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United States Patent (19) 11) 4,147,437

Jonqueres 45) Apr. 3, 1979

(54) MIXER BLADE 2,111,178 3/1938 Crumback ............................ 416/200
2,585,255 2/1952 Kochner ...... ... 259/108
75) Inventor: Pierre Jonqueres, Epinay sur Orge, 2,964,301 12/1960 Bosse .... ... 259/107
France 2,974,728 3/1961 Culp ..... ... 416/223
3,135,499 6/1964 Brown. ... 259/108
(73) Assignee: Procedes SEM, Cachan, France 3,172,645 3/1965 Price ........ ... 259/107
(21) Appl. No.: 690,933 3,904,714 9/1975 Rooney ................................ 259/108
(22 Filed: May 28, 1976 Primary Examiner-Robert W. Jenkins
(30) Foreign Application Priority Data Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wenderoth, Lind & Ponack
Jun. 4, 1975 (FR) France .................. .............. 75 17429 57 ABSTRACT
51 Int. C.’................................................ B01F 7/22 An impeller for producing a stirring action within a
52 U.S. C. .................................... 366/343; 366/330; fluid medium contained in a vessel includes blades, each
416/243 blade being shaped to produce a variation in the lift
58) Field of Search ............................... 259/107, 108; coefficient of the impeller from the rotational axis
416/200 R, 223 R, 243; 366/343, 330 thereof to the blade tip, in order to provide a centrifugal
(56) References Cited or centripetal component, as case may be, of the outflar
ing or reduction imparted to the impeller blowing cone.
D. 141,589 6/1945 Logsdon .............................. 416/223 6 Claims, 19 Drawing Figures
U.S. Patent Apr. 3, 1979 Sheet 1 of 5 4,147,437

fig. 1
U.S. Patent Apr. 3, 1979 Sheet 2 of 5 4,147,437
U.S. Patent Apr. 3, 1979 Sheet 3 of 5 4,147,437

U.S. Patent Apr. 3, 1979 Sheet 4 of 5 4,147,437
U.S. Patent Apr. 3, 1979 Sheet 5 of 5 4,147,437
the presence of the walls) wherein the propeller jet is
MIXER BLADE cylindrical, a characteristic outflaring of the jet a is
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION produced, this jet thus assuming the shape of a more or
less open cone having an apex angle a (see FIG. 1 of the
The present invention relates to improvements in or 5 attached drawings). This outflaring effect is subordinate
relating to propellers, now more generally referred to as to the proximity of the lateral walls and also to the
"impellers', of the type designed for producing a turbu viscosity of the fluid filling the vessel c. The more or
lent motion within a gaseous, liquid or other medium, or less outflared configuration of the jet under given geo
a medium having a more or less pronounced consis metrical properties of the vessel and fluid viscosities
tency, in order to effect in such medium the stirring of 10 may constitute an advantage, but in most instances it
a mixture, an aeration, a mixing or dispersive action. constitutes an inconvenience, inasmuch as the jet en
However, this enumeration should not be construed as ergy is considerably diluted therein and the local effects
limiting the scope of the present invention. at points remote from the impeller may drop below a
As a rule, the problem to be solved in the technical critical limit. Thus, the apex angle a of the cone formed
field concerned is to produce in a closed or open vessel 15 by the blowing impeller may attain 120 in water if ratio
or the like a stirring or turbulent action distributed d/D of the impeller diameter to the vessel diameter is
throughout the vessel in which the impeller is mounted 0.7 and the jet bursts out either in the bottom of the said
and the medium is to be processed, with the minimum vessel or against its vertical side wall, according to the
power consumption. distance from the impeller to the bottom.
The various research efforts performed up to now 20 Moreover, the slower the dissipation of the jet en
with a view to solve this problem have been directed ergy, the greater the distance attained by the fluid to
principally to the study of the vessel shapes and also of which energy is impressed by the impeller, the dissipa
the impeller blade profiles, with correlative attempts to tion being due not only to the peripheral friction forces
reduce through the use of suitable techniques the some increasing with the external surface and therefore with
times high cost of the vessel and blades. 25 the outflaring, but also to the internal turbulent effects.
Prior researches made by the Applicant proved that These effects depend on the continuity of the impeller
substantial power savings could be made when prepar profile characteristics.
ing a mixture by using an impeller having the best possi SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
ble "pumping" (or "blowing") characteristics.
Pumping, which is the fluid flow output passing 30 In actual practice, it is therefore very important to
through the impeller determines the creation, in the have the possibility, in a vessel of a given configuration
medium receiving the impeller, of movements causing of creating from the onset a conical or cylindrical jet
both the transport of particles constituting the medium shape of predetermined geometry and turbulence, and
and a distortion of the particles. This distortion, due to this constitutes the essential object of the invention.
differential speeds, is due to the turbulent energy (WT) 35 This object is achieved according to this invention by
created by the impeller, and the transport proper is due so shaping the impeller blades that the axial effect of
to the displacement energy (WD) also created by the these blades is completed by a centrifugal or centripetal
impeller. effect obtained by preserving an optimum pumping
The level of turbulent energy required for producing efficiency, i.e. by limiting to a minimum value the en
a predetermined effect is actually subordinate to this ergy dissipated in the form of turbulence.
desired effect. Thus, for instance, it is easy to mix two Moreover, the use of auxiliary profiles according to
miscible liquids, but on the other hand it is difficult to this invention enhances the axial or centrifugal or cen
create particles of gradually decreasing magnitude in tripetal effect and creates in addition localized turbu
one phase dispersed in another phase. lences of predetermined amplitude.
Generally, the permissible energy savings are 45
achieved by not exceeding the strict minimum amount BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
of turbulent energy WTwhich is necessary for obtaining Other objects, features and advantages of the present
the desired result. invention will be apparent from the following detailed
Having thus ascertained the importance of the flow description, taken with the accompanying drawings,
output per unit of power consumption of the impeller, wherein:
the Applicant directed his search more particularly FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an impeller within a
towards the fluid flow patterns in the mixer vessel. This vessel;
study eventually proved that a number of advantageous FIGS. 1a, 1b and 1c are schematic views of portions
properties could be obtained by improving the knowl of impeller blades illustrating the forces involved dur
edge of these flow patterns. As a rule, these improved 55 ing rotation thereof;
properties led to a substantial reduction in the power FIG. 1d is a perspective view of an impeller accord
consumption required for obtaining a given local effect ing to the invention;
through a better distribution of the active areas in the FIGS. 2 and 3 are perspective views of the formation
mixing volume, in general. of impellerblades by rolling and pressing, respectively;
Observing the phenomena produced in a mixing ves FIGS. 2a and 3a are end views of the arrangements of
sel due to the operation of a conventional propeller FIGS. 2 and 3, respectively;
proves that, in contrast to what occurs in a indefinite FIGS. 4 through 6 are perspective schematic views
medium (the term "indefinite medium' denotes a liquid illustrating various impeller blade configurations;
area not influenced by solid walls, for example in the FIGS. 7 and 8 are perspective views of compound
case of a ship propeller churning sea water, in opposi 65 configurations of impeller blades;
tion to a closed vessel in which the dimensions of the FIGS. 9 and 10 are a perspective view and an end
vessel are small in relation to the dimensions of the view, respectively, of an impeller blade having one type
impeller so that certain reflexion effects occur due to of an auxiliary flap; and
4,147,437 4.
FIGS. 11 through 13 are schematic views of further dium) on the average chord of the profile, and the rela
auxiliary flap configurations. tive sag i.e. the ratio CD/AB as indicated in FIG. 1c.
The most advantageous positions for mixing opera
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE tions are as a rule and according to this invention those
INVENTION wherein the section AB of FIG. 1c is either circular or
The present invention is based on the to be discussed elliptical with a relative sag i.e. ratio CD/AB, between
presently theoretical principles, the understanding of 2% and 12%, and blade incidence angles i.e. angle (I),
which will be facilitated by the following definitions. between 3' and 10, whereby CL values of from 0.7 to
1.6 for a-10-degree incidence and a 12% relative are
Lift coefficient - (See FIG. 1a) 10 obtained.
When a propeller or impeller is rotating in a viscous According to this invention and to a typical embodi
fluid, a section of a blade of the impeller, having an area ment thereof, in which the blades are obtained by cylin
(S), located at the radius (R) reacts on the fluid with a drical circular rolling between the rollers d of FIG. 2, in
force having two components, i.e. the lift force (L) a first case illustrated in FIG. 4 the minor base e2 is
which is perpendicular to the direction of the velocity 15 engaged first into the nip formed by rollers d or simi
(W) of the section relative to the fluid flow, and the larly between the V-sectioned bending tools 4, 4a of a
drag force (D) parallel to (W). In hydrodynamics it is bending press of FIG. 3.
Thus, the angle g formed between the roller genera
well known that (L) and (D) can be written as: trix and the center line M1 M2 of blade e is directed as
L=dnCLS W. 20 shown by the arrow in FIG.4, and will be referred to as
D= dcDS W a positive angle.
wherein: Therefore, the incidence of the blade section chord
dm is the fluid density; decreases as the distance from the rotational axis fin
CL is the lift coefficient; creases, and the lift coefficient CL increases accord
CD is the drag coefficient; and 25 ingly. Therefore, this blade has a centripetal corrective
W2= V2+(oR)2, with component with respect to the fluid jet, which tends to
V=axial velocity through the propeller, and reduce the blowing cone angle of the impeller, the term
co=angular velocity of the propeller. "blowing' having the same meaning as "pumping" but
In FIG. 1b is indicated the angle of incidence (I) being employed more particularly when the impeller
between the velocity (W) and the axis (p) for which L 30 pumps the fluid downwardly.
is equal to zero. The values of (I) and (CL) are corre Conversely, when as in the case illustrated in FIG. 6
the major base of the trapezium is engaged first, B will
lated for this profile as: be "negative', and the blade chord incidence will in
I= 10 CL
crease from the axis of rotation of the impeller to the
35 outer periphery thereof, so that the CL and the blade
Up to now, and particularly for marine type propel correction will be centrifugal, thus resulting in an in
lers, when designing the propeller the coefficient CL crease or opening of the blowing cone angle.
was chosen approximately constant. Such propellers By way of example, when the ratio d/D of the impel
give a very weak radial movement in an infinite volume. ler diameter to the vessel diameter approximates 0.5
It has been found that if I is chosen to increase contin
with a 1-centipoise viscosity and a given value (approxi
uously from the rotational axis to the tip, a centrifugal
mating 20') of the positive angle É, movable blades
producing a purely axial flow are obtained, the blowing
component of velocity appears, and the angle (a) of the volume having in this case a cylindrical pattern.
blowing cone increases. When, as illustrated in FIG.5, A is zero, the conical
Conversely, when I is chosen to decrease from the 45 flow is characteristic and the angle 6 of FIG. 1 has a
rotational axis up to the tip, a centripetal component value close to 45' under the same conditions.
appears, and angle (a) decreases for given conditions. Another exemplary embodiment is illustrated in
This angle a is determined by the construction of the FIGS. 7 and 8. In this case the blade has been given a
impeller blade, and the construction may be as follows. compound cylindrical-plano-conical shape. In FIGS. 7
The sheet metal member or plate from which the 50 and 8, the area 1 is cylindrical as in the preceding exam
blade element e is to be made is formed to have a sub ple.
stantially trapezoidal contour. The major base el of this The area 2 is flat, either tangent to the preceding
blank is used as the blade portion located near the shaft cylindrical area 1 (FIG. 7) or bent along this tangent
or axis. Therefore, this portion operates at a relatively (FIG. 8). The next area 3 is cylindrical in FIG. 7 and
low speed but has a strong incidence in the fluid and a 55 corresponds to a definitely centrifugal helix. Area 3 is
relatively great cross-sectional area. For opposite rea tapered in FIG. 8 which is clearly centripetal.
sons, the minor base e2 of the trapezium is adapted to In this case the corrective effect is due to the fact that
constitute the external portion of the blade. The ratio of the sag and the incidence, and therefore also the CL
the major base to the minor base is selected according to thereof, increase from the axis to the outer periphery of
the area preferred for the maximum flow intensity. 60 the blade in the case illustrated in FIG. 7, and decrease
The plate thus cut is shaped either by rolling as illus in the case of FIG. 8.
trated in FIGS. 2 and 2a, or in a press, as illustrated in Auxiliary flaps may also be added to the improved
FIGS. 3 and 3a of the drawings, in order to impart a impellers of this invention without departing from the
cylindrical or tapered configuration thereto, or a com 65 basic principles of the invention. These auxiliary flaps
pound shape by combining cylindrical, conical and/or consist of profiles designed and calculated with a view
flat portions. to obtain a well-defined and desired result. They are
The variation in the lift coefficient CL is obtained by constructed like the main blades from plate blanks and
varying both the angle of incidence of the fluid (me are roller-shaped or pressed. If desired, they can be
5 6
disposed to constitute either extensions or projections modifications and variations may be made thereto with
on the lower and/or upper surfaces of the main blades. out departing from the basic principles of the invention
These auxiliary flaps may serve the purpose of either as set forth in the appended claims.
simply enhancing an axial or centrifugal or centripetal What I claim is:
effect, or developing an eddy area of predetermined 1. An axial flow bladed impeller intended for exerting
intensity and location. a stirring action in a fluid medium, the primary phase of
FIGS. 9 to 13 of the attached drawings illustrate which is liquid, contained in a vessel designed such that
diagrammatically by way of example, not of limitation, the configuration of the blowing zone can be forecast
several embodiments of these auxiliary flaps. and calculated in order to optimize the efficiency of the
In FIG. 9 the flaps are similar to the ailerons cur 10 mixing effect, by the action of generally centripetal
rently added to aircraft wings for modifying the lift secondary radial currents, said impeller having a rota
thereof. tional axis and plural blades spaced therearound, each
In the case of FIGS. 9 and 10, the flap i is secured for said blade being formed of a trapezoidal sheet of mate
instance to the lower surface of the blade e and its axis rial such that said blade has a constant thickness, each
intersects that of the blade e so as to produce a centripe 15 said blade having a leading edge and a trailing edge,
tal action. Flap i could as well constitute an extension of taken in the direction of rotation of said impeller, all
blade e. sections of each said blade formed at positions radially
In FIG. 11, the desired effect is centrifugal. The flap spaced from said rotational axis being curved, the dis
j is secured to the outer tip of the blade, it has a vertical tance between said leading edge and said trailing edge
cylindrical circular configuration, it projects from both 20 of each said blade continuously decreasing from said
the lower and upper surfaces of the blade, and its total rotational axis to the outer blade tip, and for any given
height corresponds to the chord of the main blade, at said section of each said blade there being an angle of
0.7 of its radius. The desired result may be inverted, for incidence defined between a velocity vector of the fluid
example by using a concave flap instead of a convex flow acting on said section and a straight line extending
flap, as seen by an observerstanding at the impeller axis. 25 from said trailing edge of said section to a point on said
Finally, FIG. 12 illustrates a particularly simple em section whereat a tangent to said section is parallel to
bodiment in which the main blade e consists of a possi said velocity vector, said angle of incidence for each
bly flat member to which flat or curved elements k said blade continuously varying and generally decreas
disposed or bent in one direction are secured in one ing from said rotational axis to said outer blade tip.
section, the next section comprising similar elements k1 30 2. A propeller as claimed in claim 1, wherein for each
but disposed in the opposite direction. said blade, the ratio of CD/AB is between 2% and 10%,
If the total lift of the elements bent in one direction is wherein AB is the length of a straight line between said
equal to the lift of the elements bent in the opposite leading and trailing edges, and wherein CD is the great
direction, and if the lengths of each section are rela est length between the upper surface of said blade and
tively moderate, the whole of the complmentary energy 35 said straight line taken perpendicular to said straight
absorbed by these elements is converted into turbu line; said angle of incidence is between 3 and 10.
lence. Of course, the bent elements may be located 3. A propeller as claimed in claim 2, further compris
either along the trailing edge as shown or along the ing auxiliary flap means attached to said blades for rein
leading edge, or possibly along both edges simulta forcing axial and radial forces produced by said blades
neously. and for increasing the turbulence created by said pro
A specific arrangement illustrated in FIG. 13 com peller.
prises the use of only two sets of elements m, m1 bent in 4. A propeller as claimed in claim 3, wherein said
opposite directions. If the total lift thus obtained is zero, auxiliary flap means comprise ailerons disposed as ex
then equal flows, i.e. a central flow and a peripheral tensions of the upper and lower surfaces of the blade.
flow, are obtained. 45 5. A propeller as claimed in claim 3, wherein said
This specific arrangement is particularly advanta auxiliary flap means comprise a plurality of complemen
geous when non-newtonian fluids are to be mixed to tary elements, arranged along the trailing edges of the
gether, for, in contrast to all other impellers, the assem blades and alternately projecting from the lower surface
bly illustrated in FIG. 13 and described hereinabove and from the upper surface of each blade.
occupies the entire cross-sectional area of the mixing 50 6. A propeller as claimed in claim 3, wherein said
vessel, whereby the peripheral dead area possibly re auxiliary flap means comprises two sections of elements
sulting from the existence of a mixed fluid shearing bent in opposite directions to form means for providing
threshold is eliminated. a zero total lift and for forming an impeller producing a
Of course, this invention should not be construed as central flow and a peripheral flow which are opposed
being strictly limited by the specific embodiments de 55 and equal. k 2: 3: E
scribed, illustrated and suggested herein, since various