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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Electricity consumption rises as the technology grows fast. Almost everything

people use in everyday living around the world consumes electricity. So a need for a source

of electricity will be helpful for all the people worldwide or at least, the need to reduce the

consumption of electricity, even saving little of it, to save money will do.

In fact, in 2008, Friedman stated (as cited in Designs Science Lab) that:

“The green revolution is about how we produce

abundant, cheap, clean, reliable electrons, which are the

answer to the big problems we face in the world today. I

would point to five problems, and they’re all related:

Energy and resource supply and demand, petro

dictatorship, climate change, biodiversity loss, and energy

poverty. They all have one solution: abundant, cheap,

clean, reliable electrons. The search for and the discovery

of a source of those electrons is going to be the next great

global industry. And I think the country that mounts a

revolution to be the leader of that industry is going to be a

country whose standard of living is going to improve,

whose respect in the world is going to improve, whose air


is going to improve, whose innovation is going to improve,

and whose national security is going to improve.” (p.12)

There are many things that can be a source of energy such as mechanical devices

and the natural resources. Some of it just needs to be improved or developed in order to

produce energy; one of which is the charcoal stove.

Background of the Study

The Philippines is among the most vulnerable nations to climatic instability;

as a result it experiences some of the largest crop losses due to violent climatic events. Due

to these natural climatic changes, the country has strong self-interest in the advancement

of GHG-friendly technologies such as biofuels. The Philippines could become a model for

other developing nations to follow, with a broad portfolio of renewable energy sources (R.

Samson et al, 2013, p2). A great number of people in the rural parts of the Philippines cook

over open fires. For many, it is the only method available to them. Often, even people who

have gas stoves will opt to cook using charcoal, a usual material used to produce fire. The

charcoal used here is not the powdered and shaped briquettes, but the natural style,

sometimes called “lump charcoal”. McKee (2013) said that the production of charcoal from

combustion of wood or coconut shells is one of the livelihoods of many people in the

Philippines (Making Charcoal, para.2). Charcoal burns cleanly and produces higher

temperature than wood, making it a good source for producing heat. In 2013, MIT

described biomass fuels, such as wood, charcoal or dung, are used by more than 2 billion
people around the world for cooking and heating purposes due to their cost and availability

(as cited in Chen et al, 2015, p.1). In the Philippines, nearly 30 percent of the energy used

is from biomass fuels and most of this energy is consumed by people in rural areas for

household cooking (Samson et al, 2013, p.2).

The consumers of such charcoal stove often do not have access to

electricity. With the development of different designs of charcoal cook stove, its efficiency

and features has also improved. There are those charcoal stove that uses pelletized charcoal

for fuel, a stove that can be lit with anything that burns, there is also that charcoal stove

that has a blower which in this case used extra electricity and there are charcoal stove that

produces electricity. With the presence of this improvement, the researchers come up with

the idea to create a charcoal stove with its own blower which can produce its own

electricity. To help the people in electricity consumption and utilization, the researchers

proposed a design of a charcoal stove in utilizing heat loss from the walls of charcoal stove

through the process of steam-power generation. The energy that the charcoal stove will

produce, will be used to charge a battery or to power its own fan.

In the rural communities in the Philippines, people still use charcoal as their

cooking fuel. However, in using a charcoal-fueled stove, not all of the heat it produces goes

through cooking process, some of it is dissipated through the walls of the stove as an excess

heat; therefore, the researcher believe that the typical designs of charcoal-fuelled stoves are

inefficient. Furthermore, there is limited number of studies in the Philippines on how to

improve and to utilize charcoal stoves as another source for electricity. It is therefore both

urgent and important for studies to be conducted in relation to charcoal stoves, efficient

use of fuel for cooking, and electrical energy generation.


Objective of the Study

General Objectives:

 To design and construct a “PUGON” that will maximize the use of heat produced

by it and to utilize the heat loss for generating electricity for later use.

Specific Objectives:

 To use the heat loss from “PUGON” for electric generation through steam-power

generation.

 To create a circuit design that will store the energy produced and store it in the

battery for later use, for its fan or to charge other devices such as cell phone.

 To find out the average voltage produced by the generator for the span of 10 minutes

in terms of volume of water fed in the G.I. pipe:

a. 250 ml

b. 500 ml

c. 750 ml

 To know the average voltage output of the generator for a span of 10 minutes in

terms of pressure output in the B.I. pipe using turbine:

a. Impulse turbine

b. Impulse reaction turbine

 To calculate the kinetic energy of the steam.


Significance of the Study

The researchers designed a device which can generate and store electric energy,

and is aided by renewable resources. The researchers believe that this study is beneficial to

the following:

DOE. The study helps the department of energy in seek of alternative sources of

energy.

Consumers. The study will directly benefit the consumers because the design will

stores energy in a battery or can be used to power its own fan instead of consuming

electricity.

Future Researchers. This study will serve as a reference for future researchers

who will conduct study related to this topic.

Finally, this study will have a good impact to the society when further test and

improvement is conducted to prove its effectiveness. It can be an addition to the devices

or designs that are best in harnessing the renewable sources.

Assumptions

This study is based on the following assumptions:

1. The charcoal stove can generate electricity and can store to a battery for later use.

2. The electricity produced by this charcoal stove depends on the type of the DC

generator used.
3. If the pipe inside the wall of the charcoal stove increases its diameter, the pressure

output also increases significantly; hence, the rotational speed of the turbine will

also increase.

4. The water of G.I. pipe inside the wall of the charcoal stove will boil and produce

steam in the midway of basic cooking routine.

Scope and Delimitation

The study is being conducted in Daet, Camarines Norte according to the scheduled

plan because many households uses charcoal stove and that many innovations of it where

being made. The researchers come up with the study that will focus on utilizing the heat

loss from the walls of charcoal stove through steam power generation. This study is for

many persons who use charcoal stove often as their cooking medium.

In using the device, the input which is the charcoal and water should be put first

before lighting the charcoal. The suggested volume of water is 250 mL up to 750 mL only.

But the ideal to use is 500 mL of water based on the volume capacity of the cylindrical

pipe inside the charcoal stove, the required area for steam to expand and the use impulse

reaction turbine. After the initial input of water turns into steam, pouring an additional

volume of water is not advisable due to the high heat temperature.

The energy that will be produced in utilizing the heat loss from the walls of charcoal

stove through steam power generation will be used to charge a battery or to power the built-

in fan. The energy that will be stored in the battery will only be at around 5 Volts because

of the type of generator used.


Definition of terms

For further understanding in this study, some of the words that have been used were

explain below.

GHG- Greenhouse gases.

Biofuels. A fuel (as wood or ethanol) composed of or produced from biological raw

materials.

Biomass. Plant materials and animal waste used especially as a source of fuel.

Renewable energy. Energy obtained from natural and persistent flows of energy

occurring in the immediate environment.

Briquettes. A compacted often brick-shaped mass of usually fine material.

DOE. Department of Energy. It is the executive department of the Philippine

Government responsible for preparing, integrating, coordinating, supervising and

controlling all plans, programs, projects and activities of the Government relative to energy

exploration, development, utilization, distribution and conservation.

G.I. pipe. Galvanized Iron pipe. It is actually a form of steel pipe, but it’s made

with a slightly different composition of materials to make it a little more malleable. Water

does corrode this type of pipe fairly easily in comparison to steel.

Steam power generation. Or thermal power generation is the process in which

heat energy is converted into electrical energy.

Generator. A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the related literature and studies related to the study. It also

presents the state of the art, theoretical and conceptual framework.

Review of Related Literature

Cookstoves are commonly used for cooking and heating food in developing

countries. Cookstoves are heated by burning wood, charcoal, animal dung, or other

biomass. Nearly three billion people in developing countries cook food and heat their

homes with traditional cookstoves or open fires. Four million premature deaths result

from the abovementioned methods every year due to smoke exposure (Global Alliance

for Clean Cookstoves, 2013).

According to Molland (2011) and his book “The Maritime Engineering

Reference Book” The steam turbine is a device for obtaining mechanical work from the

energy stored in steam. Steam enters the turbine with a high energy content and leaves

after giving up most of it. The very high pressure steam from the boiler is expanded in

nozzles to create a high velocity jet of steam. This is the operating principle of all steam

turbines, although the arrangement may vary considerably.

According to Shukla (2013), high pressure steam is fed to the turbine and passes

along the machine axis through multiple rows of alternately fixed and moving blades. From

the steam inlet port of the turbine towards the exhaust point, the blades and the turbine
cavity are progressively larger to allow for the expansion of the

steam.The stationary blades act as nozzles in which the steam expands and emerges at an

increased speed but lower pressure. (Bernoulli's conservation of energy principle - Kinetic

energy increases as pressure energy falls). As the steam impacts on the moving blades it

imparts some of its kinetic energy to the moving blades.There are two basic steam

turbine types, impulse turbines and reaction turbines, whose blades are designed control

the speed, direction and pressure of the steam as is passes through the turbine. The steam

jets are directed at the turbine's bucket shaped rotor blades where the pressure exerted by

the jets causes the rotor to rotate and the velocity of the steam to reduce as it imparts

its kinetic energy to the blades. The blades in turn change change the direction of flow of

the steam however its pressure remains constant as it passes through the rotor blades since

the cross section of the chamber between the blades is constant. Impulse turbines are

therefore also known as constant pressure turbines. While in the reaction turbines,

the rotor blades of the reaction turbine are shaped more like aerofoils, arranged such that

the cross section of the chambers formed between the fixed blades diminishes from

the inlet side towards the exhaust side of the blades. The chambers between

the rotor blades essentially form nozzles so that as the steam progresses through the

chambers, its velocity increases while at the same time its pressure decreases, just as in

the nozzles formed by the fixed blades. Thus the pressure decreases in both the fixed and

moving blades. As the steam emerges in a jet from between the rotor blades, it creates a

reactive force on the blades which in turn creates the turning moment on the turbine rotor,

just as in steam engine. (Newton's Third Law - For every action there is an equal and

opposite reaction)
According to the author Jaya (2011) of Boiler (Engineering Design Guideline), a

boiler is any closed vessel in which for any purpose, steam is generated under pressure that

is greater than atmospheric pressure. It includes any economizer used to heat the water fed

to the boiler, any super heater used for heating steam, and any pipes and fitting connected

to the equipment. The choice of boiler and distributor design is crucial to give the best

performance of boiler. Good performance of boiler is influenced by the maximum heat

absorbed and minimum heat loss. The design of boiler may be influenced by factors,

including process requirements, economics and safety. And that there are three basic

designs: A, D and O type. The names are derived from the general shapes of the tube and

drum arrangements. All have steam drums for the separation of the steam from the water,

and one or more mud drums for the removal of sludge. Type D is the most flexible design.

They have a single steam drum and a single mud drum, vertically aligned. The boiler tubes

extend to one side of each drum. Generally have more tube surface exposed to the radiant

heat than other designs.

According to Electropedia (2005) the first practical electricity generating system

using a steam turbine was designed and made by Charles Parsons in 1885 which was used

for lighting an exhibition in Newcastle. Since then, apart from getting bigger, turbine

design has hardly changed and Parson's original design would not look out of place today.

Despite the introduction of many alternative technologies in the intervening 120 years, over

80 percent of the world's electricity is still generated by steam turbines driving rotary

generators. The Electrical energy generation using steam turbines involves three energy

conversions, extracting thermal energy from the fuel and using it to raise steam, converting
the thermal energy of the steam into kinetic energy in the turbine and using a rotary

generator to convert the turbine's mechanical energy into electrical energy.

According to the works of Samson, et al.(2013) biomass largely provided energy

requirements for the Philippines when tropical forests covered the islands and the

population was modest. At the beginning of the 21st century, biomass energy still plays a

vital role in the nation’s energy supply. Nearly 30 percent of the energy for the 80 million

people living in the Philippines comes from biomass. Most is used for household cooking

by the rural poor. More than half of Philippine households have an income level under

5000 pesos per month (Department of Energy 1995) and will probably have little choice

but to continue using biomass fuels in the future. There is an urgent need to assess and

develop new options for modernizing the role of biomass in the Philippine energy

economy. With rising fossil fuel prices, demand for both forest and agricultural biomass

resources will increase. To lessen the environmental impact from overexploitation of these

resources sustainable utilization strategies need to be explored. The Philippines is among

the most vulnerable nations to climatic instability and experiences some of the largest crop

losses due to violent climatic events. As a result the country has strong self-interest in the

advancement of GHG-friendly technologies such as biofuels. The Philippines could

become a model for other developing nations to follow, with a broad portfolio of renewable

energy sources.

An eco-KALAN is a portable stove made of clay consisting of three components:

the outer shell (kalan) on which the cooking pot sits, the inner chamber (rocket elbow)

where the combustion takes place, and a shelf with air holes to hold the fuel. The space
between the kalan and the combustion chamber is filled with wood ash for insulation.

(Vermeer, 2011). The eco-KALAN was developed to address certain environmental, health

and economic issues raised by open-fire cooking as practiced in the Philippines and other

developing countries.The eco-KALAN Project, in cooperation with the Department of

Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Negros Oriental Division of the Department

of Education, and 302nd Infantry (Achiever) Brigade of the Philippine Army, has

established the Sustainable Tree Farming for Firewood (STFF) Program in northern Sta.

Catalina, Negros Oriental “to ensure environmental sustainability” (Goal 7, United Nations

(UN) Millennium Development).

The eco-KALAN Project, when applied on a national and international scale, has

the potential to mitigate the harmful effects of climate change.

The Peace and Equity Foundation (PEF), in partnership with the

Development Studies Program of the School of Social Sciences, Ateneo de Manila

University, held its learning event on clean cook stove entitled “Kalan para sa Kalikasan:

Clean Cook Stove for Sustainable Use” last April 22, 2014 at Faber Hall, Ateneo de Manila

University. Inventors of clean cook stove, distributors/ manufacturers, development

workers, government agencies and members of the academe participated in the whole-day

event to share practices and initiatives for the promotion of Filipino social enterprises on

clean cook stove technology. Clean cookstoves make use of sustainable fuels that are

readily available to communities; these include briquettes from agricultural wastes, rice

hulls, pili shells, sawdust, and wood chips. This ready availability results in less drudgery

for women who spend at most 20 hours per week gathering wood. Compared to traditional
cookstoves, clean technologies are more affordable in the long run as these are low-

maintenance and durable.

Review of Related Studies

According to Mal, et al. (2014) a prototype is developed for thermoelectric power

generator module integrated with a double chambered forced draft cookstove. A module

of an appropriate rating is chosen for the testing and then power generation is observed.

The voltage generated is further stepped-up using a DC-DC step-up converter to run a DC

brushless fan of 5V, 0.3A. The fan serves two tasks, first is to cool the one side of

thermoelectric power generator and second is to supply the air to the combustion chamber

of cookstove. The air is directed to the combustion chamber through a duct which increases

the air-to-fuel ratio which helps for a cleaner combustion. (International Journal of

Research in Engineering and Technology, “IJRET”). The concept of TEG integrated stove

research was first done by J .C Bass and Killander in 1996. The concept of this stove was

taken from Biolite. The main motive is to make the stove very affordable to rural people

and those who are devoid of electricity.

According to Chen, et al. (2012) one powered by waste heat from a propane-driven

stove, the other powered by waste heat from a wood-burning stove, the propane-driven

thermoacoustic generator was successfully demonstrated to produce approximately 15

watts of electricity using a commercial audio loudspeaker. The wood-burning

thermoacoustic generator was successfully constructed and tested to generate a maximum

of 22.7 watts of electricity under a pressurized condition. In short, thermo acoustic


generators use heat to create acoustic waves which are then harnessed to produce

electricity.

According to Shaughnessy, et al (2014) a novel off-grid electricity-producing

device has been designed for integration with biomass-fuelled improved cooking stoves

commonly in use in the developing world. The device operates on the thermoelectric

principle whereby small amounts of electricity can be produced in response to a

temperature difference across a thermoelectric generator, or TEG. The energy produced by

the integrated generator can be used for direct charging or stored in a rechargeable lithium-

ironphosphate (LiFePo4) battery. The generator is equipped with a standard USB output

which allows the user to charge a variety of 5 Volt appliances. Five technology

demonstrator electricity generating stoves have been integrated with locally produced clay

cooking stoves in the Balaka district of Malawi, Africa. This study details the results from

an 80-day field trial of the devices. The data reveals that the stoves are in use for a greater

time than was anticipated. The data also indicates that the generators perform adequately

in the field and provide the user with the ability to charge LED lights and mobile phones

from the generator stoves every day if necessary.

According to Marvin, et al. (2015), in the Philippines, nearly 30% of households

use charcoal for cooking applications, especially in rural areas. This method of cooking

produces contaminants which negatively affects the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the said

households. The aim of the study is to design and fabricate three improved charcoal-fuelled

cookstoves and assess the concentration of the identified tracer contaminants for each of

the improved cookstoves and a typical stove as well as testing their efficiency and

performance using the water boiling test. Only the major contaminants which are carbon
dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) were included in the

IAQ assessment. Other IAQ parameters namely, temperature and relative humidity, were

also considered. In the water boiling test results, all of the improved cookstoves had less

time to boil, lower specific fuel consumption, higher thermal efficiency and better turn-

down ratio than the typical cookstove. Also, improving the design of the cookstove can

lower the contaminant emissions. However, stove design improvement alone is not enough

to lower the contaminants within standards.

Belonio, et al. (2008) proposed a project that generally, aims to provide households

with low-cost and environment-friendly gas stove technology that efficiently utilizes

biomass waste as source of fuel, also to convert rice husk by-products into building

materials. Specifically, this business project aims to carry out the following activities: to

manufacture rice husk gas stoves with and without canister; to process rice husks into a

ready good-quality fuel for these stoves; and to process rice husk ash and convert into

building materials. And in order to eliminate problem on the disposal of char or ash, which

are by-products of rice husks, a processing plant for the production of low-cost building

materials will likewise be established. The benefits that households can derive from this

project is that, a low-cost and clean stove technology will be available to both those in

urban and in rural areas while, at the same time, providing additional income to the farmers

from the sale of rice husks.

Ramis (2014) this research is an innovation of the portable rice hull stove

equipment to save time, investment, manpower and the environment. A desired distance of

5 cm bottom height of the inside burner from ash retainer is obtained as the critical point

in achieving the best combustion process. The unique characteristic of this innovative
design is the perforated inside and outside burners and the detachable inside burner for

easy replacement and durability of this stove. Specifically, this rice hull stove consists of

eleven major parts to wit: 1) inside burner & holder; 2) hopper; 3) flame controller; 4)

combustion chamber; 5) outer burner; 6) tensioner (optional); 7) pot (base) rest; 8) retainer

of rice hull fuel; 9) perforated holes (natural air supply); 10) leverage (optional) for

ash/aeration and disposal in the ash/char chamber); and 11) tripod stand. For easy removal

of the ash and char in the stove at the ash chamber, a flat floppy type ash remover was

keenly studied and observed through hand and or foot tapping of the leverage for every 2

to 5-minute combustion.
Conceptual Framework

The input is the most vital factor that comprises this study. In this case, the main

input comes from the water poured in the pipe and the charcoal to be lit in the cook stove

as the source of energy, seen in the figure 1.

The process contains the analyses, procedures, and trial and errors during the

construction of the device. This is the part that mostly describes the device’s structure and

composition.

The finished construction of the device that utilizes the heat loss from the walls of

charcoal stove through the process of steam power generation presents the output. A device

that can be used to charge a battery to power the built-in fan or for mobile phone.

The feedback includes the suggestions, recommendations and improvements of the

performance of the output. It will serve as a final modification of the study.


PROCESS

Voltage output for 10


minutes in terms of Testing the output for 10
Volume of water minutes using different Voltage generated by
volume of water. the device.

Voltage output for 10


minutes relative to the
pressure using impulse Testing the output for 10 A device that can charge
turbine and impulse minutes using the two a battery to power the
reaction turbine. kinds of turbine. fan or charge a mobile
phone by means of
Kinetic energy produce steam power generation
by the steam Determine the velocity of
steam using anemometer
and calculate the kinetic
energy.

INPUT OUTPUT

FEEDBACK

Figure 1. Conceptual Model of Study


CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the methods used by the researchers in order to achieve the

objectives of the study. This chapter includes the methods, schemes and procedures used

by the researchers in this study. Brief discussion of research design and construction as

well as testing and evaluation covers this chapter.

Project Design

This project study is concerned with creating a cook stove that utilizes waste heat

from the walls of the cook stove. This device use the principle of steam power generation

and should generate at least 5 volts of electricity from an old toy DC motor. The generated

electricity will be stored in a battery and can later be use to power the cook stove own

blower or charge a mobile device.

Rough Sketch

Conceptual View of the Cook stove

The conceptual view is the whole assembly of the proposed design of the

researchers. It consists of 6 separate parts namely (1) GI pipes boiler assembly where it

serves as a water boiler and container of pressurize steam, (2) ash tray which collects ashes

from the burnt charcoal, (3) blower fan which can be turned on to provide air to the cook
stove, (4) circuitry casing which holds the electronic circuit and battery storage for the

whole system, (5) generator assembly which utilize the kinetic energy of the steam and

converts it to usable electrical energy, and the feed water funnel where water is being fed

into the GI pipe boiler assembly.

Figure 3.1 (Conceptual View of Charcoal Stove


Project Development

The project development is the construction/fabrication procedure of the different

major components with illustrations showing the detailed parts and dimensions.

The generator assembly

The generator assembly is the part which convert the kinetic energy of the steam

into electrical energy that will be stored in a battery. Figure 3.2.1 shows the dimensions of

the casing for the steam turbine. Figure 3.2.2 shows the DC generator attached to its

turbine.

Fig. 3.2.1 Dimension of the turbine casing Fig. 3.2.2 DC generator connected to its turbine

The circuitry casing

The circuit casing is the place where all the electronic parts is secured. This includes

the battery, switches, step-up converter, and diode. Figure 3.2.3 shows the dimension of

the circuit casing while figure 3.2.4 shows the content of the circuit casing.
Fig. 3.2.3 Dimensions of the circuit casing Fig. 3.2.4 Actual content of the circuit casing

G.I. pipe assembly

The G.I. pipe assembly is basically the main part of the device. It is a series of G.I. pipes

held together by cement in a form of cook stove. The dimensions of the stove is shown in the

figure 3.2.5 below.

Fig. 3.2.5 (G.I. pipe assembly main body)


Ash Tray

The ash tray is an added feature which catch the ashes of the burnt charcoal. Below is the

dimensions of the ash tray for the charcoal stove.

Fig. 3.2.6 Ash tray

Blower fan

The blower fan is another added feature to supply air on the cook stove while cooking.

This should act as a regulator for the temperature needed for cooking as it supplies oxygen to the

burning coal. The dimensions of the duct that holds the fan is given in the figure below.

Fig. 3.2.7 Duct/fan holder


WORKING DRAWINGS

A. Isometric Drawing of the project design

Fig. 3.3 Isometric View

B. Different View

Fig. 3.4.1 Top View


Fig 3.4.2 Front View Fig. 3.4.3 Right sight View

Fig 3.4.4 Left side View Fig. 3.4.5 Rear View


C. Circuit diagram

Fig. 3.5 Schematic diagram of the circuit

This shows the interconnection of the electronic components. Below are the lists

of materials needed for the circuit connections.

- 2 DC toy motor

- 2 Single Pole Single Throw Switch

- 1 4001 diode

- 1 DC – DC Boost Converter

- 1 3.7 volt battery


PROTOTYPE WORKING MODEL

Image 3.1 Isometric view of the working prototype

Image 3.2 Rear view of the working prototype


Table 3.1 Targets and Indicators Work Breakdown Structure
TARGETS DURATION INDICATORS
(Activities) (No. of Hours) (Expected Output)
Measuring the induced voltage of the
DC generator with respect to water 750 ml water will produce
10 minutes
volume inside the G.I. pipes. (250, greater average voltage
500 and 750ml).
Measuring the relationship between The Voltage - Pressure
voltage and the pressure produced by ratio using impulse turbine
in the pipes by simulation using 30 minutes is comparatively low as
impulse turbine and impulse reaction compared to using impulse-
turbine reaction turbine.
The reaction turbine at the
Measuring the average voltage using
18 minutes DC generator will produce
impulse turbine.
electricity near 5 volts
The impulse - reaction
Measuring the average voltage using turbine at the DC generator
18 minutes
impulse-reaction turbine. will produce electricity
above 5 volts.
The kinetic energy of the
Getting the average kinetic energy of
18 minutes steam will be enough to
the steam leaving the pipe.
make the turbine rotate
Table 3.2 Quality Dimension Work Breakdown Structure

Materials
Activities Standards Tests
Needed

- The turbine must


DC Generator
not touch the
Impulse-
walls of the
Reaction
Generator casing
turbine
assembly - The generator
Flat Sheet
must rotate
Rivets
freely inside the
Drill
casing

Flat sheet
Circuit - The circuitry
Rivets
Casing must fit inside.

- The leaks on the


pipes can be
Flat sheet tested by
Cement submerging it in
G.I. Pipe
G.I. pipe a tub of water
assembly
Copper tube and see if there
are bubbles
leaking out of the
joints

- Must be able to
Flat sheet collect ashes
Ash Tray
Rivets from burnt
charcoal.

- It must be stable
Flat sheet
and dampen the
Blower fan Rivets
vibration of the
DC generator
blower fan
PROJECT MANAGEMENT/ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

A. Organizational Chart

MARK ANTHONY F.
SANTIAGO
Project Leader

CHRISTOPHER JAY A.
CARENE JANE Q. RAIT
CERENO
Technical Staff
Administrative Staff

Figure 3.6 Organizational Chart


B. Duties and Responsibilities

Table 3.3 Duties and Responsibilities

Designation Duties and Responsibilities Remarks


Administrative Staff
Project Leader Fabricating Feb. 4, 2017
Technical Staff
Project Leader Testing Nov. 19, 2016
Administrative Staff
Paper Works Feb. 6, 2017
Project Leader
Administrative Staff Power Point Jan. 23, 2017

Project Leader Designing Feb. 1, 2017


Administrative Staff
Canvassing/Marketing Feb. 3, 2017
Technical Staff
Technical Staff
Printing Feb. 6, 2017
Project Leader
Technical Staff
Administrative Staff Gathering Information Nov. 10, 2016
Project Leader
Administrative Staff
Purchasing Feb. 3, 2017
Technical Staff
Project Leader Finalization of Papers Feb. 5, 2017
Table 3.4 Time Dimension Work Breakdown Structure

Earliest
Activities Duration Latest Date
Date

Data gathering and brain storming 20 weeks July 2016 Dec 2016

Gathering of materials 23 weeks April 2016 Oct 2016

Construction of device 9 weeks July 2016 Sept 2016

0Testing for the functionality of


1 week Oct 2016 Oct 2016
the device
Measuring the average velocity of
the steam leaving the pipe to 2 days Nov 2016 Nov 2016
compute for the Kinetic Energy.
Measuring the average voltage
produced by the device with 250
A day Nov 2016 Nov 2016
ml of water using impulse and
impulse – reaction turbines
Measuring the average voltage
produced by the device with 500
and 750 ml of water using 2 days Dec 2016 Dec 2016
impulse and impulse – reaction
turbines
Simulation for the relationship
between pressure and voltage
1 day Dec 2016 Dec 2016
using impulse and impulse –
reaction turbines
Gantt Chart

Table 3.5

Legend: Target Date

Actual Date
Table 3.6 Table of Specification

Bill of Materials

The following are the list of materials, no. of units and the corresponding

amount in Philippine Peso.

Table 3.6.1. List of materials needed for the mini steam generator system

Qty. Unit Item Description Unit Price Amount

2 Pcs. Voltage regulator 35 70

1 Pc. DC-DC Voltage 295.99 295.99

booster

50 Grams Magnetic wire 48 48

#32AWG

2 Ft. Soldering Lead 12 24

1 Pc. PCV (4”x6”) 75 75

3 mts. #22 Stranded Wire 8 24

2 Pcs. LED 4 8

5 Pcs. Glue Stick 6 30

1 Pc. Fan -- --
1 Pc. Aluminum block -- --

Total Amount 574.99


Table 3.6.2. List of materials needed for the charcoal stove construction

Qty. Unit Item Description Unit Price Amount

1 Pc. Flat Sheet (4’x8’) 280 280

9 Ft Copper tube (5/16” 35 405

diameter)

5 Kgs Cement 12 60

5 Kgs Sand -- --

6 Ft G.I. pipe (1”) 32 192

1 Ft G.I. pipe (1 ½”) 38 38

1 Pc Control Valve 85 85

3 Pc Bronze Rod 45 135

Total Amount 1195


Tools and Equipment

Different tools and equipment used are shown in the table below with their

specifications and conditions.

Table 3.6.3. List of Tools and Equipment

No. Qty. Unit Specifications Remarks

01 One Pc. Pliers Functional

02 One Set Soldering Equipment Functional

03 One Set Multitester Functional

04 One Pc. Flat Sheet Cutter Functional

05 One Set Oxy-Acetylene tank Functional


Table 3.7 Total Budgetary Requirement

PARTICULARS AMOUNT
1. Personal Services
1.1 Technical Consultant 300
1.2 Contractual Labor
1.2.1 Laboratory Testing
1.1.1 Others. Pls. Specify
a. Soldering of G.I. pipes P 300
b. Repair on broken pipe P 200
c.
Total Personal Services P 800

2. Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE)


2.1 Travel Expenses P 500.00
2.2 Materials and Supplies P 1769.99
2.3 Sundries/Laboratory Fee
2.4 Other Services, pls. specify
a. Testing P 550.00
b. Printing P500
c.
Total Maintenance & Other Operating Expenses P 3319.99

TOTAL BUDGET P 4119.99


Operation and Testing Procedure

Operation Procedure

Before Operation

Make sure the pipes are loaded with the approximate amount of water (500ml) and

load the cook stove with charcoal as per needed then set the charcoal on fire as for the

normal cook stove. Wait until the pressure inside the pipes build up and the steam to

come out of the exit pipe.

Operation Precautions

During operation, do not open the gate valve while in operation. By any means do not

reload the water when the stove is still hot even though it ran out of steam. Make sure the

cook stove has cooled down before reloading water.


Installation/Fabrication Procedure

The procedure in installation/fabricating the cook stove is discussed below. It was

divided in four parts, the steam turbine, DC generator, the electronic circuit and the cook

stove lined with GI pipes. Each part procedure of fabrication is discussed below.

Steam turbine (impulse-reaction turbine)

1. The impulse – reaction turbine was obtained from the blower of bubble gun toy.

Image 3.3 (Impulse reaction turbine from bubble gun blower attached to the DC

generator

DC Generator

1. Find an old DC toy motor that have 5 volts rating.

Image 3.4 (DC motor from an old toy)


2. Dismantle the casing cover and get the rotor of the motor.

Image 3.5 (dismantled back cover of the DC toy motor)

3. Unwind the coils of magnetic wire and count every turns per pole.

Image 3.6 (unwinding of magnetic wires from the motor)

4. After unwinding and counting all the turns, get a slightly smaller gauge of magnetic

wire and rewind it to the armature of the rotor having greater amount of turns than

the previews winding. (in our case, the original number of turns was 420 turns per

pole and make it 500 turns per pole.)

Image 3.7 (Rewinding of the magnetic wire to the rotor.)


Cookstove

G.I. pipe tubing

1. Cut 1” diameter G.I. pipe in to 12 same length, approximately 6 inches long each.

2. Drill a hole 3 inches before the end a do the same on the other end but this time,

leave only 1inch of space from the end.

3. Using the flat metal sheet, cover each end of the tube and solder it. Make sure that

there is no air escaping. Test this by dunking each tube under water.

Image 3.8

4. Connect each ends using solder and copper pipes and you should come up with two

ends of open copper pipe as shown below.

Image 3.9 Image 3.10


5. Make a metal sheet casing for the G.I. pipes from flat sheet. This will serve as the

mold for the cement mix that covers the pipes.

Image 3.11

6. Form this pipes in to circle, and place it in the mould for the charcoal stove.

Image 3.12

7. The end pipes should be long enough that it must not be covered with cement during

the setting process of the charcoal stove.


Electronic circuit connections.

1. The DC generator is connected in series with a diode (D1) to the rechargeable

battery (V1) as shown in the figure below.

Figure 9. Schematic diagram for lm7805 voltage regulator

Image 3.13

2. The output for the fan is then connected into a rechargeable battery in parallel

controlled by the switch (S2A).

3. The DC – DC boost converter is also connected in parallel with the battery.

4. The output of the DC – DC boost converter is connected to a female USB port and

it is now ready for charging with the control of a switch (S1A).


Operation and Testing Procedure

Operation Procedure

Before Operation

Make sure the pipes are loaded with the approximate amount of water (500ml) and

load the cook stove with charcoal as per needed then set the charcoal on fire as for the

normal cook stove. Wait until the pressure inside the pipes build up and the steam to

come out of the exit pipe.

Operation Precautions

During operation, do not open the gate valve while in operation. By any means do not

reload the water when the stove is still hot even though it ran out of steam. Make sure the

cook stove has cooled down before reloading water.

Testing Procedure

For finding the answers of the problems set of tests are conducted. The following

are the procedures followed to carry out the answers of the problem.
For testing the Average voltage produced by the generator starting from the

production of steam until the water fed in the pipes runs out using 250ml, 500ml and

750ml of water and finding the best type of turbine to be used the impulse turbine

(turbine A) or the impulse reaction turbine (turbine B). Each test has two trials.

For 250ml water:

1. Prepare all materials needed; a 250 ml of water, a 500 grams of coconut charcoal,

multi-meter, timer, impulse and impulse - reaction, paper and pen.

2. Pour 250 mL of water in the feed water funnel.

3. Closed the gate valve.

4. Start putting the coconut charcoal into the charcoal stove then light it up.

5. Observe until the pipe starts to produce steam.

6. As of the turbine type hand it in front of the exit pipe for steam.

7. Connect the multi-meter leads to the terminals of the DC generator. Set the multi-

meter to dc voltage.

8. Measure the voltage output every succeeding minutes for 10 minutes when the

turbine starts to rotate.

9. The result record are shown in table below (see table 3.8.)
Table 3.8
Average Voltage Output of 250ml water for 10 minutes
Type Average
Trial 1 Trial 2

Time (minutes) Time (minutes)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Turbine A

Turbine B

For 500ml water:

1. Prepare all materials needed; a 500 ml of water, a 500 grams of coconut charcoal,

multi-meter, timer, impulse and impulse - reaction, paper and pen.

2. Pour 500 mL of water in the feed water funnel.

3. Closed the gate valve.

4. Start putting the coconut charcoal into the charcoal stove then light it up.

5. Observe until the pipe starts to produce steam.

6. As of the turbine type hand it in front of the exit pipe for steam.

7. Connect the multi-meter leads to the terminals of the DC generator. Set the multi-

meter to dc voltage.

8. Measure the voltage output every succeeding minutes for 10 minutes when the

turbine starts to rotate.

9. The result record are shown in table below (see table 3.9.)
Table 3.9
Average Voltage Output of 500ml water for 10 minutes
Type Average
Trial 1 Trial 2

Time (minutes) Time (minutes)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Turbine A

Turbine B

For 750ml water:

1. Prepare all materials needed; a 750 ml of water, a 500 grams of coconut charcoal,

multi-meter, timer, impulse and impulse - reaction, paper and pen.

2. Pour 750 mL of water in the feed water funnel.

3. Closed the gate valve.

4. Start putting the coconut charcoal into the charcoal stove then light it up.

5. Observe until the pipe starts to produce steam.

6. As of the turbine type hand it in front of the exit pipe for steam.

7. Connect the multi-meter leads to the terminals of the DC generator. Set the multi-

meter to dc voltage.

8. Measure the voltage output every succeeding minutes for 10 minutes when the

turbine starts to rotate.

9. The result record are shown in table below (see table 3.10.)
Table 3.10
Average Voltage Output of 500ml water for 10 minutes
Type Average
Trial 1 Trial 2

Time (minutes) Time (minutes)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Turbine A

Turbine B

For measuring the relationship between the pressure and the voltage produced by

the generator using impulse and impulse – reaction turbine. This experiment was done with

10 trials through simulation by following the procedures below.

1. Prepare all materials needed; bicycle pump, improvised air tank with pressure

gauge, rubber hose, impulse and impulse reaction turbine, DC toy generator,

and multi meter.

2. Connect the tester to the terminals of the DC generator with impulse turbine

attached.

3. Pump the improvised air tank with air using bicycle pump at the pressure given

on the table below.

4. Point the rubber hose attached to the air tank on the blade of the impulse turbine.

5. Release all the air at once and record the reading on the multi meter.
Table 3.11
Average Voltage Output at given Pressure
Type
20 psi Ave 17.5psi Ave

Trial Trial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Turbine

Turbine

Average Voltage Output at given Pressure


Type
15 psi Ave 12.5 psi Ave

Trial Trial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Turbine

Turbine

Average Voltage Output at given Pressure


Type
10 psi Ave 6.67 psi Ave

Trial Trial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Turbine

A
Turbine

Average Voltage Output at given Pressure


Type
3.33 psi Ave 0 psi Ave

Trial Trial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Turbine

Turbine

For measuring the speed of the steam for ¼ inch diameter steam exit pipe:

For 250 ml water

1. Prepare all materials needed; a 250 ml of water, a 500 grams of coconut charcoal,

anemometer, timer, paper and pen.

2. Pour 250 mL in the container.

3. Closed the gate valve.

4. Start putting the coconut charcoal into the “pugon” then light it up.

5. Observe until the pipe starts to produce steam.

6. Place the anemometer in front of the steam exit pipe.

7. Measure the anemometer reading every succeeding minutes from the start the

steam has been produced.


8. Record the measurements in the table shown below.

Table 3.12
Time Velocity

Total

Average

For 500 ml water

1. Prepare all materials needed; a 500 ml of water, a 500 grams of coconut charcoal,

anemometer, timer, paper and pen.

2. Pour 500 mL in the container.

3. Closed the gate valve.

4. Start putting the coconut charcoal into the “pugon” then light it up.

5. Observe until the pipe starts to produce steam.

6. Place the anemometer in front of the steam exit pipe.


7. Measure the anemometer reading every succeeding minutes from the start the

steam has been produced.

8. Record the measurements in the table shown below.

Table 3.13
Time Velocity

Total

Average

For 750 ml water

1. Prepare all materials needed; a 750 ml of water, a 500 grams of coconut charcoal,

anemometer, timer, paper and pen.

2. Pour 750 mL in the container.

3. Closed the gate valve.

4. Start putting the coconut charcoal into the “pugon” then light it up.

5. Observe until the pipe starts to produce steam.

6. Place the anemometer in front of the steam exit pipe.


7. Measure the anemometer reading every succeeding minutes from the start the

steam has been produced.

8. Record the measurements in the table shown below.

Table 3.14
Time Velocity

Total

Average

After the testing, the researchers accumulated all the data gather. They undergone series of

evaluation and analyze the results of the experiment. The researchers based on the results

of testing set know the performance of the charcoal stove.


Evaluation Procedure

This project study used sets of experiments and testing method for gathering data

and evaluation. The researchers conducted experiments to get the difference in voltage

output between 250mL, 500mL, and 750mL of water, type of the turbine needed, and

measure the kinetic energy produced by the steam. The researchers’ main objective is to

design a charcoal stove that will utilize heat loss form its wall by using a process of steam

power generation.
CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter comprises the results, findings and discussion on the test conducted to

achieve the objectives of this study to develop a device that utilizes the heat loss from the

walls of charcoal stove by steam power generation. The analysis and interpretation of the

data is the key to answer the problems.

Project Description

Utilizing the heat loss from the walls of charcoal stove through the process of steam

power generation develops a device which is compose of a DC generator, DC-DC step-up

converter, battery, control valve, turbine and GI pipes. The assembly of these components

altogether according to the design and with an input of water, it will produce energy that

can be stored in a battery.

Project Structure

The procedures of the study include the Planning and Designing, Preparation of Materials

and Equipment, Construction, Testing and Evaluation to clearly portray the fabrication of

the device.
Start

Planning and
Designing

Preparation of
Materials and
Equipment

Construction

Testing and
Evaluation

END

Fig. 4.1. Flow chart


Project Capability and Limitation

The device constructed can be used anytime and anywhere during basic cooking as

long as there is an input water and charcoal to be put before the start of operation. The input

volume of water that can be used to operate the device effectively ranges from 250mL –

750mL. The average voltage produce will vary from that range of volume of water to be

input. After the initial input of water turns into steam, adding an additional input of water

immediately is not advisable.

Project Evaluation and Results

The average voltage in different volume of water for 10 minutes.

The table 4.1.1, table 4.1.2, table 4.1.3, below shows the average voltage produce

for the span of 10 minutes using three different volume of water which is 250 ml, 500 ml,

750ml, and an impulse turbine (T1) and impulse-reaction turbine (T2), for two trials, every

succeeding minute.

(See page appendix to see the supporting images in the tables below)
Table 4.1.2. Average voltage vs. 250 ml of water vs. turbine for every succeeding
minute.
Voltage
Average
Volume Type of 3
1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 voltage
of water Turbine Mi
min min min min min min min min min produce
n

1.8 3 3.8 4 4.2 4.2 4 2.8 2.4 2.2 3.24


T1
2 3 4 4.2 4 3.8 3 3 2.6 2 3.16
250 mL
3.8 4 4 4.8 4 3 3 2.2 3 2.2 3.4
T2
5 5.2 4.4 4.2 4 3.9 3.8 3 2.6 2 3.81

Table 4.1.2. Average voltage vs. 500 ml of water vs. turbine for every succeeding
minute.
Volume Type of Voltage Average

of water Turbine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 voltage

min min min min min min min min min min produce

500 mL T1 2.4 2.8 4 4 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.4 3 2.2 3.18

2.8 2.4 4.2 4.4 5 5.4 5 5.2 5 4.2 4.36

T2 5 5.4 6.2 7.2 7 6.8 6.6 6 5.8 4.8 6.04

3 4 6.6 7.8 8 7.6 8 7.6 8 7 6.76


Table 4.1.3. Average voltage vs. 750 ml of water vs. turbines for every succeeding minute.

Volume Type of Voltage Average

of water Turbine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 voltage

min min Min min min min min min min min produce

3 3.2 3 2.8 3.8 3 2.7 3 2.8 3 3.03


T1
3 3.4 3.2 3 3.6 3 2.6 3.2 2.8 3 3.08
750 mL
4 5 5 5 5.2 5.4 5.2 5 4.8 4.8 4.94
T2
4.8 4.8 5.2 5.2 6.2 7 6.8 6 5.8 5.4 5.2

2. The average voltage produce with respect to pressure.

Below is a table that presents the relationship of voltage and pressure using the

impulse turbine (T1) and the impulse reaction turbine (T2). Ten trials were conducted for a

given value of pressure to get the average voltage that can be produce. The data were

obtained through simulation.

(see page appendix to see the supporting images in the tables below)
Table 4.2.1

Type of Pressure Trial Average

turbine in psi voltage


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

20 7.8 7.5 8.2 9 8.5 7.8 9.5 8.6 7.2 9.5 8.36 V

17.5 9 8.6 9 7.4 7.2 7.9 8 7.2 8.2 8.4 8.09 V

15 5 4.8 6 7 5.2 4.5 4.5 4 4.8 5.2 5.1 V


T1
12.5 5.3 5.8 6 6.8 5.2 4.2 4.8 5.2 6 4.2 5.35 V
(impulse)
10 4.2 4.2 4.8 5 5.2 5.4 5 5 4.6 4.2 4.76 V

6.67 4.2 4 3.9 4.4 4.2 3 3.8 4 4 3.8 3.93 V

3.33 3 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.8 2.7 2.2 2.51 V

12.5 8.8 7.8 8.4 8 8.8 8 7.8 8.2 9.2 8 8.3 V


T2
10 6.8 8 7.2 7.8 7.4 8.2 8.4 6 6 6.6 7.24 V
(impulse-
6.67 6 5.8 6.2 6.5 6 6 5 7 6.2 5.4 6.01 V
reaction)

3.33 4 4 3.2 3.4 3.8 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.8 4 3.36 V


3. Calculation of the Kinetic Energy of the steam

Using the anemometer to measure the velocity of the steam and the steam table, the

data gathered from each test using the different volume of water is used for the computation

of the kinetic energy as shown below.

(See appendix to see the supporting images in the tables below)

Test 1: 250ml water, 500g charcoal (coconut shell)

Table.3.3.1
Time Velocity

1min 03sec 2.6

2min 03sec 3.1

6min 47sec 7.6

8min 12sec 10.6

19min 09sec 2.3

19min 45sec 2.1

Total 28.3

Average 4.71
Computation:

Volume of steam per kilogram mass:

Vs=1.69 𝑚3 /kg

For the volume of 250ml steam

Volumesteam = (1.69)(0.25) (𝑚3 /kg)(kg)

Volumesteam = 0.4225𝑚3

Density of steam

𝜌 = 0.59𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

Volume Flow Rate


𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚
𝑉̇ = 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒

0.4225𝑚 3
𝑉̇ = 25.50min

0.01657𝑚 3
𝑉̇ = 𝑚𝑖𝑛

Mass Flow Rate

𝑚̇
𝜌= 𝑉̇
𝑘𝑔 𝑚3
𝑚̇ = (0.59) (0.01657) (𝑚3 )( (𝑚𝑖𝑛)

𝑘𝑔
𝑚̇ = 0.0097763(𝑚𝑖𝑛)

Average Kinetic Energy

1
KEave = 2 𝑚̇𝑣 2

1 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2
KEave = 2(0.0097763)(4.712 ) (𝑚𝑖𝑛)(𝑠𝑒𝑐 2)

KEave = 0.1084J/min

Thus, the rate of average kinetic energy per minute is 0.1084 J/min for 250 ml of water.
Test 2: 500ml water, 500g charcoal (coconut shell)

Table 3.3.2
Time Velocity

1min 08sec 2.7

2min 12sec 12.0

2min 57sec 13.3

10min 25sec 15.9

18min 05sec 6.9

21min 37sec 2.3

Total 53.1

Average 8.85
Computation:

Volume of steam per kilogram mass:

Vs=1.69 𝑚3 /kg

For the volume of 250ml steam

Volumesteam = (1.69)(0.500) (𝑚3 /kg)(kg)

Volumesteam = 0.845𝑚3

Density of steam

𝜌 = 0.59𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

Volume Flow Rate


𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚
𝑉̇ = 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒

0.845𝑚3
𝑉̇ = 27.72min

0.03048597𝑚 3
𝑉̇ = 𝑚𝑖𝑛

Mass Flow Rate

𝑚̇
𝜌= 𝑉̇
𝑘𝑔 𝑚3
𝑚̇ = (0.59) (0.03048597) (𝑚3 )( (𝑚𝑖𝑛)

𝑘𝑔
𝑚̇ = 0.017986(𝑚𝑖𝑛)

Average Kinetic Energy

1
KEave = 2 𝑚̇𝑣 2

1 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2
KEave = 2(0.017986)(8.852 ) (𝑚𝑖𝑛)(𝑠𝑒𝑐 2)

KEave = 0.70438J/min

Thus, the rate of average kinetic energy per minute is 0.70438 J/min for 500 ml of water.
Test 3: 750ml water, 500g charcoal (coconut shell)

Table. 3.3.3
Time Velocity

1min 01sec 2.3

2min 00sec 5.2

5min 44sec 17.6

6min 34sec 19.5

14mins 20sec 9.9

21min 05sec 3.8

Total 58.3

Average 9.72
Computation:

Volume of steam per kilogram mass:

Vs=1.69 𝑚3 /kg

For the volume of 750ml steam

Volume steam = (1.69)(0.750) (𝑚3 /kg)(kg)

Volume steam = 1.2675𝑚3

Density of steam

𝜌 = 0.59𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

Volume Flow Rate


𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚
𝑉̇ = 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒

1.2675𝑚 3
𝑉̇ = 29.267min

0.0433𝑚 3
𝑉̇ = 𝑚𝑖𝑛

Mass Flow Rate

𝑚̇
𝜌= 𝑉̇

𝑘𝑔 𝑚3
𝑚̇ = (0.59) (0.0433) (𝑚3 )( (𝑚𝑖𝑛)
𝑘𝑔
𝑚̇ = 0.025547(𝑚𝑖𝑛)

Average Kinetic Energy

1
KEave = 2 𝑚̇𝑣 2

1 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2
KEave = 2(0.025547)(9.722 ) (𝑚𝑖𝑛)(𝑠𝑒𝑐 2)

KEave = 1.2682J/min

Thus, the rate of average kinetic energy per minute is 1.2682 J/min for 750 ml of water.
CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In this chapter, the researchers present the summary of the findings gather in the

entire research. This includes the conclusions and recommendations for future

development of the research study.

Summary

This research is conducted with the aim of utilizing the heat loss from the walls of

charcoal stove. A device that can store energy in a battery through steam power generation

which will power its built-in fan or can be used to charged mobile phones.

There are studies that also use a charcoal stove as a device that generates and store

energy in a battery but by different medium or process like using thermocouple or TEC.

But for this study, the researchers used the process of steam power generation to develop

a device that utilizes the heat loss from the walls of a usual charcoal stove which can be

used as an alternative source that generate and stores energy in a battery for powering the

fan or charging a mobile phone.

Findings

Below are the data gather from the conducted test. Each test used 500g of charcoal.

1. In 250 mL of water for each of the two trials conducted, the impulse turbine produces

an average voltage of 3.2 volts while the impulse reaction turbine produces an average

voltage of 3.6 volts.


2. In 500 mL of water for each of the two trials conducted, the impulse turbine produces

an average voltage of 3.77 compared to the impulse reaction turbine with an average

voltage of 6.405

3. In 750 mL of water for each two trials conducted, the impulse reaction turbine produces

an average voltage of 3.01 compared to the impulse reaction turbine with an average

voltage of 5.07

4. For the highest given pressure value of 20 psi the estimated average voltage that can be

produce of an impulse turbine is 8.36 V compared to an impulse reaction turbine that

produce 8.3V at 12.5 psi. While in the lowest given value of pressure of 3.33 psi, the value

were 2.51V and 3.56V, respectively for impulse and impulse reaction turbine. Both were

based from 10 trials conducted through simulation.

5. The calculated kinetic energy, for a 250 mL of water has an estimated value of

0.1084J/min for the span of 25.50 minutes. The 500 mL of water has an estimated value of

KEave = 0.70438J/min at the span of 27.72 minutes. And the 750mL of water has an estimated

value of KEave = 1.2682J/min at the span of 29.267 minutes. The values were based on the

formula used and on the velocity of the steam indicated in the anemometer.

Conclusions

Based from the findings, the researchers conclude that:

1. The device is more efficient to use if with 500 mL of water and an impulse-reaction

turbine is used. It can produce an average of 6 volts for 16 minutes from the start

of generation of steam. If 750 ml and 250 mL of water were used, it only produced

an average of 3.6 and 5.07 volts respectively.


2. The researchers also conclude that the type of charcoal affect the steam production

and the voltage produce.

3. After the amount of water in the pipe is converted into steam, refilling the pipe

immediately is not advisable. It takes 20-30 minutes of cool down to pour an

additional volume of water.

Recommendations

The following are the recommendations of the researchers for improvement of the

device.

1. Compared to the size and weight of a usual charcoal stove, the device is bigger and

heavy. For improvement, the researchers recommend making the device as

portable as the usual charcoal stove. Using light materials for constructing and

fabrication is recommended.

2. For the battery, an indicating/monitoring of charge is useful to know the stored

energy in the battery.

3. If a higher voltage value is desired, used a motor/generator with a higher capacity.


Appendix A

Camarines Norte State College


College Of Engineering
Daet, Camarines Norte

NOMINATION OF THESIS/PROJECT STUDY EVALUATION COMMITTEE

January 26, 2017

Name: MARK ANTHONY F. SANTIAGO


CHRISTOPHER JAY A. CERENO
CARENE JANE Q. RAIT

Degree Sought: Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering

Major/Minor: ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

We hereby nominate the following as members of our Evaluation Committee.

Chairman: ENGR. VICTOR D. DUKA ________________ ___________


Printed Name Signature Date

Members: 1. ENGR. LEO AGUSTIN P. VELA ________________ ____________


Printed Name Signature Date

2. ENGR. AIREEN M. BABAGAY ________________ ____________


Printed Name Signature Date

Approval Recommended: Approved:

ENGR. ALMIRA K. VELASCO ENGR. GENARO B. BALANE


Research Coordinator Dean, CoEng

___________________________ ___________________________
Date Date
Appendix B

Camarines Norte State College


College Of Engineering
Daet, Camarines Norte

APPLICATION FOR FINAL ORAL DEFENSE

January 20, 2017

ENGR. GENARO B. BALANE


Dean, CoEng

Sir:

May I/we respectfully request for the paper presentation of my/our thesis/project
study manuscript entitled: “UTILIZING HEAT LOSS FROM THE WALLS OF
CHARCOAL STOVE THROUGH THE PROCESS OF STEAM POWER GENERATION”
on JANUARY 26, 2017 at 4:00 PM in RESEARCH AND EXTENSION OFFICE.

Hoping for your kind consideration and approval on this matter.


Thank you very much.

Very truly yours,

Mark Anthony F. Santiago Christopher Jay A. Cereno Carene Jane Q. Rait


BSEE V-A BSEE V-A BSEE V-A

Favourably Endorsed:

ENGR. VICTOR D. DUKA


Chairman, Evaluation Committee

ENGR. ALMIRA K. VELASCO


Research Coordinator
For Dean’s Office Use
_______ Submitted the thesis manuscript
_______ Seminar date applied for is the prescribed time to allow the review of manuscript
by the Examining Committee/Panel members.

ENGR. GENARO B. BALANE


Dean, CoEng
Appendix C

Camarines Norte State College


College Of Engineering
Daet, Camarines Norte

PERMISSION TO CONDUCT STUDY


AND
TO USE COLLEGE FACILITIES FOR THE
CONDUCT OF UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Date: ________________

ENGR. GENARO B. BALANE


Dean, CoEng

Sir:
We have the honour to request permission you’re your office to conduct
study entitled: “UTILIZING HEAT LOSS FROM THE WALLS OF CHARCOAL
STOVE THROUGH THE PROCESS OF STEAM POWER GENERATION”.

Laboratory facilities to be used/borrowed/rented:


________________________________________________________________________

Duration of the Study: ______________________________________________

Thank you very much.


Very truly yours,

________________________
Student Applicant
Recommending Approval:

ENGR. AILEEN S. LLADOC


Adviser
Approved:

ENGR. GENARO B. BALANE


Dean, CoEng
Appendix D

Camarines Norte State College


College Of Engineering
Daet, Camarines Norte

CERTIFICATION OF THE SECRETARY

This is to certify that all the suggestions given by the Panel of Examiners in
connection with the Oral Examination of MARK ANTHONY F. SANTIAGO,
CHRISTOPHER JAY A. CERENO and CARENE JANE Q. RAIT entitled
“UTILIZING HEAT LOSS FROM THE WALLS OF CHARCOAL STOVE
THROUGH THE PROCESS OF STEAM POWER GENERATION” were complied
with.

ENGR. ALMIRA K. VELASCO


Secretary
Oral Examination Committee
Appendix E

Camarines Norte State College


College Of Engineering
Daet, Camarines Norte

CERTIFICATION OF THE EDITOR

This is to certify that the thesis/project study of MARK ANTHONY F.


SANTIAGO, CHRISTOPHER JAY A. CERENO and CARENE JANE Q. RAIT
entitled “UTILIZING HEAT LOSS FROM THE WALLS OF CHARCOAL STOVE
THROUGH THE PROCESS OF STEAM POWER GENERATION” was edited by
the undersigned.

RHODAVIV D. AVILA
Proof Reader/Editor
Appendix F
CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME : MARK ANTHONY F. SANTIAGO

ADDRESS : LUZARRAGA SUBD. BRGY DALAS,


LABO, CAMARINES NORTE

DATE OF BIRTH : JANUARY 12, 1996

PLACE OF BIRTH : MAKATI CITY

CIVIL STATUS : SINGLE

CITIZENSHIP : FILIPINO

FATHER : ANTONIO D. SANTIAGO

MOTHER : ROSANA F. SANTIAGO

B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : LABO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


Labo, Camarines Norte
2002 – 2008

SECONDARY : LABO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


HIGH SCHOOL
Dalas, Labo, Camarines Norte
2008 - 2012

TERTIARY : CAMARINES NORTE STATE COLLEGE


F. Pimentel Ave. Daet, Cam. Norte
2012 - Present

C. ELIGIBILITY

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING (NCII)
AUTOMOTIVE SERVICING (COT)
CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME : CARENE JANE Q. RAIT

ADDRESS : BRGY. KANLURAN, SAN VICENTE,


CAMARINES NORTE

DATE OF BIRTH : NOVEMBER 8, 1995

PLACE OF BIRTH : SAN VICENTE, CAMARINES NORTE

CIVIL STATUS : SINGLE

CITIZENSHIP : FILIPINO

FATHER : EDMUNDO A. RAIT

MOTHER : ARLENE Q. RAIT

B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : SANVICENTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


San Vicente, Camarines Norte
2002 – 2008

SECONDARY : SAN VICENTE PAROCHIAL SCHOOL


San Vicente, Camarines Norte
2008 - 2012

TERTIARY : CAMARINES NORTE STATE COLLEGE


F. Pimentel Ave. Daet, Cam. Norte
2012 - present

C. ELIGIBILITY

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME : CHRISTOPHER JAY A. CERENO

ADDRESS : BRGY. 1, VINZONS, CAMARINES


NORTE

DATE OF BIRTH : AUGUST 20, 1996

PLACE OF BIRTH : DAET, CAMARINES NORTE

CIVIL STATUS : SINGLE

CITIZENSHIP : FILIPINO

FATHER : JULIO G. CERENO

MOTHER : DOLORES A. CERENO

B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : VINZONS PILOT ELEMENTARY


SCHOOL
Vinzons, Camarines Norte
2002 – 2008

SECONDARY : VINZONS PILOT HIGH SCHOOL


Vinzons, Camarines Norte
2008 - 2012

TERTIARY : CAMARINES NORTE STATE COLLEGE


F. Pimentel Ave. Daet, Cam. Norte
2012 - present

C. ELIGIBILITY

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


Appendix G

Camarines Norte State College


College Of Engineering
Daet, Camarines Norte

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that the research study by the undersigned entitled “UTILIZING
HEAT LOSS FROM THE WALLS OF CHARCOAL STOVE THROUGH THE
PROCESS OF STEAM POWER GENERATION” is original and not yet submitted to
any publishers for consideration. This is to certify further that works, pictures, figures and
texts used from other sources are properly acknowledged.
Given this 26th day of January, 2017 in Camarines Norte State College, Main
Campus, Daet, Camarines Norte.

MARK ANTHONY F. SANTIAGO

CHRISTOPHER JAY A. CERENO

CARENE JANE Q. RAIT


Researchers
Appendix H

DOCUMENTATION

A. Preparation of Materials and Tools


B. Fabrication
C. Testing

Average voltage produce using 500 ml of water and impulse reaction turbine.
Turbne
The images above shows the test conducted to tabulate and get the average voltage
produce using the impulse reaction turbine with an input of 500 mL of water.

Average voltage produced by using 500 ml of water and impulse


reaction turbine with respect to pressure inside the Pipe.

The images below shows the test conducted to tabulate and get the average
voltage produce using the impulse reaction turbine with an input of 3.33 Psi. (Simulation
for Pressure Vs. Voltage).
The images below shows the test conducted to tabulate and get the average
voltage produce using the impulse reaction turbine with an input of 6.67 Psi. (Simulation
for Pressure Vs. Voltage)..
The images below shows the test conducted to tabulate and get the average
voltage produce using the impulse reaction turbine with an input of 10 Psi. (Simulation
for Pressure Vs. Voltage).
The images below shows the test conducted to tabulate and get the average
voltage produce using the impulse reaction turbine with an input of 12.5 Psi. (Simulation
for Pressure Vs. Voltage).
The images below shows the test conducted to tabulate and get the average
voltage produce using the impulse turbine with an input of 15 Psi. (Simulation for
Pressure Vs. Voltage).
The images below shows the test conducted to tabulate and get the average
voltage produce using the impulse turbine with an input of 17.5 Psi. (Simulation for
Pressure Vs. Voltage).
Shows the steam velocity obtained for the computation of kinetic energy during the test
of 250 ml of water.
Shows the steam velocity obtained for the computation of kinetic energy during the test
of 250 ml of water.
Average voltage produce Vs. 500 ml of water Vs. impulse reaction Turbine

Shows the steam velocity obtained for the computation of kinetic energy during the test
of 250 ml of water.

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