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# CHAPTER 5: VARIATIONS

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

Direct Variations
Statement Using symbol `  ’, Equation with k as constant of
variation
y varies directly as x y  x y = kx

## P varies directly as Q2 P  Q2 P = kQ2

M is directly proportional to M N M=k N
N

Inverse Variations
Statement Using symbol `  ’, Equation with k as constant of
variation
y varies inversely as x 1 k
y  x
y=
x
P varies inversely as Q2 1 k
P  Q2
P= 2
Q
M is inversely proportional to 1 k
N
M  N
M=
N

Joint Variations
Statement Using symbol `  ’, Equation with k as constant of
variation
w varies directly as x and y w  xy w = kxy

## P varies directly as q and r2 P q r2 P = kq r2

s varies directly t and t kt
inversely as u s s=
u u
d varies directly as e2 and e2 ke 2
inversely as f d  f
d=
f
R varies inversely as M and 1 k
N
R  M N
R=
M N
4 steps to solve problems involving variations:
 STEP 1 : Change the statement using the symbol  .
 STEP 2 : Write down the equation connecting the variables using k as the constant of
variation.
 STEP 3 : Find the value of k.
 STEP 4 : Find the value of variable required.

A) DIRECT VARIATION

EXAMPLE 1:

Variations 57
1
Given that P varies directly as Q and P = when Q = 2.
3
Express P in terms of Q and find the value of P when Q = 18.

 STEP 1 : Symbol - P Q
 STEP 2 : Equation - P = kQ , k = constant
1
 STEP 3 : Find the value of k, = k(2)
3
1
= 2k
3
1
k =
6
1
THEN, substitute k = in the equation P = kQ.
6
1
HENCE, P= Q
6

1
 STEP 4:Find the value of P when Q = 18, P=
6
 18
P=3

Exercises:

## 1. Given that y varies directly as x and y = 15 when x = 5.

a) Express y in terms of x.
b) Find the value of y when x = 4.

## 2. Given that P  Q 2 and P = 10 when Q = 2.

a) Express P in terms of Q.
b) Find the value of P when Q = 4.

## 3. Given that y varies directly as x and y = 6 when x = 9.

c) Express y in terms of x.
d) Find the value of y when x = 25.

Variations 58
4. It is given that m varies directly as n 3 and m = 32 when n = 2. Express m in terms of
1
n and find the value of m when n = .
2

EXAMPLE 2 :
P varies directly as x 2 where x = 5 + y. Given that P = 72 when y = 1.
a) Express P in terms of x.
b) Find the values of y when P = 200.
 STEP 1 : Symbol - P  x2
 STEP 2 : Equation - P=kx2 , k = constant
 STEP 3 : Find the value of k, substitute and x = 5 + y in the above equation:
P = k(5 + y) 2
Then substitute P=72 and y = 1, 72 = k(5 + 1) 2
72 = 36k
72
k=
6
k=2
THEN, substitute k = 2 in the equation P = k x 2
HENCE, P=2x2

##  STEP 4:Find the value of y when P = 200 by substitute x = 5 + y

200 = 2(5 + y) 2
100 = (5 + y) 2
 100 = 5 + y
 10 = 5 + y
y = 10 – 5 and y = -10 – 5
y=5 and y = -15
Exercises:

## 1. M varies directly as x 2 where x = 3 + y. Given that M = 64 when y = 1.

a) Express M in terms of x.
b) Find the values of y when M = 400.

Variations 59
2. Given that T  S 2 and S = 2w – 3, and T = 12 when W = 1.
a)Express T in terms of S
b)Find the value of T when W = 5

B) INVERSE VARIATION

EXAMPLE 1:
Given that y varies inversely as x and y = 6 when x = 4.
Express y in terms of x and find the value of y when x = 3.

1
 STEP 1 : Symbol - y  x
k
 STEP 2 : Equation - y= , k = constant
x
k
 STEP 3 : Find the value of k, 6=
4
k = 24

k
THEN, substitute k = 24 in the equation y = .
x
24
HENCE, y=
x

24
 STEP 4:Find the value of y when x = 3, y=
3
y=8

Exercises:

## 1. Given that y varies inversely as x and x = 4 when y = 3.

a. Express y in terms of x.
b. Find the value of y when x = 6.

Variations 60
1
2. Given that P varies inversely as x and P = 6 when x = . Express P in terms of x and
3
1
find the value of P when x = 3 .
3

## 3. Given that y varies inversely as x 2 and y = 2 when x = 4.

a) Express y in terms of x
b) Find the value of y when x = 2.

## 4. Given that S varies inversely as square root of r and S = 5 when r = 16.

a) Express S in terms of r.
b) Find the value of S when r = 25.

## 5. Given that P varies inversely as Q . Complete the following table.

P 6 2
Q 9 4

Variations 61
6. The table below shows some values of the variables M and N such that N varies inversely
as the square root of M.
M 4 36
N 6 2
Find the relation between M and N.

C) JOINT VARIATION

## EXAMPLE 1: (DIRECT VARIATION & DIRECT VARIATION)

y varies directly as x and z. Given that y = 12 when x = 2 and z = 3.
a) Express y in terms of x and y,
b) Find the value of y when x = 5 and z = 2.

 STEP 1 : Symbol - y  xz
 STEP 2 : Equation - y = kxz , k = constant
 STEP 3 : Find the value of k, 12 = k (2)(3)
12 = 6k
k=2

HENCE, y = 2xz

y = 20

Exercises:

## 1. p varies directly as q and r. Given that p = 36 when q = 4 and r = 3.

a) Express p in terms of q and r,
b) Find the value of p when q = 3 and r = 3.

Variations 62
2. Given that y  mn and y = 20 when m = 2 and n = 5.
a) Express y in terms of m and n
b) Find the value of y when m = 3 and n = 4.

## EXAMPLE 2: ( INVERSE VARIATION & INVERSE VARIATION)

Given that y varies inversely as x and z. y = 10 when x = 2 and z = 4.
Express y in terms of x and z, then find the value of y when x = 4 and z = 5.
1
 STEP 1 : Symbol - y
xz
k
 STEP 2 : Equation - y= , k = constant
xz
k
 STEP 3 : Find the value of k, 10 =
2( 4)
k = 80

k
THEN, substitute k = 80 in the equation y = .
xz
80
HENCE, y=
xz

80
 STEP 4:Find the value of y when x = 4 and z = 5, y=
4(5)
80
y= , y = 4.
20
Exercises:
1
1. Given that m  x y
and m = 3 when x = 3 and y = 16. Express m in terms of x and y. Find
the value of y when m = 9 and x = 12.

Variations 63
1
2. Given that y  and y = 2 when d = 3 and e = 4, calculate the value of e when y = 3 and
d 2e
d = 4.

## EXAMPLE 3 (DIRECT VARIATION + INVERSE VARIATION)

1. Given that y varies directly as x and varies inversely as v and y = 10 when x = 4 and v=5.
a) Express y in terms of x and v
b) Find the value of y when x = 2 and v = 15.
x
 STEP 1 : Symbol - y
v
kx
 STEP 2 : Equation - y= , k = constant
v
k4
 STEP 3 : Find the value of k, 10 =
5
50 = 4k
25
k=
2
25 kx
THEN, substitute k = in the equation y =.
2 v
25 x
HENCE, y=
2v
25(2)
 STEP 4:Find the value of y when x = 2 and v = 15, y =
2(15)
50 5
y= , y= .
30 3
Exercises:
1. M varies directly as N and varies inversely as P and m = 6 when N = 3 and P = 4.
a) Express M in terms of N and P.
b) Calculate the value of M when N = 5 and P = 2.

Variations 64
x
2. Given that w  y
and w = 10 when x = 8 and y = 16. Calculate the value of w when
x= 18 and y = 36.

3. F varies directly as G to the power of two and varies inversely as H. Given that F = 6
when G = 3 and H = 2, express F in terms of G and H. Find the value of G when F = 27
and H = 4.

P
4. Given that S  and S = 6 when P = 3 and M = 2. Calculate the value of P when S =
M3
2 and M = -4.

5. Given that p varies directly as x and inversely as the square root of y. If p = 8 when x = 6
and y = 9.
a. express p in terms of x and y,
b. calculate the value of y when p = 6 and x = 9.

Variations 65
EXAMPLE 4:
The table shows some values of the variables d, e and f.

d 12 10
e 9 25
f 4 m

Given that d  f
e

## a) express d in terms of e and f

b) calculate the value of m.
 STEP 1 : Symbol - d  f
e

k e
 STEP 2 : Equation - d= , k = constant
f
 STEP 3 : Find the value of k, substitute d = 12, e = 9, and f = 4
k 9
12 =
4
48 = 3k
k = 16

k e
THEN, substitute k = 16 in the equation d =.
f
16 e
HENCE, d=
f

16 25
 STEP 4:Find the value of m (f) when d = 10 and e = 25, 10 =
m
10m = 16  5,
10m = 80
m = 10
Exercises:
1. The table shows the relation between three variables D, E and F.

D E F
2 3 4
1 6 m
2

1
Given that D  EF
a) express D in terms of E and F
b) calculate the value of m.

Variations 66
2. The table shows some values of the variables w, x and y, such that w varies directly as the
square root of x and inversely as y.

w x y
18 9 2
3 K 36

## a) find the equation connecting w x and y.

b) calculate the value of K.

Objective Questions

1. The table shows relation between the variables, x and y. If y  x , find the value of m.
X 2 7
Y 5 M

10 14 35
A. B. C. 8 D.
7 5 2

2.
m 2 X
n 9 25

Variations 67
The table shows the relation between the variables, m and n. If m varies inversely as the
square root of n, then x =

18 6 28 50
A. B. C. D.
25 5 3 9

v2
3. It is given that y , and y = 6 when v = 4 and w = 8, calculate the positive value of v
w
when y = 25 and w = 3.

A. 5 B. 6 C. 12.5 D. 25

1
4. Given that y varies inversely as x and y = 5 when x = , express y in terms of x.
3
15 5 3
A. y = B. y = 15x C. y = D. y =
x 3x 5x

## 5. Given that y varies directly as x, and y = 6 when x = 2, express y in terms of x.

1 12
A. y = B. y = 3x C. y = 12x D. y =
3x x

## 6. Given that P varies inversely as Q , and P = 2 when Q = 9, express P in terms of Q.

2 6 18
A. P = Q B. P = 6 Q C. P = D. P =
3 Q Q

## 7. The relation between the variables, P, x and y is represented by P  x m y n . If P varies

directly as the square of x and inversely as the cube of y, then m + n =

A. -1 B. 1 C. 5 D. -6

8. Given that y varies directly as x n . If x is the radius and y is the height of the cyclinder whose
volume is a constant, then the value of n is

A. -2 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3

9. The table shows the corresponding values of d and e. The relation between the variables d and
e is represented by
d 1 4 9 16
e 30 15 10 7.5

Variations 68
1 1 1
A.e  d B. e  C. e  D. e 
d d d2

10. T varies directly as the square root of p and inversely as the square root of g. This joint
variation can be written as

p2 p p
A. T  pg B. T
g
C. T  g
D. T  g2

11. It is given that m varies inversely as s and t. If m = 3 when s = 2 and t = 4, find the value of m
when s = 2 and t = 6.

A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5

1
12. It is given that G  H = 5M -1. If G =3 when M = 2, express G in terms of H.
H2

9 27 243 243
A. G = B. G = C. G = D. G =
H2 H2 H2 H

13.
d 6 8
e 3 X
f 2 5

e
The table shows the relation between the three variables d, e and f. If d  f
, calculate the
value of x

A. 6 B. 10 C. 12 D. 13

14. It is given that y  x n . If y varies inversely as the square root of x, then the value of n is

1 1
A. B. C. -1 D. – 2
2 2

Variations 69
15.
F G H
6 9 2
12 m 3

The table shows the relation between the three variables, F,G and H. If F varies directly as the
square root of G and inversely as H, then the value of m is

A. 3 B. 9 C. 81 D. 144

16.
S 2 3
P 3 1
M 4 X

1
The table shows the relation between the variables, S, P and M. If S  P M
, calculate
the value of x

A. 4 B. 8 C. 16 D. 64

x2
17. Given that p  y
and p = 6 when x = 2 and y = 3, express p in terms of x and y

## 9x2 2x2 x2 9x2

A. p = B. p = C. p = D. p =
2y 9y 9y y

18. Given that y varies directly as x 2 and that y = 80 when x = 4, express y in terms of x

1280
A. y = x 2 B. y = 5x C. y = 5x 2 D. y =
x2

19.
w 2 3
x 12 24
y 9 m

x
The table shows the relation between the three variables, w, x and y. If w  y
, calculate
the value of m

A. 2 B. 4 C. 8 D. 16

20. If M varies directly as the square root of N, the relation between M and N is

Variations 70
1
   
1
A. M N B. M N2 C. M N 2 D. M 1
N 2

## PAST YEAR QUESTIONS

1. SPM 2003(Nov)
Given that p is directly proportional to n 2 and p = 36, express p in terms of n

A. p = n 2 B. p = 4n 2 C. p = 9n 2 D. p = 12n 2

2. SPM 2003(Nov)

w 2 3
x 8 18
y 4 n

The table shows some values of the variables, w, x and y which satisfy the relationship w 
x
, calculate the value of n
y

A. 6 B. 9 C. 12 D. 36

3. SPM 2004(Nov)
P varies directly as the square root of Q. The relation between P and Q is
1 1
A. P  Q 2 B. P  Q 2 C. P  
1
1 D. P
Q2 Q2
4. SPM 2004(Nov)

P M r
3 8 4
6 w 9

The table shows the relation between the three variables p, m and r. Given that p 
m
, calculate the value of w
r

A. 16 B. 24 C. 36 D. 81

5. SPM 2004(Jun)

Variations 71
3
n
The relation between p, n and r is p 
. It is given that p = 4 when n = 8 and r = 6.
r
Calculate the value of p when n = 64 and r = 3

A. 16 B. 24 C. 32 D. 48

6. SPM 2004(Jun)

## It is given that p varies inversely with w and p = 6 when w = 2. Express p in terms of w.

3 12
A. p = B. C. p = 3w D. p = 12w
w w

7. SPM 2005(Nov)
The table shows some values of the variables x and y such that y varies inversely as the
square root of x.

x 4 16
y 6 3

## Find the relation between y and x.

12 3 2 96
A. y = 3 x B. C. x D.
x 8 x2

8. SPM 2005(Nov)
It is given that y varies directly as the square root of x and y = 15 when x = 9. Calculate the
value of x when y = 30.

A. 5 B. 18 C. 25 D. 36
9. SPM 2005(Nov)
The table shows some values of the variables w, x and y such that w varies directly as the
square of x and inversely as y.

W x y
40 4 2
M 6 4

## Calculate the value of m.

A. 90 B. 45 C. 30 D. 15

## 10. SPM 2005(Jun)

Table shows values of the variables x and y.

x 3 m
y 5 15

## It is given x varies directly with y. Calculate the value of m.

Variations 72
A. 6 B. 9 C. 12 D. 15

## 11. SPM 2005(Jun)

P varies directly with the square of R and inversely with Q. It is given that P = 2 when Q = 3
and R = 4. Express P in terms of R and Q.
3R 2 32Q 3 R 4Q
A. P = B. 2
C. D. P =
8Q 3R Q 3 R

## 12. SPM 2006(Jun)

It is given that y varies inversely with x and y = 21 when x = 3. Express y in terms of x.

x 1 63
A. y = 7x B. y = C. y = D. y =
7 63 x x

## 13. SPM 2006(Jun)

Table 2 shows two sets of values of Y, V and W.

Y V W
3 3 12
5
m 5 18

It is given that Y varies directly with the square of V and inversely with W. Find the value of
m.
5 4 10
A. B. C. D.
3 9 9
6
25
14. SPM 2007(Nov)
Table 1 shows some values of the variables x and y.

x 2 n
y 4 32

## It is given that y varies directly as the cube of x. Calculate the value of n.

A. 4 B. 8 C. 16 D. 30

## 15. SPM 2007(Nov)

P varies inversely as the square root of M. Given that the constant is k, find the relation
between P and M.
k k
B. P 
1
A. 1 C. P  kM 2 D. P 
P  kM 2
M2
M 2

## 16. SPM 2007(Nov)

Variations 73
y 5
The relation between the variables x, y and z is x . It is given that x = when y = 2
z 4
5
and z = 8. Calculate the value of z when x = and y = 6.
3
A. 2 B. 18 C. 32 D. 72

## 17. SPM 2007(Jun)

2 1
It is given that P varies inversely with Q and P = when Q = . Find the relation between
5 2
P and Q.
4 1 4 1
A. P  Q B. P  Q C. P  D. P 
5 5 5Q 5Q

## 18. SPM 2007(Jun)

G2
Table shows some values of the variables F, G and H that satisfy F  .
H
F G H
20 2 3
108 6 p

## Calculate the value of p.

A. 5 B. 9 C. 10 D. 18

## 19. SPM 2008(Nov)

Table shows some values of the variables R and T. It is given that R varies directly as T .

R 54 72
T 36 y

## Find the value of y.

A. 24 B. 27 C. 48 D. 64

## 20. SPM 2008(Nov)

Given y varies inversely as x 3 , and that y = 4 when x = ½ . Calculate the value of x when y =
1
.
16
1
A. B. ½ C. 2 D. 8
8

Variations 74
21. SPM 2008(Nov)

It is given that P varies directly as the square root of Q and inversely as the square of R. Find the
relation between P, Q and R.

Q2 Q R2 R
A. P B. P C. P D. P
R R 2 Q Q2
22. SPM 2008 (Jun)

It is given that p varies directly as the square root of w and that p = 5 when w = 4 . Express p in
terms of w.

5 2 80 5 10
A. p  w B. p  C. p  w D. p 
16 w2 2 w

## 23. SPM 2008(Jun)

Table shows some values of the variables m and n, such that m varies inversely as the cube of n

m 1 x
2
n 2 3

## Calculate the value of x.

4 4 9 27
A. B. C. D.
27 9 16 16

Chapter 21 Variations

A) DIRECT VARIATION

## Example 1: No. 1. a) y = 3x No. 3. a) y = 2x

b) y = 12 b) y = 50

5 2 1 3 1
No. 2. a) P = Q No. 4. m = n ,m=
2 2 16
b) P = 40

Example 2: No. 1. a) M = 4x 2
b) y = 7 and y = -13

B) INVERSE VARIATION
12 20
Example 1: No. 1. a) y = No. 4. a) S =
x r
b) y = 2 b) S = 4

Variations 75
2
No. 2. a) P = No. 5. P = 9 , Q = 81
x
3 12
b) P = N0. 6. k = 12, N =
5 M
16
No. 3. a) y =
x2
b) y = 4

C) JOINT VARIATION

## Example 1: No. 1. a) k = 3, p = 3qr

No. 2. a) k = 2, y = mn
b) y = 24

36
Example 2: No. 1. k = 36, m= x , y=9
y
72 3
No. 2. k = 72, y= , e=
de 2 2

8N
Example 3: No. 1. a) k = 8, M=
P
b) M = 20
20 x
No. 2. k = 20, w= , w=2
y
4 4G 2
No. 3. k = , F= , G= 9
3 3H

16 P
No. 4. k = 16, S= , P = -8
M3

4x
No. 5. a) k = 4, p= y
b) y = 36

24
Example 4: No. 1. a) k = 24, D=
EF
b) m = 16

12 x
No. 2. a) k = 12, w=
y
b) K = 81

Objective Questions.

## 1.D 6. C 11.A 16. C

2.B 7. A 12.C 17. A
3.A 8. A 13.B 18. C

Variations 76
4.C 9. C 14.B 19. D
5.B 10. C 15.C 20. C

## 1.B 8.D 15.B 22.C

2.B 9.B 16.B 23. A
3.A 10.B 17.D
4.B 11.A 18. A
5.A 12.A 19. C
6.B 13.C 20. C
7.B 14. A21.B

Variations 77