Image segmentation using active contour models have been widely used for the segmentation of deformed structures. They have wide applications in medical image segmentation. These methods may use either edge information or region information to segment and identify objects. All these methods have their own advantages and limitations in terms of computational time and performance. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the recent and popular level set models using certain similarity criteria. The algorithms are tested on natural images and medical images of different modalities and the results are analysed.

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Image segmentation using active contour models have been widely used for the segmentation of deformed structures. They have wide applications in medical image segmentation. These methods may use either edge information or region information to segment and identify objects. All these methods have their own advantages and limitations in terms of computational time and performance. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the recent and popular level set models using certain similarity criteria. The algorithms are tested on natural images and medical images of different modalities and the results are analysed.

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Anjali S

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

STIST, Trivandrum

Kerala

ABSTRACT

Image segmentation using active contour models have been widely used for the segmentation of deformed structures. They have

wide applications in medical image segmentation. These methods may use either edge information or region information to

segment and identify objects. All these methods have their own advantages and limitations in terms of computational time and

performance. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the recent and popular level set models using certain similarity

criteria. The algorithms are tested on natural images and medical images of different modalities and the results are analysed.

Keywords :— Image segmentation, active contours, level set method, comparative analysis.

images include natural images and medical images of different

I. INTRODUCTION modalities. The implemented level set models are discussed in

Image segmentation refers to the process of partitioning an Section 2. Section 3 defines the algorithm comparison criteria.

image into a set of contours or segments which have high The proposed methodology is discussed in section 4. Section 5

correlation with real world objects. It is one of the most includes experimental results and their inferences. Section 6

important steps which lead to the analysis of processed image and 7 deals with conclusion and references respectively.

data. Segmentation using active contour models [1]-[3], has

been widely used for the segmentation of deformed structures. II. IMPLEMENTED LEVEL SET

The basic principle is to evolve a contour to deform so as to MODELS

minimize a given energy functional to achieve the desired

segmentation. They generate smooth and closed contours as A. DRLSE Model

segmentation results and can be readily used for shape Li et al. [5] applied the Distance Regularized Level Set

analysis and object recognition. They have wide applications Evolution (DRLSE) formulation to an edge based active

in medical image segmentation for finding the size and shape contour model and provided a narrow band implementation to

of organs, abnormality detection, surgical planning and reduce the computational cost.

treatment progress monitoring. For an image I(x,y) on the image domain, they propose to

The active contour models are classified into two types: minimize the following energy:

parametric [3] and geometric models [1], [4-8]. In geometric E ( ) P( ) Em ( )

deformable models, curves are evolved using only geometric (1)

computations independent of any parameterization. In this

where is the level set function (initialized as a binary

method a curve is represented as the level set of a higher step function) whose zero level set corresponds to the contour,

dimensional function [2] called level set function (LSF). They

have some advantages over parametric ones. They can handle >0 is a constant , P ( ) is the internal energy term and m

E

topology changes easily. Areas inside and outside the contour is the external energy term.

can be easily determined.

The term

P ( ) is the level set regularization term

The Level-Set models are categorized into edge based [4],

from the signed

[5], [9] and region based models [1], [6], [7], [8], [11]. Edge which characterizes the deviation of

based models use local edge information for attracting the distance function. Thus the need for re-initialization procedure

contour towards object boundaries. Region based models use is completely eliminated.

statistical region information to find an energy optimum 1

P( ) (| | 1) 2 dxdy

where the model best fits the image. Region based methods 2 (2)

use global statistics [1] or local statistics [6], [7] for

E ( )

segmentation. The level set models may be whole domain [4], The term m is the external energy term that depends

[7], [8] or narrow band [1], [5], [6], [10] based on the way the upon the data of interest. This term is responsible for the

interface evolution is driven. The whole domain contours to stop at the objects of interest.

implementation develops new contours far from the zero Em ( ) g ( ) | | dxdy gH ( )dxdy

level-set. The narrow band implementation develops contours (3)

only on a small region around its zero level-set.

where >0 and are constants, g is the edge indicator

In this paper, a comparative evaluation of the recent and is the dirac

popular level set methods is discussed. The class of input function, H is the heavy side function and

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 6 Issue 4, Jul - Aug 2018

function. The function g takes smaller values at the object fit

x (C , f ( x ), f ( x ))

boundaries as 1 2

1 2

g K ( x y )|I ( y ) f ( x )|2dy

2

1 | G * I | i 1 i i i

(4) (7)

G f ( x)

where is the Gaussian kernel with a standard deviation

. where λ1 and λ2 are positive constants, 1 and

The gradient descent process for the minimization of E is f ( x)

2 are two values that approximate the intensities in

1

div( ) ( ) div( g ) g ( )

t | | | | and 2 (local equivalents of global means) and K is a

(5) kernel function. The kernel function can be chosen as a

Gaussian kernel

Edge based models utilize image gradient and they work

1 |u|2 / 2 2

well for images having strong object boundaries. But they K (u ) e

n/2 n

give poor performance for noisy images and images with ( 2 ) with a scale parameter

weak and discontinuous object boundaries.

σ. The size of the region around the point x is controlled by

B. CV Model the kernel function (value of σ in K). For smaller values of σ,

the segmentation results will be more accurate, but the model

CV (Chan and Vese) model [1] uses global region statistics

will be highly sensitive to initialization. So for real images

instead of image gradient information. So it has better

larger values for σ are chosen. The RSF energy is incorporated

performance for noisy images and is also less sensitive to the

into a level set formulation with a level set regularization term.

initial location of contour. For an image I(x,y) on the image

The LSF is initialized as a binary step function which speeds

domain, Chan and Vese proposed the following energy

up contour evolution and allows new contours to emerge

functional :

quickly. This model uses a whole domain implementation for

2

F (C , c1, c2 ) 1 inside(C ) | I ( x ) c1 | dx interface evolution.

2 D. LUM Model

2 outside(C ) | I ( x ) c2 | dx | C |

(6) Localizing Uniform Modeling Energy (LUM) [6] is a

localization of Chan and Vese Energy [1] using a region mask

where inside(C ) outside(C ) represent the regions inside with localization radius as the scale parameter. An explicit

and outside of the contour respectively, the optimal constants analysis of the effect of localization radius on segmentation

c1 and c2 are global means which are the averages of the results is given in [6]. Let I be a given image defined on

intensities in the entire regions inside(C) and outside(C). This and C be a closed contour represented as the zero level set

energy is incorporated into a level set formulation with a level

set function initialized as a signed distance function. From this of a signed distance function : R such that

a curve evolution equation is derived for energy minimization. C {x | ( x) 0}

. Then the Localizing UM Energy is

The CV model is based on the assumption that image defined as:

intensities are statistically homogeneous (roughly a constant)

in each region. So it is not ideal for segmenting heterogeneous F H ( ( y))(I ( y) u x ) 2 (1 H ( ( y))(I ( y) vx ) 2 )

objects. Thus region based models using global statistics may (8)

cause over segmentation when used to segment complex where H is the heavy side function which specifies the

medical images with inhomogeneous intensities and many interior of the contour and its derivative is the dirac function,

regions. ux v

and x are the local equivalents of the global means. The

C. RSF Model local neighbourhood is specified by the following region mask

with a localization radius parameter termed as r.

The Region Scalable Fitting (RSF) Model [7] use local

region statistics for segmentation as it uses a kernel function 1, || x y || r

B ( x, y )

to specify local regions. Thus this model is suitable for images 0, otherwise (9)

having intensity in homogeneity (especially medical images).

Let Ω be the image domain Ω and C is a closed contour in This model is ideal for the segmentation of heterogeneous

objects. As the interface evolution is confined to a narrow

Ω, which separates it into two regions, 1 as inside(C) and band, it is not disturbed by the presence of bright regions far

2 away from the contour. The method computes local statistics

as outside (C). The RSF energy for a given point x in Ω for every point of the evolving interface at each iteration. So

is defined as: the computation time is high. The model is also very sensitive

to initialization.

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 6 Issue 4, Jul - Aug 2018

TABLE I MSE 0dB 0 Near to 0

PROPERTIES OF THE IMPLEMENTED LEVEL SET

MODELS

IV. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

Model Energy type Evolution Level Set

function The proposed work focuses on the comparison of the

DRLSE Contour Narrow Binary models mentioned in section 2 in order to analyze their

based band step performance on different classes of images. The general

function framework for the analysis of the implemented algorithms is

given below.

CV Region based Narrow Signed

1. Input the image.

band distance

2. Pre-process the input image (optional).

function

3. Input the reference mask region.

RSF Localized Whole Binary

region based domain step 4. Initialize the LSF ( ).

function 5. Perform any one of the four algorithms (section 2) to

LUM Localized Narrow Signed update .

region based band distance 6. Continue step 5 till the required number of iterations

function is reached.

7. Display the final contour for .

III. ALGORITHM’S COMPARISON 8. Create the segmented mask region from the final .

CRITERIA (Areas inside the contour ( 0 ) will be the

The criteria measure the closeness between the final segmented objects).

segmented region and the corresponding reference region. Let 9. Measure the similarity between the segmented mask

R and S are the reference mask region and the segmented region and the reference mask region using the

mask region of an algorithm. The following three criteria are criteria mentioned in section 3.

used for comparison. 10. Estimate the computation time needed for the

algorithms.

Dice criterion:

2(R S) V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND

Dice OBSERVATIONS

RS (10)

The value of Dice coefficient ranges form 0 to 1. The value The analysis of the algorithms mentioned in Section 2 is

is when 1 the regions are identical and 0 when they are performed in two classes of images.

completely different. The acceptable value should be greater a. Natural images.

than 0.9. b. Medical images of different modalities (Angiogram,

XRay, CT, Microscopic, Ultrasound and MRI).

Mean Squared Error: The following inferences are made from the analysis of

natural images. The DRLSE model gives satisfactory results

1 M N

MSE ( R, S )

MN m1

|| R(m, n) S (m, n) ||

n1

2

for natural images having well defined boundaries and less

noise. But it is sensitive to initial location. CV model is

(11)

suitable for real images having homogenous intensity profiles.

where MN is the size of the image. RSF model is suited for real world images only when the size

of kernel function is increased because for real world images,

in homogeneity is not so severe. Otherwise it tends to over

PSNR: segment the image and is highly sensitive to initial contour

location and parameters. As it uses whole domain

d

PSNR 10 log10 ( ) implementation, evolution will spread to bright locations far

MSE ( R, S ) (12) from the initial contour. UM Model gives satisfactory results

where d is the maximum possible value of the image. for natural images having heterogeneous objects. But it is

TABLE II highly sensitive to initial contour location as and it requires

VALUES OF THE SIMILARITY CRITERIA FOR THREE higher computation time.

SITUATIONS Fig.1 shows an in-homogeneous real image of a T shaped

Criterion Min value Max value Required object, its reference region and the results obtained using

value different models. The reference region can be created in the

Dice 0 1 >=0.9 same way as the initial contour. The values of the three

similarity criteria and CPU time for this image are listed in

PSNR 1 Infinity >=20dB

table 3. The following inferences are made from the table.

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 6 Issue 4, Jul - Aug 2018

The values of the similarity criteria obtained for RSF and UM TABLE IV

Model is in the acceptable range. This shows that these SIMILARITY CRITERIA AND CPU TIME FOR FIG. 2

models are well suited for images having intensity in Criterion Dice PSNR MSE Computation

homogeneity. But the CPU time is higher compared to CV time

and DRLSE Model. DRLSE 0.60 6.38 0.04 8.114

CV 0.862 16.324 0.002 2.778s

RSF 0.517 6.33 0.043 28.504s

UM 0.98 23.006 0.0002 35.4 s

(a) (b) (c) in performing neuro surgery and cardiovascular surgery. But

these images are inhomogeneous and the complex structures

of the vessels makes the segmentation task challenging. The

RSF Model gives proper segmentation of vessels in

angiogram images.

(d) (e) (f) For XRay, CT and Ultrasound images the choice of the

algorithm depends on the segmentation results needed for the

Fig. 1 An inhomogeneous real image of a T shaped object. (a) application. If the whole image need to be segmented, then

Shows the initial contour; (b) Reference contour; (c), (d), (e) RSF Model is chosen else LUM Model is appropriate. For

and (f) shows the segmentation results of DRLSE Model, CV microscopic images RSF and DRLSE model give proper

Model, RSF Model and LUM Model respectively. RSF and segmentation of cells. MRI images of brain suffer from severe

LUM Model give satisfactory results. in-homogeneity. So RSF and LUM Model are appropriate for

TABLE III segmenting the different parts like white matter, grey matter,

SIMILARITY CRITERIA AND CPU TIME FOR FIG.1 corpus callosum etc.

Fig.3 shows medical images of different modalities, their

initial contour and final segmentation results. Table. V shows

Criterion Dice PSNR MSE Computation

the suitable segmentation algorithms for the images in Fig.3

time

DRLSE 0.9 16.79 0.0004 3.174s

CV 0.6 12.56 0.018 3.341s

RSF 0.97 Inf 3.1E- 10.327s

004

UM 0.918 Inf 2.3E- 7.488s

004

(a) (b) (c)

Fig.2 shows the results for a mushroom image. From the

values in Table IV it can be inferred that LUM Model is

appropriate for this image.

The level set methods in section II give proper results for

medical images having severe intensity in homogeneity, poor (d) (e) (f)

contrast and noise. For some images pre-processing

techniques like anisotropic diffusion, morphological

operations, histogram equalization etc. are required to enhance

the images.

(g) (h) (i)

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Fig. 2 Real image of a Mushroom. (a) Shows the initial

contour; (b) Reference contour; (c), (d), (e) and (f) shows the

segmentation results of DRLSE Model, CV Model, RSF

(m) (n) (o)

Model and LUM Model respectively. LUM Model gives

satisfactory results.

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 6 Issue 4, Jul - Aug 2018

Fig. 3 Medical images. (a) Blood vessel (d) Arms XRay (g) Hamilton-Jacobi Formulations.” Journal of Computational

Tumour (j) Confocal Microscopic cells (m) Brain-Axial View. Physics, 79:12-49, 1988.

(b), (e), (h), (k) and (n) show the initial contours and (c), (f), [3]. M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D.Terzopoulos, “Snakes: active

(i), (l) and (o) shows the of final segmented results of (a), (d), contour models,” Int. J. Comput. Vis, vol. 1, pp. 321–331,

(g), (j) and (m) respectively. 1987.

[4]. C. Li, C. Xu, C. Gui, and M. D. Fox, “Level set evolution

TABLE V without re-initialization: A new variational formulation,”

SUITABLE MODELS FOR MEDICAL IMAGES in Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern

Best Recognition, 2005, vol. 1, pp. 430–436.

Image name Modality

algorithm [5]. C. Li, C. Xu, C. Gui, and M. D.Fox, “Distance

Blood vessel Angiogram RSF regularized Level Set Evolution and its application to

Arms XRay XRay LUM image segmentation”, IEEE Trans. On Image Processing,

Tumour Ultrasound LUM vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3243–3254, Dec. 2010.

Confocal [6]. Shawn Lankton and Allen Tannenbaum, “Localizing

Microscopic Microscopic RSF Region Based Active Contours”, IEEE Transactions on

cells Image processing, vol. 17, no. 11, pp.2029-2039, Nov.

Brain-Axial 2008.

MRI RSF [7].Chunming Li, Chiu-Yen Kao, John C. Gore, and Zhaohua

View

Ding, “Minimisation of Region Scalable Fitting Energy

VI. CONCLUSION for Image Segmentation”, IEEE Transactions on Image

processing, vol. 17, no. 10, pp.1940-1949, Oct. 2008.

This paper presents a comparative analysis of the popular

[8].O. Bernard, D. Friboulet, P. Thevenaz and M. Unser,

level set methods for segmentation. The performance of the

“Variational B-Spline Level-Set: A Linear Filtering

algorithms is evaluated from similarity measurements between

Approach for Fast Deformable Model Evolution”, IEEE

the segmented region and a reference region. The results

Transactions on Image Processing. volume 18, no. 06,

obtained for natural images and medical images of different

pp. 1179-1191, Oct 2009.“

modalities are discussed.

[9]. V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic

active contours," Int. J. of Computer Vision, vol. 22, pp.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 61-79, 1997.

The author would like to thank the anonymous reviewers [10]. Y. Shi and W. C. Karl, “A real-time algorithm for the

for their valuable reviews. approximation of level-set based curve evolution," IEEE

Trans. Image Process., vol 17, pp. 645-656, May 2008.

REFERENCES [11]. Mumford D,Shah J, ”Optimal approximations by piece-

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