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Networking notes by : Gurdeep Singh for www.gurdeepsingh.jimdo.

com

NETWORKING

Definition of Networking :
It is a group of computers which are connected to each other through any kind of transmission media for the
purpose of sharing the resources transferring data & working in group.
The means of networking is to connect two or more computer via a transmission.

It is a process of techniques through which we can built up network.

KINDS OF NETWORK :
LAN—Local Area Network.
CAN—Campus Area Network.
MAN—Metropolitan Area Network.
WAN—Wide Area network.

LAN :
It can defined as a network which does not create a distance of more than 1.25 miles from one or two others.
LAN are tyically used to interconnect computers and P.C. Within a relative small area such as within
building of office or campus.

A LAN typically operates at speed ranging from 10Mbps to 100Mbps. Connecting several 100 Kilometers.
LAN become popular because they allow many users source & resouces.

CAN :
(Campus Area Network) : It can be defined as which is limited in scope to a signal geographic local. (200 meters
area).

MAN
(Metropolitan Area Network) : It can be defined as a network that conveys a metropolitan area which is a city of not
more than ten miles or 10 Kilometers.
Man as the name implies is a network converting a metropolitan city. The MAN connects many LAN's
located at different office, buildings. A MAN has a large geographic scope compared to a LAN & Can range from
10 kilometers to 100 kilometers in length. MAN typically operate at a speed of 1.5 to 150 Mbps.

WAN
(Wide Area Network) : It can be defined as a network that convens country & contains having more than 10 mile
distance.

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A WAN is a designed to inter connect system over a very large geographic scope, such as from a city to
another city within a country. A WAN can range from 100 Km to 1000 km and the speed between the cities can
varie from 1.5 Mbps to 2.4 Gbps.

In a WAN the cost of transmission is very high & the network is usually owned and operated by a public
network.
Companies use th the public networks to connect their sites.

TRANSMISSION MEDIA
(Network Media)
(1) Connection Less (Wireless)
(2) Connection oriented (Cable Base)

1. Connection Less :
It work on broadcost method of data delivery and it is faster than connection oriented.
There are basically two media are used in network :
(i) Cable base media : Such as twisted pair cable & Fibre Optic Cable.
(ii) Wireless Media : such as radio waves.

2. Connection Oriented :
It stablise the connection between the source computer & destination computer by this medium.
These use the data delivery & send after the destination.

TYPES OF CABLES :
There are three types of cables :
(i) Twisted Pair.
(ii) Coaxial Cable.
(iii) Fibre Optic Cable.

1. TWISTED PAIR CABLE :


The main type of twisted Pair Cable are (UTP, Unshielded twisted pair) & (STP, Shield twisted pair)

U.T.P. Is commonly used & is cheaper than other, it is used for most networks. It is used in environment
where is E.M.I. Less and authination.

S.T.P. is used in the environment where is more E.M.I. & authination.

It has 4 pairs of cables (total 8 cables). Both (U.T.P. & S.T.P.) are used in LAN.
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1. COAXIAL CABLE :
It is used the T.V. signal transmission as well as in implimentation. It is construct with a coper core of the
centre that carry the signal. It has a plastic insulation broaded metl sheelding and other plastic covering in
this way. It can reduce the cable signal by brocotall and E.M.I. network can use two types of coaxial cable.
(a) Think Coaxial Cable.
(b) Thin Coaxial Cable.

2. FIBRE OPTIC CABLE :


Fibre optic cable used like transmission twisted of electronic place. It is well for the transmission of data
vedio and voice transmission. It reduce the loss of signal from E.M.I. and crosstol. It is more expexpensive
than other types of cables. It provide the high speed data communication.
There are two types of fiber optic cables :
(i) Singal mode.
(ii) Multi mode.

In multimedia fiber many become of light travell through the cable bennsing of the cables of walls.

This weekens the signal in single mode fiber a single direct become a light of uses show it increase the data
transmission speed. This is used for internet by under sea.

CABLE

Cloding
Silicon coating.
Buffer Jacket

Strenght

Other Jacket

MEDIA, LENGTH & SPEED


I.E.E.E. Standards : (Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers)

(1) 10 Base 2 : The maximum length of a 10 Base 2 segment is 185 meter. 10 Base 2 operate at 10MBPS speed.
It used this thin coaxial cable.

(2) 10 Base 5 : It used thick coaxial cable. The maximum length of a 110 Base 5 segment is 500 meters. It also
operate on 10mbps.

(3) 10 Base FL : It operate 10mbps over fibre optic cable. The maximum length of a 10 Base FL segment is
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2000 meters.

(4) 10 Base T : It use 10mbps over twisted pair cabling. The maximum length of a 10Base T segment is 100
meters.

(5) 10 Base FX : It use 10mbps over fibre optic cable. The maximum length of 10 base FX segment is 2000
meters.

(6) 100 Base T : It is used 100 mbps speeed over twisted pair cable. The maximum length of 100Base T
segment is 2000 meters.

TRANSMISSION MODE
1. SIMPLEX :
Simplex always one way data communication through the network with the full Band, with of the cable
being used for transmiting the signals.

e.g. T.V. & Radio.

1. HALF DUPLEX :
(Sending & Receiving : One thing at a time) : In half duplex mode the transmitting & receiving of the data
on the network does not occur at the same time. The data can only either transmit & receive at a time.

2. FULL DUPLEX :
To use full duplex both the network card & hub or switch must support for full duplexing are capable of
transmitting & receiving. e.g. : Networking & Internet.

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MEDIA CONNECTORS

1. B.N.C. (Barrel Network Connector) :


B.N.C. Are also associated with coaxial media. B.N.C. Connector include Barrel board connector, T-
connecot and terminators.

2. RJ-11 (Register Jeck) :


R.J.-11 connector are small plastic connector used on telephone line cable. They have six small pins
standard telephone connector only use two pins.

3. RJ-45 :
RJ-45 connector are used with twisted pair cables. It supports upto 8 wires.

4. S.C. (State Connector) :


It is use a push & pull connector similar to common audio & Video players and sockets.

5. I.E.E.E.-1394 Connector :
It is also known as firewall. It is attach peripheral device, such as, digital camera or printers. It common use
in 4 or 6 pin wire.

6. U.S.B. Connector :
It is like a I.E.E.E. 1394. U.S.B. Is associated with peripheral device, such as MP3 players & digital
cameras.

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NETWORKING CABLING
Same Device Cross Cabling

Different Device Straight Cabling

CROSS CABLING :

ORANGE — BLUE
ORANGE WHITE — GREEN
BLUE — ORANGE
BLUE WHITE — BLUE
GREEN — BLUE WHITE
GREEN WHITE — ORANGE WHITE
BROWN — BROWN
BROWN WHITE — BROWN WHITE

Example of Cross Cabling :

PC1__________________________PC2
Cross Cable

STRAIGHT CABLING :

ORANGE — ORANGE
ORANGE WHITE — ORANGE WHITE
BLUE — BLUE
BLUE WHITE — BLUE WHITE
GREEN — GREEN
GREEN WHITE — GREEN WHITE
BROWN — BROWN
BROWN WHITE — BROWN WHITE

Example of Straight Cabling :


PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4

HUB

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PEER TO PEER NETWORKING

Steps of Connectivity :

1. Make a Cable.
2. LAN Card should be connected
3. Fill the I.P. Address
(i) My Network Place (Right click)
(ii) Properties
(iii) LAN (Properties)
(iv) Select Internet Protocol (T.C. I.P.)
(v) Properties
(vi)
Obtain an I.P. Address automatically

Use the following I.P. Address

I.P. Address 10.10.10.1


Subnet mask 255.0.0.0
Default Gateway ....

Use the following D.N.S. Server address

Preferred D.N.S. Server . . .


Alternate D.N..S Server . . .

Note : Fill I.P. Address—OK—Close

(vii) Check the connectivity :


(a) Go to DOS (Run—cmd)
(b) Ping space other system's I.P. Address

1. If reply is coming (Connected)


2. Request time out (Not connected)

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NETWORKING DEVICE

HUB :
HUB are used in network that use twisted pair cabling to connect device. HUB can also be join together to create
large network. HUB are simple device that send data packets to all device connected to HUB.

There are two types of HUB :

(1) PASSIVE HUB


(2) ACTIVE HUB

Active HUB regenerate the signals before is forward to all the ports.

White Passive HUB does not do this work.

Transfer date in Packets of 64KB each speed upto 10Mbps.

Port :
HUB :
HUB does not improve Signal.
Speed : 10 Mbps
Port : Only 8 Ports.

SWITCH :
Improves the signals.
Speed : 10/100 Mbps
Port : Minimum 8, Maximum no limit.

It is like a HUB, switch are the connected device. This device are connect to switches via twisted pair
cabling.
The difference between HUB and Switch is how device deal with the data that they receive.
HUB forward the data to all the ports on the device, where a switch forward it only to the port that connector
to the destination device.
It does this by learning the MAC switch (media access control) of the device attach to it.

ROUTER
Router are use to create large network by segment.

When a router receive a packet of data it read the header of the packet to determine destination. The address
once it has determined the address it looks it its routing table to now how to reach to destination.

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BRIDGE :
Bridge are used to device large network into similar section. They do this work by setting between two physical
network segment and managing the flow of data between them by looking at the MAC address of the device which
can forward the data or block it from crossing.

GATEWAY :
Any device that translate one data format to another is called Gateway. Some example of gateway include a router
that resolve data from one network protocol to another. A bridge that convert between to another system.

TOPOLOGY
The topology refer to both the physical and logical layout of the network.

Types of Topology :
1. BUS Topology :
A bus network use a backbone to which all the computer on the network connect. System connect to this
backbone using T. Connector.

Advantages :
(1) Compare to other Topology it is cheap & each to implement.
(2) Require less cable than other topology.
(3) Does not use any specialist network equipment.

DISADVANTAGES :
(1) There might be network disruption when computer edit or remove.
(2) A break in the cable will prevent all system from accessing the network.
(3) Difficult to troubleshoot.

(2) RING TOPOLOGY :


The Ring Topology is a actually a logical ring. It means the data travel in the circular session from one
computer to another computer.

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• 2 LAN Cards per System


• Twisted Pair Cable

ADVANTAGES :
(1) Cable fault are easily located, making troubleshoot easy.
(2) Ring Network are easy to implement.

DISADVANTAGES :
(1) Expansion of the network can call network description.
(2) A single break in the cable can descrupt the entire network.

1. MESH TOPOLOGY :
The Mesh Topology is a topology in which each computer on the network connects to every other. Creating
a point to point connection between every device on the network.

Note : Because of the redundant connection the MESH Topology offer better fault tolerance than other topology.

ADVANTES :
(1) It provide alternative path between
device.
(2) The network cable expanded without
description to the current user.

DISADVANTAGES :
(1) Require more cable than other
topologies.
(2) Complicated to implementation.
(3) It use LAN network.

STAR TOPOLOGY :
In the star Topology all computer & other network device connect to a control device called a HUB/Switch. Each
connect device require a single cable to the HUB.
The Star Topology as the most widely implement network design in use today.

ADVANTAGES :
(1) Star Network are easily expanded without description to the network.
(2) Cable failure effect only a single user.
(3) Easy to troubleshoot.

DISADVANTAGES :
(1) Require more cable than other topologies.
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(2) A control connecting device for a single point failure.

O.S.I. Model
(Operating System Inter Connection)
Intro : This model was created by intermedia in 1978. It describe a network architecture that allow data to be passed
between computer system.

There are divided into seven sub-layers.


1. Application 7
2. Presentation 6
3. Session 5
4. Transport 4
5. Network 3
6. Data Link 2
7. Physical 1

1. Physical Layer :
Physical layer of the O.S.I. Model identify the physical charateristics of the network such as, types of cables,
types of connectors & format for cable & topology used in the network.

2. Data Link Layer :


The data link layer is also responsible for error detection, error correction & hardware addressing.
It has two different sub-layers :
(i) MAC (Media Access Controll) : It defines the MAC Address & convert to the I.P. & I.P. To
MAC.
(ii) Logical Link Control : this layer is responsibel for error & flow control mechanism for the data link
layer.

3. NETWORK LAYER :
The prepare function of the network layer is routing. It provides mechanism by which data can be passed
from one network system to another.

4. TRANSPORT LAYER :
The basic function of transport layer is to provide mechanism to transport data between network device.
It does this work in three stepes :
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(i) Error checking.


(ii) Service addressing : The transport laer make sure that data is passed to the right.
(iii) Segmentation : If this layer a data is break in small P.C. That is called blocks.

5. SESSION LAYER :
The session layer is responsible for managing & controlling the synchronization of data between application
on two device. It doe this by stabilising, maintaining & breaking session.

6. PRESENTATION LAYER :
The basic function of this layer is to convert the receive or forward data into another format. The
presentation can translate data into different format.

7. APPLICATION :
The function of this layer is to take request & data from user & pas then to the tower layer of the O.S.I.
Model.

CODING :
Application Layer 010101 (Binary Coding)

Presentation Layer 010, 101

Transport Layer 010, 1010, 10.10.10.1, 10.10.10.1

Network Layer 010, 0101, 128.0.0.1, 128.0.0.1

Data Link Layer 010101 (Binary Coding)

Physical Layer (Analog)

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PROTOCOLS
A protocol is most easily defined as a set of rules use to determine how device communicate with each other. It is
similar to language, if one person speak English and other speak English the communicate but is one person speak
only spanish & other speak only english they won't be able to communicate. The terms of protocol we mean the set
of rules or standard design to enable computer to be connected with one another & exchange information among
them with very little error.

Protocol can describe low level detail of mechanic to mechanism interface.

e.g. LOW LEVEL SPEED : The order in which bit & bytes are send across a wire or high speed exchange between
allocation programme.

HIGH LEVEL SPEED : The way in which two programme transfer a file across the net. e.g. Suppose these are two
people, one speak Hindi & Other speak French. They know common language.

A person send message Hindi (Aap), (You).

Note : This is basic work in a communication with the other client you language.

TYPES OF PROTOCOLS

1. CONNECTION LESS PROTOCOL :


It workds on broadcast method. This protocol given no acknowledgment of data delivery. It is faster than
connection oriented protocol.

2. CONNECTION ORIENTED PROTOCOL :


It is stabilise the connection between the source computer & destination computer by this protocol. There is
the generate of data delivery. This protocol sends the acknowledgment after reaching the destination.

TCP/I.P. PROTOCOL SUITE :


It has more than 2500 protocols.

There are six major protocols :


1. T.C.P. (Transmission Control Protocol)
2. I.P. (Internet Protocol)
3. U.D.P. (User Datagram Protocol)
4. I.C.M.P. (Internet Control message Protocol)
5. I.G.M.P. (Internet Group Message Protocol)
6. A.R.P. (Address Resolution Protocol)

1. T.C.P. : T.C.P.
Is the transport layer of the protocol and serve to ensure a reliable verify data exchange between host on a
network.
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T.C.P. :
 Connection Oriented & Reliable.
 It divides the file into packets.
 Labeling the Packets.
 Max. size of Packets.
Source Port
 Target Port
 Packet Number

2. I.P. (Internet Protocol) :


The network layer protect of the this layer. The main protocol at this layer the internet protocol I.P. is
actually moves the data from point A to point B, a process that called routing.
This protocol works on MAN, CAN & WAN.

3. U.D.P. (User Datagram Protocol) :


It is transport layer connection less protocol. It does not provide the reliability service available with T.C.P.
but instead provide best effort transmission service to application protocols.
U.D.P. gives application a direct interface with I.P. and the ability to address a specific application protocol
running on a host via a port number without setting up end to end virtual circuit or connection.
U.D.P. like T.C.P., user I.P. to deliver its packets.
U.D.P. :
Connection less & unreliable.
The same as T.C.P., example T.V. & Radio

4. I.C.M.P. (Internet Control message Protocol) :


It provide an unreliable. I.C.M.P. however allow I.P. to inform a sender if a datagram is undelivered cable.
A data gram travel from router to router reach can deliver its final destination.
This in network layer management & control.

5. I.G.M.P. (Internet Group Message Protocol) :


It is a T.C.P./I.P. Protocol that is used to mnage I.P. multicast session. It use special I.G.MP. Message to
learn the layout of multicast groups & which host belong to which groups. Additionally the indivdual host in
an I.P. network use an I.G.M.P. message to joint & leave a multicast group.

6. A.R.P. (Address Resolution Protocol) :


The physical hardware address node its already known as I.P. address using A.R.P. when a node to node to
send a packet to a know as I.P. address on a local subnet mask.

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I.P. CLASSES
Class A Range 1-126 Default Subnet Mask 255.0.0.0

Class B Range 128-191 Default Subnet Mask 255.255.0.0


Note : 127 is used for loop back address which is used for troubleshooting purpose. Ping 127.1.1.1

Class C Range 192-223 Default Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0

Class D Range 244-239

Class E Range 240-254

***********************************************************************************

SUBNET MASK
It is used to different subnet to Net I.D. & Host I.D.

Default Gateway :
It is the address of router.

Types of I.P.
1. Private I.P. : It will never cross the ROUTER, not to be purchased. It is used in L.A.N.
2. Public I.P. : It is to be purchased through the service provider. Your identity on the internet cannot be
duplicate.
3. Illegal I.P. : Neither Private nor Public, if you are using public I.P. on you local network then these I.P. could
be Illegal I.P.

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Rules of I.P. Address :


1. The network I.D. Must be same on every computer in a network.
2. The Host I.D. Must be unique on every computer in a network.
3. We cannot use Host I.D. or net I.D. In a network. (0)

I.P. ADDRESSING
1. Hardware Addressing :
MAC Address
48 Bits
6 Octact (100 Octat = 8 Bits)
Hexadecimal

2. Software Addressing :
I.P. Addresses
4 Octact
Decimal
32 Bit
Example : 10.10.10.1

HARDWARE → SOFTWARE

MAC Address → I.P. Address

48 Bit → 10.10.10.1

6 Octact → 4 Packet Octact

Hexadecimal → Decimal

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MODULATION
Digital Signal
Computer 1 →MODEM→Code →Telephone Company→ Modem→Computer 2
Definition : Modulation is the process of converting a digital signal from a compute into analog signal to the
telephone system will accept. To modulate is to mix a data signal into a carry & modify its characteristics for
transmission in a communication network. A carry is an electromagnetic wave that vibrate at a fixed frequency.

FLOW CONTROL
Definition : Flow control is the process of managing the rate of data transmission between two nodes to prevent a
fast sender from overrunning a slow receiver. This should be control data which is used for controlling the flow of
data when actually occurred flow control mechanism can be receiving node send feed back to the sending node.

Flow control is important because it is possible for a sending computer to transmit information at a faster
rate than the destination computer can receive & process them. This can happen if the receiving computers have a
heavy traffic load in comparison to the sending computer or if the receiving computer has a less processing power
than the sending computer.

BASEBAND V/S BROADBAND


Bandwith use refer to the way of allocating the capacity of transmission media. The total media capacity or
bandwith can be divided into channels. A channel is simply of the bandwith that can used for transmitting data.

Two ways of allocating the capacity of bounded transmission media are the following :
(a) Baseband
(b) Broadband

BASEBAND : These transmission use the entire media bandwith for a single channel. Baseband is commonly used
for digital signalling. It can also be used for analog signals. Most L.A.N. Network use baseband.

BROAD BAND : These transmission provide the ability to divided the entire media bandwith into multiple
channels. Since each channel can carry a different analog signal or digital broad band network support multiple
conversation over a single transmission media.

MAC (Media Access Controll) : The terms of media refer to the cabling used for transmitting data from one node
to another node

Example of media local Area Network include Coaxial cable, twisted pair cable & Fibre optic cable.

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SWITCHING TECHNIQUES
INTRO : If you could only use your telephone to talk to just one other person. You would not be very productive so
there are requirement for switching system to rout you calls around the world.

CIRCUIT Switching : This method involves the Physical Inter Connection of two device. A good example of
circuit switching involve the public phone network. A data example would be the classic switch.

Packet Switch : Packet switching techniques switch packet of data between destination. Traditionally this applied
to x.25 techniques, but this is also applied to T.C.P./I.P. & Routers. Also switch can voice signal.

Message Switching : This technique where originally used in the data communication. An example would be early
store & forward paper type system.

Cell Switching : It is similar to packet switching except that the switching does not occur on packet boundaries.
This is ideal for an integrated environment and is found within cell based networks, such as A.T.M. Cell switching
can handle both digital voice and data signals.

Wireless Communication
It is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or wires. The distance
involved may be short or long. When the context is clear the term is ofter strong to wireless. Wireless
communication is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunication.

Satellite Communication
It is an artificial satellite station in space for the purpose of telecommunication, modem communication satellite use
variety of orbit including & earth orbit.

Q. What is G.S.M.?
Ans. G.S.M. (Global System Mobile) is digital mobile telephone system that is widely used & other parts of the
world. GSM use a variabtion f time division multiple access (IDMA) & is mot widely used of the three digital
wireless telephone technologies, i.e. IDMA, GSM, CDMA.

Gsm digits & compress data then send it down channel with two other streams of use dat each its on time slots. It
operate at either the 900 Mhz or 1800 Mhz. frequency band.

GSM has over one billion user world wide and is available in 190 countries since many GSM network
operator have roaming agreements with foreign operators, user can often continue to use their mobile phones when
they travel to other counties.

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SERVER
Points to be remembered while creating a SERVER :
1. Minimum two system required.
2. LAN card.
3. Install LAN card
4. The system where we are going to create SERVER must be 2003 SERVER WINDOW.
5. A CD of 2003 server window.
6. Fill the I.P. address & D.N.S. Address.
7. Check the connectivity between two systems.

Steps while Creating a Server


START

RUN

Type (DCPROMO)

NEXT

Active Directory Installation Wizard (Press Next)

Domain Controller for a new domain (Press Next)

Domain in a new Forest

Type the full D.N.S. Name for the new domain (e.g. Yahoo.com) (Name should be followed by .com)
Install and configure the DNS server on this compute and set this compute rto use this DNS servr as its preferred
DNS server.

Permission (a) 2000 (b) 2000 or 2003 [ Click 2000 if you are using 2000 server window or click 2000 or 2003 if
you using 2003 server.]

Directory services Restore mode

Administrator (Password)

Summary (Press Next)

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Setup is running (wait & watch)



Insert Disk (It will do everything itself)

Finish (Remove/Eject the CD)

STEPS TO CREATE USER ON SERVER


Start

All Programme

Administrator Toosl

Active Directory Users & Computers

Click on Server Name

Click on User

New User

First Name (Gurdeep)

User Login Name (Gurdeep) (Name should be same as it First Name)

Next

Password of user

(i) User must change password at next logon (Don't Click)
(ii) User cannot change password (Click)
(iii) Password never expire. (Click)
(iv) Account is disabled (Don't Click)

STEPS TO JOIN CLIENT TO DOMAIN


Fill the System I.P. &
DNS I.P. (Server I.P.)
My Computer

Properties

Computer Name

Change

Click on Domain

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Don't Click on Workgroup →OK



Computer Name changes

User Name (Administrator)
Password (Administrator Password)

OK→Welcome→OK→OK→Restart (Yes)→ Open system with User.

WINS SERVER
(Windows Internet Name Services)
This services is used to register net B.IO.S. Complete name & resolve then into I.P. address.

Note :
1. Net B.I.O.S. name can contains max sixteen (16) characters.
2. It use connection less protocol.

WINS Client :
A WINS client is a computer that register its name & I.P. address with a WINS server during system startup.

DNS
Domain Name Services
Domain Name Server
Domain Name System
It is the name registration service which can convert domain name into I.P. address & I.P. address into domain
name.

DNS inform that client about all website and convert name into I.P. address.

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ROAMING PROFILE (At Server System)


My Computer

C Drive

Create a folder , Name it PROFILE & share it.

Create user name folder in PROFILE folder

Go to the user's properties

Profile

Profile Path : \\server-I.P.\profile\user's name

OK

D.H.C.P. Server
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
Intro : It is a service to management of I.P. address in a a T.C.P. I.P. base network. A D.H.C.P. Work with the
microsoft client software to dynamically configure the T.C.P. I.P. protocol stack.

D.H.C.P. Server : A D.H.C.P. Servr maintain a pool of I.P. addresses on receiving a reques from client in case the
clinet accept the ofer the I.P. address is realeased to the client for a specific of the time.

A D.H.C.P. Client is a compute which is configure to result for on I.P. address from the D.H.C.P. Server obtain
automatically.

D.H.C.P. Scope : A Scope consite arrange of I.P. address such as 10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.20

Exclusive Range : Exclusive Range is a range of client computer the D.H.C.P. Server does not assign the I.P.
address file within this range to any of the client.

Working of D.H.C.P. :
1. The D.H.C.P. Client broadcast a request for I.P. address to D.H.C.P. Server.
2. The D.H.C.P. Server sends an offer to client.

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3. The D.H.C.P. Client select the I.P. address from the first after & request for the large.
4. The D.H.C.P. Server assign to the I.P. address to the client.

STEPS TO CREATE A D.H.C.P. SERVER


I.P. address & D.N.S. address

Start

Setting

Control Panel

Add/Remove Programmes

Add Remove window components

Network Services (Do Not click Just Select)

Detail

Select D.H.C.P. Server (OK)

Next

Insert C.D. 2003 Server

It will take the file automatically

FINISH

CONFIGURATION OF D.H.C.P.
Start

Programme

Admin Tools

Click on D.H.C.P.

Right Click on Server Name (Green signal means Ok, Red signal means Install Again)

New Scope

Next

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New Scope Wizard



Fill any name
Start I.P. Address (10.10.10.51)
End I.P. Address (10.10.10.60)

length (By Default)
Subnet mask (next)

Add Exclusive

Start I.P. Address (10.10.10.52)
End I.P. Address (10.10.10.55)

Add

Next

Yes, Next, Next, Next, FINISH

AT CLIENT SYSTEM

DOS
C:\>ipconfig /release
0.0.0.0.

C:\>ipconfig /renew
10.10.10.51

To Check I.P.
C:\>ipconfig (for I.P. only)
C:\>ipconfig /all (for complete info about I.P.)

R.D.P. Server
(Remote Desktop Server)
The R.D.P. Server is very similar to the independent computing architecture (I.C.A.) Protocol used by R.D.P. As a
matter of fact R.D.P. Is used to access windows terminal service. A close relative of winframe product line. The
R.D.P. Perform the some basic functions as I.C.A. But it does with a lot less function. R.D.P. Provides Remote
access for windows client only, where as I.C.A. Provide it for multiple platform, including DOS, Linux, Macintosh
& many others.

I.C.A. Is also a much full features paltform, including support for automatically client updates publishing an
application to a web browser & much more.

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TRANS RECEIVER
It is a part of any network interface that transmit & receive network signals (Transmit/Receive).

Every network interface has a trans receiver, internal or external. Thus that do not have a built in trans receiver e.g.
N.I.C. with only DIX/A.V.I. Port will require an external trans receiver but every interface require some form of
trans receiver to convert the device digital signal to one i.e. compatible with the network medium. The appearance
& function of the external trans receiver is very with the type of network cable & topology in use.

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GHOST IMAGE
Insert Ghost CD

Press any Key

Five Option will be on screen :

Choose (4) i.e. Load U.S.B. 2.0 drivers

A:\>c: (here C: drive is CD ROM Drive)

c:\> CD support (Enter)

c:\support>ghost (Enter)

OK

Local → Partition →To image (When making Image)
Local → Partition → From Image (When using Ghost Image)

When using (Choose the place where you GHOST image is)

Click on Ghost File

OK

OK

YES (Over Right the partition)

Restart

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