new bearing.
2 Lower bearing cap
29. Install upper and lower bearing caps, tighten
the bolts in diagonal way.
90±20Nm

7-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

735 Connect Front and Rear Frame

30. Install the two chain blocks. Guarantee the


support under front frame can move backward.
31. Pull front frame backward with chain tire.
32. Align front and rear frame carefully. Guarantee
that bush in bearing cap can’t bump against rear
frame, to prevent damaging the seal.

736 Upper Frame Joint

33. Align the position of upper pin. Use hydraulic

oil to lubricate the fitting area of upper hinge

pin and bearing.


34. Press-in the hinge pin.
35. Install pin fixing bolt and tighten it.
90±20Nm
36. Connect the lubricating oil pipe.(See Fig. 7-15)

1 2 3
Fig. 7-15
1 Pipe joint nut Lubricating pipe
3 Pin fixing bolt

737 Lower Frame Joint

37. Align the pin holes on front and rear frame.


38. Use hydraulic oil to lubricate the fitting area of
lower hinge pin and bearing.
39. Press-in the lower hinge pin as shown in Fig.
7-16.

1 2
Fig. 7-16
1 Protruding bump
2 Slot

7-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

40. Tighten slotted nut, insert the cotter pin and


bend one side.(See Fig. 7-17)
41. Remove chain blocks, jacks, support and wood
blocks.
42. Install the transmission shaft.
43. Connect the hydraulic pipes.
44. Install front pin of steering cylinder.

1 2 45. Lubricate the articulated joints (pin, upper and


Fig. 7-17 lower bearing).
1 Copper pin 2 Slotted nut
46. Check hydraulic oil level, add hydraulic oil to
required level if necessary.
47. Start the engine and check the machine for
leakage.

7-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

74 Disassembly and Assembly of


Front and Rear Tires

741 Disassembly of Rear Tire

1. Park the machine on the solid and flat ground.


2. Put blocks under front and back of rear tires to
prevent the loader moving.
3. Jack the machine off ground with dedicated
supporting tools. (See Fig. 7-18)
4. Loosen tire nuts (without removing them).

ATTENTION
1
Fig. 7-18 Do not remove the tire nuts before the tire is
1 Dedicated supporting tool fixed.

5. Install tire forklift tools, and fix the tire.


6. Remove tire nuts and tire.

Fig. 7-19
1 Tire forklift tool

7-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

742 Assembly of Rear Tire

1. Clean fitting surface between rim and hub.


Ensure the hub thread is clean and free of
damage.
2. Install the tire.
Use tire forklift tools to place tire in position.
Install four uniformly-spaced tire nuts
diagonally and tighten them orderly.
ATTENTION
Tighten the nuts clockwise and evenly (take
several tightening steps to prevent tilting
the tire).
Remove tire forklift tools.
Install and tighten rest tire nuts.
310±45Nm
3. Install jacks to support the machine, and
remove the dedicated supporting tools.
4. Lower down the machine, and remove the
jacks.
5. Check the machine for abnormalities.

743 Disassembly of Front Tire

1. Park the machine on the solid and flat ground.


2. Put blocks under front and back of front tires
to prevent the loader moving.
3. Jack the machine off ground with dedicated
supporting tools. (See Fig. 7-20)
4. Loosen tire nuts (without removing them).
1 5. Install tire forklift tools, and fix the tire.
Fig. 7-20
6. Remove tire nuts and tire.
1 Dedicated supporting tool (similar to
rear frame, inner side of the tool is
designed with baffle to prevent frame
moving left and right)
7-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

744 Assembly of Front Tire

1. Clean fitting surface between rim and hub.


Ensure the hub thread is clean and free of
damage.
2. Install the tire.
Use tire forklift tools to place tire in position.
Install four uniformly-spaced tire nuts
diagonally and tighten them orderly.
ATTENTION
Tighten the nuts clockwise and evenly (take
several tightening steps to prevent tilting
the tire).
Remove tire forklift tools.
Install and tighten rest tire nuts.
310±45Nm
3. Lower down the machine, and remove the
dedicated supporting tools.
4. Check the machine for abnormalities.

7-13
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

75 Disassembly and Assembly of


Working Device

751 Disassembly and Assembly of


Connecting Rod

1. Start the machine, drive it to flat, spacious and


solid ground, and stop the machine after
adjusting. Put the bucket on ground and set all
control handles in neutral, press the parking
brake switch and shut down the engine, wedge
the tires with wood blocks.
2. Hang the connecting rod to-be-disconnect end
1 with lifting appliance to prevent the rod falling
Fig. 7-21 after taking down the pin. Falling objects may
1 Connecting rod
cause personal injury or damaging the
ground.( See Fig. 7-21)
3. Remove fixing bolt of pin, and remove the
connecting pin of the connecting rod and the
bucket.
4. Put down the connecting rod and remove the
lifting rope, hang the other end with the rope.
5. Remove the fixing bolt of connecting rod and
rocker arm connecting pin. (See Fig. 7-22)
6. Knock the pin out with copper rod and hang
the connecting rod away.

1
Fig. 7-22
1 connecting pin between connecting
rod and rocker arm

7-14
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

752 Assembly of Connecting Rod

1. Clean the internal surface of pin holes and


inject proper volume grease to each hole.
2. Connect one end of connecting rod with lifting
rope, lift the rod up.
3. Put O-dust-ring on fitting faces between
connecting rod and rocker arm, one for each.
Connect the rod to rocker arm with pin.(See
Fig. 7-23)
4. Tighten the pin fixing bolt on the rocker arm.
5. Put O-dust-ring on fitting faces between the
1
other end of connecting rod and the bucket,
Fig. 7-23
1 O-dust-ring one for each.
6. Adjust the connecting rod and operate bucket
cylinder to align the connecting rod pin hole
with quick-change device pin hole.
7. Connect the rod to the quick-change device
with pin and fix the pin with bolt.

8. Inject proper volume grease into pin joint


through grease fitting.(See Fig. 7-24)

1
Fig. 7-24
1 Lubricating grease fitting

7-15
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

753 Disassembly of Rocker Arm

1. Hang the bucket cylinder with lifting rope.


Preload the hoisting rope to prevent the bucket
cylinder from falling down when removing the
pin.
2. Remove the fixing bolt of bucket cylinder and
rocker arm connecting pin, and knock the pin
out with copper rod. (See Fig. 7-25)

12 3
Fig. 7-25
1 Pin fixed bolt 2 Gasket
3 Connecting pin between bucket
cylinder and rocker arm

3. Lift the bucket cylinder and put a wood block


under bucket cylinder to support it. (See Fig.
7-26)
4. Hang the rocker arm with rope.
5. Remove the fixing bolt of pin between
connecting rod and rocker arm. Knock the pin
out with copper rod, and take down the
O-dust-rings.
1 6. Remove the fixing bolt of pin between rocker
Fig. 7-26 arm and boom, and knock the pin out with
1 Support position of bucket cylinder
copper rod.
7. Hung the rocker arm and put it on the prepared
rubber blanket.

7-16
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

754 Assembly of Rocker Arm

1. Clean the internal surface of rocker arm


middle hole and apply with lubricating oil.
2. Install the refrigerated shaft sleeve into the pin
hole, and make sure the distances between the
sleeve and the two ends of hole are equal.
3. Install O-dust-ring on both ends of the shaft
sleeve.
4. Hang the rocker arm with lifting rope.
5. Clean the internal surface of connecting rod
pin hole and inject proper volume grease to the
hole.
6. Install the refrigerated shaft sleeve into the pin
hole, and make sure the distances between the
sleeve and the two ends of hole are equal.
7. Install O-dust-ring on both ends of the shaft
sleeve.
8. Connect the connecting rod and rocker arm
with pin and fix the pin with rod.
9. Align the two pin holes of the rocker arm and
boom. Mount the rocker arm to the boom with
pin and fix the pin with bolt. (See Fig. 7-27)
10. Keep the arm stable and remove the lifting
rope from rocker arm pin hole.
11. Hang the bucket cylinder rod end with lifting
rope and remove the wood block.
12. Start the engine and adjust the stroke of piston
1 rod. With the help of hoisting rope, align the
Fig. 7-27
pin holes of bucket cylinder and rocker arm.
1 Connection point between rocker
arm and boom 13. Use a pin connecting the bucket cylinder to
arm. Put gaskets in the connecting end. Choose
proper type and installing position of gasket to
ensure the installing clearance between

7-17
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

0.5~1.5mm.
14. Fix the pin on rocker arm with bolt.
15. Inject proper volume grease into pin joint
through grease filling port.

755 Disassembly of Boom

1. Remove the rocker arm.(Refer to Disassembly


of Rocker Arm)
2. Remove the bucket. (Refer to Disassembly of
Quick-Change Bucket)
3. Start the engine, raise the boom to horizontal
position and put wood block under the boom.
4. Hang the boom with lifting rope, as long as the
rope is tensioned.
1 5. Remove fixing bolt of pin which used to
Fig. 7-28
connect boom and boom cylinder. Knock out
1 Connecting pin between boom and
boom cylinder the pin lightly and take away.(See Fig. 7-28)

6. Remove fixing bolt of pin that connecting


front frame and boom. Knock the pin out
gently and take it away. (See Fig. 7-29)
7. Hang the boom away and put it down.

1
Fig. 7-29
1 Connecting pin between front
frame and boom

7-18
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

756 Assembly of Boom

1. Clean the internal surface of boom pin hole


and apply proper volume grease.
2. Press two refrigerated shaft sleeves into the pin
hole (between boom and front frame), Install
O-dust-ring on both ends of the shaft sleeve.
3. Hang the boom with lifting rope, approach the
front frame slowly, align the relevant holes in
the boom and front frame.
4. Connect front frame and boom with pin and
fix the pin with bolt. Adjust the gaskets to
keep the clearance between boom and front
frame end face within 0.5~1.5mm.
5. Start the engine, and control the stroke of
boom cylinder to adjust the height of boom.
Align the pin holes of boom and boom
cylinder.
6. Connect boom cylinder and boom with pin and
fix the pin with bolt.

757 Disassembly of Quick-Change


Device

1. Start the machine, drive it to flat, spacious and


solid ground, and stop the machine after
adjusting. Put the bucket on ground and set all
control handles in neutral, press the parking
brake switch and shut down the engine, wedge
the tires with wood blocks.
2. Remove hydraulic pipe fittings from quick
change device.
3. Hang the quick change device with lifting
rope.

7-19
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Put a support under the connecting rod to


prevent it falling after taking down the pin.
Falling objects may cause personal injury or
damaging the ground.
5. Remove the fixing bolts of pin between the
connecting rod and the quick change device,
and knock the pin out with a copper rod.
6. Remove the fixing bolts of pin between the
boom and the quick-change device, and knock
1
Fig.7-30 the pin out with a copper rod.(See Fig. 7-30)
1 Connecting pin between boom and 7. Hang the quick-change device to a safety
quick-change device
place.

758 Assembly of Quick-Change


Device

1. Start the machine and raise the boom to a


certain height (about 30cm to the ground).
2. Clean the internal surface of boom pin hole
and inject proper volume grease, and install
the O-dust-ring on the outside end face of the
left and right boom respectively.(See Fig.
7-31)
3. Hang the quick-change device up and adjust its
1 2 3
position to align it to the boom connecting pin
Fig.7-31
1 grease 2 Shaft hole hole.
3 O-dust-ring 4. Connect the quick change-device and the
boom with pins, and fix them with bolts.
Adjust the quantity and thickness of the
gaskets to make the assembling clearance
between boom and quick change device end
7-20
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

face be 0.5~1.5mm.
5. Put O-dust-ring on two ends of connecting rod
hole, one for each end.
6. Start the machine, hang the connecting rod and
operate the quick change-device cylinder in
meantime to align the connecting rod pin hole
with the bucket pin hole.
7. Connect the quick-change device and the
rocker arm with pin, and tighten the pin fixing
bolt.
8. Inject proper volume grease into pin joint
through grease filling port.

7-21
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

76 Disassembly and Assembly of


Quick-Change Bucket

761 Assembly of Quick-Change


Bucket

1. Put the quick-change bucket on flat solid


ground.(See Fig. 7-32)

1
Figure 7-32
1 Quick-change bucket

2. Start the machine and drive it slowly, in the


meantime operate the handle to adjust the
height of quick-change device, to align the
quick-change device pin to the bucket hook.
(See Fig. 7-33)

1 2
Fig.7-33
1 Quick-change bucket hook
2 Quick-change device pin

7-22
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Raise the boom to hook on the pin, continue to


raise the boom and drive forward for a short
distance slowly to let the quick-change device
fully contact the quick-change bucket stop
block. (See Fig. 7-34)

1
Fig. 7-34
1 Stop block

4. Turn the quick-change power switch on. (See


Fig. 7-35)

1
Fig. 7-35
1 Quick-change power switch

5. Press down the quick-change assembling


button (the left one). (See Fig. 7-36)

1 2
Figure 7-36
1 Quick-change assembling button
2 Quick-change disassembling button

7-23
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Extend quick-change cylinder pin to connect


quick-change bucket. (See Fig. 7-37)
7. Loosen the quick-change assembling button
(left one) and turn the quick-change power
switch off.
8. Set the gear shifting handle in neutral and
press parking brake switch, lay down the
1 quick-change bucket. All handles should be in
Fig. 7-37
neutral, and then shut down the engine
1 Extension of quick-change cylinder pin
762 Disassembly of Quick-Change
Bucket

9. Start the machine and park it to flat, spacious


and solid ground, leave some space for
reversing, keep the quick-change bucket flat
on the ground.
10. Turn the quick-change power switch on right
operation box on. (See Fig. 7-35)
11. Press down the quick-change disassembling
button (the right one) to retract the pin of
quick-change device to disconnect the
quick-change bucket.(See Fig. 7-38)
12. Operate the operation handle to tilt the
quick-change device forward slightly
(unloading motion), back the machine slowing
in the meantime, and then lower the boom

1 until the quick-change device pin is off the


Fig. 7-38 bucket hook.
1 Retracting of quick-change device
13. Back the machine and operate the handle to
Pin
retract the quick-change device and raise the
boom.
14. Set the operation handle in neutral, turn the
quick-change power switch off and shut down
the engine.
7-24
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
8 Cab & Covering Parts System ............................................................................. 8-1
81 Cab Description ................................................................................................... 8-1
811 Overview ..................................................................................................... 8-1
812 Cab External Declaration ............................................................................ 8-1
813 Cab Interior Decoration Declaration ........................................................... 8-2
82 Air Conditioning System Description ................................................................. 8-4
821 Overview ..................................................................................................... 8-4
822 System Description ...................................................................................... 8-5
83 Disassembly and Assembly of Cab Assembly .................................................... 8-8
831 Disassembly of Cab Assembly .................................................................... 8-8
832 Assembly of Cab Assembly ...................................................................... 8-12
833 Replacement of Seat .................................................................................. 8-17
834 Disassembly of Operation Box .................................................................. 8-18
835 Assembly of Operation Box ...................................................................... 8-20
84 Disassembly and Assembly of Engine Hood .................................................... 8-22
841 Disassembly of Rear Cover ....................................................................... 8-22
842 Disassembly of Engine Hood .................................................................... 8-24
843 0Disassembly of DPF Support .................................................................. 8-25
844 Assembly of DPF Support ......................................................................... 8-27
845 Assembly of Engine hood ......................................................................... 8-29
846 Assembly of Rear Cover ........................................................................... 8-31
85 Disassembly and Assembly of Left and Right Platform Assembly .................. 8-33
851 Disassembly of Platform Assembly .......................................................... 8-33
852 Assembly of Platform Assembly ............................................................... 8-34
86 Disassembly and Assembly of Air Conditioning System ................................. 8-36
861 Disassembly of Evaporator Assembly ...................................................... 8-36
862 Assembly of Evaporator Assembly ........................................................... 8-38
863 Replacement of Evaporator Components .................................................. 8-41
864 Replacement of Condenser Fan ................................................................. 8-46
865 Replacement of Liquid Storage Tank ........................................................ 8-47
866 Replacement of Compressor Components ................................................ 8-48
I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

867 Draining and Filling of Refrigerant ........................................................... 8-50


87 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of A/C System ........................... 8-54
871 Regular Checking Items ............................................................................ 8-54
872 Non-Refrigerating Fault Analysis ............................................................. 8-55
873 Insufficient Refrigerating Fault Analysis .................................................. 8-55
874 Non-Heating Fault Analysis ...................................................................... 8-56
875 Other Fault Analysis .................................................................................. 8-56

II
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

8 Cab & Covering

Parts System

81 Cab Description

811 Overview

LG938L cab has the advantages of safety, comfort


and large space, not only looks luxury, but also can
fully satisfy the operator’s requirements for
comfort.

1
Fig. 8-1
1 Cab

812 Cab External Declaration

The cab is fixed on frame with four dampers. The


dampers can significantly reduce the noise and
vibration, improve driving comfort.

1 2
Fig. 8-2
1 Damper 2 Bolt
8-1
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

813 Cab Interior Decoration


Declaration

The cab interior is commodious, operating handle


is located in the right hand side, and dashboard is
located in the front and right side of the cab.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Fig. 8-3
1 Seat 2 Gear shifting control handle
3 Steering wheel 4 Combination switch
5 Working device operation handle 6 Parking brake switch
7 Rocker switch 8 Control panel

8-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Rocker switch
WARNING
Positive and negative switch: The switch must
be used in engine flameout state.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Fig. 8-4
1 Wiper switch
2 Front and rear sprayer switch
3 Rear wiper switch
4 Front lamp switch
5 Rear lamp switch
6 Top alarm lamp switch

7 8 9 10 11
Fig. 8-5
7 Exhaust regeneration indicator group
8 Malfunction and preheat indicator group
9 Regeneration switch
10 Diagnosis switch
11 Power cut-off switch

12 13 14 15 16
Fig. 8-6
12 Safety lock switch
13 Quick-change power switch
14 Positive and negative switch
15 Parking brake relief switch
16 Voltage stabilization module switch

8-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

82 Air Conditioning System


Description

821 Overview

LG938L air conditioning system consists of


compressor, evaporator assembly, condenser
assembly, receiver-drier, rubber hose and control
panel.

Fig. 8-7
1 Compressor 2 Compressor to condenser pipe 3 Evaporator to compressor pipe
4 Control panel 5 Evaporator assembly 6 Condenser assembly 7 Receiver-drier

1 2
Fig. 8-8
1 Engine water outlet valve
1 Engine water return valve
8-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

822 System Description

LG938L air conditioning system consists of refrigeration system, heating system, ventilating system
and pressure control system.
The loader air conditioning system is equipped with two filters: Fresh air filter and return air filter.
Fresh air filter is used to filter out particles of the inlet fresh air, while return air filter is used to
filter the fresh air and recirculated air. Fresh air and recirculated air inlet on-off is controlled by the
air door motor in ventilation unit, and its control panel is located on right side panel in the cab.

Fig. 8-9
1 Engine 2 Air condition compressor 3 Condenser 4 Recirculated air door
5 Return air filter 6 Fan motor 7 Evaporator (with expansion valve)
8 Fan heater 9 Refrigerant flow valve 10 Fresh air filter 11 Temperature sensor
The fan sucks air into the cab through inlet port, and then the air goes through a replaceable fresh
air filter, and then passes the air return filter. After the filtering, the air flows into refrigerator core,
then the heater core, finally diffuses into the cab.
There are three option switches on the control panel. Cab temperature is electrically controlled by
temperature controller, which actuates the refrigerant flow control valve, in order to control the
refrigerant flow rate in evaporator. Air inlet controller (fresh air door motor) controls recirculated
air amount (relatively to fresh air inlet). If you chose for recirculation, the air will flow through the
recirculated air valve. If the controller is set as the largest recirculation, most of the air will be
recycled, and only inhale a small amount of air from the cab external to maintain the cab internal
overpressure.

1 2 3
Fig. 8-10
1 Air volume switch 2 Fresh air change-over switch 3 Refrigeration start change-over switch
8-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

: Fresh air

: Recirculated air
Fig. 8-11
Refrigeration system of the loader is used for refrigerating the air in the cab or fresh air from
outside to lower the temperature in the cab. The operating instructions are as follows:
1. Start the engine;
2. Turn on the power and air volume switches, and then turn the temperature control switch to
“COOL” position, indicator light will be on, the refrigeration process starts.
3. Turn the air volume switch; choose among low speed, intermediate speed and high speed, to get
three different air volumes.
4. When the temperature is reduced to set temperature, rotate the temperature control switch
anticlockwise until the indicator light goes out and the compressor stops working, at this time
the indoor temperature is the set value. When the indoor temperature is above this temperature,
indicator light will on, the compressor will start automatically and the systeem begins to cool;
When the indoor temperature is below this temperature, indicator light goes out and the system
stops working.
5. When using the air condition, please don’t turn the temperature control switch to “COOL”
position and turn the wind switch to low speed at the same time. Because this will cause
evaporator frosting and influence the refrigerant performance.
Heating system of the loader uses the heat energy of the cooling liquid. It introduces the cooling
liquid of the diesel engine to the radiator in the cab and uses the evaporator blower to blow the
heated air to the interior of the cab. At the same time, the heating system cleans the frost and fog on
the front window.
8-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Heating system instructions:


1. Turn the temperature control switch to “0” or “OFF” position (off state);
2. Start the engine and open the hot water valve;
3. Turn on the air volume switch, select the mode and choose the required wind speed.
Ventilation system of the loader includes natural ventilation and forced ventilation. The natural
ventilation uses the wind pressure produced outside the cab when the loader drives to ventilate;
forced ventilation uses the blower to blow the outside air into the cab.
Pressure system of the loader adopts the high-low pressure switch control. When the pressure of the
air conditioning system is abnormal because of the lack of refrigerant or too high pressure, the
compressor will be switched off to protect the air conditioning system.
Refrigerating fluid for air condition is R-134a (Freon-free environmental refrigerant).
ATTENTION
When refrigerating in summer, please close the hot water valve. When heating in winter,
please close the temperature control switch.

8-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

83 Disassembly and Assembly of


Cab Assembly

831 Disassembly of Cab Assembly

Tool: 2m lifting rope.


1. Before disassembly, lift the cab until the lifting
rope is neither loose nor too tight.
2. Disassemble the hydraulic pipelines of steering
gear. Refer to Chapter 6 for details.
3. Disassemble the hydraulic pipelines of foot

1 2 brake valve. Refer to Chapter 5 for details.


Fig. 8-12
1 Steering gear
2 Foot brake valve

4. Remove hydraulic pipelines of pilot operating


handle. Refer to Chapter 9 for details.

1
Fig. 8-13
1 Pilot operating handle

5. Disassemble the air condition part. Refer to


Page 8-36 in this chapter for details.

1
Fig. 8-14
1 Air condition
8-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Disassemble the platform assembly. Refer to


Page 8-33 in this chapter for details.

1
Fig. 8-15
1 Platform

7. Disconnect the cab grounding wire that


connected to rear frame.

1
Fig. 8-16
1 Grounding wire

8. Disconnect the rear frame wiring harness on


the bottom of the cab (right-rear side).

1
Fig. 8-17
1 Rear frame wiring harness

8-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

9. Disconnect all wiring harnesses connectors in


the cab.

1234
Fig. 8-18
1 Engine wiring harness
2 Independent radiator wiring harnesses
CN41
3 Rear frame wiring harness CN2
4 Independent radiator wiring harnesses
CN38

10. Disconnect the speed sensor wiring harness


from transmission box.

1
Fig. 8-19
1 Speed sensor of output shaft
11. Disconnect the gang socket wiring harness
from transmission box.

1
Fig. 8-20
1 Gang socket wiring harness
8-10
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

12. Disconnect instrument wiring harness (to rear


frame).

1
Fig. 8-21
1 Instrument wiring harness (to rear
frame)

13. Disconnect instrument wiring harness (to front


frame).

1
Fig. 8-22
1 Instrument wiring harness (to front
frame)

14. Remove the connecting bolts between cab and


rear frame.

1
Fig. 8-23
1 Bolt

8-11
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

15. Hang down the cab with lifting rope and put it
on the cab support.
ATTENTION
Before lifting up, check and ensure all pipes and
wiring harnesses that connected to cab are
disconnected. Keep the cab stable during lifting.

1
Fig. 8-24
1 Lifting rope

832 Assembly of Cab Assembly

Instrument: 2m lifting rope.


1. As shown in Fig. 8-25, lift up the cab with
lifting rope and put it on rear frame, do not
crush the pipes and wiring harnesses.
ATTENTION
During lifting, keep the cab balanced to align
installing holes, and don’t crush the hydraulic
rubber hoses and wire harnesses. When putting
the cab down, keep it stable.
1
Fig. 8-25
1 Lifting rope

2. Install the four dampers with bolts.


120~200Nm

1
Fig. 8-26
1 Bolt
8-12
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Connect instrument wiring harness (to front


frame).

1
Fig. 8-27
1 Instrument wiring harness (to front
frame)

4. Connect instrument wiring harness (to rear


frame).

1
Fig. 8-28
1 Instrument wiring harness (to rear
frame)

5. Connect the gang socket wiring harness to


transmission box.

1
Fig. 8-29
1 Gang socket wiring harness

8-13
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Connect the speed sensor wiring harness to


transmission box.

1
Fig. 8-30
1 Speed sensor of output shaft
7. Connect all wiring harnesses connectors in the
cab.

1234
Fig. 8-31
1 Engine wiring harness
2 Independent radiator wiring harnesses
CN41
3 Rear frame wiring harness CN2
4 Independent radiator wiring harnesses
CN38

8. Connect the rear frame wiring harness on the


bottom of the cab (right-rear side).

1
Fig. 8-32
1 Rear frame wiring harness
8-14
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

9. Connect the cab grounding wire (between cab


and rear frame).

1
Fig. 8-33
1 Grounding wire

10. Install the platform assembly. Refer to Page


8-34 in this chapter for details.

1
Fig. 8-34
1 Platform

11. Install the air condition part. Refer to Page


8-36 in this chapter for details.

1
Fig. 8-35
1 Air condition

8-15
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

12. Install hydraulic pipelines of steering gear.


Refer to Chapter 6 for details.

13. Install the hydraulic pipelines of foot brake


valve. Refer to Chapter 5 for details.

1 2
Fig. 8-36
1 Steering gear
2 Foot brake valve

14. Install hydraulic pipelines of pilot operating


handle. Refer to Chapter 9 for details.

1
Fig. 8-37
1 Pilot operating handle

8-16
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

833 Replacement of Seat

Instrument: 2m lifting rope


ATTENTION
If in the use process you discover that the seat is
damaged and affects the operator’s comfort and
safety, be sure to replace it.
1. Remove the bolts under the seat support.

1
Fig. 8-38
1 Bolt

2. Hang the seat out of the cab with lifting rope.

1
Fig. 8-39
1 Seat

3. Replace the old seat with a new one and fix it


with bolts

1
Fig. 8-40
1 Bolt

8-17
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

834 Disassembly of Operation Box

1. It is optional to remove the seat first for the


convenience of operation box disassembly.
Refer to Page 8-17 in this chapter.

1
Fig. 8-41
1 Operation box
2. Remove the fixing bolts of operation box.
3. Disassemble the operation box peripheral plate.
And disassemble the bolts shown in Fig. 8-42.

1 2
Fig. 8-42
1 Screw 2 Bolt
4. Remove the sponge and pipe clamp which is
used for fixing the pilot pipeline on the bottom
of the operation box.

1 2
Fig. 8-43
1 Operation box welding assembly
2 Bolt
8-18
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Remove the fixing bolts that used to fix the


pilot valve and small pilot valve.

1 2
Fig. 8-44
1 Pilot valve fixing bolt
2 Small pilot valve fixing bolt

6. Remove the roof assembly that fixed on


operation box welding assembly.

1 2
Fig. 8-45
1 Bolt 2 Roof assembly

7. Remove operation box assembly.

1 2
Fig. 8-46
1 Bolt
2 Operation box welding assembly

8-19
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

835 Assembly of Operation Box

1. Fix the operation box welding assembly on the


cab.

1 2
Fig. 8-47
1 Bolt
2 Operation box welding assembly

2. Fix the roof assembly to the operation box


welding assembly with bolts.

1 2
Fig. 8-48
1 Bolt 2 Roof assembly

3. Install fixing bolts of the pilot valve and small


pilot valve.

1 2
Fig. 8-49
1 Pilot valve fixing bolt
2 Small pilot valve fixing bolt

8-20
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Assemble the sponge and pipe clamp of the


pilot pipeline.

1 2
Fig. 8-50
1 Operation box welding assembly
2 Bolt

5. Fix the operation box peripheral plate with


bolts.
6. Fasten the upper cover with bolts and gaskets.

1 2
Fig. 8-51
1 Screw 2 Bolt

7. Assembly of operation box is done.

Fig. 8-52

8-21
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

84 Disassembly and Assembly of


Engine Hood

Start the engine and drive the loader to smooth and


spacious ground. Wedge the front of the front tires
and back of the rear tires with blocks. Keep the
bucket flat on the ground, and shut down the
engine.

1
Fig. 8-53
1 Wood block

The disassembly of the engine hood includes two


parts:
1. Disassemble the rear cover;
2. Disassemble the engine hood.

1 2
Fig. 8-54
1 Rear cover 2 Engine hood

841 Disassembly of Rear Cover

Instrument: 2m lifting rope


1. Move the machine to the maintenance
position.
2. Open the window lattice.

1
Fig. 8-55
1 Window lattice
8-22
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Disconnect wiring harness of rear headlamp


circuit.
4. Remove the connecting bolts between rear
cover and rear frame.

1 2
Fig. 8-56
1 Rear headlamp wiring harnesses
2 Rear cover bolt

5. Disassemble the connecting bolts between rear


cover and engine hood.

1
Fig. 8-57
1 Rear cover bolt

6. Connect one end of the lifting rope to rear


cover, the other end to the hoisting appliance.
Lift up the rear cover, put in on a cushion
carefully.
ATTENTION
Keep rear cover stable when putting it down.

1
Fig. 8-58
1 Lifting rope
8-23
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

842 Disassembly of Engine Hood

Instrument: 2m lifting rope


1. Remove the air filter intake pipe of engine.
ATTENTION
Disconnect the hose clamps between intake pipe
and air filter.

1
Fig. 8-59
1 Intake pipe
2. Disconnect the liquid level monitor wiring
harness that connected to the expansion tank.
3. Remove the vent pipe and refill pipe which
connecting the expansion tank and engine
body.
4. Remove the radiator vent pipe.

1 2 3 4 5
Fig. 8-60
1 Radiator vent pipe
2 Monitor wiring harnesses plug
3 Engine vent pipe joint
4 Refill pipe joint 5 Expansion tank

5. Open the upper port on the expansion tank and


the water draining valve on the bottom of the
box, drain the cooling liquid to clean
container.
Cooling liquid: 35kg

1
Fig. 8-61
1 Water draining valve
8-24
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

6. Remove fixing bolts of the engine hood.

1
Fig. 8-62
1 Bolt

7. Connect one end of the lifting rope to the


middle of the engine hood armrest, the other
end to the hoisting device. Then lift down the
rear cover, and put it on the cushion.
ATTENTION
Keep engine hood stable when putting it down.
Avoid tilt accidents.

1
Fig. 8-63
1 Lifting rope

843 0Disassembly of DPF Support

Instrument: 2m lifting rope


1. Remove the intake and exhaust pipe of inter
cooler and the water inlet and outlet pipe of
radiator on two sides of DPF support.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 8-64
1 Inter cooler intake pipe
2 Inter cooler exhaust pipe
3 Radiator water inlet pipe
3 Radiator water outlet pipe
8-25
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. Disconnect the independent radiator wiring


harness and DPF wiring harness.

1 2
Fig. 8-65
1 Independent radiator wiring harness
2 DPF wiring harness

3. Remove the exhaust pipe of engine and DPF.

1
Fig. 8-66
1 Exhaust pipe

4. Remove the fixing bolts of pull rods


(connecting the rear frame and DPF support).

1 2
Fig. 8-67
1 Bolt
2 Pull rod

8-26
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Hang the DPF support with lifting rope, the


rope should be neither loose nor too tight.
Remove the connecting bolts between DPF
support and rear frame.
6. Hang the DPF support to safety place. The
disassembly is done.

1
Fig. 8-68
1 Bolt

844 Assembly of DPF Support

Instrument: 2m lifting rope


1. Hang the DPF support with lifting rope, put it
on rear frame slowly, tighten the connecting
bolts between DPF support and rear frame.
120±10Nm

1
Fig. 8-69
1 Bolt

2. Tighten the fixing bolts of pull rods


(connecting the rear frame and DPF support).

1 2
Fig. 8-70
1 Bolt 2 Pull rod

8-27
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Install the exhaust pipe between engine and


DPF.

1
Fig. 8-71
1 Exhaust pipe

4. Connect the independent radiator wiring


harness and DPF wiring harness.

1 2
Fig. 8-72
1 Independent radiator wiring harness
2 DPF wiring harness

5. Install the intake and exhaust pipe of inter


cooler and the water inlet and outlet pipe of
radiator on two sides of DPF support.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 8-73
1 Inter cooler intake pipe
2 Inter cooler exhaust pipe
3 Radiator water inlet pipe
3 Radiator water outlet pipe
8-28
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

845 Assembly of Engine hood

Instrument: 2m lifting rope


1. Tighten the fixing bolts between prefilter and
engine hood.

1 2
Fig. 8-74
1 Bolt 2 Prefilter

2. Install air filter and expansion tank on engine


hood.

1 2
Fig. 8-75
1 Air filter 2 Expansion tank

3. Connect one end of the lifting rope to the


middle of the engine hood, the other end to the
lifting appliance. Then lift up the engine hood,
and put it on the engine.
ATTENTION
Pay attention to the lifting position, avoid the
hood falling down. During the lift, it is
forbidden to stand under the frame. When
1 putting down the engine hood, don’t squeeze
Fig. 8-76
1 Engine hood your hand.

8-29
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Install the fixing bolts of the engine hood.


90±20Nm

1
Fig. 8-77
1 Bolt

5. Use clamps to connect the vent pipe and refill


pipe which connecting the expansion tank and
engine body.
6. Install the hose clamps to connect radiator vent
pipe to expansion tank.
7. Connect the liquid level monitor wiring
harness to the monitor.

1 2 3 4
Fig. 8-78
1 Radiator vent pipe
2 Monitor wiring harnesses plug
3 Engine vent pipe joint
4 Refill pipe joint 5 Expansion
tank
8. Install the air filter intake pipe of engine.

1
Fig. 8-79
1 Engine intake pipe

8-30
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

846 Assembly of Rear Cover

Instrument: 2m lifting rope


1. Connect one end of the lifting rope to the rear
cover, the other end to the lifting appliance.
Then lift up the rear cover, and put it on the
machine gently.
ATTENTION
Do not touch the handrail on the engine hood
during lifting. Keep rear cover stable when
putting it down to avoid tilt accidents.

1 2
Fig. 8-80
1 Rear cover 2 Lifting rope

2. Install the connecting bolts between rear cover


and engine hood.
52±13Nm

1
Fig. 8-81
1 Bolt
3. Install the bolts that connecting rear cover and
rear frame.
90±20Nm

1
Fig. 8-82
1 Rear cover bolt
8-31
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Connect wiring harness of rear headlamp


circuit.

1
Fig. 8-83
1 Rear headlamp wiring harnesses

5. Close the window lattice.


6. Recover the machine.

1
Fig. 8-84
1 Window lattice

8-32
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

85 Disassembly and Assembly of


Left and Right Platform
Assembly

Start the engine and drive the loader to smooth and


spacious ground. Fix the front of the front tires and
back of the rear tires with blocks. Keep the bucket
flat on the ground, and shut down the engine.
Disassembly of left and right platforms are similar,
we take left platform for example.
ATTENTION
1 Don’t crush the refrigeration pipeline when
Fig. 8-85 disassembling and assembling the right
1 Wood block
platform to avoid the refrigerant leaking.

851 Disassembly of Platform


Assembly

Disassembly of platform assembly includes


platform disassembly and ladder stand
disassembly.
Instrument: 2m lifting rope

1
ATTENTION
Fig. 8-86 Connect the platform to the lifting rope before
1 Bolt
disassembling. Avoid the platform falling down
after all bolts are removed.
1. Remove the bolts that connecting the platform
to hydraulic tank support.

2. Remove the bolts that connecting platform to


rear frame.

1
Fig. 8-87
1 Bolt
8-33
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

3. Lift the platform up and put it on the cushion.

1 2
Fig. 8-88
1 Lifting rope 2 Left platform

4. Remove the accumulator. Refer to Chapter 5


for details.
5. Remove the bolts that connecting the ladder
and rear frame, and lift the ladder and put it on
cushion with lifting rope.

1 2
Fig. 8-89
1 Ladder 2 Bolt
852 Assembly of Platform Assembly

Instrument: 2m lifting rope


1. Lift up the ladder to an appropriate location of
the machine; tighten the bolts that connecting
the ladder and rear frame.

1 2
Fig. 8-90
1 Ladder 2 Bolt

8-34
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. Lift the platform to the proper position and


prepare to install bolts.

1 2
Fig. 8-91
1 Lifting rope 2 Left platform

3. Tighten the connecting bolts between platform


and rear frame.

1
Fig. 8-92
1 Bolt

4. Tighten the bolts to connect the platform to


hydraulic tank support, and then remove the
lifting rope.
5. Assembly of the left platform is done.

1
Fig. 8-93
1 Bolt

8-35
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

86 Disassembly and Assembly of Air


Conditioning System

861 Disassembly of Evaporator


Assembly

1. Drain the refrigerant. Refer to refrigerant


draining on Page 8-50 in this chapter for
details.
ATTENTION
Avoid directly contacting the refrigerant.
Do the disassembly in a well-ventilated place.
2. Open the air condition cover.
1 2 3 3. Remove the return air filter, fresh air filter and
Fig. 8-94 intake baffle.
1 Fresh air filter 2 Return air filter
3 Intake baffle
4. Disconnect the connectors of air condition
related wiring harnesses.

Fig. 8-95
1 Power source wiring harness of evaporator assembly
2 Wiring harness that connecting control panel and evaporator
3 Power source wiring harness of air door motor
4 Air condition wiring harness
5 Power source wiring harness of condenser fan
6 Pressure switch wiring harness
7 Power source wiring harness of compressor
8-36
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

5. Disconnect the hose clamps of engine fan


heater pipes on the bottom of cab (right-rear
side).

1
Fig. 8-96
1 Fan heater water pipe

6. Remove the bolts that connecting evaporator


and cab.

1
Fig. 8-97
1 Bolt

7. Disconnect the bolts connecting the right


interior trim panel in cab and evaporator
assembly.

1 2
Fig. 8-98
1 Bolt
2 Interior trim panel

8-37
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

8. Take down the evaporator assembly and put it


on the proper place.

1
Fig. 8-99
1 Evaporator assembly
862 Assembly of Evaporator
Assembly

1. Install evaporator assembly.


2. Connect the rubber hose of evaporator air
outlet and cab air inlet.

1
Fig. 8-100
1 Evaporator assembly

3. Install the bolts that connecting evaporator and


cab.

1
Fig. 8-101
1 Bolt

8-38
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Connect the wiring harness connectors of


evaporator assembly.

Fig. 8-102

5. Install the bolts to connect the interior trim


panel in cab and evaporator assembly.

1 2
Fig. 8-103
1 Bolt
2 Interior trim panel

6. Connect the wiring harness between


temperature control panel and air door motor.

1 2
Fig. 8-104
1 Air door motor wiring harness
2 Air door motor

8-39
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

7. Install the filter and intake baffle; connect the


pressure switch connector.
8. Close the air condition cover.

1 2 3
Fig. 8-105
1 Filter 2 Intake baffle
2 Pressure switch

9. Install the engine fan heater water pipes to the


evaporator and fix them with hose clamps.

1 2
Fig. 8-106
1 Heater water pipe
2 Hose clamps

10. Fill refrigerant. For details, refer to Page 8-51


in this chapter.
11. Recover the machine and test-run the air
conditioning system.

Fig. 8-107

8-40
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

863 Replacement of Evaporator


Components

ATTENTION
When a pipeline is disconnected, cover the pipe
with plug or multilayer plastic cloth.
1. Remove the evaporator from the machine, and
put in on the platform. Refer to Page 8-36 in
this chapter.

1
Fig. 8-108
1 Evaporator assembly

2. Remove the fixing plate on the right side of the


evaporator.

1 2
Fig. 8-109
1 Evaporator
2 Fixing plate

3. Disassemble all the clamps of the evaporator


assembly, and then disassemble the cover.

1
Fig. 8-110
1 Clamp

8-41
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Replacement of heater core


1. Take out the heater core and replace it.
2. Reinstall the cover, and fix all of the clamps.
3. Reinstall the evaporator assembly. Refer to
Page 8-38 in this chapter.

1
Fig. 8-111
1 Heater core
Replacement of evaporation blower
1. Disconnect the wiring harnesses, take out the
blower and install the new one.
2. Reinstall the cover, and fix all of the clamps.
3. Reinstall the evaporator assembly. Refer to
Page 8-38 in this chapter.

1
Fig. 8-112
1 Evaporation blower

Replacement of expansion valve

ATTENTION
Drain all refrigerant in the system. Refer to Page
8-50 in this chapter.
1. Take out refrigerator core.

1
Fig. 8-113
1 Refrigerator core

8-42
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

2. Disconnect the pipe between expansion valve


and refrigerator core, and remove the
expansion valve.
3. Install the new expansion valve.

ATTENTION
Keep the interior of expansion valve clean and
use the compressor oil to lubricate the seal ring.

1 4. Connect the expansion valve pipe.


Fig. 8-114
1 Expansion valve

5. Install the pressure switch.


6. Install the fixing plate
7. Use vacuum pump to fill system with
refrigerant. Refer to Page 8-51 in this chapter.

1 2
Fig. 8-115
1 Fixing plate
2 Pressure switch

8. Install the filter screen and the intake baffle.


9. Recover the machine and test-run the air
conditioning system.

1 2
Fig. 2-116
1 Intake baffle
2 Filter screen

8-43
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Replacement of temperature sensor


1. Replace temperature sensor.
2. Install the cover of evaporation assembly and
the upper right side fixing plate.
3. Install filter screen and the intake baffle.
4. Close the air condition cover.
5. Recover the machine and test-run the air
conditioning system.
1
Fig. 2-117
1 Temperature sensor

Replacement of refrigerator core

ATTENTION
Drain all refrigerant in the system. Refer to
Page 8-49 in this chapter.
1. Remove the cover clamps, take out refrigerator
core and put it aside.
2. Loosen the bolts; and install the new
refrigerator core.

ATTENTION
Keep the interior of refrigerator core clean and
use the refrigerator oil to lubricate the seal ring.
1 3. Install the cover of evaporation assembly
Fig. 8-118
4. Install the evaporator right side fixing plate.
1 Refrigerator core
5. Install the filter cover, filters and air door
motor wiring harness.
6. Use vacuum pump to fill system with
refrigerant. Refer to Page 8-51 in this chapter.
7. Recover the machine and test-run the air
conditioning system.

8-44
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Replacement of air door motor


1. Open the cover of evaporator assembly.
2. Remove the filter and filter cover.

1
Fig. 8-119
1 Air door motor

3. Disconnect the wiring harness between


temperature control panel and air door motor.
4. Put the filter cover on soft cushion to avoid
damaging the air mixing door.
5. Remove the fixing screws of air door motor,
take down the motor.
6. Install a new air door motor.

1 7. Connect the wiring harness between


Fig. 8-120 temperature control panel and air door motor.
1 Screw
8. Turn the battery switch.
9. Test-run and check the functions of air door
control panel.
10. Close air condition cover.
11. Recover the machine and test-run the air
conditioning system.

Fig. 8-121

8-45
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

864 Replacement of Condenser Fan

1. Remove the peripheral bolts of condenser


cover.

1
Fig. 8-122
1 Bolt

2. Unplug the plug of fan motor, remove


condenser cover and fan and put them on
cushion.
3. Loose the four connecting bolts of condenser
fan.

1 2
Fig. 8-123
1 Condenser fan bolt
2 Fan wiring harness

4. After replacing with a new fan, fasten the four


connecting bolts.
ATTENTION
When assembling the new fan, put the fan
wiring harness on the upper right position.
5. Assemble condenser cover and fan to the
condenser.
6. Recover machine and test-run air conditioning
Fig. 8-124
system.

8-46
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

865 Replacement of Liquid Storage


Tank

1. Drain the refrigerant, for details refer to


refrigerant draining on page 8-50.
2. Remove the steam storage pipe that connected
with the liquid storage tank. Protecting the
steam storage pipe connector well is required.
3. Remove the upper bolts that connecting
condenser and liquid storage tank. Protecting
the condenser pipe connector well is required.
1 2 3
4. Remove the bottom bolts that connecting
Fig. 8-125
1 Steam storage pipe condenser and condenser pipe. Protecting the
2 Liquid storage tank condenser pipe connector well is required.
3 Condenser pipe
5. Loose the fixing bolts connecting liquid
storage tank support and condenser. Remove
the liquid storage tank.
6. Replace with a new liquid storage tank and
connect it with steam storage pipe and
condenser pipe. Before connecting pipes, it is
forbidden to remove the plug cap. It can only
be opened in the last stage of installation.
7. Install the liquid storage tank fixing bolts.
8. Fill refrigerant, refer to page 8-51 for details.
Recover the machine and check air
1 2
Fig. 8-126 conditioning system.
1 Fixing bolt of liquid storage tank
support
2 Condenser pipe

8-47
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

866 Replacement of Compressor


Components

ATTENTION
When a pipeline is disconnected, cover the pipe
with plug or multilayer plastic cloth.
Replacement of compressor belt
1. Put the machine in the maintenance position.
2. Open the engine hood.
3. Loose the connecting bolts and adjusting
screws, and then remove the belt.

1 2
Fig. 8-127
1 Belt 2 Adjusting screw

4. Mount a new belt, adjust tensile force, tighten


it using connecting bolts and adjust to the
proper degree of tightness. When press 10kg
pressure force, it is proper if belt goes down
10~12mm, and then fasten compressor.
5. Recover the machine and test-run the A/C
system.

1
Fig. 8-128
1 Belt

8-48
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Replacement of compressor
1. Open the engine hood.
2. Drain all refrigerant in the system, refer to
refrigerant draining on page 8-50.
3. Release the tensile force of the belt, remove
the belt. Pull out the compressor wiring
harness plug.
4. Disconnect compressor to condenser pipe and
evaporator to compressor pipe from the
1 2
Fig. 8-129 compressor. Protecting the condenser
1 Compressor to condenser pipe connector well is required.
2 Evaporator to compressor pipe
5. Loose and remove the fixing bolts of
compressor, then take down the compressor.
6. Install the new compressor with bolts, leave
the bolts untightened.
7. Remove the plugs from the refrigerant pipe
and compressor. Mount the refrigerant pipe
and on the compressor with a new O-ring.
Lubricate O-ring with refrigerating engine oil.
8. Install pipe connector, and then mount the
1 clamp of refrigerant pipe.
Fig. 8-130
1 Belt 9. Reinstall compressor belt. Adjust the position
of compressor and keep the belt groove of
compressor clutch and that of engine coplanar.
Adjust the belt to proper degree of tightness.
10. Refill A/C system. Refer to refrigerant filling
and vacuum pumping on page 8-50.
11. Recover the machine and test-run A/C system.

1
Fig 8-131
1 Filling hose

8-49
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

867 Draining and Filling of


Refrigerant

Refrigerant draining
Instruments:
Refrigerant device Vacuum pump
Adaptor AC leak detector
Hose Platform scale
1. Put the refrigerant container on the platform
scale.
Make sure the volume of the refrigerant
container is big enough to contain the
refrigerant.
Weight the refrigerant, weight of refrigerant =
weight of refrigerant and container – weight of
1 refrigerant container.
Fig 8-132
Read the capacity of container from the
1 Drain hose
container.
2. Make sure there is no pressure in the recovery
device.
3. Connect the red “draining” hose of the
recovery device to the refrigerant container.
Connect blue “absorption” hose to low
pressure connector of the machine.
Drain
4. Open the red hose valve on the refrigerant
container.
Open the valve on the refrigerant container.
Open the “draining” valve on the recovery
device.
Rotate the central controller to recovery
position.

8-50
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Start the recovery device through the switch,


start draining.
Open the blue hose valve through the lower
pressure connector of the machine.
Open “absorption” valve
5. When the weight no longer increases, check
whether the pressure is lower than the vacuum
degree displayed on the pressure gauge.
6. Close the absorption valve.
Close the blue hose valve through the low
pressure connector of the machine.
Rotate the central controller to “auto clean”;
the blue pressure gauge falls to vacuum degree
again.
Close the recovery device.
Close refrigerant container valve.
Close draining valve.
7. Disconnect the recovery device from the
Fig 8-133
1 Absorption 2 Draining machine.
3 Central controller 4 Scale displayer
5 Refrigerant container valve
6 Red hose valve
7 Refrigerant container
8 Platform scale
Refrigerant filling, including vacuum
pumping
Vacuum exhaust
Vacuum pump working

Vacuum pump stops

Pressure
Refrigerant leakage
Air tight inspection

30 Let stand
Prefill refrigerant

gauge
Fill refrigerant

minutes for 20
indicates
checking

or more minutes
normally 1. Close all of the valves on the pressure gauge
750mmHg
or more box.
2. Connect the red hose to the high pressure
Pressure gauge
indicates abnormally Fill the refrigerant in
gas state until pressure connector on the machine.
Check connecting gets to 0.4MPa
points and amend (Pressure gauge)
Open the hose valve through the machine
Leakage
connector.
Fig 8-134
3. Connect the blue hose to the low pressure
connector on the machine.
8-51
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Open the hose valve through the machine


connector.
4. Connect the yellow hose to the refrigerant
container.
Place the refrigerant container upside down on
the platform scale.
Check whether there is refrigerant in the
container. Weight of refrigerant = weight of
1 2
Fig 8-135 refrigerant and container – weight of
1 Red hose 2 Blue hose refrigerant container.
5. Open the two green valves on the pressure
gauge box.
Start the vacuum pump.
6. Open the blue and red valves on the pressure
gauge box.
Start the vacuum gauge.
7. Keep the vacuum pump working at least for 50
minutes.
8. When reached the right pressure, close the two
green valves, red valve and blue one on the
pressure gauge box.
2 3 4 Close the vacuum pump.
Fig 8-136 Pressure gauge box
1 Vacuum gauge Disconnect the hoses from the machine.
2 Refrigerant container Filling
3 Platform Scale
4 Vacuum pump 9. Connect the adaptor to the low pressure
connector of the machine, and fill in the same
volume of oil consumed by system.
Remove the adaptor.
10. Connect the red hose to the high pressure
connector of the machine.
Connect the blue hose to the low pressure
connector of the machine.

8-52
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

11. Press the TARA (reset the scale) on the scale


displayer.
Open the yellow valve on the pressure gauge
box.
12. Open the blue valve, start filling.
13. Under the condition of opening AC power,
start the engine. Run the engine at the speed of
1000rpm.
14. When the platform scale shows the right
weight of the refrigerant, close the refrigerant
valve (refer to the information on the inside of
the machine hatch).
1 2
Fig 8-137 Close the yellow valve on the pressure gauge
1 Red hose 2 Blue hose box.
15. Close the hose valve through the machine
connector.
Close all of the valves on the pressure gauge
box.
16. Open the red and blue valves through the
machine connectors and check the pressure at
the speed of 1800rpm.
17. Disconnect the red and blue hoses from the
machine.

8-53
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

87 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of A/C System

When check and maintain the failures of the A/C system, you must check the reasons according to
the abnormal phenomena, and then take measures. The common failures of A/C system are
non-refrigeration, non-heating, insufficient refrigerating capacity and so on.

871 Regular Checking Items

The A/C system of the loader is working in bad environment. So it may be damaged whether it is
working or not. The usual maintenance must be strengthened.
Check the pipeline connectors, compressor support, Degree of tightness of the compressor belts
regularly. Check whether the hoses of the A/C system have wear phenomena, check wiring
harnesses and keep the surface of the condenser clean.
Table 8-1 Regular checking item list

Checking interval
Checking items Checking details
Daily Semiannually Annually
Pipeline Bad fixation, with gaps. ▲ ▲
assembly Connection loose, nuts and bolts loose. ▲ ▲
Connecting Connection loose, nuts and bolts loose
▲ ▲
bolts and falling off.
Loose and bend. ▲ ▲
belt Degraded, worn, scar, cracked. ▲ ▲
Noise, abnormal odor and heat. ▲
Condenser Radiator fin lodging ▲
assembly Foreign matter block ▲ ▲ ▲
Startup check, air volume and switch
Ari condition ▲ ▲
control.
air flow switch
Switch function ▲ ▲
Refrigerant Pipe joint leakage ▲ ▲
leakage Internal leakage in the components ▲
Refrigerant
Check the volume of refrigerant ▲ ▲
volume
Compressor ▲
Noise
Condenser fan, evaporator fan ▲
Receiver-drier
Existing of temperature difference
temperature ▲
means there is foreign matter blockage
difference

8-54
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

872 Non-Refrigerating Fault Analysis

Table 8-2 Non-refrigerating fault analysis list


Checking items: fan
Compressor
connector, ground
doesn’t work
connection and fan.
Condenser fan
Checking items:
doesn’t rotate
Evaporator Compressor temperature control
fan rotates works switch, relay and relay
connector.
Condenser fan Compressor Checking item: clutch,
rotates doesn’t work connector and belt
Condenser Check whether speed-control switch is
Non-refrigerating
rotates, failure, whether fan wire is disconnected,
compressor whether ground connection wire of fan is
Evaporator
works good.
fan doesn’t
Condenser
rotate Check whether fuse is burned, whether
doesn’t rotate,
relay is normal, whether connection wire
compressor
is loose.
doesn’t work
Fans of If not used for long time, the R134a in the
Compressor evaporator and system might leak. Use high-low
is normal condenser work pressure gauge to check whether there is
normally R134a or not.

873 Insufficient Refrigerating Fault Analysis

Table 8-3 Insufficient refrigerating fault analysis list

Import and export of fluid reservoir are


Fans of connected reversely。
evaporator and
condenser works Check whether the expansion valve is blocked
Compressor normally, so as by ice or contaminant, replace the fluid
Insufficient reservoir.
works the evaporator
refrigerating
normally and condenser
Replace R134a
Fan works
Check whether there is foreign matter blocked
normally, so as
on the condenser surface.
others.

8-55
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

874 Non-Heating Fault Analysis

Table 8-4 Non-heating fault analysis list

Check whether electromagnetic valve works


Evaporator works normally normally, whether there are other valves of heating
pipeline not opened.
Non-heating
Check whether speed-control switch is in failure,
whether fan wire is disconnected, whether
Evaporator doesn’t work
grounding wire of fan is good. Check whether fuse
is burned, whether connecting wire is loose.

875 Other Fault Analysis

Table 8-5 Other fault analysis list

No. Phenomena Causes Solutions

At the beginning, the


refrigeration performance is
The loader was traveled on
good. After a period of time,
the rough ground Use leak detector to
refrigerating capacity is not
frequently. Connectors find the leaking
1 enough; observing through
become loose because of position and tighten the
observation hole of reservoir,
vibration and leakage leak parts carefully.
bubbles appear; both readings of
appears.
high and low pressure gauge are
low.
System doesn’t refrigerate, the Misused the loader,
airport blows hot air. There is no temperature warp of
Replace expansion
2 hand-feeling temperature expansion valve is worn
valve and refill R134a
difference of the import and and leak. The valve hole is
export of the expansion valve. blocked.

Start refrigerating
system intermittently,
when the block is not
Air volume of outlet isn’t cool, serious, this method
There are impurities in the
compressor temperature rises. can eliminate the
system, filter screen of
Pointer of low pressure gauge instantaneous
3 expansion valve is blocked.
decline to near zero quickly. blockage. Or remove
Thin frost of sweat appears
Reading of high pressure gauge the expansion valve
on expansion valve.
is higher than normal range. and clean it with
alcohol. Empty the
system and refill
R134a.

8-56
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Refrigerating capacity is not


enough, evaporator frosts; Flow restriction orifice of Empty the system,
4 readings of high and low expansion valve doesn’t replace expansion
pressure gauges are lower than work. valve and refill R134a.
normal level.

After running for a period,


Desiccant of receiver-drier
refrigerating capacity declines,
is saturated. Flow Empty the system,
high pressure gauge is higher
5 restriction orifice of replace fluid reservoir
than normal level and low
expansion valve is blocked and refill R134a.
pressure gauge is lower than
by ice.
0.4Mpa.

Use multi-meter to
check whether
Start refrigerating system, there Temperature control switch
temperature control
is air flow but is not cool. has a bad contact or
6 switch is damaged;
Readings of high and low electromagnetic clutch coil
replace
pressure gauge don’t change. of compressor is damaged.
electromagnetic clutch
of compressor.

Opening degree of
Action of electromagnetic clutch temperature control switch
Check temperature
of compressor is too frequent, is too small which force the
control switch and turn
7 contact time is short. Cab is not compressor stop
it to the coldest
cool but readings of high and low automatically and cause
position.
pressure gauge is normal. refrigerating capacity is not
enough.

Notes when overhauling refrigerating system:


1. When checking, wear protective glasses or mask as far as possible. Avoid contacting
refrigerant directly which can frostbite body. Once contacting with large number of
refrigerant, rinse the contact part with cold water.
2. Maintain the refrigerating system in well-ventilated place. As the refrigerant is colorless
and odorless, it can make people suffocate because of lack of oxygen.
3. Refrigerant will produce toxic phosgene when meeting flame. Avoid exposing the
refrigerant to fire.
4. In order to avoid the risk of explosion, do not weld or rinse with hot steam near the A/C
pipeline or components.
5. When replacing the components, keep the connector and inner chamber of system clean.
Follow the criterions as shown in Table 8-6 to replenish refrigerating engine oil.

8-57
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Table 8-6 Volume of refrigerating engine oil

Component name Replenish volume/mL


Evaporator 40~50
Condenser 40~50
System connecting hose 30~40
Fluid reservoir 15~25

6. After replaced A/C components, connect the pipeline joints. Tighten them in accordance
with required tightening torque as shown in Table 8-7.
Table 8-7 Tightening torque

Thread specification M5 M6 M8 M10

Tightening torque (Nm) 6~8 10~12 12~15 20~25

8-58
&$5,1685$1&(

7+,5'*($5.12%6:,7&+ 5(' '&


%52:1
&2035(66255(/$<6 &21'(16(5)$15(/$<6
% <(//2:
&
%/8( 5 5

)5(6+),567*($5 5('%/8(
0
.12%6:,7&+ )5(6+$,5'$03(502725
 0
5('*5(<
7+(502(/(&75,&
9$/9(02725$'-867$%/( +,*+92/7$*(6:,7&+
326,7,216:,7&+
&21752//(5
5 *5((1
5.

+($7,1*/$03
5. 5
)5(6+$,5/$03
5. 5
&22/,1*/$03

.
5
*5((1 63(('5(6,67$1&(
.5(/$<6
&2,/
5
7+(50267$7 %/$&.
327(17,20(7(5 &21'(16(5)$1 0 &2035(6625&/87&+

:+,7(

:+,7( 02725(9$325$7,21
0

:+,7( :+,7(

7(03(5785(6(1625
7+(50,6725 '&
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

CONTENTS
9 Working Hydraulic System ................................................................................. 9-1
91 Components, Locations ....................................................................................... 9-1
92 Principle Diagram of Hydraulic System, Description ......................................... 9-3
921 Median Function of Multitandem Valve ..................................................... 9-4
922 General Functions ........................................................................................ 9-4
923 Boom Floating Function .............................................................................. 9-5
924 Hydraulic Safety Functions ......................................................................... 9-6
925 Auto Reset Function .................................................................................... 9-7
926 Safety Lock Function .................................................................................. 9-7
93 Hydraulic System Components, Description, Disassembly and Assembly ........ 9-9
931 Hydraulic Oil Tank ......................................................................................... 9
932 Multitandem Valve .................................................................................... 9-17
933 Pilot Operating Valve ................................................................................ 9-33
934 Pilot Operating Valve for Reserved Slide Valve Part (Optional) ............. 9-39
935 Hydraulic Cylinder .................................................................................... 9-45
936 Other Hydraulic Components .................................................................... 9-58
94 Quick-Change Device Hydraulic System.......................................................... 9-60
941 System Overview....................................................................................... 9-60
942 Disassembly and Assembly of Quick-Change Cylinder ........................... 9-61
95 Independent Radiating Hydraulic System ......................................................... 9-66
951 System Overview....................................................................................... 9-66
952 Radiating Pump ......................................................................................... 9-68
953 Radiating Motor......................................................................................... 9-72
954 Temperature Controlled Wind-cooling Control Valve ............................. 9-73
96 Boom Stabilization Module ............................................................................... 9-74
97 Pressure Measuring Methods and Standards of Working Hydraulic System ... 9-76
971 System Working Pressure Measuring Methods and Standards................. 9-76
972 Pilot Pressure Measuring Methods and Standards .................................... 9-77
98 Service Precautions For Working Hydraulic System ........................................ 9-78
99 Diagnosis and Solutions for Common Faults of Hydraulic System ................. 9-82
991 Unexpected Forward Tilt of Bucket .......................................................... 9-82
I
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

992 Boom Sinking ............................................................................................ 9-83


993 Boom Lifting Slowly ................................................................................. 9-85
994 Lifting Incapacity of Boom ....................................................................... 9-87
995 Bucket Slow Motion .................................................................................. 9-88
996 Working Incapacity of Bucket ................................................................... 9-88
91 Components, Locations

9-1
9 Working Hydraulic System
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig.9-1 Components, locations


① Pilot valve ② Priority Valve ③ Pressure selection valve ④ Overflow valve
⑤ Filter ⑥ Multitandem valve
9-2
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig.9-2 Components, locations


① Boom cylinder ② Bucket cylinder ③ Multitandem valve
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

92 Principle Diagram of Hydraulic System, Description

Fig. 9-3 Hydraulic principle diagram

9-3
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

The working device hydraulic system is composed of multitandem valve, pilot valve, pressure
selection valve, boom cylinders, bucket cylinder, hydraulic oil tank and pipeline accessories.
The multitandem valve is a triple valve, one part for bucket, one for boom and the third one is a
reserved slide valve for further hydraulic functions.

921 Median Function of Multitandem Valve

When set the pilot handle in neutral position, no control oil flows into multitandem valve. The slide
valves of multitandem valve keep in neutral position under spring force. At this point, the pumped
oil flows back to hydraulic oil tank through multitandem valve directly.

Fig. 9-4 Oil circuit when multitandem valve in neutral

922 General Functions

When operate the pilot handle to carry out forward tilt, backward tilt of bucket or lift, falling of
boom, the corresponding control port of corresponding slide valve on main control valve will
receive the control oil sent by pilot valve. The control oil pushes slide valve to allow high pressure
oil from working pump flowing into the corresponding cylinder to get the action we need.
The move of slide valve is proportional to control oil pressure; its displacement is determined by
control oil pressure and the built-in spring.

9-4
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

Fig. 9-5 Oil circuit when lifting the boom


Red: Working pressure Blue: Return pressure Orange: Pilot pressure

923 Boom Floating Function

Fig. 9-6 Oil circuit when boom floating


Red: Working pressure Blue: Return pressure
Orange: Pilot pressure Green: Zero pressure oil
9-5
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

When pilot handle is in limiting position of “boom lowering”, on the one hand, pilot valve sends a
control pressure to boom part of the multitandem valve to keep the boom part stay in “boom
lowering" position; on the other hand, the pilot valve makes the logical valve in boom rod-side
chamber connect to hydraulic tank, at this point, the logical valve is open. The rod-side chamber of
boom is connected to oil return line, and zero-pressure idle loop is formed in the system. The boom
cylinder works in free floating state under the action of working device’s weight and ground acting
force.

924 Hydraulic Safety Functions

When bucket cylinder or boom cylinder is under big external force, high oil pressure will be formed
and exert force on pipelines. This kind of pressure must be released safely to protect hydraulic
components. When the oil pressure rises to a certain value, the main safety valve in main control
valve will open to release high pressure oil automatically.
When the bucket tilts forward accidentally, the pressure of oil in bucket cylinder piston-side
chamber will increase, if it exceeds settling value of the corresponding overload valve in
multitandem valve bucket part, the high pressure oil in bucket cylinder piston-side chamber will
flow back to hydraulic tank through overload valve; meanwhile, negative pressure will be formed in
the rod-side chamber, oil in the return chamber will flow back to offset the negative pressure
through the oil supplementary check valve.
When the bucket tilts backward accidentally, the pressure of oil in bucket cylinder rod-side chamber
will increase, if it exceeds settling value of the corresponding overload valve in multitandem valve
bucket part, the high pressure oil in bucket cylinder rod-side chamber will flow back to hydraulic
tank through overload valve; meanwhile, negative pressure will be formed in the piston-side
chamber, oil in the return chamber will flow back to offset the negative pressure through the oil
supplementary check valve.
Another function of the bi-directional overload oil supplementary valve: When the bucket is totally
forward tilt and operate to lift the boom, the piston of bucket cylinder will be forced to extend due
to uncoordinated movement of working device, so the pressure of oil in bucket cylinder rod-side
chamber will increase. At this point, rod-side double-acting safety valve begins to work to release
pressure. When the bucket is totally backward tilt and operate to lower the boom, the piston of
bucket cylinder will be forced to retract, so the pressure of oil in bucket cylinder piston-side
chamber will increase and negative pressure will be formed in rod-side. At this point, piston-side
double-acting safety valve begins to work to release pressure and oil in rod-side chamber pipeline
will flow back to offset the negative pressure. By this way, the working device interaction problem
can be solved, which makes the system more stable.
9-6
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

925 Auto Reset Function

Automatic reset system is composed of two parts, boom limit control system and bucket flat control
system. When the boom is lifted to limiting position or the bucket is turned to horizontal position,
the boom or bucket proximity switch will send electrical signal to deenergize the coils of pilot valve,
and the multitandem valve goes back to neutral position, so the boom can stay in limiting position
or the bucket can stay horizontal.

1 2
Fig. 9-7 Proximity switch
1 Bucket proximity switch 2 Boom proximity switch

926 Safety Lock Function

1
Fig. 9-8
1 Safety lock switch
Working principle
 Press down the upper end of safety lock switch, safety lock electromagnetic valve will
deenergized (in position ①), at this point, the oil line between pilot control valve and pressure
selection valve will be disconnected, pilot control valve has no pressure oil source and the
working device couldn’t work.
 Press down the lower end of safety lock switch downward (need to disconnect lock buckle),
safety lock electromagnetic valve will energized (in position ②), at this point, the oil line
9-7
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

between pilot control valve and pressure selection valve will be connected, operate the pilot
control handle and the working device will act.


To pilot control To pressure
valve port P selection valve

Fig. 9-9

To pressure
selection valve

To pilot control
valve port P
Fig. 9-10 Fig. 9-11

9-8
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

93 Hydraulic System Components, Description, Disassembly and


Assembly

931 Hydraulic Oil Tank

It is used to provide oil to the whole hydraulic system. An oil return filter is designed in the tank to
remove the impurity in the hydraulic system, in order to ensure the cleanliness of hydraulic oil.

Fig. 9-12 Hydraulic oil tank


1 Flange plate 2 Oil return filter 3 Air filter 4 Oil filler
5 Flange plate 6 Oil draining valve 7 Round oil pointer
Hydraulic tank components description:
1. Air filter (3): Used to balance the air pressure inside the tank and atmospheric pressure.
2. Round oil filler (7): Used to check the hydraulic oil level.
3. Oil return filter (2): Used to filter oil contamination out. If there is too much contamination
accumulated in filter element, which will increase pressure difference between two sides of the
filter, the filter build-in bypass valve will open if the pressure difference gets to its opening
pressure 3bar, oil will be released through bypass valve to ensure the hydraulic system
operation normal.
9-9
Service Manual for LG938L Wheel Loader

4. Flange plate (1