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Cooling System:
1. air cooling system
Air cooling is a standard method of system cooling used to
method of dissipate heat. The object being cooled will have a
flow of air moving over its surface. Most air cooling systems use a
combination of fans and heat sinks, which exchanges heat
with air.
2.liquid cooling system
A cooling system works by sending a liquid coolant through
passages in the engine block and heads. As the coolant flows
through these passages, it picks up heat from the engine. The
heated fluid then makes its way through a rubber hose to the
radiator in the front of the car.

2.Types of Fuel used in Engines:

1.Volatile Liquid fuel engine:
Gasoline, alcohol, kerosene oil etc are types of volatile liquid
fuel. The fuel is generally mixed with air to form a homogeneous
charge outside the cylinder and drawn into the cylinder in the
suction stroke. the charge is ignited near the end of compression
stroke by an externally applied spark and therefore these engines
are called spark ignition engine.
2.Gaseous fuel engine:
Natural gas, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), biogas etc are
gaseous fuels. The gas is mixed with the air and the mixture is
introduced into the cylinder during the suction stroke. In their
working they are similar to the engines using volatile liquid fuel
(spark ignition engines). But they are smaller in size with the spark
ignition engines.
3.Solid fuel engine:
Charcoal and powdered coal etc are the examples of the
solid fuels. Solid fuels are generally converted into gaseous fuel
outside the engine in separate gas producer and the engine work
as gas engine.
4.Viscous fuel engine:
Engines using viscous (Low volatility at normal atmospheric
temperature) liquid fuels like heavy and liquid Diesel oil. The fuel is
introduced into the cylinder in the form of minute droplets by a
fuel injection system near the end of compression process.
Compression of fuel takes place due to its coming into contact
with the high temperature compressed air in the cylinder.
Therefore, the engines are called compression ignition engines.

5.Engines with two fuels:

A gaseous fuel or a highly volatile liquid fuel is supplied along
the air during the suction stroke or during initial part of
compression through the gas valve in the cylinder head and the
other fuel (a viscous liquid fuel) is injected in to the combustion
space near the end of compression stroke.

3.Methods of Charging Fuel:

 Naturally aspirated engine (at atmospheric pressure)
It is an internal combustion engine in which air- fuel mixture is
added at atmospheric pressure.
 Supercharged engine (above atmospheric pressure)
It is an internal combustion engine in which air-fuel mixture is
added at pressure higher than atmospheric pressure.

4.Turbo charger:
A turbocharger or turbo is a centrifugal compressor powered by a
turbine that is driven by an engine’s exhaust gases.
Its benefit lies with the compressor increasing the mass of the air
entering (force induction), thereby resulting in greater
performance (for either, or both, power and efficiency).
They are popularly used with internal combustion engines.
Components of turbo charger:
 A turbine, which is almost always a radial inflow turbine.
 A compressor, which is almost always a centrifugal
 The centre housing/hub rotating assembly.
Objectives of turbocharger:
 The objectives of turbocharger, just as that of a supercharger
is to improve an engine’s volumetric efficiency by increasing
the intake density.
 The compressor draws in ambient air and compresses it
before it enters into the intake manifold at increased
pressure, that results in greater mass of air entering the
cylinders on each intake stroke.
 The needed to spin the centrifugal compressor is derived
from the high pressure and temperature of the engine’s
exhaust gases.
 The turbine converts the engine exhaust’s potential pressure
energy and kinetic velocity energy into rotational power,
which is in turn used to drive the compressor.

5.Super charger:
The supercharger is an air compressor used for the forced
induction of an internal combustion engine.
The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support
combustion than would be available in a naturally aspirated
Supercharger allows more fuel to be burned and more work to be
done per cycle, increasing the power output of the engine.
Power for the unit can come mechanically by a belt, gear,
connected to the engine’s crankshaft.
Purpose of supercharging:
 to raise the density of the air charge, before it enters the
 To raise engines power output.
 To increase the volumetric efficiency since the utilization of
the air is what going to determine the power output of the
 Hence, on engine must be able to take in as much as air as
Types of supercharger:
There are two main types of the superchargers defined according
to the methods of compression
 Positive displacement
 Dynamics compressors
 The former delivers a fairly constant level of pressure increase
at all engine speeds (RPM), whereas the later delivers
increasing pressure with increasing engine speed.
 Dynamic compressors rely on accelerating the air to high
speed and then exchanging that velocity for pressure by
diffusing or slowing it down.
Limitations of supercharger:
Thermal load on the varies parts of the engine increases.
Durability, reliability and fuel economy are main considerations
that limits the degrees of supercharging of an engine.
Because of increased heat generation and heat transfer, there is
greater tendency to burn the piston crown, seat and edges of the
exhaust valves.

6.Engine performance parameters:

1. Indicated thermal efficiency (ηth)
Thermal efficiency indicates the extent to which the energy
added by work is converted to net heat output.
2. Brake thermal efficiency (ηbth)
Brake Thermal Efficiency is defined as break power of a heat
engine as a function of the thermal input from the fuel. It is used to
evaluate how well an engine converts the heat from a fuel to
mechanical energy.
3. Mechanical thermal efficiency (ηm)
it is the parameter that gives the effectiveness of an engine in
transforming its input heat energy to output work.

4. Volumetric thermal efficiency (ηv)

Volumetric efficiency, is a parameter giving the effectiveness of
an engine's induction process. It is the ratio between actual
volume of charge inducted into the cylinder and the swept
volume of the piston
5. Relative efficiency or Efficiency ratio (ηnet)
The relative efficiency of two procedures is the ratio of their
efficiencies, although often this concept is used where the
comparison is made between a given procedure and a notional
"best possible" procedure.
6. Mean effective pressure (Pm)
The mean effective pressure is a quantity relating to the operation
of a reciprocating engine and is a valuable measure of
an engine's capacity to do work that is independent
of engine displacement.
7. Mean piston speed (Sp)
The mean piston speed is the average speed of the piston in a
reciprocating engine. It is a function of stroke and RPM.
8. Specific power output (Ps)
Specific power or power-to-weight ratio is a measure of
performance for an engine in a vehicle or in a power plant. It is
defined as the power output by it divided by its mass, typically in
units of W/kg or hp/lb.

9. Specific fuel consumption (SFC)

It is typically used for comparing the efficiency of internal
combustion engines with a shaft output. It is the rate of fuel
consumption divided by the power produced.
10. Air to fuel ratio or Fuel to air ratio
Air–fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of air to a solid, liquid, or
gaseous fuel present in a combustion process.
11. Calorific value of fuel
The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its
combustion - at constant pressure and under "normal" ("standard")
conditions (i.e. to 0oC and under a pressure of 1013 mbar).

7.Cylinderical arrangement in engines

In engines there are following cylindrical arrangements:
 Inline engine (all four cylinders are arranged in vertical
manner and are connected to one crankshaft).
 V-engine

 Opposed cylinder engine

 Opposed piston engine

 Radial engine

 x- type engine

 H-type engine
 U-type engine:

 Δ-type engine