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Lauren Daccache

AP Euro/ Stac
Summer Notes

Summer Work for AP European History

Rise and spread of Christianity
Contributions of Arabs
Fall of the Roman Empire
Great Schism (1054)
Agriculture and population growth
Fall of Constantinople
Rise of towns
Growth of National Monarchies
rise of universities
“rise of Europe”
100 Years War
Black Death
Wat Tyler Revolt
Battle of Agincourt
Avignon Papacy
Great Schism (1378-1417)
Conciliar Movement


Greek citizens- male members gathered in the marketplaces to elect officials and discuss public
affairs. Residential noncitizens were called “metics”. The first to separate historical writings from
myths and legends.

Democracy- was present in the sense that citizens discussed politics and elected officials, but not
necessarily in the modern sense since slaves, women, and “metics” were excluded from politics.
Alternated with oligarchy, tyranny, despotism, and aristocracy. This rich variation influenced the
political science as stated in the works of Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle.

“classical virtues”- order, balance, symmetry, clarity, and control. Their statues of males reflected
their idea that humans should be noble, dignified, not scared of life or death; complete masters of
themselves and their feelings. In the same way which architecture made use of the “classical order”
(straight lines of pillars and specific intervals meant to represent the superiority of human reason on
nature), the written language became organized and contrived, with certain forms in which the writers
of Western civilization expressed their ideas.
The Roman Empire- the self-governing and republican institutions that they previously had were lost
during their conquests, and the manner in which they governed during the days of the empire were
somewhat authoritarian. Local cities and city-states were quite autonomous, while there was still an
imperial power of officials and provincial governors topped by an emperor above them all.

Roman law- a body of principles created to settle disputes between people from different regions with
varying local customs. It held that no custom is necessarily right, that there is a more dominant,
universal law by which fair decisions are to be made. Favored the state, or the governments view of
public interest , as opposed to the interests or liberties of the individual, and generally granted men
with more legal privileges than women.

“natural law”- or the “law of nature”, created by lawyers of the Roman empire and part of Roman
law. A law that was thought to be understandable and acceptable to everyone because it arose from
human nature and reason.

Majestas- the authority to make law (sovereign power), granted to the emperor by lawyers of the
empire. They derived this idea from Greek philosophy, and held that law derives its power from being
enforced by a proper authority.

Christianity- emerged around 4 B.C, in Palestine in the Roman Empire. Held that all people were
alike in spirit, and began to make converts without regard to previous beliefs (under the leadership of
Paul; Jewish by birth, a Roman citizen, and of Greek culture)

Byzantine Empire- represented the most direct continuation of the ancient civilizations of the Middle
East. It was Greek in language and culture, and Christian in religion, and the people thought of
themselves as the purest heirs of early Christianity and of the Greeks of the golden age.

Caesaropapism- a political system in which one person holds the powers of ruler and of pontiff.

Constantinople- now Istanbul, the new capital founded by Emperor Constantine in A.D 330.
Established when the Roman Empire began to break down, in an effort to embrace Christianity and
strengthen the imperial system.

“Donation of Constantine”- in regards to the pope’s temporal rule in Rome, this was the document
that affirmed that Emperor Constantine had endowed the bishop with the government of the city. It
was proved to be a forgery in the 15th century.

Golden Horde-

3 field system- a more efficient way of using land introduced during the high middle ages, spreading
to the majority of regions where cereal crops were a staple. The peasant village divided its arable fields
into three parts; one sown with crop, such as wheat, a second with another, such as barley, and the
third was left to lie fallow. Each year, the three parts were rotated so that soil exhaustion was avoided.

Feudalism- a means of carrying on some kind of government on a local basis where no organized
states existed. It gradually spread across northern Europe, and spurred the beginning of the Holy
Roman Empire.
Vassals- part of the feudal system, the lesser lords that were forced to accept the protection of the
“counts”, with who the real authority resided.

Holy Roman Empire

feudal contract- The lords and vassals counted on each other; the lord protected the vassal and assured
him justice and firm tenure of his land, and the vassal owed it to the lord to atted and advise him, to sit
in his court in the judging of disputes.

manorial system- the system that was the agricultural base on which a ruling class was supported.
“Manors”,the estates of the lords, were maintained by serfs who were “bound to the soil”. The lords
owed the serfs protection and the administration of justice, and in turn they worked their fields and
gave them part of their produce.

“corporate liberties”- the liberties won by the towns; no townsmen could be a serf, etc. Townspeople
did not seek individual liberties Citizens wanted to join together in a compact body and protect
themselves with regulations and controls. Established taxes, tariffs, and tolls to protect the jobs and
livelihood of town craftsmen.

Catholic church


Homer- author of the Odyssey and the Illiad (written down in about 800 B.C, but composed and
spoken by word of mouth earlier, and is believed to refer to the fighting between the Greeks and other
civilizations such as Troy)

Herodotus- also known as “the Father of History”, traveled throughout the Greek world and beyond,
searching for all the information he could learn of the past.

Constantine- the emperor who accepted Christianity (around A.D 312). Established the empire’s
second capital, Constantinople

St. Augustine-
Ivan III-
Thomas Aquinas-
Joan of Arc-
John Wycliffe-
John Huss-