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# Fluid Mechanics

applications

## Engr. Franck GHOMSI

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Catalog Data
 Course: Fluid Mechanics
 Credit Hours: (3 – 0) – 3 credits
 Course Schedule: have to be planned

##  Course Goals: Intends to provide understanding of the

statics and dynamic concepts of fluid flows.

 Course Description:
The course provide students with basic information
on statics, kinematics, and dynamics of fluids.These
include the study of Properties of fluids; Fluid
statics;Translation and rotation of fluid masses;
Dimensional analysis and similitude; Fundamentals
of fluid flow; Fluid resistance; Compressible flow;
3Ideal fluid flow; Fluid measurements.
FLUID MECHANICS (3)
 Recommended Books:
 1. F. M. White, Fluid mechanics, Mcgraw-Hill (0-07-
128646-2)

 1. J. B. Franzini and Finnemore, Fluid Mechanics with Engineering
Application, McGraw-Hill New York (Latest Edition)
 2. Monson Young, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, (Latest Edition)
 3. Douglus, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.
 4. Jack P. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.
 5. Merle Potter, Mechanics of Fluid, CL- Engineering (2011)

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Course Topics

## 0. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (this file)

1. Fluid Properties
2. Fluid statics
3. Fluid Dynamics (control volume approach)
4. Fluid Flow Measurements
5. Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similitude
6. Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe
7. Dynamics of Fluid Flow in Open Channel Flow

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Program
Course Learning Outcomes Outcomes
After successfully completing this course, the ABET**
students will be able to: a-k & 9e
1. Define physical properties of fluids and appropriately
a, e
classify fluid problems;
2. Use fluid hydrostatics theory to evaluate hydrostatic forces
and assess the stability of simple hydraulic structures and a, e
communicate on existing related projects;

## 3. Derive and apply the integral forms of the equations of

conservation of mass, momentum and energy in fluid a, e
engineering problems;
4. Perform dimensional analysis and similitude to present and
interpret experimental data and models in fluid engineering a, e
problems.
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**Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
FLUID MECHANICS (3+0)
 Course Outline:
 0. Introduction: Importance of course in engineering, course syllabus,
 1. Fluid Properties: Solids and fluids (liquids and gases). Units and
dimensions. Physical properties of fluids; density, specific weight, specific
volume, specific gravity, surface tension, compressibility.Viscosity,
measurement of viscosity, Newton's equation of viscosity. Hydrostatics,
kinematics, hydrodynamics, hydraulics.
 2. Fluid Statics: Pressure intensity and pressure head: pressure and
specific weight relationship, absolute and gauge pressure, measurement of
pressure, Piezo-meter, manometer. Differential manometer and Borden
gauge. Forces on Immersed Bodies: Forces on submerged planes &
curved surfaces and their applications, Drag and Lift forces, buoyancy and
floatation. Equilibrium of floating and submerged bodies.

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FLUID MECHANICS (3+1)
 3. Fluid Dynamics:
flow, uniform and non-uniform flow. Path-line, streamlines and
stream tubes. Velocity and discharge. Control volume, Equation of
continuity for compressible and incompressible fluids.
Hydrodynamics: Different forms of energy in a flowing liquid, head,
Bernoulli's equation and its application, Energy line and Hydraulic
 Forces on pressure conduits, reducers and bends, stationary and
moving blades, torques in rotating machines. Introduction to free
and forced vortex,

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FLUID MECHANICS (3+1)
 4. Flow Measurement: Orifices and mouthpieces, sharp-crested
weirs and notches, pitot tube and pitot static tube, venturimeter

##  5. Dimensional Analysis and similitude: concept of dimensional

analysis, method of dimensional analysis, similitude, concept of
dimensional similarity, dimensional numbers, model analysis

##  6. Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe: Darcy-

Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Major and minor losses in pipe
lines.

##  7. Dynamics of Fluid Flow in Open Channel Flow: Concept of

open channel, Chezy’s and Manning’s equations for open channel and
their application.
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Course Assessment Method
1. Assignments/Projects 10 %

## 4. Final Exam (10 Dec.) 45 %

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 Office Hours: A golden time to build up your skills and excel in the
course with my golden advices on the course topics and strengthen
your engineering skills in the subject.
 Homework Assignments: Homework assignments are bonus points it
will only benefit you if you spend the necessary time to understand the
basics and solve the problems yourself. Keep up with the homework
assignments, as the topics in this course build upon each other.
 Quizzes: Focused assessment by chapter to monitor your progress and
discover your weakness in the chapter. If you do bad in quizzes you
must rethink: (1) the way you solved your homework ,and (2)
reconsider to efficiently use the office hours.
(neither your boss nor you client) will respect your excuses for a
delayed work. Start here and teach your self the wisdom of an
organized professional learning.

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Important Note:
 Examination Policy
 Examinations will deal with your class work, textbook problems. Nevertheless,
due to the difficulties associated with course your textbook will be never
enough to get an A in this course. Use the additional references to be
better prepared.
 Examinations are closed book and only complex Formulas will be provided.

 Attendance Policy
 The Gulf Field National Advanced School Attendance Policy applies to this course
 The classroom doors will be closed 10 minutes after the class start time.

##  Assignment Delay Policy

 1 day of delay will reduce your assignment grade by 1.
 2 days delay mean -2 and so on… if assignment is delayed by one week,

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Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Applications:

## To Design Dams, To Design water, oil To study Oceanography To study

Spillways, Hydraulic and gas pipeline and Coastal Engineering Water and Air
Jumps Networks Pollution

To design slabs
that resist to water
pressures across rivers infrastructure
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FLUID MECHANICS
 Fluid: Fluids are substance which area capable of flowing and
conforming the shapes of container.
 Fluids can be in gas or liquid states.

##  Mechanics: Mechanics is the branch of science that deals with

the state of rest or motion of body under the action of forces.

##  Fluid Mechanics: Branch of mechanic that deals with the

response or behavior of fluid either at rest or in motion.

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Branches of Fluid Mechanics
 Fluid Statics: It is the branch of fluid mechanics which deals
with the response/behavior of fluid when they are at rest.
 Fluid kinematics: It deals with the response of fluid when
they are in motion without considering the energies and
forces in them.
 Hydrodynamics: It deals with the behavior of fluids when
they are in motion considering energies and forces in them.
 Hydraulics: It is the most important and
practical/experimental branch of fluid mechanics which
deals with the behavior of water and other fluid either at rest
or in motion.

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Significance of Fluid Mechanics
 Fluid is the most abundant available substance e.g., air,
gases, ocean, river and canal etc.

##  It provides basis for other subjects e.g.,

 Public health/environmental engineering
 Hydraulic Engineering
 Irrigation Engineering
 Coastal engineering
 etc etc

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State of Matter
 1. gas
fluid
 2. Liquid
 3. Solid

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Comparison Between Liquids and Gases
 Liquids have definite volume at  Gases do not have any definite
any particular temperature volume
 Liquids have free level surface  Gases do not have free level
surface
 Molecules of liquid are close to  Molecules of gases are far apart
each other
 Liquids have relatively more  Gases have less molecular
molecular attraction attraction
 Liquids are slightly compressible  Gases are highly compressible

##  Rate of diffusion of liquid is less  Gases have higher rate of

diffusion

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Comparison Between Liquids and Solids
 Liquid conform the shape of any  Do not conform the shape of
container container
 Liquid can flow  Solids cannot flow
 Molecules of liquid are distinctly  Molecules of solids are very
apart close to each other

##  Liquid have relatively less  Solids have more molecular

molecular attraction attraction

##  Liquids cannot sustain shear  Solids can sustain shear

forces

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Dimension and Units
 System of Units
 System International (SI)
 Fundamental dimensions: length, mass and time
 Units: (meter, kilogram and second)
 British Gravitation System (BG)
 Fundamental dimension: length, force and time
 Units: (ft, slug and second)
 CGS System
 Fundamental dimensions: length, mass and time
 Units: (centimeter, gram and second)

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Dimension and Units
 Dimension
Fundamental/Primary Dimension
 Fundamental/Primary
Dimension
 length(L), mass (M) and
time (T)

 Derived/Secondary
Dimensions
 e.g., force, velocity,
acceleration etc

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Units of Some Dimensions in Different Systems
 Fundamental Units
 length(L), mass (M) and time (T)
 Derived Units
 e.g., force(F), velocity(L/T), acceleration (L/T/T) etc

## Syste Length Time Force Velocity Accele Energ Power Tempe

m ration y rature

## CGS cm s dyne cm/s cm/s/s dyne- dyne- oC

cm cm/s

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Important Prefixes
 e.g.,
 Force=1000000N
=1000KN
=1MN

Diameter=0.000001m
=1µm

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Conversions
 Length
 Time
 1m=1000mm=100cm
 1day=24hours
 1ft=12inch
 1 hour=60min
 1m=3.281ft
 1 min=60s
 1Mile=5280ft=_______km

 Mass
 Volume
 1kg=1000g
 1m3=1000liters=_______cm3
 1kg=2.204lb
 1m3=35.32ft3
 1kg=9.81N
 1N=_____lb ?

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Unit Conversion
 It is the process of relating dimensions of a quantity from one system to
another. e.g.,

 (i) 1m = 3.281 ft
 (ii) 1kg= 2.204 lb

##  Exercise: Convert the units of following.

 60 miles/hour=_________ ft/s=___________m/s=____________km/hr

 10m3/s=________liter/min=__________ft3/s=____________ in3/s

 15N/m2=___________=___________N/cm2=______________lb/ft2

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Unit Conversion

-3 2 2 2
 10 N-s/m =____________Lb-s/ft =________N-s/cm

-6 2 2 2
 10 m /s=_________ft /s=___________cm /s

3 3 3
 1000kg/m =__________N/m =__________kN/m

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Sample MCQs
 (i). Fluids do not conform the shape of container they are placed in.
 (True/False)
 (ii). Unit of force in SI is ____________.
 (a). Newton (b). Pound (c). Kg (d). dyne
 (iii). Convert 2 kg/m3 to _____lb/ft3.
 (iv). Branch of fluid mechanics that deals response of fluid at rest is called
 (a) Fluid Dynamic (b). Fluid kinematics (c). Fluid statics (d).
Hydraulics
 (v). Fluid are absolutely not compressible.
 (True/False)

 (vi). Write name of any text book on fluid mechanics along with author