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TECHNICAL GUIDANCE NOTES

TGN/1.10

DESIGN, COMMISSIONING, DECOMMISSIONING AND


RECOMMISSIONING OF PETROLEUM TERMINALS

JUNE 2016
Design, Commissioning, Decommissioning and Recommissioning of Petroleum Terminals

Contents
1. Introduction ..................................................................... 15
2. Disclaimer ........................................................................ 15
3. Petroleum Terminals ....................................................... 15
4. Objective .......................................................................... 16
5. Scope ................................................................................ 16
6. Availability ...................................................................... 17
7. Legal Framework ............................................................. 17
General.......................................................................................... 17

8. Permits and Licenses........................................................ 17


9. Using the PPGs ................................................................ 17
10. Design .............................................................................. 18
Risks ............................................................................................. 18
Construction Standards for ASTs ................................................. 18
Storage of Hazardous Material ..................................................... 19
Site Selection ................................................................................ 20
Site Diagrams................................................................................ 21

11. ASTs ................................................................................. 21


12. Pipework .......................................................................... 23
13. Hose Specifications .......................................................... 23
14. Loading Facility ............................................................... 24
15. Drainage Systems ............................................................ 30
16. Corrosion Prevention ....................................................... 31

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General Requirements .................................................................. 31


Cathodic Protection....................................................................... 31
Exterior Coatings........................................................................... 32
Interior Linings and Coatings ....................................................... 32

17. Overfill Requirements ..................................................... 33


18. Construction ..................................................................... 34
General.......................................................................................... 34
Material ......................................................................................... 34
Foundation .................................................................................... 35
Installation .................................................................................... 35

19. Erection Methods ............................................................. 36


General.......................................................................................... 36
Progressive Assembly ................................................................... 36
Complete Assembly – Welding Horizontal Seams ....................... 36
Jacking Up..................................................................................... 36
Floatation ...................................................................................... 37
Prefabrication................................................................................ 37
Construction of Bottom Plate ........................................................ 38
Secondary Containment................................................................ 38
Welding......................................................................................... 38
Tolerances ..................................................................................... 39
Shell ............................................................................................................ 39
Floating Roof .............................................................................................. 40
Inspection ................................................................................................... 40

20. Modifications ................................................................... 40


21. Ancillary Equipment ....................................................... 41
General.......................................................................................... 41
Pipework ....................................................................................... 41

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Vents ............................................................................................. 42
Fill Point ....................................................................................... 42

22. Release Prevention and Leak Detection .......................... 44


Overfill Protection ........................................................................ 44
Secondary Containment................................................................ 44
Leak Detection .............................................................................. 46
Liquid Sensing Probes and Cables .............................................................. 47
Volumetric and Mass Measurement Methods ............................................ 47
Statistical Inventory Control Methods ......................................... 48
Automatic Tank Gauging ........................................................................... 49
Passive-Acoustic Sensing ............................................................................ 49
Vapor Monitoring ....................................................................................... 50
Fiber Optic Sensing Probes ......................................................................... 50
Spill and Storm Run Off ............................................................... 50
Ground Monitoring Wells ............................................................ 51

23. Spacing and Dikes ........................................................... 52


24. Vapour Emission Control ................................................ 54
Expected Emissions....................................................................... 54
Associated Emissions .................................................................... 55
Requirements ................................................................................ 55

25. Gauging ............................................................................ 55


26. Commissioning ................................................................ 56
General.......................................................................................... 56
Labelling ....................................................................................... 56
Tank Testing ................................................................................. 57
Initial Filling ................................................................................. 57
Installation and Modification Inspections ................................... 59
Third Party inspections................................................................. 60

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27. Decommissioning ............................................................ 60


Out of Service AST Requirements................................................ 60
Permanent Closure or Change in Service ..................................... 60
Temporary Removal from Service ................................................ 61
Removing Recoverable Product.................................................... 62
Tank Isolation ............................................................................... 62
Vapour and Gas Freeing ............................................................... 63
Cleaning ........................................................................................ 64

28. Recommissioning............................................................. 64
General.......................................................................................... 64
Temporary Requirements ............................................................. 64

29. Record Keeping ................................................................ 65


30. References ........................................................................ 66
31. Contacts ............................................................................ 67

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Acronyms

Acronym Description
API American Petroleum Institute
AST Aboveground Storage Tank
ATG Automatic Tank Gauging
CO 2 Carbon Dioxide
COP Codes of Practice
DOSHS Department of Occupational Safety and Health Services
ERC Energy Regulatory Commission
ESD Emergency Shutdown
GMW Ground Monitoring Well
H2S Hydrogen Sulphide
HAP Hazardous Air Pollutant
KEBS Kenya Bureau of Standards
KS Kenya Standard
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
NEMA National Environment Management Authority
OSR Oil Spill Response
OWS Oil Water Separator
PIRP Pollution Incident Response Plan
PPG Technical Guidance Notes
PVC Poly Vinyl Chloride
PVR Pressure Vacuum Relief
RPB Reactive Permeable Barriers
RVP Reid Vapor Pressure
SCS Secondary Containment System
SOPs Standard Operating Procedures
SUDs Sustainable Drainage Systems
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds

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Terminology

Terminology Description
Ancillary Electrical, vapor recovery, access or other systems and
Equipment devices, including, but not limited to, devices, such as
piping, fittings, flanges, valves and pumps used to
distribute, meter, monitor or control the flow of regulated
substances to or from a storage tank system.
Aquifer A geologic formation, group of formations or part of a
formation capable of a sustainable yield of significant
amount of water to a well or spring.
Automatic Tank Automatic Tank Gauge. Electronically operated system that
Gauging automatically measures the level of product inside the AST.
Bulk Storage Premises consisting one or more tanks for storing petroleum
Terminal or liquefied petroleum gas in transit or for sale
Breathing Losses Emissions that occur when vapors are expelled from the
tank due to changes in temperature, barometric pressure, or
both. Breathing losses are also known as standing losses.
Cathodic Protection A technique to prevent corrosion of a metal surface by
making that surface the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
Certified Inspector A person certified by DOSHS to conduct inspections of
tanks or storage tank facilities and who may conduct
environmental audits. A certified inspector may not be an
employee of a tank owner.
Change Any modification other than “replacement in kind.”
Cleaning Process of removing vapor, sludge, or rinsing Liquid from a
storage tank.
Company Company within the meaning of the Cap. 486 of Companies
Act
Compatible The ability of two or more substances to maintain their
respective physical and chemical properties upon contact
with one another for the design life of the tank system under
conditions likely to be encountered in the tank system.
Competent Person Means a person with enough practical and theoretical
knowledge, training and actual experience to carry out a

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Terminology Description
particular task safely and effectively.
Compliance Meeting legal, regulatory or company requirements.
Connected Piping All piping including valves, elbows, joints,flanges and
flexible connectors attached to a tank system through which
regulated substances flow. For the purpose of determining
how much piping is connected to any individual tank
system, the piping that joins two regulated systems should
be allocated equally between them.
Contaminant Something that makes a place or a substance (such as water,
air, or food) no longer suitable for use.
Containment Anything built, installed or established which comes in
Structure contact with regulated substances that are spilled, leaked,
emitted, discharged, escaped, leached or disposed from a
storage tank or storage tank system. The term includes, but
is not limited to, a vault, dike, wall, building or secondary
containment structure around an underground or above-
ground storage tank, or any rock or other fill material placed
around an underground storage tank.
Contractor Any company or individual that is under contract to
provide services.
Code of Practice Codes of practice state ways to manage exposure to risks. If
a code of practice exists for a risk at the workplace, the
operator must:
• Do what the code says; or
• Adopt another way that identifies and manages
exposure to the risk; and
• Take reasonable precautions and exercise due care.
Corrective Action Taking measures to prevent, mitigate, abate or remedy
releases, pollution and potential for pollution, nuisances and
damages to the public health, safety or welfare.
Corrosion The protection of metal from deterioration. The
Protection deterioration may be due to a natural electrochemical
reaction between the metal and the soil or other electrolyte,
or because of stray direct currents.
Danger Risk to the environment, health, life, person or property of
anyone from pollution arising from operation and
maintenance of petroleum facilities
Degassing Process of removing organic gases or vapors from a storage
tank.
Emergency A containment structure which serves to convey, capture

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Terminology Description
Containment and contain the total volume of an anticipated release of
regulated substance from an aboveground or underground
storage tank system and which is expeditiously emptied.
Emission The episodic or ongoing release of materials to the
environment (air, water or land).
Environmental Activities which may be conducted by a certified inspector
Audit to evaluate the storage tank system or storage tank facility
site, equipment and records to determine evidence of an
actual or possible release of regulated substance.
Evaporation Conversion of a liquid to vapor without necessarily reaching
the boiling point
Facilities Physical equipment and/or plant, including large mobile
equipment, involved in the performance of affiliate
operations.
Gantry A framework on loading islands, under or besides which
one or loading bays with articulated loading arms.
Gauging Device Device for the measurement of liquid level in a tank
Ground Monitoring This is any cased excavation or opening into the ground
Well made by digging, boring, drilling, driving, jetting or other
methods for the purpose of determining the physical,
chemical, biological, or radiological properties of
groundwater.
Groundwater Water that is below the surface of the ground in the
saturation zone, i.e. below the water table.
Hazard A potential source of serious harm to people, property or
the environment.
Hazardous Means any chemical, waste, gas, medicine, drug, plant,
Material animal or microorganism which are likely to be injurious to
human health or the environment
Hazardous waste This is waste is waste that is dangerous or potentially
harmful to our health or the environment.
Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, gases, or sludges.
Hazardous Area An area in which there exists or may exist an atmosphere
containing flammable gas or vapor in a concentration
capable of ignition
Hydrocarbon Chemical compounds containing carbon and hydrogen
which are produced by the refining of crude oil and which
are generally used as fuels.

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Terminology Description
Improvements Physical additions made during the lifetime of a facility or
site.
Incident A specific event or extended condition that has a significant
unwanted and unintended impact on the safety or health of
people, on property, on the environment, or on
legal/regulatory compliance.
In-service A scheduled aboveground storage tank external inspection
Inspection to determine tank system serviceability and compliance
with requirements in applicable industry standards. This
inspection shall be conducted in accordance with KS and
API Standard. The tank system may be in operation during
this inspection.
Inspection Activities to inspect all or a part of storage tank system or
Activities storage tank facility. These activities include, but are not
limited to, evaluation of:
• Storage tank system structural integrity.
• Construction and major modification.
• Facility operation.
Install Activities to construct, reconstruct or erect to put into
service a storage tank, a storage tank system or storage tank
facility.
Kenya Standard Specification or Code of Practice declared by The Standards
Council under Section 9 of the Standards Act
Landing Losses Emissions that occur from floating-roof tanks whenever the
tank is drained to a level where its roof rests on its deck legs
(or other supports).
Liquid Trap Sumps, well cellars and other traps used for the purpose of
collecting oil, water and other liquids. The liquid traps may
temporarily collect liquids for subsequent disposition.
Loading A piping arrangement for filling in a truck.
Arm/Hose
Loading Bay An inlet for trucks to stay under product loading.
Loading Facilities Facilities consist of pumping and filling installations.
Maintenance The normal operational upkeep to prevent a storage tank
system or storage tank facility from releasing regulated
substances if the activity involved is not a major
modification or minor modification.
Major Modification An activity to upgrade, repair, refurbish or restore all or any
part of an existing storage tank system or storage tank

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Terminology Description
facility which:
• Alters the design of that storage tank system or storage
tank facility.
• May affect the integrity of that storage tank system or
storage tank facility.
The term includes an activity directly affecting the tank
portion of the storage tank system or an activity directly
affecting an underground component of the storage tank
system.
Management Site management is typically the most senior level of
operations management working on site.
Managers Personnel with line management or supervisory
responsibilities.
Minor Modification An activity to upgrade, repair, refurbish or restore all or part
of an existing storage tank system or storage tank facility
which does not alter the design of that storage tank system
or storage tank facility, but, which may affect the integrity of
that storage tank system or storage tank facility.
The term does not include an activity directly affecting the
tank portion of the storage tank system or an activity
directly affecting an underground component of the storage
tank system.
Modify To conduct an activity that constitutes a major modification
or a minor modification.
Monitoring System A system capable of detecting releases in connection with an
aboveground or underground storage tank.

Occupational Process encompassing all activities addressing workplace


Health health hazards and employee health. It includes
identification, evaluation, and control of health hazards;
monitoring of worker exposures; communication of health
hazards knowledge, determination of employees medical
fitness to do their work and providing or arranging for
medical services necessary for the treatment of occupational
illnesses or injuries.
Operation Any activity involving the production, manufacture, use,
storage or movement of material. Also, the utilization of
resources by a “unit” to produce an output.
Operational Life The period beginning when installation of the tank system
has commenced until the time the tank system is properly

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Terminology Description
closed.
Operator A person, who manages, supervises, alters, controls or has
responsibility for the operation of a storage tank.
Out of Service A scheduled AST tank inspection that encompasses both
internal and external examination to determine tank system
serviceability and compliance with applicable industry
standards. This inspection shall be conducted by a certified
AST Inspector in accordance to API 653. The tank system
may not be in operation
Overfill Protection Equipment that halts the transfer of product from a road
tanker or pipeline to an AST/UST when the tank is full.
Pathway A route by which the contaminant can reach the receptor
high pressure hand washes
Permanent Water A well, interconnection with a public water supply,
Supply extension of a public water supply, similar water supply or
a treatment system, capable of restoring the water supply to
the quantity and quality of the original unaffected water
supply.
Permit Authorization granted to a person to enable the carrying out
of any activity in the energy business, where a license is
considered onerous
Petroleum "Petroleum" includes petroleum crude natural gas and any
liquid or gas made from petroleum crude, natural gas, coal,
schist, shale, peat or any other bituminous substance or
from any product of petroleum crude, natural gas and
includes condensate
Petroleum System A storage tank system that primarily contains petroleum,
and may contain additives or other regulated substances.
The term includes systems containing motor fuels, jet fuels,
distillate fuel oils, residual fuel oils, lubricants, petroleum
solvents and used oils.
Pipework A hollow cylinder or tubular conduit that is constructed of
non earthen materials. The terms include the associated
fittings such as unions, elbows, tees and flexible joints.
Pressure Vacuum Pressure/Vacuum Relief Valves (Breather Valves). Direct
Relief Valves acting Pressure/vacuum relief valves are special types of
relief valves which are specifically designed for tank
protection. The range includes pressure only, vacuum only
and combined pressure/vacuum valves, all available with
flanged outlets or vented to atmosphere.

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Terminology Description
Pressure / vacuum relief valves are used extensively on
bulk storage tanks, including fixed roof tanks with floating
covers, to minimize evaporation loss. The valves prevent the
buildup of excessive pressure or vacuum which can
unbalance the system or damage the storage vessel
Quality The ability for a product, service or activity to meet or
exceed requirements.
Recommendations Potential solutions to findings or observations.
Recommissioning Recommissioning is essentially the same process as
commissioning, but applies to existing facilities and
provides a systematic approach for discovering and solving
problems associated with facilities operation and
maintenance procedures.
Release Spilling, leaking, emitting, discharging, escaping, leaching
or disposing from a storage tank into surface waters and
groundwaters or soils or subsurface soils in an amount
equal to or greater than the reportable released quantity
Replacement In- Replacement which is essentially identical to the original
kind and satisfies all relevant standards and specifications.
Risk Risk is a function of the probability of an unwanted incident
and the severity of its consequences
Risk Assessment The process by which a risk analysis is conducted and
results used to make decisions, either through relative
ranking of risk reduction strategies or through comparison
with risk criteria or other standards of acceptability.
Sanitary Sewer A collection system for waste water
Safety Method An SMS can range from a simple statement to a detailed
Statement technical document depending on the scale of the task
involved. The purpose of the SMS is to identify the hazards
associated with each task and specify the necessary controls
to them.
Site The place where something was, is or is to be located. May
be a marketing location, a refinery, gas plant or offshore
platform.
Source Substance capable of causing pollution or harm.
Spill Response Plan A written plan developed by the operator to respond to any
spills at Vehicle Cleaning, Washing and Servicing facility at
a site. As a minimum the plan shall define roles and
responsibilities for spill response, contact names and
numbers for appropriate agencies and a checklist for all spill

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Terminology Description
response equipment.
Standard Operating Standard Operating Procedures are documented series of
Procedures steps to be carried out in a logical order for a defined
operation or in a given situation.
Standard A defined product or result. Includes requirements for
quality, content, review and conformance with regulations.
Stormwater A pipe conduit, drain or other equipment or facilities for the
collection and transmission of storm water or
uncontaminated water.
Street Way, road, lane, square, court, alley, passage or open space,
whether a thoroughfare or not, over which the public have a
right of way, and also the roadway and footway over any
public bridge, or causeway
Sustainable SUDS are a sequence of water management practices and
Drainage Systems facilities designed to drain surface water in a manner that
will provide a more sustainable approach than what has
been the conventional practice of routing run-off through a
pipe to a watercourse.
Working Losses Emissions related to the movement of the liquid level in the
tank. Working losses from fixed-roof tanks occur as vapors
are displaced from the tank during tank filling and
emptying.
Working losses from floating-roof tanks occur as the liquid
level (and therefore the floating roof) is lowered, causing the
liquid on the exposed tank walls and fittings to evaporate.

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1. Introduction

1.1. These guidelines are intended to help those who design, construct,
commission, decommission and recommission Bulk Petroleum Terminal,
herein referred to as “terminal”.
1.2. They have been produced by the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) in
consultation with key government agencies. Contact details can be found
at the end of these guidelines.

2. Disclaimer

2.1. The information contained in the PPGs is not intended to be prescriptive,


or to preclude the use of new developments, innovative solutions or
alternative designs, materials, methods and procedures, so long as such
alternatives provide a level of control over pollution appropriate to the
risks identified.
2.2. The guidelines are provided for information and while every reasonable
care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents, the ERC cannot
accept any responsibility for any action taken, or not taken, on the basis of
this information.

3. Petroleum Terminals

3.1. Every terminal has the potential for releasing polluting agents into the air,
soil and groundwater and/or surface water.
3.2. Possible causes for the release include:
a. Damaged foundation of AST
b. Leaks of aboveground and/or underground pipelines
c. Leaking or broken loading arms
d. Overfill when AST is receiving product
e. Overfill when delivery tankers are loaded at the terminal
f. Non fuel proof pavement of loading gantries
g. Lack of drainage and/or Oil/Water Separator at the terminal
h. General damage to fuel equipment and facilities
3.3. The PPGs provide straightforward guidance on good practices for the
design, construction, commissioning, decommissioning and
recomissioning of terminals, compliance with legal requirements and best
practices using COPs and sound engineering practices.

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4. Objective

4.1. The PPGs:


a. Provide technical information on terminals which receive, store and
handle in ASTs.
b. Cover civil and mechanical installation issues for design, construction,
commissioning, modification and decommissioning of terminals.
c. Provide information aimed at minimizing the risks to health and to the
environment.
d. Describe good practice and certain legal requirements, particularly
those applicable in new terminals and existing sites that are
modified/refurbished.
4.2. The PPGs outline good practices which should be adopted by a terminal to
prevent pollution during:
a. Design
b. Commissioning
c. Construction
d. Decommissioning
e. Recommissioning
4.3. For each of these stages, the PPGs highlight the potential risks to air, soil
and groundwater and outline the types of good practices to be developed
and followed.

5. Scope

5.1. The PPGs are relevant to terminals which store hydrocarbons in ASTs.
They contain advice specifically aimed at the following persons:
a. Owners
b. Persons involved in design and construction
c. Persons involved in decommissioning and recommissioning
d. Persons responsible for abandonment
5.2. The persons responsible for complying with the guideline might not
necessarily possess appropriate knowledge and expertise and are urged to
consult relevant guidance or seek expert advice.

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5.3. The PPGs do not:


a. Cover the detailed procedures for assessment of risk.
b. Provide information on operational procedures.
c. Cover all potential configurations/types of installations, some of which
will have site-specific risks associated with them.

6. Availability

6.1. The PPGs are published by the ERC and can be accessed on ERC website.

7. Legal Framework

General

7.1. The Regulatory Framework and useful guidance and publications are
given at the end of the guideline.
7.2. It is against the law to cause water pollution and there are specific
regulations that apply to terminals handling hydrocarbons. Non
compliance with these regulations is an offence and may result in
enforcement action being taken against the terminal operator.
7.3. The law requires terminal operators to rehabilitate inadequate facilities to
bring them to standard. The existing legal framework applies to terminals
handling hydrocarbons in ASTs.

8. Permits and Licenses

8.1. All Terminals must obtain approvals from ERC, NEMA, DOSHS and
County Governments.
8.2. All operating permit conditions must be followed.
8.3. ASTs must be included in the Spill Response Plan.

9. Using the PPGs

9.1. The PPGs apply to terminals, the degree and means of environmental
protection will vary for each individual terminal.
9.2. In determining what is required for individual terminals, it is necessary to
take into account the following:

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a. Location and environmental setting of the terminal


b. Age of the terminal
c. Storage and throughput volumes of the terminal
d. Practical engineering options and control mechanisms
e. Likely costs and benefits of upgrading terminals.
9.3. Whilst the best practicable environmental options should be adopted, it is
not expected that all terminals would meet or exceed the highest degree of
engineering design or operational and management systems. However, all
terminals are expected to meet the minimum industry standards for the
selected degree of engineering.

10. Design

Risks

10.1. Whilst no loss of product can occur during the design and construction
phases, failure to consider potential environmental risks of operations
could ultimately result in a significant pollution incident.

Construction Standards for ASTs

10.2. Aboveground oil storage tanks must be constructed of steel and meet or
exceed one of the following design and manufacturing standards:
a. The Kenya Standards KS1967, and KS 1938-Part 3
b. ASME Boilers and Pressure Vessels Code section 1 and 2
c. UL, Standard for Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and
Combustible Liquids, No. 142
d. API, Standard No. 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
e. API, Standard No. 620, Recommended Rules for Design and
Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
10.3. Leak Detection: Facilities must include a system of visual leak monitoring
for tanks between the tank bottom and the impermeable containment as
detailed in API Standard 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage.
10.4. Corrosion Protection: All tanks must have a cathodic protection system
for the portion of the tank in contact with the soil or backfill, in accordance
with API Recommended Practice 651, API Standard 650, Welded Steel
Tanks for Oil Storage and API Standard 653, Tank Inspection, Repair,
Alteration, and Reconstruction or NACE Standard RP0169-1996 unless a
cathodic protection assessment indicates that the corrosion rate will not

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reduce the floor thickness below the minimum allowed in API 653 before
the next required internal inspection date.
10.5. Painting: Tanks must be painted in accordance with recommended
industry standards, such as the Steel Structures Painting Council
publication Steel Structures Painting, Manual, Volume 1 Good Painting
Practice.
10.6. Tanks on Earthen Base Pads: All tanks on a prepared earthen pad must
include the following:
a. Construction of the base pad leak detection system must meet the
standards of API Standard 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage.

b. A release prevention barrier;


c. The support base must be constructed of compacted, clean, free-
draining granular material such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone. The
use of cinders and organic material are prohibited.
d. The support base must be constructed so as to provide for positive
drainage of water away from the base;
e. The support base must be constructed so as to leave at least 30
centimeters above the general grade (dike floor) after ultimate
settlement; and
f. The surface of the support base must be protected against erosion by
good engineering practices.
10.7. Tank Spacing: New or relocated or reconstructed tanks must be separated
in accordance with KS1967 or National Fire Protection Association 30..
10.8. Highway Curve Locations: Tanks located near a highway curve must be
protected from vehicular collisions.

Storage of Hazardous Material

10.9. The contents being stored in ASTs must be compatible with the
construction material of the AST.
10.10. AST will be constructed using appropriate industry standards
10.11. ASTs must have:
a. Facility sign posted
b. Product transfer area safeguards
c. Internal and/or external corrosion protection
d. Overfill protection
e. Label lines to identify connections

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f. Underground piping safeguards, if utilized


10.12. Storage areas must be secured to prevent unauthorized entry and
tampering with ASTs.
10.13. Tank areas must have access to emergency lighting sources in the event of
power outage.
10.14. Storage facility must be equipped with spill response equipment.
10.15. ASTs and associated piping must be secondarily contained.
10.16. Storage facilities must be posted with specific filling and monitoring
procedures.

Site Selection

10.17. Consider environmental and fire protection, access, maintenance and


security requirements before proposing the location for new and
reconstructed terminals.
10.18. ASTs must be separated in accordance with KS1967 or NFPA 30. Tanks
used only for storing Class III B liquids (Flash point at or above 200o F)
may be spaced no less than 3 feet apart unless within a diked area or a
drainage path for a tank storing Class I or II liquid in which case the
provisions of NFPA 30 apply.
10.19. ASTs must not be located within the following areas:
a. Within 900 metres of a surface water body intake used as a public
drinking water supply;
b. Within 180 meters of an existing private drinking water supply, except
a facility's own well;
c. Within 300 meters of a significant ground water spring; or
d. Within 300 meters of a residential area, park, preserve, or similar site
when such site is so designated.
10.20. An oil terminal facility located other that set forth above is presumed to
pose a serious threat to public health or welfare or to the environment
unless the operator:
a. Operates the facility a unique way that allows for compliance through
an alternative design, operation, or siting proposal which provides an
equivalent level of protection as the siting provisions set forth above;
or
b. The facility environment is unique in some way such that a valuable
resource will not be negatively affected by the proposed siting.
10.21. The location should provide access for maintenance and deliveries to the
tank (filling) including safe parking for oil tankers making deliveries.

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Design, Commissioning, Decommissioning and Recommissioning of Petroleum Terminals

Site Diagrams

10.22. All ASTs at the terminal must be shown on a site diagram which is
permanently mounted in an area accessible to terminal operators, their
employees and maintenance contractors.
10.23. The diagram must show the:
a. Tank numbers, location, contents and capacities for each AST
b. Location of piping and valves
c. Location of storm sewers, drainage ditches, catch basins, and adjacent
water bodies to which a spill might travel
d. Location of the spill kit and available emergency response equipment
e. Terminal operator’s phone number
f. Electrical drawings should also be available

11. ASTs

11.1. ASTs, new or reconstructed, must have a stable foundation, capable of


supporting the total weight of the tank when full of product without
movement, rolling or unacceptable settling.
11.2. The foundation must minimize corrosion of the tank bottom and meet or
exceed the specifications of the tank manufacturer. The foundation design
and construction must be based on sound engineering practices.
11.3. Field constructed AST shall be hydrostatically tested as required in API
650. Deficiencies shall be remedied prior to AST being placed into service.
Hydrostatic test fluids shall be discharged or disposed of in accordance
with The Environmental Management and Coordination (Water quality)
Regulations requirements.
11.4. Reconstruction of tanks must be accomplished in accordance with API 650.
Reconstructed tanks must be inspected and hydrostatically tested before
being placed into service. Hydrostatic test fluids shall be discharged or
disposed of in accordance with The EMC (Water quality) Regulations
requirements.
11.5. ASTs that are relocated to another service site must meet the performance
requirements for ASTs and shall be tested according to API 650 and
inspected to API 653 before being put back in service.
11.6. Factors that affect the choice of a new or replacement AST include:
a. Legal requirements
b. Minimum manufacturing standards

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c. Intended application for AST


d. Type of oil to be stored
e. Secondary containment
f. Location of the tank
g. Safe filling and dispensing
h. Safe installation and routine maintenance
11.7. Other factors other than compliance with standards for construction and
manufacture that could affect OSR include pipework, location and
deliveries
11.8. ASTs should as a minimum:
a. Last at least 20 years, with proper maintenance
b. Be constructed of material that is suitable for the type of oil stored in
accordance with ASTM A 282/A 283/285.
c. Be of sufficient strength and structural integrity to ensure that it will
not burst or leak in ordinary use
d. Have isolating check valves that meet ASME B16.34.
11.9. For tanks in open bunds, it is recommended that a minimum distance of
750 mm is allowed between the tank and the bund wall and 600 mm
between the tank and the base to allow access for external inspection and
maintenance.
11.10. SCS (also known as bunds) is an area around a tank and its ancillary
equipment designed to contain any loss of oil and to prevent it from
escaping to the environment. It can be manufactured as part of an
integrally bunded tank system or built on site ready for the tank to be put
into it.
11.11. SCS must hold at least 110% of the volume of oil the tank is designed to
contain. The extra 10% margin is intended to take into account a range of
factors, including:
a. Loss of the total tank contents
b. Sudden tank failure or leaks
c. Overfilling
d. Containment of fire-fighting agents
e. Dynamic factors such as overtopping caused by surge and wave action
following tank failure
f. Allowance for rainfall during an oil spill incident.
11.12. If the terminal has more than one AST, the SCS must be capable of storing
110% of the biggest tank’s capacity or 25% of the total capacity, whichever
is the greater.

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11.13. SCS must be impermeable to oil and water with no direct outlet :
a. Connecting it to drain, sewer or watercourse
b. Discharging onto a yard or unmade ground.
11.14. Pipework to fill or empty the AST should not pass through the SCS floor
or walls (the bund). If this is unavoidable, the joint between pipe and bund
should be sealed with a material that is resistant to both internal and
external corrossion, so that the containment remains leak-proof.
11.15. Do not store other items in the SCS as this will reduce the volume
available in the event of a spill and can cause a fire risk if it becomes
soaked in oil.
11.16. ASTs should be fitted with independent high-high level alarm and SCS
sensors that detect if oil has collected in the bund from an incorrect
delivery, overfill or inner tank problem and to warn if additional
maintenance is needed.

12. Pipework

12.1. The design of piping shall be suitable for expected working pressures,
temperatures and structural stresses and comply with ASME/ANSI
B31.3/31.4 and ASME A 53.
12.2. Any material used in the construction or installation of piping shall be
suitable for the conditions of use, in particular:
a. It shall be compatible with petroleum products with which it will be in
contact
b. It shall be resistant to heat to which it may be exposed
c. Where subject to corrosion, it shall be sufficiently resistant to ensure
acceptable life.
12.3. Pipework has normally been constructed from steel and should have
adequate protection against corrosion.
12.4. Pipework should be supported to remain secure

13. Hose Specifications

13.1. Standards for petroleum hoses should use the following standards: BS EN
1765:2004, BS EN 13765:2003, BS EN 1762:2003 or any latest such standard
as may be applicable. Hoses are designated as follows:
a. Type A Rough bore externally armored hose principally for gravity
discharge with a maximum working pressure of 3 bars.

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b. Type AX Rough bore composite hose principally for gravity discharge


with a maximum working pressure of 3 bars.
c. Type B Rough bore externally armored hose with a maximum working
pressure of 7 bars.
d. Type BX Rough bore composite hose with a maximum working
pressure of 7 bars.
e. Type C Smooth bore hose with smooth or corrugated exterior
principally for gravity discharge with a maximum working pressure of
3 bars.
f. Type D Smooth bore hose with smooth or corrugated exterior with a
maximum working pressure of 7 bars.
g. Type E Smooth bore reeling hose with a maximum working pressure
of 7 bars.
h. Type F Smooth bore reeling hose of controlled dilation for metered
delivery with a maximum working pressure of 7 bars.
13.2. Types A, AX, B and BX are divided into the following two classes:
a. Class 1 for aviation and other uses
b. Class 2 for non-aviation use.

14. Loading Facility

14.1. The loading and unloading facilities vary with the size and complexity of
the terminal and the locations. Because of seasonal and other variations
and product distribution, loading facilities shall be quite flexible and its
capacity may far exceed normal plant production.
14.2. When new facilities are planned it is recommended that the simplest
facilities that will efficiently perform loading operations be constructed.
These requirements can also be used for the modernization and/or
extension of existing loading facilities for road tankers.
14.3. Specifying the yearly average loading capacity, the size of tanker and
loading assembly may be fixed and pump capacity will be calculated.
14.4. It should be noted that in case there is freedom in tanker size and/or
loading assembly then economical evaluation shall be considered for such
selections.
14.5. Loading and unloading facilities shall integrate constructive measures for
the protection of the environment, particularly in respect of
avoidance/containment of spillages.

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14.6. At the design stage, the loading and/or unloading system should be
reviewed to allow for the installation of a vapor collection system return
line for poisonous, hazardous and high vapor pressure products.
14.7. It is essential to minimize the generation and emission of vapors during
loading by eliminating the free fall of volatile products and reducing
jetting and splashing by filling with closed vapor systems:
a. Majority of loading facilities in service are top loading, the best
solution is to replace (or modify) the existing loading arms so that
when volatile products are loaded, the manhole is sealed and vapors
are diverted into a vapor return system. The latter may be either
integral with the loading arm or a vapor manifold on the vehicle
connected to all the tank compartments.
b. Bulk vehicles equipped for bottom loading require a pipe connection
from the vapor emission vent of each compartment into a vapor
recovery manifold, which should terminate in a position which is
easily accessible from ground level for use at either the loading bay or
retail outlets as required. The coupling connections for liquid and
vapor must be different types.
14.8. Apart from installing a full vapor recovery system, considerable reduction
in vapor emissions can be achieved by avoiding free fall and splashing of
volatile products in top and bottom filling operations:
a. For top loading, the loading arms should be designed to reach the end
compartments of a vehicle tank in such a manner that the down pipe
can penetrate vertically to the bottom of the compartment.
b. For bottom loading, it may be necessary to fit deflectors in the vehicle
tank at the point of entry of the product into the compartment.
c. These measures have the following advantages:
i. Minimizing the hazard of static electricity
ii. Minimizing the amount of vapor formation
iii. Reducing product losses
iv. Reducing the fire risk: the concentration of vapor emanating from
the compartments will be dissipated faster to below the explosive
limit.
14.9. The main items to be considered at the loading/unloading facilities are
provision of:
a. Emergency shut-off valve to prevent or reduce spillage due to
overfilling, hose failure, etc.
b. Emergency push-button switch to stop the pumps, activate an alarm,
and close all flow control and block valves on the loading gantry
c. Adequate drainage and interception arrangements.

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14.10. The first criterion for selection of loading system is the volatility
characteristics of the product. If RVP of the product at 38°C is higher than
0.55 bar then bottom loading shall be used.
14.11. The second aspect is the requirements to restrict emissions from a specific
product which dictates to use bottom loading.
14.12. The relative merits of top and bottom loading system are summarized in
the Table below:
RELATIVE MERITS OF TOP AND BOTTOM LOADING
SAFETY FEATURES BOTTOM LOADING TOP LOADING
Worksite Ground level On platform. Can be made safe by
provision of guard rails and access
ramps to vehicles, but at extra cost.
Vapor emissions (no vapor Closed manhole covers gives Open manhole covers therefore
rise to small pressure build-up slightly greater vapor emission.
recovery)
to operate the vents resulting in
marginally less vapor emission.
Control of product flow Reliance on overspill protection Positive visual control by loader
equipment. assuming ‘hold-open' valve is
assuming meter preset does
correctly used.
not work
Two-arm loading requires
overspill protection when the
conditions are the same as for
bottom loading.

Product handling Arms and particularly hoses Care is needed to ensure that the
equipment filled with product are heavier down-pipe of loading arm is
to handle. Generally, hose correctly positioned in each
diameters should be limited to compartment. DN 100 and DN 150
DN 80 (3 inches). (2 and 6 inches) diameter counter-
balanced arms are easily handled.

Electrostatic precautions Flow rates restricted to 75% of


that for equivalent top loading
system.
Vapor recovery (loading Vehicles must be fitted with a
bay) vapor recovery manifold
connecting each compartment;
of sufficient capacity to cope
with simultaneous loading of 2,
3 or 4 compartments.
Preparation for loading Vehicles already equipped with Each product loading arm must be
(normal) vapor return manifold for use fitted with a vapor sealing head so
when loading. that vapors are diverted into a
Preparation for loading
vapor recovery system; either (a)
Removal of caps and
(vapor return) on loading arm, or (b) manifold
connecting couplings is
provided for gasoline deliveries to
Loading arrangement contained within small
retail outlets. Care must be taken
operating envelope. (No
Product flow rates to position collar seal in fill
significant difference between

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RELATIVE MERITS OF TOP AND BOTTOM LOADING


SAFETY FEATURES BOTTOM LOADING TOP LOADING
systems.) opening. Liquid level sensing
equipment must be fitted on
Vehicles must be fitted with a
loading arms or in each vehicle
vapor recovery manifold
tank compartment.
connecting each compartment;
of sufficient capacity to cope Vehicles must be fitted with vapor
with simultaneous loading of 2, return manifold.
3 or 4 compartments.
Greater area of operation because
Vehicles already equipped with of positioning of manhole covers.
vapor return manifold for use
(No significant difference between
when loading.
systems.)
Removal of caps and
Care must be taken to position
connecting couplings is
arm/vapor head in fill opening.
contained within small
operating envelope. (No (No significant difference between
significant difference between systems.)
systems.)
Additional coupling connection
to vapor manifold. (No
significant difference between
systems.)
Simultaneous loading of 2 or
more compartments more
easily arranged.
25% slower per compartment
than equivalent top handling
system
Simultaneous loading of 2 or
more compartments more
easily arranged.
25% slower per compartment
than equivalent top handling
system because of electrostatic
hazard in certain filling
operations.
Capital costs 25% slower per compartment Additional structure and safety
than equivalent top handling equipment for working platform.
system because of electrostatic
hazard in certain filling
operations.
1. Approximately 17% more
loading space is required than
that of an equivalent top-
loading gantry. Additional cost
for greater roof area.
2. i) All vehicle compartments
must be fitted with loading dry-
break couplings.

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RELATIVE MERITS OF TOP AND BOTTOM LOADING


SAFETY FEATURES BOTTOM LOADING TOP LOADING
ii) To minimize over-filling risk,
vehicles must be fitted with
liquid level sensing equipment.
iii) Deflectors must be fitted to
foot valves to minimize jetting
and turbulence.
iv) Additional product
handling equipment on islands.
Depending upon by group's
requirements, this may be
about 30-50% more.
Maintenance Costs The additional equipment Maintenance of working platform
above will require to be and safety features.
maintained/replaced
Vehicle accommodation Out-of-service time of vehicles Less flexible than bottom loading
for maintenance may be arrangement.
Compatibility with
increased.
competitors and
Contractors vehicles
More flexible.
Compartment outlets full
Can more easily accept range of
or empty Sophistication
vehicle capacities and heights
(present and future).

All vehicles likely to use No problem.


loading bays must be fitted
with suitable equipment.
Industry agreement to adopt
similar practices should be
encouraged.
More flexible operation.
Possible need to persuade
authorities to change law to
permit outlet pipes filled with
product, otherwise drainage
must be arranged with
consequent measurement and
operational problems.
Less flexible operation.
Increased maintenance.
Need for greater control of
maintenance

14.13. Areas susceptible to contamination at the Loading Gantry should be


impermeable to hydrocarbons and should not allow seepage through or
below the surface.

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14.14. Impervious surfaces are structure such as pavements (roads, sidewalks,


driveways and parking lots) that are covered by impenetrable materials
such as asphalt, concrete, brick, and stone.
14.15. Impermeable surfaces prevent air/liquids to pass or diffuse through.
14.16. Control of product flow by volume requires preset quantity device which
will be first line of control. A first line of control is an inbuilt mechanism
that stops the flow of product beyond the pre-set quantity.
14.17. In the event of any emergency the second line of control is necessary. The
second line of control is independent of the device and is activated in the
event of failure and/or malfunction of the first line of control:
a. The fitting of a deadman control in the form of a hold open valve
enables the operative when filling through a manhole to watch the
level of product and to stop the flow in emergency.
b. Liquid level control provides an alternative secondary positive means
of stopping the flow of product in emergencies
c. For bottom loading the use of an overfill protection device based on
liquid level detection is essential. The liquid level control device is
linked to an interlock which covers bonding of the vehicle and access
to product by means of controls on the loading arm.
d. In automated systems interlock systems are used whereby product will
not flow until the vehicle is adequately bonded and the loading arm is
in the correct position.
14.18. Pressure gages shall be located in a sufficient number of places in the
liquid and vapor lines to allow the operator to have a constant check on
operating pressure, differentials and so forth to ensure safe operation.
14.19. Emergency shut-off valves may incorporate all or any of the following
means of closing:
a. Automatic shut-off through thermal (fire) actuation. (When fusible
elements are used they shall have a melting point not exceeding 120°C.
b. Manual shut-off from a remote location.
c. Manual shut-off at the installed location.
14.20. Installation practices for emergency shut-off valves shall include the
following considerations:
a. Emergency shut-off valves shall be installed in the transfer line where
hose or swivel piping is connected to the fixed piping of the system.
Where the flow is only in one direction, a back-flow check valve may
be used in place of an emergency shut-off valve if it is installed in the
fixed piping downstream of the hose or swivel piping.
b. Emergency shut-off valves shall be installed so that the temperature
sensitive element in the thermally actuated shut-off system is not more

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than 1.5 meters in an unobstructed direct line from the nearest end of
the hose or swivel-type piping connected to the line in which the valve
is installed in line with IP Electrical Safety Code; Model Code of Safe
Practice. – Part 1
c. The emergency shut-off valves and/ or breakaway coupling shall be
installed in the plant piping so that any break resulting from a pull will
occur on the hose or swivel piping side of the connection while
retaining intact the valves and piping on the plant side of the
connection. This may be accomplished by the use of concrete
bulkheads or equivalent anchorage or by the use of a weakness or
shear fitting.
14.21. When liquid meters are used in determining the volume of liquid being
transferred from one container to another, or to or from a pipeline, such
and accessory equipment shall be installed in accordance with the
procedures stipulated by the API "Manual of Petroleum Measurement
Standards" and Recommended Practice 550.
14.22. Hoses and arms for transfer shall be suitable for the temperature and
pressure conditions encountered. Hoses shall be provided for the service
and shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less than five times the
working pressure in line with EN 13765 and AS 2117. The hose working
pressure shall be considered as the greater of the maximum pump
discharge pressure or the relief valve setting.
14.23. Provisions shall be made for adequately supporting the loading hose and
arm.
14.24. Flexible pipe connections shall be capable of withstanding a test pressure
of one and one-half times the design pressure for that part of the system in
accordance with UL 971 – Test requirements for Flexible Pipe.

15. Drainage Systems

15.1. Drainage systems should be designed such that surface spillages are
contained and there is no direct loss to ground or to surface watercourses
or soakaways for surface water drainage. This involves the use of low
permeability surfacing in areas which could be contaminated with
product.
15.2. Types of low permeability surfacing include:
a. Porous Asphalt
b. Porous Concrete.
c. Plastic Grid Systems
d. Block Paving.

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15.3. All surface water run-off and spillages should pass through an OWS.
15.4. The drainage system including hardstanding and drainage pipework
should also be constructed of materials, which are resistant to attack by
hydrocarbons.
15.5. The drainage pipework should be sized in accordance with BS 5911 or any
other approved by the national standards body to suit the storm return
requirements to the location and capable of transporting a spillage from
the tanker standing area at the rate of at least 15 Litres per second.
15.6. All roof drains which collect clean, uncontaminated water should be
routed to bypass the Oil/Water Separator to avoid reducing the capacity
of the unit to contain spills.

16. Corrosion Prevention

General Requirements

16.1. All ASTs must have a cathodic protection system for the portion of the
tank in contact with the soil or backfill, in accordance with API
Recommended Practice 651, API Standard 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil
Storage and API Standard 653, Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and
Reconstruction or NACE Standard RP0169-1996 unless a cathodic
protection assessment indicates that the corrosion rate will not reduce the
floor thickness below the minimum allowed in API 653 before the next
required internal inspection date.
16.2. The tank system shall be maintained with corrosion and deterioration
prevention measures Existing tank bottoms that do not meet the standards
shall be upgraded when the tank bottom is replaced.

Cathodic Protection

16.3. The cathodic protection system on new, reconstructed or relocated tanks


or the replacement of the tank bottom shall consist of one or more of the
following:
a. Sacrificial anodes and dielectrical coating.
b. Impressed current.
16.4. Another method specified in an appropriate recognized association code
of practice such as API 651.
16.5. Cathodic protection systems shall be designed by a corrosion expert and
maintained to provide protection against external corrosion for the
operational life of the tank system.

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16.6. Each cathodic protection system shall have an access point which enables
the owner or operator to check on the adequacy of cathodic protection.
16.7. A monthly inspection must be performed on the impressed current
cathodic protection system.
16.8. An annual structure - soil and structure - structure potential test must be
performed by a cathodic protection tester for impressed current systems as
well as annual structure to soil potentials for galvanic systems. Rectifier
voltage and current readings must be in the range specified by the
manufacturer or installer of the system. All readings and repairs must be
documented.

Exterior Coatings

16.9. The exterior surfaces of ASTs and piping shall be protected by a suitable
coating which prevents corrosion and deterioration. The coating system
shall be maintained throughout the entire operational life of the tank.

Interior Linings and Coatings

16.10. Coating or lining systems may be used to protect tank interiors from
corrosion.
16.11. An AST's structure is subject to forces such as expansion and contraction
caused by changes in air temperature, sun heating, sudden introduction of
new product at different temperatures and wind deflection.
16.12. Traditional thin mil systems like an epoxy coating do not have flex
modulus or elongation characteristics capable of moving with the tank
wall. This can lead to point disbondment from the substrate. Once this has
begun, the blistering and flaking cycle of the coating begins.
16.13. Oxidation of the tank wall material develops behind the disbonded areas
of coating, and then migrates to adjoining areas. Lining systems with a
high temperature, high pressure spray up application that bonds to steel
or concrete should be used.
16.14. The coating or lining system shall be designed in accordance with current
codes of practices such as API 652.
16.15. Any appropriate coating which is bonded firmly to the interior surfaces
may be used to protect a tank from corrosion.
16.16. Specific requirements are as follows:
a. Coatings and linings shall be chemically compatible with the substance
to be stored.
b. Coating material shall be applied and cured in strict accordance with
manufacturer’s specifications.

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c. Surfaces shall be prepared and inspected in accordance with API 652.


d. Coatings used to protect the bottom of a tank shall extend up the side
of the tank a minimum of tank bottom shell, while some forms of lining
may cover the entire tank interior.
e. Coatings shall be examined for blisters and air pockets, and tested for
pinholes. The coating thickness shall be checked to assure compliance
with manufacturer’s specifications.
f. Defects in coating or lining systems shall be repaired or corrected prior
to putting the tank or system into service.
g. Interior linings or coatings shall be inspected by a certified inspector or
AST inspector at installation, when undergoing a major modification,
and at least every 10 years or as warranted or recommended by the
manufacturer or design engineer.

17. Overfill Requirements

17.1. Owner/operator shall ensure that releases from overfills do not occur.
17.2. Transfer of stored substance may not exceed the volume available in the
receiving tank and the transfer shall be adequately monitored.
17.3. Immediate action shall be taken to stop the flow of regulated substance
prior to exceeding tank capacity or in the event that an equipment failure
occurs.
17.4. ASTs should have overfill protection consistent with API 2350, NFPA 30
or PEI RP 200.
17.5. There are several options for meeting this requirement. A tank can have a:
a. High-level alarm that can be seen or heard by the person controlling
the transfer, set at no greater than 95% of the tank capacity
b. System that automatically shuts off substance flow into the tank, set at
no greater than 95% of capacity
c. Level gauge monitored during the transfer by the person controlling
the transfer or by someone in contact with the person controlling the
transfer
17.6. An existing tank system which is taken out of service to perform a
scheduled out-of-service inspection or a major modification to the tank
shall be upgraded with a high-level alarm with a cut-off device or a high-
level alarm with a manned operator shutdown procedure prior to being
put back in service.

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18. Construction

General

18.1. Loss of product could arise during the operation as a result of inadequate
construction methods and/or equipment installation.
18.2. Factors during construction that influence the future integrity of the
operational terminal:
a. Tank and pipework handling
b. Ground preparation
c. Installation procedures
d. Incorrect site layout and set-up
e. Supervision and quality control
f. Commissioning procedures
18.3. Construction should be undertaken by suitably experienced contractors
who are duly licensed for their class of works by the National
Construction Authority (NCA).
18.4. The quality of all materials and equipment should be checked prior to
installation or use and strict quality assurance maintained during
construction.
18.5. Rigorous inspection and checking of a completed storage system is vital.

Material

18.6. The erection contractor shall inspect and keep stock of all materials
delivered at the terminal and be fully responsible for their safekeeping.
18.7. All fittings, valves, plates, etc. Shall be properly laid out on wooden
supports, clear of the soil. Special care shall be taken that damage does not
occur to joint faces of valves and flanges or to beveled ends of fittings.
18.8. All materials shall be examined and repaired as necessary at the terminal
before being erected, to ensure that any damage incurred in transit is
made good to the satisfaction of the owner’s representative. Particular
attention shall be paid to the avoid of buckles and distortions in plates.
18.9. Welding electrodes shall be stored in their original pockets or cartons in a
dry place adequately protected from weather effects. Hydrogen controlled
electrodes shall be stored and baked in accordance with the electrode
manufacturer’s recommendations.

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Foundation

18.10. Foundations for tanks will be constructed to the specified levels, profiles
and tolerances.
18.11. For AST, to have a shell which is truly circular and free from buckles and
flat spots, the foundation shall remain level as the tank shell is erected. For
this reason the foundation shall be checked, not only at the
commencement of operations, but several times during the various stages
of tank erection. The measurements shall be stated in a report. This final
report shall be handed to the owner for maintenance purposes.
18.12. Whichever type of construction is chosen, the surface immediately under
the shell plates shall be laid so that the difference from a mean level does
not exceed plus or minus 6 mm in 10 m and plus or minus 12 mm between
any two points around the periphery as per API 650. Close tolerances in
the tank foundation peripheral levels are particularly necessary for
floating roof tanks.
18.13. Uneven foundation and settlement can result in the shell assuming an oval
shape at the top, causing the floating roof to stick.
18.14. An indication that the tank is settling unevenly is the appearance of gaps
in the circumferential seams, and departure of the shell from the
perpendicular. If these signs appear, no attempt should be made to close
the gap by pulling with the key plates and wedges or cutting of plates.
18.15. The tank level should be checked and corrected by leveling, if necessary. If
the gap is due to inaccurate fabrication, plate edges should to the amount
approved by the company or his representative be built up with weld
metal, and the joint welded.
18.16. Pulling the plates to close the gap will cause deformations of the tank
shell. To obtain a perpendicular and circular shell, a level tank foundation
is essential.
18.17. If tank foundations are finished off with a sand bitumen mix as a water
proof seal coat, steel plates should be placed temporarily across the edge
of the tank foundation, in order to protect it whilst the bottom plates are
being dragged into position.
18.18. Include tell-tale pipe as part of the tank bottom leak detection system.

Installation

18.19. Site erection of atmospheric above ground welded storage tanks shall be in
accordance with Section 5 of API Standard 650

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19. Erection Methods

General

19.1. ASTs should be installed by a suitably-qualified tank installer who will


ensure that ASTs are installed according to API 650, API 2000 and BS 2654.
19.2. Maintain information of AST from the manufacturers and installers. Leave
all the markings on the AST (tank manufacturer, make, model and
capacity markings) intact.

Progressive Assembly

19.3. In the progressive assembly method, the bottom plates are assembled and
welded first. Thereafter the shell plates are erected, held in place, tacked
and completely welded.
19.4. This shall be done course by course, working upwards to the top curb
angle.
19.5. No course shall be added as long as the previous course has not been
entirely welded. The erection and completion of the roof framing and roof
plates then follow.

Complete Assembly – Welding Horizontal Seams

19.6. In the complete assembly method, the bottom plates are assembled and
welded first. Thereafter the shell plates are erected, held in place, tacked
and only the vertical seams completely welded, leaving the horizontal
seams unwelded. This shall be done course by course, working upwards
to the top curb angle. No course shall be added as long as the vertical
seams of the previous course have not been entirely welded.
19.7. The erection and completion of the roof framing and roof plates then
follow.
19.8. Finally the horizontal seams are welded working upwards from the
bottom course or downwards from the top curb angle.

Jacking Up

19.9. Some contractors employ a system of erection in which the bottom plates
are completed. The top course is erected on the bottom plates, the roof
framing and sheeting are completed and a number of jacks are then
assembled around the structure.

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19.10. By means of these jacks the completed top course together with the roof
framing and sheeting is lifted to a height sufficient to insert the next lower
course. The jacking method and the supporting of the partly erected shell
shall have no adverse effect on the roundness of the shell.
19.11. The welding is completed at each stage of lift until all courses of the shell
plates have been inserted and the finished height is reached.
19.12. The final operation is the welding of the bottom course to the bottom
plates.

Floatation

19.13. The floatation method is used for floating roof tanks. After the completion
of the bottom plating and erection and welding of the two lower courses
of the tank, the floating roof is assembled on the tank bottom and
completed.
19.14. The tank is then filled with water and, using the floating roof as a working
platform, the third and subsequent courses are erected and welded, water
being pumped in as each course is completed.
19.15. This method may only be used at locations where soil settlement is very
limited and with the written agreement of the owner. The predicted soil
settlements of the soil investigation report shall be taken into account.
19.16. A small crane is usually erected on the floating roof, hoisting the shell
plates into position.

Prefabrication

19.17. For a hazardous location and/or close to existing tanks already storing
light products, tanks can be prefabricated and moved to their permanent
site, either by:
a. Prefabrication of the tank in the workshop. The maximum dimensions
depend on the possibilities and limitations with respect to transport
and is limited to tanks with diameters up to 12 meters.
b. Prefabrication of the tank, on a temporary foundation at a safe location
nearby. The complete tank is then moved to its permanent foundation,
e.g. by crane, on rollers or by air cushion.
c. The water test shall be carried out when the tank is standing on its
permanent foundation.

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Construction of Bottom Plate

19.18. Bottom plating shall be in accordance with the storage tank constructional
drawing. Attention shall be paid to erection marks made on bottom plates
according to a marking diagram which is supplied by the tank plate
fabricator for the use of tank erector.
19.19. Manual gas cutting may be used for trimming the corners of bottom or
roof plates where two lapped joints intersect and for cutting openings for
fittings positioned on site.
19.20. Unless otherwise specified, after the bottom plates are laid out and tacked,
they shall be joined by welding the joints in a sequence that the erector has
found to result in the least distortion from shrinkage and thus to provide
as nearly as possible a plane surface.
19.21. Welding of the shell to the bottom shall be practically completed before
the start of the completion of welding of bottom joints that may have been
left open to compensate for shrinkage of any welds previously made.

Secondary Containment

19.22. For tanks in constructed secondary containment, the bund should be built
using reinforced materials, with no damp-proof course and rendered
impermeable to oil.
19.23. The bund should be designed to reduce the risk of oil escaping beyond the
containment area if the AST developed a hole (known as jetting):
a. Locate the AST as low as possible within the bund
b. Increase the height of the bund walls
c. Leave space between the AST and bund walls
19.24. A constructed bund should also have a sump fitted into the base for
removal of rainwater for safe and legal disposal

Welding

19.25. All welding, including repair, tack and attachment welding, shall be
carried out according to Sub-section 5.2 of API Standard 650 and the
following supplementary requirements.
19.26. All welding of tank plates, steel framing, structural attachments and
mountings done in the field shall be carried out by qualified welders or
welding operators.
19.27. The erection contractor shall weld test plates using procedures that are
suitable for making welds which conform to the specified requirements.

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19.28. The sequence employed for tack welding and welding the bottom, shell
and roof plates shall be such that the distortion due to welding shrinkage
is minimized.
19.29. Tack welds used in the assembly of the vertical joints of tank shells and
horizontal joints to be manually welded shall be removed and shall not
remain in the finished joint.
19.30. Tack welds in the bottom, shell-to-bottom, roof and automatically welded
horizontal joints of the tank shell and other joints, need not be removed
provided they are sound and the subsequent weld runs are thoroughly
fused into the tack welds.
19.31. Each run of weld metal shall be cleaned of slag and other deposits before
the next run is applied. Slag shall also be removed from finished welds
before inspection. Where air-arc gouging is used, the surfaces shall be
chipped or ground back to bright metal before welding.
19.32. Peening of butt welds shall not be carried out except to the extent
necessary to clean the weld.
19.33. No restraint of bottom plates by weights during welding is permitted.
19.34. In vertical joints in shell plates exceeding 13 mm thick all, but the root,
runs shall be welded by the ’upwards’ technique. Root runs by either the
’upwards’ technique or by vertical-down welding in such plates over 13
mm shall be permitted but, in the latter case, the weld metal shall be
completely removed by gouging or other suitable means to sound clean
metal, before welding on the reverse side.

Tolerances

Shell

19.35. All construction tolerances for the AST shell shall be in accordance with
API 650, API 2000 and BS 2654.
19.36. Plates to be joined by butt welding shall be matched accurately and
retained in position during the welding operation.
19.37. Local departures from the design form for the shell horizontally and
vertically should not exceed the defined tolerances when measured over a
gage length of 2.5 m remote from weld seams
19.38. Deviation both inside and outside the tank of shell plate vertical joints
from a true circle generated by tank radius, over a 1 m horizontal span
centered on the weld, (peaking) shall be within 10 mm.
19.39. Deviation both inside and outside the tank of horizontal joints over a 1 m
vertical span centered on the weld, from a vertical line (banding) shall be
within 10 mm.

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19.40. The tank shell shall be carefully checked for circularity, dimensions and
level before the roof members (fixed roof tank) or the primary wind girder
(floating roof tank) are erected.

Floating Roof

19.41. The variations in the gap between the shell and the periphery of the roof
on completion of erection of roof shall not exceed ±13 mm from the
nominal gap.
19.42. At any elevation of the roof other than that at which it was erected, this
difference in gap shall not exceed 50 mm unless some other value has been
agreed for a particular seal design.

Inspection

19.43. The inspector shall at all times have free access to all parts of the site while
the work covered by the contract is in progress. The tank erection
contractor shall afford him all reasonable facilities for ensuring that the
work is being carried out in accordance with the requirements of this
specification.
19.44. All welding shall be subjected to close visual inspection by competent
welding inspectors of the contractor as the welding progresses, and any
faults or bad practices shall be corrected as soon as possible.
19.45. Particular attention shall be paid to the vertical and horizontal joints in the
shell plates, butt joints in bottom annular plates and other joints that pass
under the shell plates.

20. Modifications

20.1. Modifications shall be performed in accordance with a professional


engineer’s design requirements.
20.2. AST which are modified shall be inspected and tested according to API
650 before being put in service when a major modification has been
performed on the tank shell, tank roof or tank bottom. Deficiencies shall be
remedied before being returned to service.

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21. Ancillary Equipment

General

21.1. Ancillary equipment shall be in good working order and maintained


according to manufacturer’s specifications and API 2610. Ancillary
equipment shall be compatible with the stored substance.

21.2. Ancillary equipment must be within the secondary containment system so


any discharges of oil are retained.

Pipework

21.3. Piping shall be compatible with the substance stored and properly
designed to resist internal and external wear, vibration and shock.
21.4. New and replacement piping shall be designed, fabricated and tested in
accordance with current codes of practice.
21.5. Installation of piping shall meet or exceed current codes of practice and be
in strict accordance with manufacturer’s specifications. Supporting and
fixing shall be secure and the piping shall be not unduly exposed to
mechanical damage.
21.6. Piping shall be tested for tightness before being placed in service and all
deficiencies remedied.
21.7. Piping shall be tested and inspected in accordance with ASME/ANSI
B31.3 - Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping and ASME/ANSI
B31.4Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum
Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols.
21.8. The layout shall take into account the needs for all operating access and
shall ensure that any access way is not impeded.
21.9. The number of joints should be kept to a minimum.
21.10. Provision shall be made wherever necessary, for the expansion or
contraction of the piping and its contents
21.11. Any buried piping shall be protected from superimposed loads, ground
settlement etc.
21.12. Piping shall be painted and/or marked in a manner sufficient to permit
ready identification of its contents.
21.13. Underground piping should be avoided where possible as they cannot be
easily checked for damage or leaks and have a greater risk of causing
pollution.

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21.14. Underground piping should only be used when you cannot fit pipes
above ground and should:
a. Be within coated to prevent corrosion or routed through ducting
b. Have as few joints as possible
c. Be marked clearly on site plans and when possible on the ground.
21.15. Underground pipework must also be protected against corrosion and
from physical damage like that caused by excessive surface loading,
ground movement or ground disturbance.
21.16. If mechanical joints are used, they must be readily accessible for inspection
under a hatch or cover.
21.17. The terminal should have adequate facilities for detecting leaks from
underground pipework. If a continuous leak detection device is installed,
it should be maintained and tested regularly. Keep a record of the test
results and any maintenance work completed.
21.18. If the site has no continuous leak detection system installed, the operator
must test:
a. Pipework before use
b. Pipework with mechanical joints every five years in accordance with
API 2610 Design, Construction, Operation, Maintenance, and
Inspection of Terminal and Tank Facilities.
c. All other pipe work at least every ten years.

Vents

21.19. This allows oil vapor and air to escape from the tank when it is being filled
and allows air in when fuel is being drawn off.
21.20. The size of the vent shall be such that pressure or vacuums resulting from
filling, emptying or atmospheric temperature change, will not cause
stresses in excess of the maximum design stress for the tank
21.21. Vent pipes must be arranged so that any discharge is directed vertically
downwards into the bund.
21.22. The tank must be fitted with an automatic overfill protection device
(which may include an alarm sounding device) if the filling operation is
controlled from a place where it is not reasonably practical to observe the
tank or any vent pipe.

Fill Point

21.23. The fill point is where the tanker delivery pipework connects to fill the
tank.

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21.24. There are different arrangements depending on tank type, size and
location.
21.25. Coupling - If the AST fill point has a serviceable screw fitting or other
fixed coupling, it must be used when filling the tank. The fill point should
have a lockable fill cap with a chain and be marked clearly with the
product type, tank capacity and, where appropriate, tank number. The cap
should be replaced to the pipe after each delivery to protect it from
damage and unauthorized use.
21.26. Position – the fill point should be at the tank and within the secondary
containment system or in a suitable cabinet with a drip tray to catch any
oil spilled during deliveries. Where the fill point is outside the secondary
containment system, a drip tray must be used to catch any oil spilled
during deliveries.
21.27. Fill point drip trays should be:
a. Any container that is specifically designed or manufactured to capture
dripping product. It must be strong enough, made of oil resistant
material and, ideally, have handles for lifting, emptying and cleaning.
b. Clean, free from water and other debris before each use
c. Large enough to hold all the oil that could be lost when the fill point
shut off valve has been closed and the delivery hose is disconnected
d. Able to be moved without risk of spilling the oil and capable to hold
least 3 litres
e. Checked after each delivery and if necessary safely emptied before
being put away
f. Kept safely where it cannot collect rain water when not in use
g. Provided with earthing.
21.28. Provide separate fill pipes for each tank. Each fill pipe should have its own
fill point shut off valve, and be marked with its corresponding
tank/compartment number, volume and type of oil.
21.29. Flexible delivery pipes should only be used where there may be needed
to move the end delivery point, for example when fuelling vehicles.
21.30. Fit the pipe with a tap or valve at the delivery end, which closes
automatically when not in use. Where the pipe is not fitted with an
automatic shut-off device, it must not be possible to fix the tap or valve in
the open position. The pipe must either: • have a lockable valve where it
leaves the tank which is locked when not in use and be kept in the
secondary containment; or must be in an enclosed secure cabinet which is
locked shut when not in use and has a drip tray.
21.31. Tanks shall be appropriately vented to protect the tank from over
pressurization and excessive vacuums.

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21.32. Vents shall meet or exceed the appropriate codes of practice developed by
API. Normal venting shall allow the tank to breath when transferring the
stored product. Emergency venting shall ensure that the safe pressure for
the tank is not exceeded.
21.33. Tank connections through which regulated substance can flow shall be
equipped with an operating valve adjacent to the tank to control flow of
substance.
21.34. Valves shall be installed to meet or exceed current codes of practice and
jurisdictional requirements. Valves shall be designed, installed and
maintained according to ASME B16.34 - Valves, Flanged, Threaded and
Welding End and API 600 Steel Gate Valves Flanged and Butt Welding
Ends.

22. Release Prevention and Leak Detection

Overfill Protection

22.1. Tanks must be installed with the following:


a. A gauge or monitoring device which accurately indicates the level or
volume in the tank and is visible to the individual responsible for the
transfer of product.
b. The monitoring device shall be installed, calibrated and maintained in
accordance with manufacturer’s specifications.
c. A high-level alarm with an automatic high-level cut-off device or a
high-level alarm with a manned operator shutdown procedure in
operation.
22.2. An existing tank system which is taken out of service to perform a
scheduled out-of-service inspection or a major modification to the tank
shall be upgraded with a high-level alarm with a cut-off device or a high-
level alarm with a manned operator shutdown procedure prior to being
put back in service.

Secondary Containment

22.3. Permeability of clay or existing soil RPB's (Reactive Permeable Barriers)


must be determined by a professional engineer or certified geologist using
a method capable of testing both horizontal and vertical permeability.
22.4. ASTM D 2434 covers the determination of the coefficient of permeability
by a constant-head method for the laminar flow of water through granular
soils.

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22.5. The procedure is to establish representative values of the coefficient of


permeability of granular soils that may occur in natural deposits as placed
in embankments, or when used as base courses under pavements.
22.6. Containment structures must be compatible with the substance stored and
minimize deterioration to the storage tank system.
22.7. Containment areas shall be designed, maintained and constructed in
accordance with sound engineering practices adhering to recognized
codes of practice such as NFPA, NACE, ACI or API and in compliance
with KEBS requirements.
22.8. Secondary containment under the tank bottom and around underground
piping must be designed to direct any release to a monitoring point to
meet leak detection requirements.
22.9. Secondary containment shall be provided on a new tank at installation,
and shall be provided on an existing tank at reconstruction or relocation of
the tank or when the tank floor is replaced in accordance with API 650
Appendix I).
22.10. Permeability of the secondary containment must be less than 1 x 10-7
cm/sec at anticipated hydrostatic head and shall be verified at the time of
installation.
22.11. ASTs must have emergency containment structures, such as dike fields,
curbing and containment collection systems, which contain releases from
overfills, leaks and spills.
22.12. Permeability of newly installed or replacement emergency containment
structures must be less than 1 x 10-6 cm/sec at anticipated hydrostatic
head and be of sufficient thickness to prevent the released substance from
penetrating the containment structure for a minimum of 72 hours, and
until the release can be detected and recovered.
22.13. Emergency containment structures for existing ASTs must be verified by a
professional engineer to determine that the emergency containment
structure, coupled with the tank monitoring program and response plan,
is capable of detecting and recovering a release and is designed to prevent
contamination of waters.
22.14. Verification of earthen structures should include determination of the
containment structure permeability following ASTM Methods and
Engineering Standards Listed in API Publication 351.
22.15. Verification of the containment structure is valid until conditions at the
site, monitoring program, response plan or procedures change.
22.16. Transfers of regulated substances to a tank within the emergency
containment shall be monitored by designated personnel for the duration
of the transfer.

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22.17. Emergency containment areas, such as dike fields, must be able to contain
110% of the capacity of the largest tank in the containment area.
22.18. Stormwater shall be removed from the emergency containment area as
soon as possible or when the water is in contact with the tank or piping
and prior to the capacity of containment being reduced by 10% or more.
22.19. Manually operated pumps or siphons and manually operated gravity
drains may be used to empty the containment. If drain valves are used
they shall be secured in the closed position when not in use. Discharge or
disposal of substances from the containment structure must comply with
applicable National and County requirements.
22.20. All oil terminal facilities must have diked areas designed, constructed and
maintained to prevent oil from entering waters or adjacent property.
22.21. ASTs must be surrounded by a containment dike with a minimum height
of 24 inches, and constructed as follows:
a. Where a diked area contains one storage tank, the diked area must
retain not less than 110% of the capacity of the tank;
b. Where a diked area contains more than one storage tank, the diked
area must retain not less than 110% of the capacity of the largest
tank, deducting the volume of the other tanks in the diked area
below the top surface of the dike; and
c. Containment capacity for all facilities must be verified when
modifications to the diked areas, or the capacity of the storage tank
are made. If no modifications are made, the containment capacity
shall be verified every 10 years. Dike walls that have eroded or
degraded over time must be regraded or repaired.
22.22. NFPA, Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Code 30, governs dike
configuration for all facilities.
22.23. New facilities must have secondary containment with the base and walls
designed for a permeability rate to water of 1 x 10-7 cm/sec, except where
asphalt is the only oil stored in the dike area.

Leak Detection

22.24. ASTs shall be provided a method of leak detection at installation that is


capable of detecting a release.
22.25. The leak detection method shall be monitored at least monthly and shall
be installed, calibrated, operated and maintained in accordance with API
Standard 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage.
22.26. The area beneath the tank bottom shall be monitored for leakage by tell-
tale pipe, visual, mechanical or electronic leak detection methods.

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22.27. Observation wells outside of the secondary containment structure do not


satisfy the leak detection requirements.
22.28. Existing ASTs with secondary containment shall implement a monthly
leak detection method. Monthly visual inspections shall be an acceptable
method of leak detection.
22.29. Existing ASTs without secondary containment under the bottom of the
tank that are in contact with the soil, such as vertical flat bottom tanks, and
do not have cathodic protection or an internal lining shall be leak tested at
the next scheduled in-service inspection and continue to be leak tested at
each in-service inspection thereafter, until the tank is upgraded.
22.30. Tank leak test must follow API 650 procedures that are based on a
volumetric/mass measurement, an acoustic measurement, or a soil-vapor
monitoring method as addressed in API Publication 334 ‘‘Guide to Leak
Detection in Aboveground Storage Tanks.’’
22.31. The test shall be performed by a third-party inspector or a technician who
has experience with the selected method and is qualified by the test
equipment manufacturer and is not an employee of the tank owner.
22.32. ASTs and piping shall be visually checked for leaks in accordance with the
facility operations and maintenance plan.

Liquid Sensing Probes and Cables

22.33. Liquid sensing probes and cables are commonly used in AST leak
detection.
22.34. When monitoring single-wall tanks the probes and cables are buried
beneath or immediately down-gradient of the AST.
22.35. In double-wall tank applications the probes or cable sensors may be
installed in the tanks’ interstitial space to detect leaking liquid before it
leaves the tank.

Volumetric and Mass Measurement Methods

22.36. Volumetric and mass measurements systems use suitably precise sensors
to quantify the amount of liquid in the tank (API, 1996).
22.37. Volumetric methods of leak detection generally use a product level
measurement device and a temperature probe in the tank.
22.38. The volume of product in the tank is calculated, taking temperature into
account. If the calculated volume of product decreases inexplicably, a leak
may be present.
22.39. Mass measurement methods generally measure the pressure that the
liquid exerts on the tank. In this way, the temperature of the liquid does
not play into the calculations of product in the tank. Similar to volumetric
methods, an unexplained loss of mass may indicate the presence of a leak.

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Statistical Inventory Control Methods

22.40. Statistical inventory control methods are among the least complex of the
leak detection methods presently available. A detailed record is kept of
additions or withdrawals to a tank over a specified period of time.
22.41. Level or mass of the liquid is monitored concurrently. At the end of the
monitoring period, the two measurements are compared.
22.42. A discrepancy in the numbers may indicate a leak in the tank. This
method of inventory control/leak detection has several sources for error
including inaccurate measurement or recording of deliveries, sales
volumes, product levels and product level-to-volume conversions.
22.43. A modification of this method has emerged into a more sophisticated and
sensitive method of analysis. This method not only has greater sensitivity
but also involves shorter data collection duration than traditional
methods.
22.44. Statistical Inventory Reconciliation (SIR) involves statistical analysis that
accomplishes two main objectives:
a. To separate out and quantify effects that are not “leak-related”
b. To react appropriately to those effects that are not compatible with
leakage.
22.45. For each data set analyzed, SIR can determine not only whether or not a
leak is present but also the smallest leak that could be detected, given the
quality of data provided.
22.46. Qualitative SIR methods are designed to classify a tank system as Pass,
Fail or Inconclusive.
22.47. A Pass means that, according to the data analyzed, the system is tight.
22.48. A Fail means that the system may be leaking; however, it could also mean
that dispensers are miscalibrated, deliveries are inaccurately metered or
product has been stolen.
22.49. An Inconclusive results means that a determination of pass or fail could
not be reached based on the data analysis.
22.50. Quantitative SIR methods also classify results as Pass, Fail or Inconclusive,
but they also provide an estimated leak rate, usually in litres per hour.
22.51. Because the volume of leakage over any reasonable test period is so much
smaller than the average tank volume, API has determined that it is not
technically feasible to rely solely on inventory control and monitoring
strategies such as SIR for leak detection.
22.52. Inventory control measures should only be used for their original
intended purpose, stock loss control.

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Automatic Tank Gauging

22.53. Automatic tank gauging continuously monitors the hydrostatic level of


product in the tank using a series of electronically monitored floats,
probes, and sensors to determine the temperature and level of product in
the tank.
22.54. These sensors are connected to a controller, which may be connected to a
PC.
22.55. The sensors continuously monitor temperature and fluid levels in the tank
and compensate for daily fluctuations in the tank that may influence the
liquid volume but are not related to detection of a leak.

Passive-Acoustic Sensing

22.56. Acoustic sensing technology is based on the principle that liquid escaping
though a hole or fissure in an AST produces a sound that is detectable. It
has been shown that a leak in the floor of an AST actually produces two
different types of sound simultaneously.
22.57. One type, the “continuous” sound, is similar to the hissing noise that
might be expected when liquid escapes from a container under pressure.
22.58. The second type is an intermittent popping sound that extends beyond the
audible frequency range. Known as “impulsive” sound, it is created by the
interaction between the flow field of the leak and the air bubbles trapped
in the backfill material below the AST floor (API, 1996).
22.59. Passive-acoustic sensing technology is available in two basic formats,
continuous monitoring and regularly scheduled testing. The sensors or
transducers used in acoustic testing convert the energy from a sound wave
into an electrical signal.
22.60. The two types of transducers suitable for acoustic testing are an
accelerometer and hydrophone.
22.61. Accelerometers are mounted on the exterior wall of the tank and have the
advantage of being non-intrusive. Non-intrusive methods are easier and
less expensive to implement, are easily accessible in case of malfunction,
and eliminate the need for contact with the product. Hydrophone
transducers are submerged in the liquid.
22.62. Typically, arrays of acoustic sensors are either suspended from the tank
roof or at evenly spaced intervals around the external circumference of the
tank.
22.63. The sensors monitor the tank acoustic levels/locations. A background
level of noise is documented by continuous tank monitoring. This
background noise is used to create an “acoustic map” of the tank. A
persistent anomalous or out of character acoustic signal in a consistent
location within a tank may indicate a leak.

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Vapor Monitoring

22.64. Leak detection using vapor-monitoring techniques is a fairly


straightforward concept.
22.65. Liquids leaking from an AST into the soil or backfill under the tank
volatilize filling the backfill or soil pore space. Perforated or screened
pipes are arranged under or in monitoring wells surrounding the AST to
gather the vapors and to act as a conduit through which soil vapors are
extracted.
22.66. The soil vapor is collected and analyzed for either hydrocarbons or the
presence of a chemical tracer or both. Tracers or chemical markers are
often added to the product in the tank being monitored to differentiate
leaking product from naturally occurring background vapors or vapors
from previous spills.
22.67. Tracers or markers detected during analysis of the vapors may indicate a
leak in the tank.

Fiber Optic Sensing Probes

22.68. Fiber optic sensing probe can be installed during construction or easily
retrofitted to existing ASTs.
22.69. The probes are driven into the soil beneath an AST. The fiber optic probe
has a covering that changes its refractive index in the presence of very
small amounts of hydrocarbons. This change in refractive index is
registered optically by the probe, and converted to a parts-per-million
reading of the hydrocarbons.
22.70. The sensing probe is capable of detecting both liquid and vapor phase
hydrocarbons. This system has been used in several leak detection
applications for a little more than five years.
22.71. Existing ASTs without secondary containment under the bottom of the
tank that are in contact with the soil, such as vertical flat bottom tanks, and
do not have cathodic protection or an internal lining shall be upgraded.

Spill and Storm Run Off

22.72. Product–transfer areas shall be paved with concrete and graded, curbed,
or diked to contain spills or overfills that occur during the transfer process
in line with API 2610.
22.73. Containment area floors within dikes shall be sloped away from the tank
base towards a sump at a slope greater than 1%.
22.74. An OWS used to treat stormwater runoff from the product transfer area
should be:

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a. Designed to produce a discharge of water that does not contain more


than 15 mg/L of oil and grease as measured by the partition–
gravimetric method or other protocol as defined by the authority
having jurisdiction
b. Sized for a hydraulic flow rate of a 10 year return, 1–hour storm event
(the 1–hour rainfall intensity data should be obtained for the nearest
weather station)
c. Designed for an oil with a specific gravity of 0.90
d. Designed to capture a spill of petroleum product of a volume equal to
the amount of petroleum product transferred in 2 minutes at the
highest pumping rate normally used within the area that drains to the
oil/water separator
e. Designed based on the hydraulic retention time required to separate oil
with a particle droplet size of 60 µm (microns) from stormwater.

Ground Monitoring Wells

22.75. Monitoring wells must be a minimum of 2 inches in diameter in


accordance with API 2610.
22.76. The screened zone must extend at least 300 centimeters into the water
table and at least 150 centimeters above the ground water surface, as
determined at the time of installation; or when installed within a
secondary containment liner, the base of the well screen must extend to
within 15 centimeters of the low point of the liner.
22.77. The screened portion of a well outside a liner must be a minimum of 4.5
metres in length and must be factory slotted with a slot size of 0.010 inch.
22.78. Monitoring wells must be installed with a cap at the bottom of the slotted
section of the well.
22.79. Monitoring wells must be constructed of flush joint, threaded schedule 40
PVC or other types of PVC which have equivalent or greater wall
thicknesses.
22.80. Monitoring wells must be numbered such that all monitoring and testing
results may be easily correlated to a specific monitoring well location.
22.81. All monitoring wells must be equipped with liquid-proof lockable caps.
22.82. Monitoring wells must be properly distinguished from oil piping using
American Petroleum Institute recommended symbols.
22.83. The area around the screened portion of the well must be surrounded by a
porous medium (e.g., sand, gravel, or pea stone).
22.84. The outside of the well riser must be sealed to the wall of the boring using
bentonite or a similar product to a depth of 1.5 feet below ground surface,
or to 0.5 feet above the water table, whichever is shallower.

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22.85. Monitoring wells which are located in traffic areas must be cut off at
ground level, clearly marked, with a raised limited access cover in
accordance with PEI Publication RP100-90 (1990) or properly protected
from vehicles.
22.86. Any damaged monitoring well must be repaired, replaced or properly
abandoned as soon as possible after discovery of the damage.
22.87. Monitoring wells must be installed with a boring rig rather than a backhoe
if they are not installed within a containment liner.
22.88. Monitoring wells within a diked area should be properly abandoned, or
completed in such a way to prevent leakage of oil via the well should a
spill occur within the diked area.
22.89. All wells completed as stick-ups should be completed with a protective
steel casing.

23. Spacing and Dikes

22.90. Tank Spacing of ASTs and dikes must be separated in accordance with
KS1967 or NFPA 30.
22.91. Tanks used only for storing Class III B liquids (Flash point 200°F and
above) may be spaced no less than 3 feet apart unless within a diked area
or a drainage path for a tank storing Class I or II liquid in which case the
provisions of NFPA 30 apply.
23.1. All dikes, diversion walls and toe walls shall be suitable for the static
hydraulic and temperature conditions which may be encountered, and
shall be liquid tight.
23.2. AST piping for any tank or group of tanks enclosed by a dike shall not run
through other diked areas. However, piping of tankage within a group
may cross intermediate toe walls within that group.
23.3. Pumps shall be located outside the diked area, unless a high flash viscous
stock requires the pump to be located within the diked area.
23.4. Dike arrangement for low-flash stocks shall be as follows:
a. Tankage may be grouped within a single dike, provided a combined
capacity of 48000 m3 is not exceeded.
b. Each tank with a capacity of 8000 m3 or greater or group of tanks with
a capacity of more than 8000 m3 shall be separated from other tanks in
the same group by toe wall.
c. Two tanks with a combined capacity exceeding 48000 m3, regardless of
individual capacity, may be paired within a single dike. An
intermediate dike shall be provided between paired tanks.

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d. Single tanks which cannot be grouped or paired shall be enclosed by


individual dikes.
e. If roofs are other than floating roofs, the tank diameter shall be limited
to 45 m.
23.5. Dike arrangement for crude oil stocks shall be as follows:
23.6. Floating roof tanks shall be enclosed by individual dikes, or paired within
a single dike. An intermediate dike shall be provided between paired
tanks.
23.7. Fixed roof tanks shall be enclosed by individual dikes. Pairing is not
allowed.
23.8. For high flash stocks, any number of tanks regardless of total capacity may
be grouped within a single dike or toe wall.
23.9. The pairing principle for arrangement of low-flash stocks or crude oil in
floating roof tanks may be extended to include a total of three tanks, but
only in the case of an odd number of tanks.
23.10. For low flash stocks and crude oils, dike net capacities shall be as per the
Table.
DIKE CAPACITIES ONE TANK PAIRED TANKS GROUPED TANKS
TYPES OF STOCKS
AND TANKAGE

LOW FLASHSTOCKS 75% CAPACITY 75% CAPACITY OF 100% CAPACITY


INFIXEDORFLOATING OF
OF ENCLOSED LARGEST TANK
ROOF TANKS
LARGEST TANK
TANK ALLOWING FOR THE
ALLOWING FOR
DISPLACEMENT OF
THE
OTHER TANK(S)
DISPLACEMENT
OF
ALL OTHER
TANK(S)

CRUDE STOCKS ON 75% CAPACITY 75% CAPACITY OF NOT PERMISSIBLE


FLOATINGROOF TANKS OF ENCLOSED LARGEST TANK
TANK ALLOWING FOR THE
DISPLACEMENT OF
OTHER TANKS

CRUDE STOCKS IN 100% CAPACITY NOT PERMISSIBLE NOT PERMISSIBLE


FIXED ROOF TANKS OF ENCLOSED
TANK

23.11. At least one stairway shall be provided over earth and concrete dikes,
however, at least two stair ways shall be provided for concrete dikes 1 m
or more high and earth dikes over 2 m high. When two stairways are
provided they shall be on opposite sides of the dike enclosure. At least one
stairway shall be located as close as possible to a fire hydrant.

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23.12. A drain system shall be installed to provide for rain run off
23.13. Grading of diked or toe wall enclosures shall direct the liquid from a leak
in the vessels or piping to an area within the enclosure that is remote from
the vessels and piping.
23.14. Minimum spacing between tanks shall be as shown in the Table below:
TANKS SPACING MINIMUM SPACING BETWEEN:
TYPE OF STOCKS AND SINGLE OR PAIRED GROUPED TANKS ADJACENT ROWS
TANKAGE OF TANKS IN
TANKS SEPARATE GROUPS

LOW-FLASH STOCKS ¾ TANK DIAMETER. ½ TANK DIAMETER ¾ TANK DIAMETER,


INFLOATING ROOF TANKS NOT LESS THAN 22.5
NEED NOT EXCEED 60 m NEED NOT EXCEED m. NEED NOT
60 m EXCEED 60 m

LOW-FLASH STOCKS IN 1 TANK ½ TANK DIAMETER 1 TANK DIAMETER.


FIXED ROOF TANKS DIAMETER NOT LESS THAN 30 m

CRUDE OIL STOCKS IN FLOATING ¾ TANK DIAMETER. NOT PERMITTED ___


ROOF TANKS
NEED NOT EXCEED 60 m

CRUDE OIL STOCKS IN FIXED 1.½TANK DIAMETER. NOT PERMITTED ___


ROOF TANKS
(PAIRING NOT
PERMITTED)

HIGHFLASH STOCKS IN ANY ½ TANK DIAMETER ½ TANK DIAMETER. ½ TANK DIAMETER


TYPE TANK NOT LESS THAN 15
NEED NOT EXCEED NEED NOT EXCEED m. NEED NOT
60 m 60 m EXCEED 60 m

24. Vapour Emission Control

Expected Emissions

24.1. Emissions from storage tanks occur because of evaporative losses of the
liquid during storage (breathing losses) and as a result of changes in liquid
level (working losses).
24.2. Due to higher average ambient temperatures during the hot season, the
vapor pressure of an organic liquid will increase
24.3. AST emissions can include VOC, HAP, toxic, and inorganic emissions
from flashing, landing, breathing, and working losses.
24.4. Storage tank emissions may also include emissions from degassing,
cleaning, and defective tank seals and fittings.
24.5. All storage tank emissions, whether routine or not, should be quantified
and reported in the emissions inventory.

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Associated Emissions

24.6. Equipment leaks and loading losses from trucks, railcars, tank cars, etc.,
are two other emissions sources generally associated with liquid storage
operations.

Requirements

24.7. Where vapor monitoring is to be considered level 2 leak detection, a


Hydrogeologist or other person experienced in the design of vapor
monitoring systems shall assess the site and establish the number and
positioning of the monitoring wells so that product releases from any
portion of the storage tank system that routinely contains a petroleum
product will be detected
24.8. The vapor monitoring equipments shall have their performance calibrated
by an accredited third–party testing organization
24.9. The vapor monitoring equipments shall be designed and operated to
detect significant increase in concentration above the background level of:
a. Petroleum product stored
b. Component or components of the petroleum product
c. Tracer compound placed in the storage tank system.
24.10. If more than one monitoring well is necessary to monitor an installation
effectively, the monitoring wells shall be numbered so that all monitoring
and testing results shall be easily correlated to a specific monitoring
location.
24.11. Vapor monitoring wells shall be equipped with liquid–proof caps.
24.12. Monitoring wells shall be distinguished from fill pipes
24.13. Monitoring wells shall be secured to prevent unauthorized access and
tampering.
24.14. Vapor monitoring wells that are located in traffic areas shall be cut off at
ground level and/or properly protected from vehicles.
24.15. Vapor monitoring wells installed within the interstitial space shall not
penetrate the liner.

25. Gauging

25.1. Each AST must employ:


a. A mechanical or electronic product level gauge

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b. An audible or visual high-level alarm that is triggered within 378 litres


of capacity
c. Manual gauging
25.2. If manual gauging is used, documentation of available tank capacity must
be transmitted to delivery personnel prior to delivery

26. Commissioning

General

26.1. Prior to the site becoming operational, measures should be taken to ensure
that all valves, fill pipes, vent pipes and monitoring wells are readily
identifiable and cannot be confused.
26.2. Prior to operation the following checks should be carried out:
a. Testing of manhole chambers for integrity
b. Drainage systems, including separators completed and tested
c. Separators to be charged with water to make them operational
d. Emergency equipment installed and operational
e. Loading Gantries and staging areas completed
f. All tanks, pipework, dispensers and pressure relief systems to be
tested, to demonstrate integrity and safety.
26.3. Other commissioning procedures include the following:
a. Safety signs and notices in place
b. Emergency equipment in place and working correctly
c. Fill points, tanks, pipework and dispensing equipment clearly marked
26.4. Where drainage systems have been installed, they are connected, leak
tested and free from debris and the interceptor charged with its water seal.

Labelling

26.5. Each AST must be labeled in accordance with API650 with the following
minimum requirement :
a. tank number
b. tank contents
c. tank capacity
d. Installation, inspection and calibration date

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26.6. Each AST must be issued with a completion certificate and valid Tank
Calibration Chart showing volume conversion from millimeters of
product to litres at observed temperatures
26.7. Piping must be labeled with the product type carried at the tank inlet and
at the point of delivery.
26.8. Manifolded delivery points must have all valves labeled as to product
distribution.

Tank Testing

26.9. Product connections shall not be made to the AST until the AST is tested
and accepted by a certified inspector.
26.10. Pneumatic testing of the reinforcing plates shall be done in accordance
with API 650 and API 653.
26.11. The roof drain of the floating roof AST shall be installed prior to the
hydraulic test on the tank and during the test the drain shall be examined
to ensure that it is not leaking due to external pressure.
26.12. Roof manholes shall be open while filling or emptying a fixed roof tank for
test purposes, so that the tank is not damaged by excessive vacuum or
pressure loading.
26.13. Hydrostatic test of the tank include filling and emptying. The temperature
of the test water shall be not lower than 20°C.
26.14. The cathodic protection systems must be inspected to ensure that they are
functioning properly.
26.15. On completion of all tests, the entire storage tank must be free from leaks
to the satisfaction of the certified inspector in accordance to API 650 and
API 653.
26.16. Hydrostatic tests shall commence and finish during daylight hours.

Initial Filling

26.17. The first delivery of fuel must be carried out with great care to avoid the
release of large amounts of vapor through the fill pipes openings of the
tanks.
26.18. While it is normal practice to test all tanks by filling with water before
commissioning, this filling should be done under controlled conditions to
ensure that foundation failure does not occur during filling. The
hydrostatic test pressure is an integral part of the foundation design and
should be agreed with a soil mechanics specialist.
26.19. All tank tests will be carried out to provide adequate measure
load/settlement records in line with API 650.

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26.20. The first AST in a new area will be the most critical and subsequent testing
arrangements on other tanks should be adjusted in the light of the first test
results where the tanks are on similar sub-soil conditions.
26.21. The water filling rate for testing shall not exceed than the rates shown in
the Table below.

BOTTOMCOURSE TANK PORTION FILLING RATE


THICKNESS mm
mm/hr

< 22 TOP COURSE BELOW TOP COURSE 300


450
≥ 22 TOP THIRD MIDDLE THIRD 225
BOTTOM THIRD 300
450

26.22. Uneven settlement of the tank on its foundation shall be reported


immediately to the owner’s representative, and filling shall be stopped at
any signs of excessive settlement pending a decision by the owner’s
representative on the action to be taken.
26.23. The shells of fixed roof tanks shall be tested after completion of the roof
and those of open top or floating roof tanks after completion of the wind
girder.
26.24. Continuous inspection shall be maintained for the whole filling period. All
leaks found shall be repaired with the water level at least 300 mm below
the point being repaired.
26.25. ASTs showing evidence of leakage from the bottom during water test
should be emptied immediately. The source of such leaks should be
determined and rectified. Where there is risk that the leakage may have
caused washout of the foundation material, the foundations are to be
inspected.
26.26. The center deck plate, pontoon bottom plate and rim plate welded joints
shall be tested by spraying with a penetrating oil, such as light gas oil, on
the bottom side and inspecting visually on the top side and inside of rim
plates.
26.27. Each completed compartment of pontoon roof shall be individually tested
with an air pressure of 7 mbar gage, a soapy water solution being applied
to all welded joints under pressure which have not been previously tested
with penetrating oil.
26.28. The roof shall be given a floatation test while the tank is being filled with
water and emptied. During this test, the upper side of the lower deck and

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all pontoon compartments shall be examined for leaks. Rainwater shall be


prevented from entering the pontoon compartments during this test.
26.29. It is recommended that a similar tightness check is made during the first
filling with oil, as the roof will immerse deeper in oil than in water.
26.30. Roof drain pipe systems shall be tested with water to a pressure of 3.5
bars.
26.31. The sealing mechanism shall be checked to ensure proper functioning over
the full height of the shell.
26.32. Pressure and vacuum relief vents shall normally be installed after
completion of the tank water test or alternatively shall be blanked-off
during the testing of the roof. After installation or immediately following
the roof pressure test all vents shall be carefully examined to ensure that
all packing and blanks have been removed and that all moving parts
function normally.
26.33. When the tank shell is tested with water the roof joints shall be tested by
applying an internal air pressure equal to 7.5 mbar for non-pressure tanks
and 3 mbar above the design pressure
26.34. A safe method of introducing fuel into the tanks is to individually unload
1,000 Litres of fuel into one tank at a time until all tanks are charged with
sufficient fuel to provide a seal at the drop tube.
26.35. After this stage of the commissioning procedure is completed the
remainder of the product can be offloaded in the normal manner.

Installation and Modification Inspections

26.36. AST Systems shall be inspected by a certified inspector. Pressurized


vessels shall be inspected by a DOSHS certified inspector at the time of
installation for the in accordance to recognized code of practice and
manufacturer’s specifications.
26.37. Inspections Reports shall be kept for the operational life of the tank.
26.38. Major modifications shall be inspected by an API 653 certified inspector at
the time of modification prior to being put back in service. When
substantial modifications are made to the tank floor, the next inspection
date projections shall be determined based on the condition of the tank
subsequent to those modifications
26.39. Tanks which are relocated or reconstructed shall be inspected by an API
653 certified inspector and tested for tightness in accordance with codes of
practice prior to being put in service.

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Third Party inspections

26.40. AST owners and operators shall have their storage tank systems inspected
by a API 653 certified AST Inspector
26.41. Inspections will check for compliance with ERC requirements and
adherence to current codes of practice developed by tank manufacturer’s
instructions and design engineer’s specifications.
26.42. Only API 653 certified inspectors shall be used to satisfy requirements for
installation and modification inspections.

27. Decommissioning

Out of Service AST Requirements

27.1. When an AST is no longer used, it must be taken out of service or


removed.
27.2. If product has not been added to or removed from an AST for a year or
more, the owner must maintain and monitor the tank, declare the tank
inactive and out of service, or remove the tank.
27.3. If the tank is declared inactive and taken out of service, the terminal
operator has to:
a. Remove all AST and piping and other appurtenances.
b. Secure the AST by bolting and locking all manways and valves and cap
or plug fill lines, gauge openings, or pump lines.
c. Completely remove all product, sludge, solids, and residuals inside of
AST and piping.
d. Dispose of tank bottom sludge according to NEMA Waste
Management Regulations.
e. Rid the tank of vapors so an explosive atmosphere cannot exist.
f. Secure the AST to prevent unauthorized entrance or tampering.
g. Thoroughly clean the interior of the tank and piping of all sludge,
solids, and residuals.
h. Label the tank exterior “Out of Service,” and the date the tank was
removed from service.

Permanent Closure or Change in Service

27.4. Before permanent closure or change-in-service is completed, the


owner/operator shall comply with the following:

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a. Complete a site assessment to measure for the presence of any release


from the storage tank system and a closure report.
b. If contaminated soil, sediment, surface water or groundwater, or free
product is discovered or confirmed by either direct observation or
indicated by the analytical results of sampling, the owner/operator
shall proceed with the corrective action
c. Regulated substance and contents removed from the tank system
including piping shall be reused, treated or disposed of in a manner
consistent with applicable NEMA waste management requirements.
d. Tank systems shall be cleaned, rendered free of hazardous vapors and
ventilated if left onsite or tank systems shall be emptied and removed
from the site in a manner consistent with current industry practice
e. Tanks to be permanently closed and left onsite shall be legibly marked
with the date of permanent closure.
27.5. Tanks that are to be closed in place shall:
a. Be rendered inoperable and incapable of storing liquid substance.
b. Be secured against unauthorized entry.
27.6. The results of the site assessment and the closure report shall be retained
for 3 years.

Temporary Removal from Service

27.7. A tank system shall be emptied and regulated substances and contents
shall be reused, treated or disposed of in accordance with NEMA
requirements.
27.8. A tank shall be secured against unauthorized entry and all piping entering
or exiting the tank, excluding vents, shall be capped or blinded.
27.9. Tank integrity shall be maintained throughout the temporary removal-
from-service time and the tank shall be protected against flotation. For
example, ASTs in flood plains must be safeguarded against buoyancy and
lateral movement by flood waters in accordance with operating standards
set forth in NFPA No. 30, section 2-5.6 (see subdivision 613.1(g)). If such
safeguards include ballasting of tanks with water during flood warning
periods, tank valves and other openings must be closed and secured in a
locked position in advance of the flood. Ballast water removed from the
tank after the flood must not be discharged to the waters.
27.10. In-service and out-of-service inspection intervals may be delayed for a
tank that is temporarily removed from service. The delayed inspections
shall be conducted prior to placing regulated substance in a tank and
returning the tank to operating status.

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27.11. Deficiencies noted during inspection shall be addressed and remedied


prior to returning the tank to operating status.
27.12. Tanks which are temporarily removed-from-service for 5 years or longer
must meet the requirements for permanent closure as outlined under
section 23.2, unless the time frame for retaining the tank or tanks in
temporary removal-from-service status is extended.

Removing Recoverable Product

27.13. Employers should establish, and tank cleaning entry supervisors should
implement, procedures for removing recoverable product from the tank
that cover items such as the following:
a. Area protection, potential sources of ignition and electrical
classification.
b. Bonding and grounding.
c. Entry onto fixed and floating roofs.
d. Removing recoverable product through product lines.
e. Recoverable product removal by suction pump through fixed
connections.
f. Recoverable product removal by flotation through open manholes or
connections.
g. Recoverable product removal by vacuum pump.
h. Recoverable product removal through open manholes.

Tank Isolation

27.14. "Isolation" means the process by which a permit space is removed from
service and completely protected against the release of energy and
material into the space by such means as: blanking or blinding;
misaligning or removing sections of lines, pipes, or ducts; a double block
and bleed system; lockout or tag out of all sources of energy; or blocking
or disconnecting all mechanical linkages.
27.15. Employers must develop and implement the isolation means, procedures,
and practices necessary for safe tank entry.
27.16. Before entry is made, employers must document the completion of these
measures and entry supervisors must verify that all procedures have been
followed before endorsing the permit.
27.17. The isolation plan should address:
a. Tank isolation requirements
b. Tank suction and discharge lines

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c. Other tank lines, appurtenances and connections


d. Energy sources - electrical, mechanical and pressure
e. Cathodic protection systems
f. Vapor recovery systems

Vapour and Gas Freeing

27.18. Vapor and gas freeing occurs after all product, tank bottoms and residue
has been removed from a tank and the tank has been properly isolated.
27.19. Employers must establish and implement safe vapor and gas freeing
procedures. The requirements and additional guidance to employers and
employees who participate in activities related to entry into petroleum
ASTs include:
a. Preplanning
b. Training and Rescue
c. Setting up equipment for tank entry and cleaning
d. Removing recoverable product from tanks using fixed connections and
piping (decommissioning)
e. Removing remaining product and tank bottoms through an entryway
(without entry)
f. Tank isolation
g. Vapor and gas freeing the tank (degassing)
h. Atmospheric testing the tank interior with relevant certified equipment
i. Cleaning the tank
j. Working inside and around the tank
k. De-isolation and returning the tank to service
l. Recommissioning
27.20. API RPs also provides guidance related to worker protection including:
a. Recommended Practice 2219, Safe Operating Guidelines for Vacuum
Trucks in Petroleum Service.
b. Recommended Practice 2220, Improving Owner and Contractor Safety
Performance.
c. Recommended Practice 2221, Contractor and Owner Safety Program
Implementation.
27.21. Acceptable entry conditions must be specified and verified through
appropriate testing and monitoring, prior to tank entry.

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Cleaning

27.22. Tank cleaning entry supervisors must determine, administer and


implement safe work procedures and appropriate safe limits for
employee's exposure to hydrocarbon vapors and gases and toxic gases,
and required oxygen concentrations both when working outside of tanks
and when entering and working in tanks during tank cleaning operations,
in accordance with applicable regulations and facility confined space entry
requirements.
27.23. The safe work procedures should include:
a. Permit requirements
b. Personal protective equipment
c. Sludge and residue removal from outside the tank
d. Cleaning the tanks from the inside
27.24. Proper operation of the cathodic protection systems must be confirmed
within six months after initial installation, and annually thereafter

28. Recommissioning

General

28.1. When reactivating an out-of-service AST, it must be inspected and meet


leak detection requirements before it is put back in service.
28.2. Determining the disposition of a tank prior to installation and selection of
an LDS is an important consideration. If the tank is aged and has a history
of previous leaks, this information will influence the type of LDS
applicable for that particular tank and situation.
28.3. Proper identification of previous leaks, their locations and the
approximate quantity of product that escaped will help minimize possible
sources of noise after selection and installation of an LDS.

Temporary Requirements

28.4. Temporary ASTs store product at a site for more than 30 days, but less
than one year.
28.5. The exterior of temporary storage tanks must be clearly labeled with the
words “Temporary Storage” and the date storage began at the site.
28.6. A terminal that does not have a person at the site 24-hours-a-day must
have a sign with the name, address, and telephone number of the facility
owner, operator, or local emergency response unit. The sign must be

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posted in a conspicuous place and legible from outside any secondary


containment area.
28.7. Temporary ASTs must in accordance with API 653 have 100 percent
containment capacity of the largest tank in the secondary containment
basin. An additional ten percent containment capacity is required if
exposed to precipitation. Basin materials must be compatible with the
products stored in the tanks.
28.8. To minimize corrosion or rust on the tank exterior and maintain the
integrity of the secondary containment area, keep tanks, containment
areas, and substance transfer areas free of cracks, open seams, open drains,
and vegetation other than grass. Precipitation also needs to be removed
from the secondary containment areas to ensure proper containment
volume.

29. Record Keeping

29.1. AST records kept for the life cycle include:


a. Maintenance and repair documentation of tank systems
b. Third-party certifications of equipment
c. As built drawings of tank foundations, tank bottom designs, volume
and design of the secondary containment basin including dike walls
and the area directly under the tank (certified by a professional
engineer for field-erected tanks)
d. Classification of soils used in containment area construction
e. Soil descriptions and logs of each sample location in secondary
containment areas
f. Permeability testing data for containment areas
g. Hydraulic conductivity of the soil expressed as cm/sec. for each
sample location and containment area
h. Documentation of corrosion protection, internal and external tank
inspections, and written summaries of the results
i. Documentation for out-of-service tank requirements
j. All documentation addressing service check and equipment
calibrations on tank systems

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30. References

30.1. API
30.2. NFPA
30.3. ASTM
30.4. Energy Act 2006
30.5. Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act, 1999.
30.6. Environment Management and Coordination (Water Quality) Regulations,
2006
30.7. Environment Management and Coordination (Waste Management)
Regulations, 2006
30.8. Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Controlled Substances)
Regulations 2007.
30.9. Occupational Health and Safety Act 2007
30.10. KS 200 (2002) - Specification for storage tanks for
PETROLEUM INDUSTRY - Part 1:
Carbon steel welded horizontal
cylindrical storage tanks (Second
Edition).
30.11. KS ISO 1998 – 5 - PETROLEUM INDUSTRY –
Terminology –Part 5: Transport,
storage and distribution.
30.12. KS 1968 (2006) - The petroleum industry – Electrical
Installations in the distribution and
marketing sector - Code of practice.
30.13. KS 1967 - The petroleum industry – The

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31. Contacts

31.1. ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION (ERC)


Head Office: Eagle Africa Centre - Upper Hill
Telephone: 254-020-2717627/31/75; 254-020-2847000/200
Cell Phone: 0722200947; 0734414333
Fax: 254-02-2717603
Postal Address: P.O. Box 42681 - 00100 NAIROBI, KENYA
Email (General Information):
Website: www.erc.go.ke
31.2. KENYA BUREAU OF STANDARDS (KEBS)
Popo Road, Off Mombasa Road
Behind Bellevue Cinema
P.O Box 54974-00200
Nairobi – Kenya
Tel: (+254 20), 605506,605550, 605573,605574,605610,605634,
605642,605673,603482,
(+254 20) 6948000/605490
Mobile: +254722202137/8, +254734600471/2
Fax: (+254 20) 60403, 609660
Email: info@kebs.org
Website: www.kebs.org
31.3. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NEMA)
Popo Road, Off Mombasa Road
Behind Bellevue Cinema
P.O Box 67839 – 00200
Nairobi – Kenya
Tel: (+254 20) 6005522/6/7
Mobile: 0724 - 253 398 /0728-585 829 / 0735-013 046 / 0735-010 237
Fax :( 254)-020-6008997
Email:dgnema@nema.go.ke
Website: www.nema.go.ke

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