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Reactive Components

Subramanian.T.R (DESE)

Abstract—This paper presents an unequal Wilkinson power avoided at high frequency and 2) two structures, i.e., an open

divider operating at arbitrary dual band without reactive stub and a short stub, can be chosen to satisfy the application

components(such as inductors and capacitors). To satisfy the flexibility. Since power dividing ratio is unequal in this

unequal characteristic, a novel structure is proposed with two structure, the traditional even-mode and odd-mode analysis is

groups of transmission lines and two parallel stubs. Closed-form not available in this case. Analytical solutions are therefore

equations containing all parameters of this structure are derived inferred from circuit theory and conventional transmission

based on circuit theory and transmission line theory. For

line theory.

verification, two groups of simulation results of different stub

shapes for the same schematic design has been done. It can be

found that all the analytical features of this unequal power II. THEORY AND DESIGN EQUATIONS

divider can be fulfilled at arbitrary dual band simultaneously. The proposed structure for the power divider is shown in the

Fig.1. The isolation resistor R is provided.

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Characteristic Impedance Design

The Design is divided into two parts:

First part is to calculate all the circuit parameters in block T,

and the other is to design the rest of the components. If the

microwave and millimeter-wave systems. With the

proliferation of dual band requirement in wireless power division ratio is k2(P3/P2 = k2)

communication systems, Although many advances have been

made on the design of dual band power dividers, they do not

involve the issue of unequal power dividing ratio, which has

been proposed in [1] – [5] for single-band operations

power divider is proposed. Its isolation structure only contains

a resistor and the impedance characteristics are asymmetric.

general, this structure has two main features, which are: 1) a

distributed structure is adopted without reactive components,

which means that the power divider can be fabricated easily

and

h

Circuit of power divider with voltage source at port 2

of Zin2 and Zin3.

From the above equations we can get Zin2 and Zin3 in terms of

Z0.

Based on Monzon’s theory to match all the output ports at

both frequencies f1 and f2 = mf1, where is the frequency ratio,

the corresponding characteristic impedances of port2 and

2

where

We know that if the characteristic impedances of the two arms

are R2 and R3, then, we can express the input impedances of

the ports in terms of the T matrix parameters and the

And characteristic impedance as follows

ascertain parameters in T, i.e. R,Z1,Z2 and two stubs for which

we make use of combinational circuit theory and transmission

line theory. All ports are matched exactly. Ports 1 and 3 are

grounded, while a voltage source is connected to port 2. From the first relation between Z0 and Zin2,Zin3 and the T

Applying kirchoff’s law: matrix equivalent and the above relation, we can get :

and the stub admittances in terms of theta and Z0.

be written as a transmission line followed by a stub and

then a transmission line who’s equation will reduce to

the following form :

The open circuit stub specification for equivalent admittance

generation is implemented as follows :

3

Here , the relationships between the available impedance

values and the corresponding scope of the frequency ration m IMPEDANCES WIDTH LENGTH

are presented . the power dividing ratio is set to k= sqrt(2) as Z0 =50 2.983450

the analysis on the qeual power dividing case where k = 1 Z1 = 51.282108 2.859500 24.132200

shows that impedances of lines and stubs vary with the Z2 = 25.641054 7.898380 23.004900

frequency ratio m. Assuming that the available impedance Z3 = 63.457439 1.951180 24.517100

values are in the range (7,150) the maximum frequency ratio Z4 = 55.715043 2.478300 24.281000

range is (1.79,2.51) for the short stubs case and (1.59,2.12) for Z5 = 39.396485 4.342940 23.675700

the open stubs case. Like the unequal single band power Z6 = 44.871185 3.555790 23.897400

divider, the difference between impedance values at the two Zos1 = 44.962684 3.544350 47.801800

branches will become greater as the power dividing ratio k Zos2 = 22.481342 9.356260 45.641400

increasees. Therefore, the maximum frequency ratio range Riso =106.066017

decreases as k increases. For the proposed dual band unequal

power divider, it is necessary to employ special techniqeues to

implement high impedance transmission lines when k is large.

In this section, two dual band unequal power dividers have

been fabricated on an F04 substrate with 0.8-mm thickness

and 4.4 relative permittivity to verify the proposed design

method. The simulation is based on ideal lossless transmission

line model (in closed-form equations) and circuit model. The

simulation is done for two different stub shapes and their

effects on the s-parameters is studied.

A. Schematic simulation

specifications

f1 =1.2 GHz

f2 =2.2 GHz

k =sqrt(2)

m= 1.833333

theta = 63.529412

p = 2.008271

The above shown s-parameter graphs are schematic simulated

graphs. The first graph shows the reflection coefficients of

each port without the isolation resistor(R =106.066017). The

second graph is the same s-parameters, but with isolation

4

each port. The power ratio at the specified f1 and f2 are almost

the same. |S21| and |S31| are around -2dB and -5dB

respectively which satisfies the condition.

B. Momentum simulation

performed with respect to additional layout constraints. Two

layouts having a stub structure difference have been simulated

and the results are as below. The first layout has a bend in the

stub and the second layout has a straight stub.

due to the length and bend constraints. The related plots of the

s-parameters of each port is given below

Layout1

small shift in frequency from the schematic as the present

results depend upon the geometry of the transmission line

structures. The results of the S11 show that the f1 = 1.26 and f2

= 2.29 GHz respectively. The power division has also become

asymmetric in both bands. The first band power ratios of port

2 and 3 are around 2dB is to 5dB, while in the f2 band, it is

2dB is to around 6dB.

isolation resistor result where the |S22| is not high enough.

This matches with the fact that no isolation resistor has been

included in the layout simulation.

Layout2

5

C. Experimental Results

The layout of the power divider is shown below. We can see

that the S11 is having high attenuation very near to 1.2GHz

and 2.2GHz of around -35dB.

S11

S21

performance has increased. The rejection |S11| has increased

significantly by around 5dB. In addition the frequencies f1 and

f2 are very close to the actual frequency for which the power

divider was designed for. Adding an isolation resistor after

fabrication is supposed to enhance rejection of reflections in

the port two and three.

6

S31

simulation results. The values ranging close to 5dB and 4dB

respectively. The soldering points and finite length of isolation

resistor and resistance due to the solder etc cause the values to

deviate from the ideal values which was obtained from

simulation results.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, Dual Band Wilkinson Power divider without Reactive

Components was designed, simulated and implemented. The

two stubs in each arm are designed in two different ways in

layout and simulated out of which the better one is

implemented in hardware. In the frequency bands selected, we

see high reflection coefficients in each port. The power is

divided in the ratio 2:1. The measured and simulated results

show good similarity in characteristics, which shows that the

power divider can be of application in microwave circuits

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The author would like to thank Associate Professor K.J.Vinoy,

Indian Institute of Science for his guidance, suggestions and

support and express gratitude to the anonymous reviewers for

their insightful comments. The author would like to thank all

the RF lab and DESE packaging lab staff for the support

during fabrication and characterization of the power divider.

REFERENCES

[1] D.M. Pozar Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed., New York: J. Wiley &

Sons,2005

[2] L. Wu, Z. Sun, H. Yilmaz, and M. Berroth, “A dual-frequency

Wilkinson power divider,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54,

no. 1, pp. 278–284, Jan. 2006.

[3] K.-K. M. Cheng and F.-L.Wong, “A newWilkinson power divider design

for dual band application,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon Lett.,

[4] C. Monzon, “A small dual-frequency transformer in two sections,”

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1157–1161,

Apr. 2003.

[5] E. Wilkinson, “An -way hybrid power divider,” IRE Trans. Microw.

Theory Tech., vol. MTT-8, no. 1, pp. 116–118, Jan. 1960.

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