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Neuber's Rule Accuracy in Predicting Notch Stress-strain

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AIAA-2002-1327

22-25 April 2002, Denver, Colorado

STRAIN BEHAVIOR FOR SEVERAL GEOMETRIES

Structures Division (AIR 4.3.3)

Naval Air Systems Command

Patuxent River, Maryland, 20670-1906

S70E - stress at 0.70E intersection

A numerical investigation has been undertaken to

quantify the potential error in the use of Neuber’s rule ∆S - nominal cyclic stress amplitude

in approximating stresses and strains for local stress ∆ε - local cyclic strain amplitude

concentration regions that undergo plastic deformation.

∆σ - local cyclic stress amplitude

A flat plate with an open hole, a round bar with a

circumferential notch and a double-lap splice joint with ε - local strain

three rows of pins were all modeled using finite ε2 - strain at linear plastic hardening

element techniques, for two different material types. ν - Poisson’s ratio

The local notch stress and strain values from the models

were each compared to the notch strain values predicted σ - local stress

using Neuber’s rule. The results show that Neuber’s

approximation significantly overpredicts local strain INTRODUCTION

when plasticity (0.8% to 2.0% strain) is encountered in

the notch. The state of multiaxial stress in the notch Shipboard operations of naval aircraft demand that

region significantly affects the Neuber strain prediction structural integrity management ensure safety and

error, but not in a consistent manner. Different material readiness through a safe life concept. The underpinning

stress-strain curves also have an effect on the strain of the Naval Air Systems Command’s (NAVAIR) safe

prediction error, but to a lesser extent. The results life methodology is the strain-life1 approach to

indicate that using finite element solutions in the place predicting the initiation of fatigue cracks under cyclic

of Neuber’s rule to estimate notch strain behavior may loading. Strain-life calculations are currently

significantly reduce the modeling error (epistemic implemented in a service life-tracking program whose

uncertainty) of a probabilistic strain-life methodology. predictions are used as a basis for decision-making on

when an aircraft is nearing the end of its usable service

life.

NOMENCLATURE

In the past, performance obsolescence was the leading

E - Young’s modulus cause of removal of an air platform from the naval

Et - strain hardening modulus aviation inventory. However, in the post-cold-war

budgetary and operational environment, the naval

Kf - fatigue notch factor

aviation community may be required to delay vehicle

Kt - elastic stress concentration factor retirement until aircraft reach the limits of their

Kε - local strain concentration factor predicted fatigue lives.

Kσ - local stress concentration factor In order to manage air vehicle fleets to these new,

n - strain hardening exponent historically untested lifetime boundaries, the

S - nominal stress uncertainties of the fatigue life prediction

methodologies must be clearly and quantitatively

Sy - stress at proportional limit understood. The problem is that the current

implementation of the strain-life approach in predicting

fatigue life is deterministic in nature. As a result, life

*

Aerospace Engineer, Senior Member. predictions do not account for the inherent variability of

†

Aerospace Engineer, Member. all of the design and operational parameters that

This paper is a declared work of the U.S. Government contribute to fatigue failures in airframe components

and is not subject to copyright protection in the United (aleatory uncertainty). In addition, the strain-life

States. methodology is an empirical approximation of the true

1

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.

physical processes by which fatigue cracks nucleate and Topper, et al. modified Neuber’s Rule for use in fatigue

grow in metallic components. Models to accurately loading, where the theoretical stress concentration

describe the physics of the small crack nucleation and factor can be replaced by the theoretical fatigue notch

growth process remain elusive, and the strain-life factor, and the static stress and strain parameters are

methodology remains to date the best general-purpose replaced by their cyclic stress and strain amplitude

method of approximating fatigue crack initiation in a counterparts.4 If the net section stresses and strains are

structural component. The empiricism of the strain-life elastic, Eqn. 1 can be rewritten to relate the applied load

method introduces additional uncertainty to the fatigue to the local notch stresses and strains (Eqn. 2).

life prediction in the form of modeling errors (epistemic

uncertainty), which can only be quantified by (K f

∆S )

2

= ∆σ∆ε (2)

comparing detailed life predictions to component

failures experienced the field. This is not easily

E

accomplished, since most components will not initiate Because of its simplicity, this method of predicting

failures until near the end of their useful lives, and notch stress and strain behavior has been widely used in

modeling error estimates for one component may be strain-life based crack initiation predictions. However,

the underlying theory of Neuber was derived only for a

substantially different for other components with

different geometries, loads and material properties. single notch geometry, but has historically been applied

to a wide variety of fatigue problems. In more general

To meet the challenge of evaluating life uncertainty in situations of the type encountered in aerospace

aging aircraft, a research effort is underway to extend structures, strict geometric similitude may not be

the current strain-life approach with the development of satisfied for components with complicated geometries,

a probability-based strain life model. The probabilistic or that do not operate under purely plane stress

model will quantify the scatter in the basic variables of conditions.

the fatigue life calculation, and will estimate the

modeling error using laboratory data from several Due to the potential of encountering significant

modeling error associated with the liberal use of

aircraft component and subcomponent tests. The goal

is a methodology that will enable management to assess Neuber’s rule in strain-life calculations, a research

the overall structural reliability of an air vehicle. effort has been initiated to characterize the uncertainty

of Neuber’s rule for notch geometries of a few

Steps to develop methods of estimating uncertainty in characteristic aerospace structural details. The results

the basic fatigue life variables have recently been are applicable to any static stress or fatigue analyses

undertaken by the authors. Preliminary work in that seek to quantify plasticity in a local area on a

modeling a probabilistic strain-life curve for AA 7050- component.

T7451 has been proceeding2. Efforts to characterize

uncertainty in the other basic fatigue life variables are

ongoing. FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION

Research to characterize and reduce modeling errors of Neuber’s equation for stress and strain concentrations

a probabilistic life prediction method is centered on the under non-linear deformation was analytically derived

existing implementation of the deterministic strain-life in Ref. 3 for a 2-D notched prismatic body under pure

model. In evaluating the fatigue life of a component, shear stress conditions. The use of modern finite

the nominal loads on a structure must be reduced to element techniques allow the original theory to be

local stress and strain values in the neighborhood of investigated for its applicability to more general states

notches or stress concentrations where fatigue cracks of stress, where multiaxial stresses may exist at the

are expected to initiate. If the neighboring stresses in surface of an arbitrary notch geometry. The following

the notch region are purely elastic, the theoretical stress analysis is limited to problems where the nominal

concentration factor is used to estimate notch stresses loading is unidirectional, and where the stress state in

and strains. However, if the material in the notch the notch region is dominated by a single principal

region is plastically loaded, the stress and strain fields direction, with the principal stress directions remaining

will no longer be proportional. Such cases are typically fixed as the structure is loaded and unloaded

dealt with using Neuber’s Rule3, which relates the (proportional loading). Plasticity is limited to the

theoretical stress concentration in the notch to the general vicinity of the notch region, and the

geometric mean of the local stress and strain deformations in the remaining structure are purely

concentrations (Eqn. 1). elastic. These conditions allow the use of the simpler

Deformation Theory of Plastic Flow in place of the

K t = Kσ Kε (1) more general Incremental Flow Theory.

2

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

One of the limitations of Deformation Theory of curve was input into StressCheck® using the Ramberg-

Plasticity is that load reversals are not allowed in the Osgood option. The curve for AA 7050 does not fit the

analysis. The finite element model is thus limited to Ramberg-Osgood form, in that the stress-strain curve

solutions representing an initial loading from a state of flattens out after yielding occurs. This curve was input

zero stress-strain. The cyclic form of Neuber’s rule into StressCheck® using the 5-parameter option, which

(Eqn. 2) must therefore be converted back to the assumes a linear plastic strain-hardening coefficient,

monotonic form (Eqn. 3) to present the analysis results. and uses a cubic spline to interpolate the transition

Fatigue notch factor effects are also ignored for this region between the linear elastic and linear plastic

analysis. portions of the curve. Material property values as input

into the finite element code are shown below, with the

( Kt S )2 Ramberg-Osgood form shown in Eqn. 4.

= σε (3)

E

Three different structural configurations are presented 7050-T7451 Al

for analysis and comparison. The first is a flat plate

with a round hole through the center (Fig. 1a). The E = 10,050 Ksi ν = 0.33

plate is thick enough so that pure plane stress

conditions do not hold through the thickness. The Sy = 49 Ksi Et = 548 Ksi

second structure is a round bar with a circumferential S2 = 66.3 Ksi ε2 = 0.010

notch under tension (Fig. 1b). This geometry is similar

to specimens used in stress-life testing to examine stress

7075-T651 Al

concentration effects on fatigue. The third structure is a

double lap-splice joint with three rows of pins (Fig. 1c). E = 10,150 Ksi ν = 0.33

The analysis tool used for all three models is the

StressCheck® p-version finite element code, which uses S70E = 81.5 Ksi n = 13.5

a Deformation Plasticity law, and can model fastened

joints with material non-linearities. The linear model n

ε = + 70 E

solutions all use the maximum p = 8 element order as a 3S σ σ

E 7 E S 70 E

(4)

starting point for the non-linear solutions. The error in

energy norm is less than 1% for all of the linear

solutions. The non-linear solutions are run with 20 load

steps for each case. Peak local notch strains vary NOTCHED FLAT PLATE

between 1-2% (in/in) in the maximum load cases for all

A notched flat plate was chosen to be modeled as an

solutions. Stress solution relative convergence error is

initial demonstration to investigate the effect that non-

less than 0.5% for all non-linear solutions.

plane stress conditions have on the accuracy of

In Neuber’s original analysis, a single non-linear Neuber’s rule. The plate dimensions are 4.0 in. wide by

deformation law was used to model material behavior. 6.0 in. high, with a 0.25 in. diameter hole in the center.

In this work, two different material types were used for The plate thickness is 0.25 in. The 3-D, 1/8 symmetry

each structure to investigate the effect that differing model was created with nodes located at the point of

elastic-plastic stress-strain curves have on the notch maximum stress concentration in the notch, at both the

solutions. The choice of whether to use the monotonic notch edge and at the mid-plane of the plate thickness.

or cyclic stress-strain curve for a material depends on The theoretical stress concentration factor for such a

whether the model solutions are to be used in a plate in pure plane-stress was calculated using Roark’s

subsequent fatigue analysis. For the examples solutions,6 and compared to the elastic stress

investigated here, cyclic stress-strain curves are used to concentration factors extracted from the finite element

demonstrate the Neuber error effects on a notch fatigue model in Table 1.

analysis, however the monotonic stress-strain curve will

work equally well. Cyclic stress-strain curves for AA Table 1. Elastic Stress Concentrations from FEM

7050-T7451 plate were generated by the authors using

incremental step tests of uniform gage round bars, up to Theoretical Notch Notch

2.0% strain half-amplitude. A cyclic stress-strain curve Mid-Plane Edge

for AA 7075-T651 was generated using data from Kt 2.82 2.97 2.5

Boller and Seeger.5 Both curves are shown in Fig. 2. A

Ramberg-Osgood form is used to model the AA 7075

curve, with the parameters taken from Ref. 5. This ®

StressCheck is a registered trademark of Engineering

Software Research & Development, Inc.

3

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Correlation of Neuber’s rule with finite element of the local stress-strain curve values extracted from the

solutions in Fig. 3 show that the local stress-strain finite element model. The iterations converged to less

product deviates from the theory as plasticity is than 10-6 relative error. The resulting calibration curves

increasingly encountered in the notch. The notch are plotted in Fig. 4 for the notched plate edge, and in

midplane correlation is somewhat better than the Fig. 5 for the notched plate mid-plane. Both charts

uniaxial stress correlation at the notch edge, with the show that Neuber’s approximation significantly

transverse stresses at the notch mid-plane varying from overpredicts the notch strain response under uniaxial

11-22% of the first principal stress at the notch surface. and biaxial stress states. These results are similar to

Correlation for the AA 7075 material is also somewhat notch strain calibrations reported by Dowling, et al. for

better than for AA 7050. This is a result of the two different types of steel.7 Relative error in the notch

differences in the stress-strain curve shapes of the two strain prediction is plotted in Fig. 6, with the error at the

materials. Also, the higher yield strength of AA 7075 notch edge being larger than at the midplane. This

means that the plastic zone in the notch will be smaller shows that for this particular example, biaxial stresses

for this material at a given load level. do not have a detrimental effect on Neuber

approximation accuracy relative to plane stress

For fatigue life calculations, it is desirable to have a

predictions.

calibration chart that correlates the nominal applied

load to the notch strain in the principal direction. Use

of a finite element model yields local strain values that CIRCUMFERENTIAL NOTCHED ROD

can be plotted directly as a function of load. In the case

of Neuber’s rule, Eqn. 3 forms a set of hyperbolas that Use of analytical methods to derive the equations of

intersect the stress-strain curve at the values of stress Neuber’s rule require a simple geometric configuration

and strain in the notch. The stress-strain curve and Eqn. for analysis. The geometry used in Ref. 3 is that of a 2-

3 are then iterated to solve for the notch stresses and D symmetric notched prismatic body under shear stress.

strains at a given applied load. Unfortunately, there are few aerospace structures where

this type of model can be readily applied. A more

At the edge of the notch in the plate, the cyclic stress- useful configuration is that of a round bar with a

strain curve derived from axial coupon tests can be used circumferential notch under tension (Fig. 7). For this

directly in the iteration, but at the mid-plane of the example, the bar is 1.0 in. in diameter, with a 0.030 in.

notch, the cyclic stress-strain curve must be modified to notch radius, 0.23 in. notch depth, and 60° notch angle.

account for the biaxial state of stress at the notch The elastic stress concentration taken from the finite

surface. Lacking a finite element model to perform the element model is Kt = 3.3.

biaxial correction, Hooke’s law can be applied to the

linear portion of the curve, and deformation plasticity Neuber’s rule correlations for the two material types are

theory can be applied to the non-linear portion of the plotted in Fig. 8, and are similar to the notch mid-plane

curve, but the transverse strain must be estimated based correlations of the flat plate. This is because there are

on the thickness of the plate. If plane strain conditions large tensile hoop stresses present in the circumferential

are assumed at the mid-plane of the plate, this may notch specimen due to in-plane bending at the surface

introduce additional error in the notch calibration of the notch region. The hoop stresses are 67% of the

relation for moderately thick plates that do not develop principal stress under elastic load, and 57% of the

pure plane strain conditions in the center. For the principal stress under notch plasticity. The Neuber

examples illustrated here, the local stress-strain curve notch strain calibrations were derived using the same

was extracted from the finite element model at the point methods as in the notched plate example, and are

of interest, and used to derive the notch strain plotted in Fig. 9. These results are also similar to the

calibration relations for Neuber’s rule. It is recognized notch mid-plane results of the flat plate. Relative strain

that requiring a finite element model of the local notch error in the Neuber approximation is plotted in Fig. 10,

area to obtain the corrected stress-strain curve defeats and is noticeably higher than for the notched plate mid-

the purpose of using Neuber’s approximation, but this plane results, probably because of the large hoop

was done for these examples to ensure a favorable stresses in the notched round bar.

comparison between Neuber’s rule and the finite

element solutions.

LAP SPLICE JOINT

The Neuber notch strain calibrations were solved in

MATLAB® (Ver. 6), using a cubic spline interpolation To investigate the accuracy of Neuber’s rule on a built-

up structure, a double-lap splice joint with three rows of

pins was chosen to be modeled. This type of problem

®

MATLAB is a registered trademark of The can be idealized as a single flat plate with a loaded pin

MathWorks, Inc. in the hole, but will be analyzed here with a half-

4

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

symmetry model of the entire joint to incorporate the type strain hardening behavior of the AA 7075 material.

correct pin loading at the most highly stressed hole. This characteristic results in a larger plastic zone for the

The finite element model of the joint is shown in Fig. same given notch geometry.

11. The plates are 1.0 in. wide, with 1.0 in. spacing

The state of multiaxial stress in the notch region affects

between the pins. The pins are 0.25 in. diameter, with

the Neuber strain prediction error, but not in a

zero interference in all of the holes. Pin material is

consistent manner. The strain prediction error curves

steel, with a modulus of 30 Msi. The center plate is

for the lap splice joint fall between the curves for the

0.125 in. thick, and the splice plates are 0.063 in. thick.

flat plate notch edge and mid-plane. This is most likely

Due to limitations in the finite element code, only

a result of the differences in the second principal

planar elasticity problems can be modeled using the

stresses for the two examples. The flat plate notch mid-

fastener elements, so all of the plates assume plane

plane has a tensile transverse stress, and the splice

stress conditions. Pin friction is ignored in the analysis.

plates have a compressive radial stress.

For the maximum combined pin bearing and bypass

The circumferentially notched round bar has a strain

case, the most highly loaded holes in the center plate

prediction error curve that is between the flat plate

are at the outermost pins from the symmetry plane, and

notch edge and the splice joint curves. The

for the splice plates, the innermost pins from the

proportionately larger second principal stresses

symmetry plane. Since the splice plates are half the

contribute to the increased strain prediction error as

thickness of the center plate, the stresses at the most

compared to the other examples that have second

highly loaded holes in each plate are equivalent. The

principal stresses that are proportionately smaller. The

elastic stress concentration taken from the finite

flat plate notch edge results show that the uniaxial

element model is Kt = 2.82 at the edge of the hole.

stress case may give the worst strain prediction error

Neuber’s rule correlations for the two material types are

when compared to multiaxial stress cases.

plotted in Fig. 12, and are similar to the notch mid-

plane correlations of the flat plate. Although the plates

in the splice joint assume plane stress conditions, the APPLICATION

pins exert a radial compressive stress on the hole edges

at locations normal to the applied load. The radial The previous analysis results are applicable to cases of

stresses vary in magnitude from 8-20% of the first monotonic loading from an initial state of zero stress

principal stress at the notch surface. The resulting and strain. To apply these results to cases of cyclic

biaxial state of stress is similar in proportion to the flat loading, the Neuber relation of Eqn. 3 must be replaced

plate notch mid-plane stresses, hence the similarity in by it’s cyclic counterpart (Eqn. 2). Variables are then

Neuber’s rule correlations. expressed as a function of stress, strain and load

amplitudes. An example of a notch fatigue analysis

The Neuber notch strain calibrations and relative strain using Neuber’s rule is shown in Bannantine.8 To apply

error curves are plotted in Figs. 13 and 14, respectively. the finite element results to a notch fatigue analysis

These results are similar to the relations plotted using the strain-life approach, a polynomial curve fit of

previously for the other examples. the notch strain calibration chart can be performed to

give an equation that relates applied load to the local

RESULTS notch strain. For cyclic loading, Massing-type material

behavior is assumed, and the strain and load values on

The results of the notch strain analyses for the three the calibration chart must be doubled to give the notch

structural details investigated here show that Neuber’s strain amplitude as a function of load amplitude. The

approximation significantly overpredicts local strain same approach to notch strain calibration can be used in

when plasticity is encountered. The amount of strain the case of Neuber’s rule, and would eliminate the need

error in the approximation is strongly influenced by the to iterate Neuber’s relation (Eqn. 3) with the stress-

multiaxial state of stress at the notch surface, and by the strain curve to find the notch stress and strain at each

shape of the elastic-plastic stress-strain curve. Plots of load reversal.

strain prediction error as a function of structural

geometry are shown in Figs. 15 and 16 for the two

material types investigated. The AA 7050 aluminum CONCLUSIONS

data show a wider range of strain error scatter and curve The results of the notch strain analyses for the three

shapes than for the AA 7075 aluminum. This is structural details investigated here show that Neuber’s

because the small value of the cyclic strain hardening approximation significantly overpredicts local strain

modulus for AA 7050 leads to little stiffness in the when plasticity (0.8% to 2.0% strain) is encountered in

plastic strain range relative to the Ramberg-Osgood the notch. The state of multiaxial stress in the notch

5

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

region significantly affects the Neuber strain prediction REFERENCES

error, but not in a consistent manner. The shape of the

elastic-plastic stress-strain curve also has an effect, but 1

Dowling, N.E. and Thangjitham, S., “An Overview

to a lesser extent than the multiaxial stress state. It is and Discussion of Basic Methodology for Fatigue,”

therefore recommended that error estimates of Neuber’s Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics: 31st Volume, edited

approximation for notch strain be evaluated on a case- by G.R. Halford and J.P. Gallagher, STP 1389,

by-case basis for any combination of structural ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 3-36.

geometry or material properties.

2

The effect that the Neuber approximation error has on a Rusk, D.T. and Hoffman, P.C., “Developments in

subsequent fatigue life calculation is highly dependent Probability-Based Strain-Life Analysis,” presented at

on the loading spectrum that the notch area is exposed the 5th Joint NASA/FAA/DoD Conference on Aging

to. For load spectrums with a large percentage of Aircraft, Kissimmee, Florida, 18 Sept. 2001.

plastic strain reversals, or for spectrums with a small

3

percentage of plastic strain reversals that result in large Neuber, H., “Theory of Stress Concentration for

residual stresses for subsequent elastic strain reversals, Shear-Strained Prismatical Bodies with Arbitrary

Neuber error may lead to significant over or under- Nonlinear Stress-Strain Laws,” Journal of Applied

conservatism in the resulting fatigue life calculations. Mechanics, ASME Transactions, Vol. E28, Dec.

For load spectrums with peak strain amplitudes that 1961, pp. 544-550.

have only a small amount of plasticity, Neuber error

4

may contribute very little to the resulting fatigue life Topper, T.H., Wetzel, R.M. and Morrow, J.,

calculation. “Neuber’s Rule Applied to Fatigue of Notched

Specimens,” Journal of Materials, Vol. 4, No. 1,

In light of the magnitude of the estimation errors shown March 1969, pp. 200-209.

here, any use of Neuber’s rule to approximate notch

strains should be looked upon critically by engineers 5

Boller, C. and Seeger, T., “Materials Data for Cyclic

concerned with model solution accuracy in a notched Loading, Part D: Aluminum and Titanium Alloys,”

region. In recent years, the proliferation of low-cost, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1987, pp. 87-89.

robust finite element tools has enabled engineers to

perform complex non-linear analyses on a wide variety 6

Roark, R.J. and Young, W.C., “Formulas for Stress

of structures with relative ease. These tools have and Strain, Fifth Ed.,” McGraw-Hill, New York,

largely eliminated the necessity of imposing Neuber’s 1975, p. 594.

rule to solve for notch strain behavior, except in the

cases of very complex problems, or where only a quick, 7

Dowling, N.E., Brose, W.R. and Wilson, W.K.,

rough estimate is needed. “Notched Member Fatigue Life Predictions by the

The early research efforts that validated the ability of Local Strain Approach,” Fatigue Under Complex

the strain-life methodology to predict fatigue cracks in Loading: Analyses and Experiments, edited by R.M.

areas of stress concentration made extensive use of Wetzel, Society of Automotive Engineers,

Neuber’s rule. In evaluating whether to eliminate the Warrendale, PA, 1977, pp. 55-84.

use of Neuber’s rule in the existing implementation of

8

the strain-life methodology, it must be considered that Bannantine, J.A., Comer, J.J. and Handrock, J.L.,

the conservatism of Neuber’s rule may be masking non- “Fundamentals of Metal Fatigue Analysis,” Prentice

conservatism in other simplifying assumptions of the Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990, pp. 140-

methodology. These effects will be evaluated in the 144.

future using a probabilistic strain-life methodology that

can examine Neuber error effects on predicted fatigue

life scatter, in light of the other simplifying assumptions

of the existing strain-life method, and accounting for

the scatter in all of the model variables that make up a

fatigue life calculation.

6

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

60

50

40

30

20

7050-T7451 FEM

10 7075-T651 FEM

7050-T7451 Neuber

7075-T651 Neuber

0

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025

(a) (b) (c) Notch Surface Principal Strain (in/in)

Figure 1. Examples for Three Different Notch Notched Plate Edge

Geometries

60

100

90 50

True Stress (Ksi)

40

70

60

30

50

40

20

30

7050-T7451 FEM

20 7050-T7451 Al 10 7075-T651 FEM

10 7075-T651 Al 7050-T7451 Neuber

7075-T651 Neuber

0 0

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.0 25 0.03

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

Notch Surface Principal Strain (in/in)

True Strain (in/in)

Figure 5. Notch Strain Calibration for 0.25 in. Dia.

Figure 2. Cyclic Stress-Strain Curves for Two Notched Plate Mid-Plane

Aircraft Aluminums

35

2000

1800 30

(psi)

1600 25

Notch Stress-Strain σε

1400

20

1200

1000 15

800 10

600

Neubers Rule

7050-T7451 Mid-Plane 5

400 7050-T7451 Mid-Plane

7075-T651 Mid-Plane 7075-T651 Mid-Plane

7050-T7451 Edge 0

200 7050-T7451 Edge

7075-T651 Edge 7050-T651 Edge

0 -5

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.0 2 0 .025

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

2 Notch Surface Principal Strain (in/in)

Applied Load (K t S) /E (psi)

Figure 6. Neuber Notch Strain Prediction Error for

Figure 3. Neuber’s Rule Correlation for 0.25 in. 0.25 in. Dia. Notched Plate

Dia. Notched Plate

7

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 7050-T7451

7075-T651

0

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025

Figure 7. Geometry of Round Bar with Notch Surface Principal Strain (in/in)

Circumferential Notch Figure 10. Neuber Notch Strain Prediction Error

for Circumferentially Notched Round Bar

2000

(psi)

1800

1600

σε

1400

Notch Stress-Strain

1200

1000

800

600

Neubers Rule

400

7050-T7451 FEM

200 7075-T651 FEM

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

2

Applied Load (KtS) /E (psi)

Figure 11. Finite Element Model of Double-Lap

Figure 8. Neuber’s Rule Correlation for Splice Joint (Symmetric)

Circumferentially Notched Round Bar

1800

12

(psi)

1600

σε

10 1400

1200

Applied Load (Kips)

Notch Stress-Strain

8

1000

6

800

600

4

Neubers Rule

400

7050-T7451 FEM

7050-T7451 FEM 200 7075-T651 FEM

2 7075-T651 FEM

7050-T7451 Neuber 0

7075-T651 Neuber 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

0

0 0.005 0.01 0 .015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 Applied Load (K t S) 2 /E (psi)

Notch Surface Principal Strain (in/in)

Figure 9. Notch Strain Calibration for Figure 12. Neuber’s Rule Correlation for Double-

Circumferentially Notched Round Bar Lap Splice Joint

8

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

6 45

40

5

35

Applied Load (Kips)

30

4

25

3 20

15

2

10

1 7075-T651 FEM Plate Mid-Plane

7050-T7451 Neuber 0 Circ umf. Notch

7050-T651 Neuber Lap Splice

0 -5

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.0 2 0 .025

Notch Surface Principal Strain (in/in) Notch Surface Principal Strain (in/in)

Figure 13. Notch Strain Calibration for Double-Lap Figure 16. Neuber Notch Strain Prediction Error

Splice Joint for Several Geometries, 7075-T651 Al.

35

30

25

Strain Error (%)

20

15

10

0

7050-T7451

7075-T651

-5

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025

Notch Surface Principal Strain (in/in)

for Double-Lap Splice Joint

45

40

35

30

Strain Error (%)

25

20

15

10

5 Plate Edge

Plate Mid-Plane

0 Circumf. Notch

Lap Splice

-5

0 0.005 0.01 0.0 15 0.02 0.025

for Several Geometries, 7050-T7451 Al.

9

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

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