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Fluid Mechanics

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and its


applications

Engr. Franck GHOMSI

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About Fluid Mechanics Course
Catalog Data
 Course: Fluid Mechanics
 Credit Hours: (3 – 0) – 3 credits
 Course Schedule: have to be planned

 Course Goals: Intends to provide understanding of the


statics and dynamic concepts of fluid flows.

 Course Description:
The course provide students with basic information
on statics, kinematics, and dynamics of fluids.These
include the study of Properties of fluids; Fluid
statics;Translation and rotation of fluid masses;
Dimensional analysis and similitude; Fundamentals
of fluid flow; Fluid resistance; Compressible flow;
3Ideal fluid flow; Fluid measurements.
FLUID MECHANICS (3)
 Recommended Books:
 1. F. M. White, Fluid mechanics, Mcgraw-Hill (0-07-
128646-2)

 Additional resources.
 1. J. B. Franzini and Finnemore, Fluid Mechanics with Engineering
Application, McGraw-Hill New York (Latest Edition)
 2. Monson Young, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, (Latest Edition)
 3. Douglus, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.
 4. Jack P. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.
 5. Merle Potter, Mechanics of Fluid, CL- Engineering (2011)

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Course Topics

0. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (this file)


1. Fluid Properties
2. Fluid statics
3. Fluid Dynamics (control volume approach)
4. Fluid Flow Measurements
5. Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similitude
6. Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe
7. Dynamics of Fluid Flow in Open Channel Flow

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Program
Course Learning Outcomes Outcomes
After successfully completing this course, the ABET**
students will be able to: a-k & 9e
1. Define physical properties of fluids and appropriately
a, e
classify fluid problems;
2. Use fluid hydrostatics theory to evaluate hydrostatic forces
and assess the stability of simple hydraulic structures and a, e
communicate on existing related projects;

3. Derive and apply the integral forms of the equations of


conservation of mass, momentum and energy in fluid a, e
engineering problems;
4. Perform dimensional analysis and similitude to present and
interpret experimental data and models in fluid engineering a, e
problems.
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**Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
FLUID MECHANICS (3+0)
 Course Outline:
 0. Introduction: Importance of course in engineering, course syllabus,
grading policy, learning outcome, advices
 1. Fluid Properties: Solids and fluids (liquids and gases). Units and
dimensions. Physical properties of fluids; density, specific weight, specific
volume, specific gravity, surface tension, compressibility.Viscosity,
measurement of viscosity, Newton's equation of viscosity. Hydrostatics,
kinematics, hydrodynamics, hydraulics.
 2. Fluid Statics: Pressure intensity and pressure head: pressure and
specific weight relationship, absolute and gauge pressure, measurement of
pressure, Piezo-meter, manometer. Differential manometer and Borden
gauge. Forces on Immersed Bodies: Forces on submerged planes &
curved surfaces and their applications, Drag and Lift forces, buoyancy and
floatation. Equilibrium of floating and submerged bodies.

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FLUID MECHANICS (3+1)
 3. Fluid Dynamics:
 Fluid Kinematics: Steady and unsteady flow, laminar and turbulent
flow, uniform and non-uniform flow. Path-line, streamlines and
stream tubes. Velocity and discharge. Control volume, Equation of
continuity for compressible and incompressible fluids.
Hydrodynamics: Different forms of energy in a flowing liquid, head,
Bernoulli's equation and its application, Energy line and Hydraulic
Gradient Line,
 Forces on pressure conduits, reducers and bends, stationary and
moving blades, torques in rotating machines. Introduction to free
and forced vortex,

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FLUID MECHANICS (3+1)
 4. Flow Measurement: Orifices and mouthpieces, sharp-crested
weirs and notches, pitot tube and pitot static tube, venturimeter

 5. Dimensional Analysis and similitude: concept of dimensional


analysis, method of dimensional analysis, similitude, concept of
dimensional similarity, dimensional numbers, model analysis

 6. Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe: Darcy-


Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Major and minor losses in pipe
lines.

 7. Dynamics of Fluid Flow in Open Channel Flow: Concept of


open channel, Chezy’s and Manning’s equations for open channel and
their application.
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Course Assessment Method
1. Assignments/Projects 10 %

2. Quizzes (approx. 1 per Chapter) 15 %

3. Mid Exam 1 (29 October) 30 %

4. Final Exam (10 Dec.) 45 %

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MY GLODEN ADVISES

 Office Hours: A golden time to build up your skills and excel in the
course with my golden advices on the course topics and strengthen
your engineering skills in the subject.
 Homework Assignments: Homework assignments are bonus points it
will only benefit you if you spend the necessary time to understand the
basics and solve the problems yourself. Keep up with the homework
assignments, as the topics in this course build upon each other.
 Quizzes: Focused assessment by chapter to monitor your progress and
discover your weakness in the chapter. If you do bad in quizzes you
must rethink: (1) the way you solved your homework ,and (2)
reconsider to efficiently use the office hours.
 Be Professional and watch the deadlines: In your professional life
dedication and keeping deadlines are your keys for success, No One
(neither your boss nor you client) will respect your excuses for a
delayed work. Start here and teach your self the wisdom of an
organized professional learning.

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Important Note:
 Examination Policy
 Examinations will deal with your class work, textbook problems. Nevertheless,
due to the difficulties associated with course your textbook will be never
enough to get an A in this course. Use the additional references to be
better prepared.
 Examinations are closed book and only complex Formulas will be provided.

 Attendance Policy
 The Gulf Field National Advanced School Attendance Policy applies to this course
 The classroom doors will be closed 10 minutes after the class start time.

 Assignment Delay Policy


 1 day of delay will reduce your assignment grade by 1.
 2 days delay mean -2 and so on… if assignment is delayed by one week,
there will be not grade.

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Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Applications:

To Design Dams, To Design water, oil To study Oceanography To study


Spillways, Hydraulic and gas pipeline and Coastal Engineering Water and Air
Jumps Networks Pollution

To design slabs
that resist to water
and groundwater To Design bridges To Design inshore Civil
pressures across rivers infrastructure
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FLUID MECHANICS
 Fluid: Fluids are substance which area capable of flowing and
conforming the shapes of container.
 Fluids can be in gas or liquid states.

 Mechanics: Mechanics is the branch of science that deals with


the state of rest or motion of body under the action of forces.

 Fluid Mechanics: Branch of mechanic that deals with the


response or behavior of fluid either at rest or in motion.

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Branches of Fluid Mechanics
 Fluid Statics: It is the branch of fluid mechanics which deals
with the response/behavior of fluid when they are at rest.
 Fluid kinematics: It deals with the response of fluid when
they are in motion without considering the energies and
forces in them.
 Hydrodynamics: It deals with the behavior of fluids when
they are in motion considering energies and forces in them.
 Hydraulics: It is the most important and
practical/experimental branch of fluid mechanics which
deals with the behavior of water and other fluid either at rest
or in motion.

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Significance of Fluid Mechanics
 Fluid is the most abundant available substance e.g., air,
gases, ocean, river and canal etc.

 It provides basis for other subjects e.g.,


 Public health/environmental engineering
 Hydraulic Engineering
 Irrigation Engineering
 Coastal engineering
 etc etc

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State of Matter
 1. gas
fluid
 2. Liquid
 3. Solid

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Comparison Between Liquids and Gases
 Liquids have definite volume at  Gases do not have any definite
any particular temperature volume
 Liquids have free level surface  Gases do not have free level
surface
 Molecules of liquid are close to  Molecules of gases are far apart
each other
 Liquids have relatively more  Gases have less molecular
molecular attraction attraction
 Liquids are slightly compressible  Gases are highly compressible

 Rate of diffusion of liquid is less  Gases have higher rate of


diffusion

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Comparison Between Liquids and Solids
 Liquid conform the shape of any  Do not conform the shape of
container container
 Liquid can flow  Solids cannot flow
 Molecules of liquid are distinctly  Molecules of solids are very
apart close to each other

 Liquid have relatively less  Solids have more molecular


molecular attraction attraction

 Liquid are slightly compressible  Solids are highly incompressible

 Liquids cannot sustain shear  Solids can sustain shear


forces

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Dimension and Units
 System of Units
 System International (SI)
 Fundamental dimensions: length, mass and time
 Units: (meter, kilogram and second)
 British Gravitation System (BG)
 Fundamental dimension: length, force and time
 Units: (ft, slug and second)
 CGS System
 Fundamental dimensions: length, mass and time
 Units: (centimeter, gram and second)

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Dimension and Units
 Dimension
Fundamental/Primary Dimension
 Fundamental/Primary
Dimension
 length(L), mass (M) and
time (T)

 Derived/Secondary
Dimensions
 e.g., force, velocity,
acceleration etc

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Units of Some Dimensions in Different Systems
 Fundamental Units
 length(L), mass (M) and time (T)
 Derived Units
 e.g., force(F), velocity(L/T), acceleration (L/T/T) etc

Syste Length Time Force Velocity Accele Energ Power Tempe


m ration y rature

SI m s N m/s m/s/s N-m kg-m/s oC

BG ft s lb ft/s ft/s/s ft-lb ft-lb/s oF

CGS cm s dyne cm/s cm/s/s dyne- dyne- oC

cm cm/s

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Important Prefixes
 e.g.,
 Force=1000000N
=1000KN
=1MN

Diameter=0.000001m
=1µm

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Conversions
 Length
 Time
 1m=1000mm=100cm
 1day=24hours
 1ft=12inch
 1 hour=60min
 1m=3.281ft
 1 min=60s
 1Mile=5280ft=_______km

 Mass
 Volume
 1kg=1000g
 1m3=1000liters=_______cm3
 1kg=2.204lb
 1m3=35.32ft3
 1kg=9.81N
 1N=_____lb ?

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Unit Conversion
 It is the process of relating dimensions of a quantity from one system to
another. e.g.,

 (i) 1m = 3.281 ft
 (ii) 1kg= 2.204 lb

 Exercise: Convert the units of following.

 60 miles/hour=_________ ft/s=___________m/s=____________km/hr

 10m3/s=________liter/min=__________ft3/s=____________ in3/s

 15N/m2=___________=___________N/cm2=______________lb/ft2

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Unit Conversion

-3 2 2 2
 10 N-s/m =____________Lb-s/ft =________N-s/cm

-6 2 2 2
 10 m /s=_________ft /s=___________cm /s

3 3 3
 1000kg/m =__________N/m =__________kN/m

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Sample MCQs
 (i). Fluids do not conform the shape of container they are placed in.
 (True/False)
 (ii). Unit of force in SI is ____________.
 (a). Newton (b). Pound (c). Kg (d). dyne
 (iii). Convert 2 kg/m3 to _____lb/ft3.
 (iv). Branch of fluid mechanics that deals response of fluid at rest is called
 (a) Fluid Dynamic (b). Fluid kinematics (c). Fluid statics (d).
Hydraulics
 (v). Fluid are absolutely not compressible.
 (True/False)

 (vi). Write name of any text book on fluid mechanics along with author
name. Answer:___________________________________

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Thank you
 Let’s discuss if you have any question….

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