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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 7 Number 2- Jan 2014

Comparative Study of Microstrip Patch Antenna for


Microstrip Feed Line and Different Substrate
Harish Langar1, Bharti Gupta2
nd
1.M-Tech 2 Year Student, SIRT, Bhopal (MP), India.2.H.O.D & Prof,Dept of EC, SIRTE, Bhopal (MP), India

Abstract: III. Microstrip Line Feed


This paper describes different feeding technique
and different substrate applicable to Microstrip patch Microstrip feed technique; a conducting strip is made
antenna which is one of the important aspects. A good contact directly to the edge of the radiating patch or
impedance matching condition between the line and Microstrip patch. The conducting strip is having
patch without any additional matching elements minimum in width as compared to the patch and
depends on feeding techniques used and substrate Microstrip feed technique has the advantage that the feed
used. After analysis micro strip feeding techniques for can be etched on the same substrate to provide a planar
different substrate, this paper gives a better structure [5, 6].It is an easy feeding Technique, since it
understanding of the design parameters of an antenna provides ease of fabrication and simplicity in modelling
and their effect on Impedance, VSWR, bandwidth as well as impedance matching. According to the
and gain. Finally, simulation is done using design thickness of the dielectric substrate being used, increases,
software HFSS. surface waves and spurious feed radiation also increases,
that can affect the bandwidth of the antenna [6].
Index Terms – Microstrip Patch Antenna,Impedance
Bandwidth, VSWR, HFSS, Gain. IV. DIFFERENT SUBSTRTE
I. INTRODUCTION For Microstrip patch antenna consists the patch which is
mounted on the material that material is known as
Microstrip patch antennas have number of substrate which having the dielectric constant and loss
advantages such as low profile, easy to fabricate and tangent. The Four materials are used to design the
conformability to mounting hosts also size, return loss Microstrip patch antenna for comparison of parameter.
reduction and bandwidth enhancement and impedance
matching are major design considerations for practical a) FR4
applications of microstrip antennas.The lightweight b) Rogers RO33054
construction and the suitability for integration with c) Taconic TLE
microwave integrated circuits are of their advantages. d) RT Duriod
A comparison between microstrip feeding technique for
different substrate has been done. Finally, a microstrip V. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
patch antenna at specific frequency i.e. 2.40 GHz has
been designed and, simulated on the design software Microstrip patch antenna consists of very thin metallic
HFSS. strip (patch) placed on ground plane where the thickness
of the metallic strip is restricted by t<< λ0 and the height
II. MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA is restricted by 0.0003λ0 ≤ h ≤ .05λ0. The Microstrip
patch is designed so that its radiation pattern maximum is
Microstrip antenna consists of very small conducting normal to the patch. For a rectangular patch, the length L
patch which is built on a ground plane separated by of the element is usually λ0 /3 <L< λ0 /2 [1, 6].
dielectric substrate like RT Duroid etc. The patch is
generally made of conducting material like copper or V.I Procedure for Microstrip Patch Antenna
gold and that can be any possible shape [1]. The radiating
patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the The Performance of the microstrip patch antenna
dielectric substrate. The conducting patch, theoretically, depends on its resonant frequency, dimension.
can be possible to design of any shape, In general Depending on the dimension, the operating frequency,
rectangular and circular configurations are the most radiation efficiency, directivity, return loss are
commonly used [1, 5]. Some of the other configurations influenced. For an efficient radiation, Calculation of
used are complex to analyze and require large numerical Geometrical Dimensions For the calculation of
computations.In its most fundamental form,a microstrip geometrical dimensions of the microstrip patch the fact
patch antenna consist of a radiating patch on one side of that the electrical dimensions are larger than geometrical
a dielectric substrate which has ground plane on the other dimensions should be taken into consideration. This is
side [1] is illustrated in fig 1. caused by the existence of fringing field beyond the limit,
given by the geometrical dimensions of the microstrip
patch.

Figure 1: Structure of Microstrip Patch Antenna

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 93


International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 7 Number 2- Jan 2014

(a) Calculated patch width VI. DESIGNING


c 2
W
2 f0  r  1 (1)

(b) Calculated effective dielectric constant


1/2
 r  1  r 1  h
 reff   1  12 
2 2  W (2)

(c) Calculated the extended incremental


length ‘ L ’of the patch due to fringing
effect Figure 2 : RMSA Design of FR4 for microstrip feed
 W

 reff  0.3   0.264
 h


L  0.412h
 W

 reff  0.258   0.8
h

 (3)

(d) Calculated the patch effective length Leff


c
Leff 
2 f 0  reff
(4)

(e) Calculated the patch actual length


L  Leff  2L
(5)

(f) Calculated Wavelength Figure 3 : RMSA Design of Rogers RO4350 for


c Microstrip feed.
0 
f0 (6)

(g) Calculation of the ground plane


dimensions for single patch (Lg and Wg):
Lg = 6h+L and Wg = 6h+W (7)

FR4 as the substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. The


rest of the basic parameters are: Resonant Frequency: fo
= 2.4 GHz ,Substrate Permittivity: εr = 4.4
(FR4),Substrate Thickness: h = 1.6 mm ,Loss tangent:
tan δ =0.002 Figure 4 :RMSA Design of Taconic TLE for Microstrip
feed
ROGERS RO4350 as the substrate with dielectric
constant of 3.66. The rest of the basic parameters are:
Resonant Frequency: fo = 2.4 GHz,Substrate
Permittivity: εr = 3.66 (ROGERS RO4350),Substrate
Thickness: h = 1.6 mm,Loss tangent: tan δ =0.004

TACONIC TLE as the substrate with dielectric constant


of 2.95. The rest of the basic parameters are:Resonant
Frequency: fo = 2.4 GHz,Substrate Permittivity: εr =
2.95 (TACONIC TLE),Substrate Thickness: h = 1.6
mm,Loss tangent: tan δ =0.0028

RT Duroid as the substrate with dielectric constant of


2.2. The rest of the basic parameters are:Resonant
Frequency: fo = 2.4 GHz ,Substrate Permittivity: εr = 2.2 Figure 5 : RMSA Design of Rogers RT Duriod for
(RT Duroid),Substrate Thickness: h = 1.6 mm,Loss Microstrip feed
tangent: tan δ =0.0009 from this calculation Microstrip
patch antenna design in hfss software for two feed line
and four substrate.

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 94


International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 7 Number 2- Jan 2014

XY Plot 1 HFSSModel1
VI.SIMULATION RESULT 0.00 Curve Info
ANSOFT

dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep2

VI.I For Microtrip Feed. -5.00

Name X Y

dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1))
XY Plot 1 HFSSModel1 ANSOFT
m1 2.3675 -10.0205
m1
0.00 m2 2.4410 -10.1112 m2
Curve Info -10.00
m3 2.4094 -24.9608
dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep2

-2.50
-15.00
Name X Y
m1 2.3851 -14.0777
dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1))

-5.00 m2 2.3460 -9.9816


m3 2.4170 -10.0073
-20.00

-7.50
m3
-25.00
m2 m3 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
-10.00 Freq [GHz]

Figure 10: S11 graph of RMSA Teconic TLE


-12.50
m1

XY Plot 2 HFSSModel1 ANSOFT


-15.00 160.00 Curve Info
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
Freq [GHz] VSWR(LumpPort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep2
Figure 6: S11 graph of RMSA FR4 140.00

XY Plot 2 HFSSModel1 ANSOFT


120.00
120.00 Curve Info
VSWR(LumpPort1) Name X Y
Name X Y

VSWR(LumpPort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep2 100.00 m1 2.4094 1.3409
m1 2.3851 1.4945
100.00
80.00

60.00
80.00
VSWR(LumpPort1)

40.00

60.00
20.00

m1
0.00
40.00 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure 11: VSWR Graph of Taconic TLE


20.00

m1 XY Plot 1 HFSSModel1 ANSOFT


0.00 Curve Info
0.00
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1))
Freq [GHz] Setup1 : Sw eep2

Figure 7: VSWR graph of RMSA FR4 -2.50

-5.00
dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1))

Name X Y
XY Plot 1 HFSSModel1 ANSOFT
0.00 m6 2.4094 -16.7362
Curve Info
dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1)) m7 2.4362 -9.9191
Setup1 : Sw eep2 -7.50 m8 2.3699 -9.9586
-2.50
Name X Y
m8 m7
m1 2.4228 -12.3077
-10.00
m2 2.4480 -10.0963
-5.00
dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1))

m3 2.3989 -9.9778

-12.50
-7.50

m3 m2
-10.00 -15.00
m6
m1
-12.50 -17.50
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
Freq [GHz]
-15.00 Figure 12: S11 graph of RMSA RT Duroid
-17.50
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00
Freq [GHz]
2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
XY Plot 2 HFSSModel1 ANSOFT
150.00 Curve Info
Figure 8: S11 graph of RMSA Rogers RO4350 VSWR(LumpPort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep2
Name X Y
XY Plot 2 HFSSModel1 ANSOFT
125.00
125.00 m2 2.4094 1.1198
Curve Info
VSWR(LumpPort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep2
100.00
Name X Y
VSWR(LumpPort1)

100.00
m2 2.4228 1.6401

75.00
VSWR(LumpPort1)

75.00

50.00

50.00

25.00

25.00
m2
0.00
m2 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
Freq [GHz]
0.00
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00
Freq [GHz]
2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
Figure 13: VSWR graph of RMSA RT Duroid
Figure 9: VSWR graph of RMSA Rogers RO4350

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 95


International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 7 Number 2- Jan 2014

VI.II. Result of Microstrip Feed for Different


Substrates at 2.4 GHz frequency

Substrate Resonant VSWR BW Gain Impedance


Freq(s) (MHz) (dB) R+jX
[GHz]
FR4 2.40 1.631 71 0.330 32.75+j9.54
Rogers 2.40 1.916 49.1 1.732 34.96-
RO4350 j22.89
Taconic TLE 2.40 1.340 66.3 2.874 37.29-
j0.124
RT Duroid 2.40 1.198 73.5 3.323 44.79+j1.25
5880 8

VII. Conclusion
Rogers RT Duroid 5880 is the best among the 4
substrates chosen as it has lowest loss tangent

Rogers RT Duroid 5880 gives best result in comparison


to all the 4 substrates for microstrip feed.

microstrip feed as a better match is achieved resulting in


better BW and gain.

References:

[1] Kashwan K R ,Rajeshkumar V, Gunasekaran T and


Shankar Kumar K R, “Design and Characterization of
Pin Fed Microstrip Patch Antennae”, IEEE proceedings
of FSKD’2011
[2] Jagdish. M. Rathod, Member, IACSIT, IETE (I), IE
(I), BES (I) ,“Comparative Study of Microstrip Patch
Antenna for Wireless Communication Application”,
IJIMT, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2010

[3 ] Govardhani.Immadi, M.S.R.S Tejaswi, M.Venkata


Narayana,” Design of Coaxial fed Microstrip Patch
Antenna for 2.4GHz BLUETOOTH Applications,Journal
of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information
Sciences VOL. 2, NO. 12, December 2011.

[4 ] P.J.Soh, M.K.A.Rahim, A.Asrokin, M.Z.A.Abdul


Aziz, “Design, modeling and performance comparison of
different feedingtechniques for a microstrip patch
antenna”, Journal technology in university technology
Malaysia, 47(D) Dis.2007 103-120.

[5] C. A. Balanis, 1982, Antenna Engineering, 2nd ed.,


Willey.
[6] Ahmed Fatthi Alsager Design and Analysis of
Microstrip Patch Antenna Arrays thesis comprises 30
ECTS credits and is a compulsory part in the Master of
Sciencewith a Major in Electrical Engineering
Communication and Signal processing.Thesis No. 1/2011

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