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Fuzzy Constrained Lp-Norm Inversion of Direct Current Resistivity Data

Article  in  Geophysics · October 2017


DOI: 10.1190/geo2017-0040.1

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GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 83, NO. 1 (JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2018); P. 1–14, 10 FIGS., 1 TABLE.
10.1190/GEO2017-0040.1

Fuzzy constrained Lp-norm inversion of direct current resistivity data

Anand Singh1, Shashi Prakash Sharma1, İrfan Akca2, and Vikas Chand Baranwal3

surveys (Sudha et al., 2009; Rucker et al., 2010; Sharma et al.,


ABSTRACT 2010; Solberg et al., 2016); marine research (Loke and Lane,
2004; Rucker et al., 2011); and mineral/hydrocarbon exploration
We evaluate the use of a fuzzy c-means clustering pro- (White et al., 2001; Bauman, 2005; Legault et al., 2008; Mohanty
cedure to improve an inverted 2D resistivity model within et al., 2011; Mandal et al., 2015; Adhikari et al., 2016; Biswas and
the iterative error minimization procedure. The algorithm Sharma, 2016). It provides information about subsurface conduc-
is coded in MATLAB language for the Lp-norm inversion tors by injecting the electric current into the earth and measuring
of 2D direct current resistivity data and is referred to as fuzzy the injected current and potential differences at various locations
constrained inversion (FCI). Two additional input parame- using various electrode configurations. The electrodes could be lo-
ters are required to be provided by the interpreter: (1) the cated at the surface and/or in boreholes. Inverse modeling provides
number of geologic units in the model (i.e., the number of a mathematical framework to obtain a reliable resistivity model of
clusters) and (2) the mean resistivity values of each geologic the subsurface, responsible for the measured data in the field. Be-
unit (i.e., cluster center values of the geologic units). The cause the number of measured ERT data is less than the number of
efficacy of our approach is evaluated by tests carried on the resistivity blocks, the inverse problem is intrinsically nonunique and
synthetic and field electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) ill posed (Tarantola, 2005). Thus, there exist numerous subsurface
data. Inversion results from the FCI algorithm are presented resistivity models of which response can fit the measured resistivity
for conventional L1- and L2-norm minimization techniques. data sets equally well.
FCI indicates improvement over conventional inversion ap- Over the past 30 years, there have been lots of developments in
proaches in differentiating the geologic units if a proper DC resistivity interpretation techniques. The list is huge, and only
number of the geologic units is provided to the algorithm. some of them are mentioned here, e.g., 1D interpretation (Sharma,
Inappropriate clustering information will affect the resulting 2012), 2D interpretation (Loke and Barker, 1996; Boonchaisuk
resistivity models, particularly conductive geologic units et al., 2008; Rücker and Günther, 2011), and 3D interpretation
existing in the model. We also determine that FCI is only (Jackson et al., 2001; Günther et al., 2006; Pidlisecky et al., 2007).
effective when the observed ERT data can recognize the par- The modeling techniques mentioned above have their merit and
ticular geologic units. demerits regarding inversion approach, computation time, storage
space, customization, and visualization in various dimensions. How-
ever, there are two major problems associated with inversion of
ERT data sets: (1) Most of the inversion algorithms are based on the
INTRODUCTION L2-norm minimization and produce smooth resistivity images, and
(2) recovered resistivity values are lower or higher than the actual
Direct current (DC) resistivity imaging or electrical resistivity resistivity in the subsurface as a consequence of the inversion algo-
tomography (ERT) is an effective tool to obtain the subsurface re- rithms. Because of these two major problems, boundaries of the geo-
sistivity image with high resolution and has been used in various logic units are not clearly seen in such approaches because of low
applications, e.g., delineation of groundwater/aquifers (Johnson contrasts in the smoothed resistivity models. This causes a difficulty
et al., 2010); archaeological exploration (Akca, 2016); medical im- in the geologic interpretation of smooth resistivity images in which a
aging (Holder, 2004); environmental, geotechnical, and engineering sharp boundary is expected. Yi et al. (2003) use an active constraint

Manuscript received by the Editor 18 January 2017; revised manuscript received 23 July 2017; published ahead of production 25 October 2017.
1
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Kharagpur, India. E-mail: anand@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in; spsharma@gg.
iitkgp.ernet.in.
2
Ankara University, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Ankara, Turkey. E-mail: irfan.akca@eng.ankara.edu.tr.
3
Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), Trondheim, Norway. E-mail: vikas.baranwal@ngu.no.
© 2018 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

1
2 Singh et al.

balancing technique to overcome extreme smoothing in the models. Knight, 2008). In the present work, we use the finite-element 1
There are other inversion approaches based on L1-norm minimiza- method to solve equation 1 to calculate the potential difference, and
tion to generate blocky structures in the subsurface (Farquharson and then the apparent resistivity is calculated using the general approach
Oldenburg, 1998; Loke et al., 2003). Akca and Başokur (2010) de- of Marescot et al. (2006). Later, the apparent resistivity values
velop a technique to depict structure-based resistivity sections using are transformed into pseudodepth sections using the approach by
hybrid genetic algorithms. However, they did not show their result Edwards (1977). The solution of equation 1 can be written in dis-
when abrupt lateral variations in lithology could be present. Rücker crete form as
(2011) incorporates a priori information of structural constraints from
seismic and borehole data. Zhou et al. (2014) dug out the structural
dpre ¼ FðmÞ; (2)
orientation from the geologic sections and enforce this structural ori-
entation to the inversion through a model covariance matrix.
In the DC resistivity method, the most common approach to iden- where F is the forward-modeling operator, dpre is the computed or
tify the boundary between geologic units is based on gradient and predicted ERT data, and m ¼ ½log σ 1 ; log σ 2 ; : : : ; log σ M T is the
Laplacian methods (Sass, 2007; Hsu et al., 2010; Chambers et al., model parameter vector. The term σ k is the conductivity of the kth
2012).The gradient-based approach detects the boundaries of a con- block/cell and M is the total number of blocks in the model. In the
ductive/resistive structure by finding the maximum of the first deriv- present study, model discretization and forward modeling are per-
atives of the resistivity model, whereas the Laplacian searches for formed by following the details given by Akca (2016). The Jacobian
the curvature of the resistivity model. Wilkinson et al. (2012) show matrix S is formulated according to Tripp et al. (1984), Sasaki
that this approach might not be efficient due to the gradational (1994), and Spitzer (1998).
nature of smoothness constraints in the DC resistivity inversion and
also due to low resolution at depth because of the larger interspatial Fuzzy clustering
distances of the electrodes. Often, some a priori geologic informa-
tion is known to us. In some of the geologic scenarios, different The clustering procedure is an arrangement of data into groups of
geologic units have a distinct range of resistivity values. Therefore, similar objects. Each cluster comprises items that are similar to each
such geologic structures can be classified by their resistivity values other and dissimilar to objects of the other groups. There are nu-
so that statistically similar resistivity values are grouped in one unit merous clustering techniques available in the literature (Macqueen,
or cluster (Doetsch et al., 2010; Ward et al., 2014; Ishola et al., 1967; Bezdek, 1981). Fuzzy c-means is a strategy for clustering that
2015). Doetsch et al. (2010) and Ward et al. (2014) use the cluster- permits one piece of data to belong to two or more groups. It has been
ing technique in postinversion processing to improve the resistivity broadly used in geosciences, e.g., in remote sensing image segmen-
images significantly. However, Infante et al. (2010) combine geo- tation (Fan et al., 2009; Ghaffarian and Ghaffarian, 2014; Sarkar et al.,
spectral and geophysical signatures in the joint inversion of electri- 2016), geochemistry (Fatehi and Asadi, 2017), soil-landscape mod-
cal and seismic data to get a better separation between two different eling and soil mapping (Bragato, 2004; Goktepe et al., 2005; Wang
geologic units. Ishola et al. (2015) combine multiple arrays in their et al., 2012), determination of aquifer parameters and groundwater
ERT problem using a k-means clustering technique. In the present study (Ayvaz, 2007; Ayvaz et al., 2007; Güler et al., 2012), subsur-
study, we develop an inversion algorithm for the 2D DC resistivity face zonation and petrophysical parameter estimation (Paasche et al.,
inverse problem using the Lp-norm. We use the fuzzy c-means 2006, 2010; Sun and Li, 2015), and cooperative inversion (Paasche
(FCM) clustering technique directly in the inversion framework to and Tronicke, 2007; Nair and Kandpal, 2010).
improve the interpretation of the subsurface resistivity structures. The FCM clustering procedure assigns blocks to clusters using
We also show the effect of the clustering in the inversion result. fuzzy memberships. Let m ¼ ½m1 ; m2 ; : : : ; mM T denote the M
The developed methodology is tested with three synthetic data sets numbers of resistivity blocks to be partitioned into c numbers of
and a field data set. The field data were collected from a sensitive geologic units (i.e., the number of cluster centers). To realize this,
clay site at Esp, Trondheim, Norway. The objective of the survey we can iteratively minimize the following objective function (Bez-
was to identify sensitive clay zones. dek, 1981):

METHODOLOGY
M X
X c
ϕc ¼ μqik kmk − ui k22 ; (3)
2D forward modeling and sensitivity calculation k¼1 i¼1

Forward modeling is an essential tool for any inversion algo-


where μik is the respective cluster membership of the kth resistivity
rithm. In 2D DC resistivity forward modeling, the following elliptic
partial differential equation of Poisson’s type (Günther, 2004) is block with respect to the ith cluster. The function ui is the resistivity
solved to calculate the potential distribution Vðx; y; zÞ over a 2D value of the ith cluster (i.e., mean resistivity value of the ith geologic
conductivity structure ðσÞ due to a current source ðIÞ: unit). Weighting exponent q and kk22 are the fuzzification parameter
and the squared L2-norm, respectively. Wade et al. (2014) note that 2
−∇½σðx; zÞ∇Vðx; y; zÞ ¼ Iðx; y; zÞ: (1) FCM clustering will not provide unique results upon repeated appli-
cation and introduce a method called guided FCM clustering. They
There are many numerical approaches to solve equation 1, e.g., the compute predefined cluster centers with the help of the observed DC
finite-difference method (Mufti, 1976; Dey and Morrison, 1979), data sets using kernel density estimation (Botev et al., 2010). There-
finite-element method (Coggon, 1971; Rijo, 1977; Queralt et al., fore, we introduce a priori cluster centers vi into our FCM clustering
1991; Xu et al., 2000), and finite-volume method (Pidlisecky and formulation (Sun and Li, 2015):
Fuzzy constrained inversion 3

M X
X c X
c minϕtotal ¼ ϕd þ λ1 ϕm ; ϕd ≤ ϕ ; (6)
ϕc ¼ μqik kmk − ui k22 þ wci kui − vi k22 ; (4) m
k¼1 i¼1 i¼1
where ϕ is the target misfit. The regularization term λ1 controls the
where wci is the weight corresponding to a priori cluster center vi. trade-off between model regularization and data misfit function. A
Writing equation 4 in matrix form results in proper value of the regularization parameter is derived from expe-
rience or trial-and-error method. Constable et al. (1987) and Meju
X
c X
c (1992) use a line search method, whereas Loke and Barker (1996)
ϕc ¼ μqi km − ui k22 þ wci kui − vi k22 : (5) start with a higher value and further decrease it at subsequent itera-
i¼1 i¼1 tions. Yi et al. (2003) use a spatially variable regularization param-
eter, calculated it using the spread function and model parameter
We perform an iterative minimization of the objective function in
resolution matrix. There are other methods as well to choose an ap-
equation 5 to obtain the optimum value of the cluster centers and
propriate value of λ1 ; e.g., the L-curve method, discrepancy method,
their respective membership values (μ). The cluster centers are up-
and generalized cross-validation method (Hansen, 1998; Günther 3
dated iteratively based on the new membership values (μ).This pro-
et al., 2006). Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004) compare different
cedure is continued until termination criteria (εc ) are satisfied. The
selection criteria and suggest a cooling-type method of decreasing the
weighting exponent q is assigned with a value of two in this study.
Minimization of the FCM objective function in an iterative manner is regularization parameter. In this work, starting value of the regulari-
summarized below from a well-known algorithm of Bezdek (1981): zation parameter λs1 is calculated as in Akca (2016):

λs1 ¼ std½logðdobs Þ; (7)

where std stands for the standard deviation and dobs represents the
observed apparent resistivity data. Furthermore, the value of the regu-
Repeat for l ¼ 1; 2; : : :
larization parameter is reduced to half in successive iterations until it
Step 1: Calculate the centers: reaches a minimum of 0.01. Data misfit is a measure of disagreement
PM ðl−1Þ q
between the observed apparent resistivity data dobs and predicted
ðlÞ k¼1 ðμik Þ mj þ wci vi apparent resistivity data dpre . Predicted data are the response of a
ui ¼ PM ðl−1Þ q
; 1 < i < c:
k¼1 ðμik Þ þ wci model m, derived through forward modeling as shown in equations 1
and 2. Mathematical representation of the data misfit function can be
given as
Step 2: Compute the distance matrices:
ϕd ¼ kWd ðFðmÞ − dobs Þkpp ; (8)
ðlÞ ðlÞ
D2ik ¼ ðmk − ui ÞT ðmk − ui Þ; 1 ≤ i ≤ c; 1≤k≤M
where Wd ¼ diagfς12 ; ς12 ; : : : ; ς12 g and ςi is the standard deviation of
1 2 N

the ith observation. If standard deviation of observed data is not


Step3: Update the partition matrix: known, then weights can be computed by following Akca (2016) as
 
for 1 ≤ k ≤ M; 1 1 1
Wd ¼ diag p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi ; p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi ; : : : ; p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi : (9)
for 1 ≤ i ≤ c;
4
dobs
1
4
dobs
2
4
dobs
N

1
μik ¼ P   2 The model regularization parameter is calculated according to Li and
c Dik q−1 Oldenburg (1996) as
i¼1 Djk

X
4
Until kμðlÞ − μðl−1Þ k < εc . ϕm ¼ kα1 Wm ref p
s ðm − m Þkp þ kαi Wm p
i mkp ; (10)
i¼2

Start with resistivity model m; choose the number of clusters where mref is the reference model (i.e., a priori resistivity model) and
1 < c < M; termination tolerance εc (usually 10−5 ). Initialize the the matrix Wm s is the diagonal matrix containing model parameter
partition matrix randomly such that μð0Þ ∈ Mfk (i.e., it belongs weights. Weighting matrices Wm i ði ¼ 2; 3; 4Þ are first-order x-direc-
to the fuzzy partitioning space). tion gradient, z-direction gradient, and Laplace’s differential compo-
nent, respectively (Li and Oldenburg, 1996; Pidlisecky et al., 2007)
Inversion approach 8∂
>
< ∂x ; i¼2

The 2D DC resistivity inverse problem is a highly underdeter-
Wi ¼
m ; i ¼ 3:
mined problem; therefore, an additional term Tikhonov parametric >
∂z  (11)
: 1 ∂22 þ ∂2
; i¼4
functional or model regularization parameter, ϕm ðmÞ (Tikhonov 4 ∂x ∂z2
and Arsenin, 1977) is used together with the data misfit function
ϕd ðmÞ. These two terms are weighted by a regularization term Constants αi ði ¼ 2; 3; 4Þ are the respective weights. The first term of 4
λ1 and yield the objective function: equation 10 will give us a measure of the closeness of the current
4 Singh et al.

model to a reference model (Li and Oldenburg, 1998). In the present the previous section. Additional inputs to this step are (1) the num-
study, we use a modified version of the Lp-norm (Ekblom, 1987; also ber of cluster centers and (2) values of the cluster centers (the mean
see Appendix A for different types of norms) as resistivity value of each geologic unit). Fuzzy weighting terms wci
p
(equation 5) are based on our confidence level to find the value of a
lp ðeÞ ¼ ðe2 þ ε2 Þ 2 : (12) priori cluster centers vi . If the a priori information of any particular
cluster center is not known to us, then the weighting term is as-
The minimization of the objective function shown in equation 6 at the signed as zero. We minimize two objective functions (equations 5
(k þ 1)th iteration using the Ekblom (1987) norm in an iteratively and 6) together.
reweighted least-squares (IRLS) strategy requires the solution for After obtaining the resistivity model mjþ1 at the (j þ 1)th iter-
the model update(see Appendix A) as ation, we compute the ith cluster centers ujþ1 i and its corresponding
2 3−1 membership values μijþ1 separately as explained in the fuzzy-
ðSk ÞT ðWd ÞT Rd Wd Sk clustering section. Furthermore, the resistivity model mjþ1 is par-
6  7
Δmkþ1 ¼ 4 α1 ðWm
s Þ R s Ws
T m
5 titioned into c clusters using cluster centers and the maximum
þλ1 P4 membership value of the FCM to compute the model parameters
þ i¼2 αi ðWi Þ Ri Wi
m T m
2 k T d T 3 (modified resistivity model) for the (j þ 1)th iteration as
ðS Þ ðW Þ Rd Wd ðdobs − dk Þ
6  ref  7; X
c
×4 α1 ðWm s Þ Rs Ws ðm − m Þ
T m k
5 (13) mjþ1 ¼ ujþ1 jþ1
−λ1 P4 k i μik : (16)
þ i¼2 αi ðWi Þ Ri Wi m
m T m k i¼1

where Sk is the Jacobian matrix at the kth iteration and Δmkþ1 is the This method is known as hard classification or defuzzification in the
model update at the (k þ 1)th iteration. Equation 13 has additional literature (Miyamoto et al., 2008). By performing the inversion in
matrices Rd ; Rs , and Ri compared with the general system of equa- this way, three parameters, namely, resistivity model m, cluster cen-
tion for L2-norm-based minimization. It is important to highlight that ters u, and membership values μ, are iteratively optimized together.
matrices Rd ; Rs , and Ri are also dependent on mk and Δmkþ1 and Therefore, the goal of the presented FCI is to satisfy the additional a
are updated at each iteration (see equations B-12 and B-14). If we priori information of geologic units together with observed apparent
consider the L2-norm (i.e., p ¼ 2 and ε ¼ 10−6 ), these diagonal ma- resistivity data sets in the inversion. Hence, FCI resistivity images
trices (Rd ; Rs , and Ri ) will become identity matrices, and equation 13 will be more reliable than the general resistivity images obtained
will be reduced to using only observed apparent resistivity data sets. A flowchart of
2 3−1 FCI is shown below:
ðSk ÞT ðWd ÞT Wd Sk
6  7
Δmkþ1 ¼ 4 α1 ðWm
s Þ Ws
T m
5
þλ1 P4
þ i¼2 αi ðWi Þ Wi
m T m
2 k T d T d obs 3
ðS Þ ðW Þ W ðd − dk Þ Flowchart of FCI
6  ref  7:
×4 α1 ðWm s Þ Ws ðm − m Þ
T m k
5 (14) 1) Choose the size of measure (i.e., norm p and ε) and inversion
−λ1 P4 parameters α.
þ i¼2 αi ðWi Þ Wi m
m T m k
2) Choose a starting model m0 , number of lithologic units c, cluster
centers vi , and weights wi .
Equation 14 is used to compute the model update at the first iteration
because the diagonal matrices Rd ; Rs , and Ri cannot be computed 3) Set j ¼ 0. Compute dpre0 ¼ Fðm0 Þ using equation 2,
Δd0 ¼ dobs − dpre0 , and compute the sensitivity matrix S .
0
due to the unavailability of model update Δm. Once Δm is obtained
and the matrices Rd ; Rs , and Ri can be computed, Δm is obtained by 4) while kW d ðF½mj  − dobs Þk2 ≥ tolð≃ 1%Þ and j < jmax do
solving equation 13 for the rest of the iterations. Logarithmic values 4) If j ¼¼ 0,
of resistivity are used as model parameters; therefore, the model will Compute model perturbation Δmj using equation 14
be updated as (Baranwal et al., 2011) 5) else j >¼ 1,
Compute the diagonal matrices Rd ; Rs , and Ri .
mkþ1 ¼ mk expðΔmkþ1 Þ: (15)
Compute model perturbation Δmjþ1 using equation 13.
It is important to highlight that the data error in observed ERT data is 6) Update model parameter vector mjþ1 ¼ mj expðΔmjþ1 Þ.
generally approximated by a Gaussian distribution; however, the Rd 7) Compute the sensitivity matrix Sjþ1 and predicted data
matrix (equation B-12) will provide a non-Gaussian distribution. dpre
jþ1 ¼ Fðmjþ1 Þ.
Therefore, Rd is used as an identity matrix throughout the study. 8) Update the cluster centers uijþ1 at ðj þ 1Þth iteration.
ðjþ1Þ
9) Update the partition matrix μik at the ðj þ 1Þth iteration.
Fuzzy constrained inversion 10) Compute new model parameters using equation 16
The basic idea of the fuzzy constrained inversion (FCI) is to im- mjþ1 ¼ ujþ1 μjþ1 .
prove the 2D resistivity model within the iterative minimization dur- 11) j ¼ j þ 1.
ing the inversion. For this purpose, we have used an additional step 12) end.
of optimizing the cluster centers during the inversion as explained in
Fuzzy constrained inversion 5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION to 1 and 15 (Table 1) to recover the synthetic model. It is also seen
that the boundaries of the geologic units are better recovered by FCI
To demonstrate the efficacy of FCI, synthetic apparent resistivity compared with general inversion without clustering. The conver-
data are generated for different types of electrode configurations for gence pattern of the inversion algorithms (Figure 2) shows that all
three different 2D models. L1- and L2-norm-based resistivity inver- the inversions converge to almost the same rms error.
sions of the synthetic data are performed using the general inversion
approach described in the “Inversion approach” section. Later, the Synthetic model 2
same data are inverted using our FCI. All the parameters used in this
study are summarized in Table 1. We performed another synthetic model inversion using a two-
block model with a sharp resistivity contrast (Boonchaisuk et al.,
Synthetic model 1 2008) as shown in Figure 3a. Two blocks having resistivity of 100
and 1 Ωm were located next to each other in a homogeneous half-
The first synthetic model is a single 10 Ωm block in a 100 Ωm space of 10 Ωm resistivity. The response of the model was calcu-
background as shown in Figure 1a. The synthetic apparent resistiv- lated for the dipole-dipole array configuration. Gaussian noise of
ity response of the first test model was calculated for the Wenner 5% was added to the synthetic data set (Figure 3b). The whole
array (details are given in Table 1). The model region was discre- model region was discretized into 28 × 19 blocks. The model con-
tized in 1020 resistivity blocks (60 in the x-direction and 17 in the sists of three geologic units with mean resistivity values of 1, 10,
z-direction). Gaussian noise of 5% was added to the synthetic model and 100 Ωm (the histogram plot in Figure 3a). If resistivities of geo-
as shown in Figure 1b to generate noisy synthetic data. We started logic units are known from priori measurements of rock samples or
the inversion with a homogeneous resistivity model, i.e., the aver- from other geophysical surveys (e.g., boreholes), then we can recon-
age of the noisy synthetic data. The data were first inverted using an struct the resistivity model more accurately using the presented FCI.
L2-norm by assigning p ¼ 2 and ε ¼ 1.0 × 10−6 , and the test re- We set c as 3 and vk as [1, 10, and 100] Ωm for k ¼ 1 − 3. The
sults are shown in Figure 1c. We inverted the same data using an resistivity model reconstructed from general inversion without fuzzy
L1-norm (p ¼ 1 and ε ¼ 1.0 × 10−6 ), and the results are shown in clustering constraints are shown in Figure 3c and 3d for L2- and
Figure 1d. All the inversion parameters were kept exactly the same L1-norms, respectively. Figure 3e and 3f shows the recovered resis-
except the value of p for L1- and L2-norm inversions. Finally, we tivity models by FCI using L2- and L1-norms, respectively. It is ob-
inverted the same synthetic data with our FCI strategy as detailed in vious that the interfaces of the blocks are much clearer in Figure 3e
the FCI section. The inversion was performed by setting c ¼ 2, and 3f obtained by FCIs than in Figure 3c and 3d by general inver-
v1 ¼ logð100Þ Ωm, v2 ¼ logð10Þ Ωm, and ε ¼ 1.0 × 10−6 for sion. Both of the above synthetic examples show the efficacy of the
L2-norm (p ¼ 2) and L1-norm (p ¼ 1). The results of L2- and presented FCI. We would like to highlight that the FCI inversion with
L1-norm minimization with FCI are shown in Figure 1e and 1f, the L1-norm (Figures 1f and 3f) in comparison with the FCI inversion
respectively. We show histogram plots of the cell resistivities for with the L2-norm (Figures 1e and 3e) recovers boundaries better to
all the models to their right side to highlight the ranges of the re- resemble the true model, specifically in the vertical direction. We note
sistivities in the models. In the present test, fuzzy weights were set that the resistivity ranges in the L2-norm FCI model are fewer than in

Table 1. Summary of all the parameters (general, inversion, and clustering) used in the present study.

Parameters Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Field data

General parameters Forward solver Finite-element method


Electrode array Wenner Dipole-dipole Wenner Gradient
Unit spacing (m) 10 5 1 5
No. of observed data 345 669 408 2155
Number of blocks 60 × 17 58 × 19 50 × 14 120 × 22
Inversion parameters α1 10−6 10−6
α2 0.02 0.002
α3 0.02 0.002
α4 0.02 0.002
Number of iteration 10 10
λ1 (initial value) Using equation 7 Using equation 7
λ1 (minimum value) 0.01 0.01
λ1 (damping factor) 0.55 0.55
Clustering parameters Number of cluster 2 3 2 4
Cluster centers ½2; 1T ½0; 2; 1T ½2; 1T ½0.88; 1.64; 2.26; 3T
wci ½1; 15T ½15; 5; 1T ½20; 20T ½20; 15; 10; 0T
6 Singh et al.

the L1-norm FCI model. This is the reason that L1-norm FCI in com- ities well, but L1-norm FCI (Figure 4e) recovers appropriate boun-
parison with L2-norm FCI took fewer numbers of iterations in recov- daries than L2-norm FCI (Figure 4d).
ering the true model (Figure 2). In the next examples (Figure 4f and 4g), we assumed three
(c ¼ 3) and four (c ¼ 4) model units instead of actual two model
Synthetic model 3 units to demonstrate the effect of choosing the wrong number of
clusters and cluster centers for the same synthetic model (Figure 4a).
The third synthetic model (Figure 4a) was designed to demon- Histogram plots of the recovered resistivities in right side images of
strate the effect of choosing an incorrect number of clusters in the Figure 4f and 4g show three and four geologic units, respectively, in
model than the actual number of possible geologic units present in the recovered models. Only two model units are present in the true
the model. The fuzzy clustering constrained inversion was applied models, and the rest are artifacts generated by the wrong assumption
on synthetic responses of resistivity model 3 representing a vertical of the extra geologic units in the fuzzy clustering. This example
fault-like model (the boundary of the true model is shown by black demonstrates that it is quite important to choose the correct number
lines in Figure 4a). The resistivities of the blocks are 100 and
10 Ωm. The response of the model was calculated for a Wenner
array of 51 electrodes with 1 m electrode spacing. Gaussian noise
of 5% was added to synthetic apparent resistivity data to approxi-
mate it with noisy field measurements. The model region was dis-
cretized in 700 cells (50 × 14). Models shown in Figure 4b and 4c
were obtained by L2- and L1-norms general inversions, respec-
tively. The black lines in each figure show the boundary between
two contrasting units in the true model. We inverted the synthetic
apparent resistivity data with 5% Gaussian noise using FCI and as-
suming the actual number of model units (i.e., c ¼ 2) and vi as
[log (100) and log (10)] Ωm for k ¼ 1 − 2. These results of FCI
with L2- and L1-norms as shown in Figure 4d and 4e, respectively, Figure 2. Convergence pattern of data misfit ϕd during the itera-
depict that both the models recovered the boundaries and resistiv- tions for different inversions performed for synthetic model 1.

Figure 1. Inversion results for the single block model. (a) Synthetic model simulating a single dike type body and (b) the perturbed model with
5% Gaussian variation of the cell resistivities. Models obtained after inversion of the synthetic data are shown in (c) using L2-norm, (d) using
L1-norm, (e) using FCI with L2-norm, and (f) using FCI with L1-norm. The second and fourth columns represent histogram plots of the
resistivity models to their left.
Fuzzy constrained inversion 7

Figure 3. Inversion results for two blocks models with high resistivity contrasts. (a) True resistivities of the model, and (b) same model with 5%
Gaussian noise. Models obtained after inversion of the synthetic data are shown in (c) using L2-norm, (d) using L1-norm, (e) using FCI with L2-
norm, and (f) using FCI with L1-norm. The second and fourth columns represent histogram plots of corresponding resistivity models to their left.

Figure 4. Inversion results for a fault model with high resistivity contrasts and the effect of the inappropriate number of clustering information
on FCI. Synthetic model and histogram plot of resistivities are shown in (a). Models obtained after inversion of the synthetic data are shown in
(b) using L2-norm, (c) using L1-norm, (d) using FCI with L2-norm and (e) using FCI with L1-norm. Inverted resistivity models using L1-norm
FCI are shown in (f) when three clusters were assumed and in (g) when four clusters were assumed. The second and fourth columns represent
histogram plots of corresponding resistivity models to their left. Black-colored solid lines in the resistivity models show the boundaries of the
synthetic model.
8 Singh et al.

of the clusters from a priori information. The recovered extra units inverted model (Figure 6a) is modified after Figure 8a of Solberg
share the model space of the neighboring clusters and produce the et al. (2016). This resistivity model was obtained using RES2DInv
artifacts. software and robust L1-norm inversion (Loke and Barker, 1996). Sol-
berg et al. (2016) interpret four different geologic units along this 2D
Inappropriate selection of the cluster centers in FCI ERT profile namely (1) unleached clay deposits (1 − 10 Ωm),
(2) leached clay deposits or possible quick clay (10 − 100 Ωm),
We further explored the effect of the inappropriate selection of (3) dry crust clay deposits and coarse sediments (>100 Ωm), and
the cluster centers assuming that the selection of several clusters (4) bedrock (> 500 Ωm) as shown in Figure 6a. The classification
is accurate. To test this, we perturbed the cluster center values from used by Solberg et al. (2016) is based on several geophysical and
the actual cluster center values for all the synthetic model examples geotechnical data from different studies in Scandinavia and Canada
1–3 (Figures 1a, 3a, and 4a). These perturbed cluster centers (Solberg et al., 2008; Long et al., 2012; Solberg et al., 2012). A new
were assumed as ½100; 20T , ½5; 50; 10T , and ½300; 10T instead of inverted resistivity model using the same general L1-norm (as de-
½100; 10T , ½1; 100; 10T , and ½100; 10T for synthetic models 1–3,
scribed in the “Inversion approach” section) is shown in Figure 6b.
respectively. Inversion results using L1-norm FCI for three synthetic
Figure 6a and 6b reveal that the boundaries across the different geo-
models with perturbed cluster centers (Figure 5) clearly show that the
logic units are not well-separated and resolved. The subsurface resis-
shapes of the geologic units do not change, whereas the boundaries of
tivity was also measured by a resistivity cone penetration test unit
the geologic units shift in all the synthetic models. Examples from
(RCPTU) at two locations B1 and B2. Locations of B1 and B2 with
Figures 4 and 5 clearly demonstrate that FCI is highly dependent on
respect to the ERT profile and the 2012 landslide site are shown in
the selected number of the clusters and their respective cluster cen-
Figure 7a. B1 (Hundal, 2014) was located at 150 m west of the pro-
ters. However, selection of the appropriate number of clusters is a
file, and B2 (Montafia, 2013) was located directly on the ERT profile.
vital input for FCI to recover a reasonably true model.
RCPTU is a small-scale, four-electrode sounding technique to per-
form in situ electrical resistivity measurements by pushing the unit
Field example vertically in the soft soil (NIFS, 2014). Resistivity variations at these
To examine the efficiency of our inversion algorithm on field data, two locations are similar as shown in Figure 7b. Figure 7c (y-axis
we inverted a 2D ERT profile data from the published work of Sol- labeling on the left) shows the histogram plot of the resistivity mea-
berg et al. (2016). The data were collected with 5 m electrode spacing sured at B1 and B2. To identify the different resistivity boundaries
using a gradient array from a quick-clay landslide area at Esp, Trond- present at locations B1 and B2, a kernel density estimation function
heim, Norway. Various geophysical and geotechnical surveys have (Botev et al., 2010) is used, and the resulting plot is shown in Fig-
been previously carried out on this site after a landslide in 2012 (Bar- ure 7c (y-axis labeling on the right). Three major peaks are identified
anwal et al., 2015; Solberg et al., 2015; Baranwal et al., 2017). The at 7.6, 44.2, and 180 Ωm corresponding to unleached clay, leached
clay, and dry crust clay, respectively. These values would serve as
mean resistivity values of the classified clay materials inferred from
the borehole information. In this way, we got additional a priori in-
formation to use in FCI of the 2D ERT data.

Figure 5. Examples of choosing inappropriate cluster centers in


FCI. Inversion results from (a) synthetic model 1, (b) synthetic Figure 6. Interpreted 2D resistivity section of ERT data from Esp,
model 2, and (c) synthetic model 3. Black solid lines (a and b) and Trondehim, Norway using (a) RES2DINV software (modified after
white solid lines (c) in the resistivity models show the boundaries of Figure 8a of Solberg et al., 2016) and (b) presented L1-norm general
the synthetic models. Each resistivity model has been plotted using inversion. Solberg et al. (2016) has identified four main types of
the same colorbar as in their respective synthetic examples lithologic units in the study region.
Fuzzy constrained inversion 9

We inverted measured 2D ERT data using two clustering infor- gravel, i.e., c ¼ 4, and (2) the mean resistivity values of these geo-
mation: (1) four geologic units as unleached marine clay, leached logic units as 8, 44, 180, and 1000 Ωm. Considering the fact that
marine clay (possible quick clay), dry crust clay, and bedrock or there are four geologic units and only values for three cluster cen-
ters, i.e., v1 , v2 , and v3 are known, and v4 is un-
known, we put zero weight to the fourth geologic
rock unit (bedrock). In this situation, the cluster
center for the fourth geologic rock unit will be
governed by conventional FCM clustering. The
resulting resistivity model after L1-norm FCI
is shown in Figure 8a. The histogram plot (Fig-
ure 8b) depicts that L1-norm FCI-inverted resis-
tivity model (Figure 8a) has sharper boundary
contrasts compared with the general L1-norm in-
verted models (Figure 6a and 6b). According to
the resistivity ranges proposed by Solberg et al.
(2008, 2012), leached marine clay will have a
resistivity between 10 and 100 Ωm. Solberg et al.
Figure 7. (a) Location of the boreholes B1 and B2 (black dot circle) with respect to the (2016) confirm that marine clay is leached be-
chosen ERT profile (Black solid line). (b) Resistivity variation at B1 and B2 measured tween 2 and 14 m at location B1 from the geo-
from RCPTU. (c) Histogram (y-axis labeling on the left) and relative density (y-axis technical drills and soil samples. Figure 8a
labeling on the right) plot of resistivity.
depicts that the resistivity value falls down to
10 Ωm less than 14 m at B1 suggesting that
unleached marine clay is reached and that matches well with
RCPTU resistivity interpretation from this location (Figure 7b).
The FCI section describes that geologic units can also be distin-
guished uniquely by assigning each block to the cluster of the high-
est membership values μik (i.e., defuzzification) after solving for the
model update in each iteration. Figure 8c presents the identification
of four different geologic units based on maximum membership val-
ues after the final iteration. Figure 9 shows a similar convergence
patterns for general L1-norm and fuzzy L1-norm inversions. The
observed apparent resistivity pseudo-section and computed appar-
ent resistivity pseudosection for the inverted model (Figure 6b) after
L1-norm inversion are shown in Figure 10a and 10b, respectively.
Figure 10c shows the difference of the observed and computed data
as presented in Figure 10a and 10b. Figure 10d shows the computed
apparent resistivity pseudosection for the resistivity model pre-
sented in Figure 8a after fuzzy L1-norm inversion. The difference
between the observed (Figure 10a) and computed (Figure 10d) ap-
parent resistivity data is shown in Figure 10e. Figure 10c and 10e
shows almost similar level of data fitting in most of the regions;
however, L1-norm FCI seems better fitting at few locations. There-
fore, FCI is quite efficient to decipher different geologic units in the
model region, if the correct number of geologic units is provided by
the user. It is important to highlight that for field data interpretation,

Figure 8. (a) Inverted resistivity section using L1-norm FCI for the
same profile as shown in Figure 6a and (b) corresponding histogram
plot of inverted resistivity. (c) Geologic separation results by provid-
ing maximum membership values μik with respect to each geologic
unit. Four cluster centers were assumed based on the resistivity ranges Figure 9. Convergence pattern of data misfit ϕd during the itera-
described by Solberg et al. (2016) and kernel density estimation (Fig- tions for general L1-norm inversion and fuzzy constrained L1-norm
ure 7c). inversion for the field ERT data from Esp, Trondheim, Norway.
10 Singh et al.

L1- and L2-norm inversions. However, the pre-


sented FCI is an efficient tool to differentiate be-
tween two or more geologic units if the correct
number of the geologic unit is provided to FCI.
We also observe that the resistivity images ob-
tained from L1-norm FCI define the resistivity
boundaries better than those obtained from L2-
norm FCI. Inversion for synthetic models also re-
veals that inappropriate clustering information
would affect primarily the conductive geologic
units instead of the resistive geologic units. Syn-
thetic examples show that L1-norm converges
faster. A priori information of the correct number
of cluster centers and the correct value of these
cluster centers are very important inputs for a
successful FCI; however, the correct number of
cluster centers is of higher importance. A field
data example establishes the efficacy of the pre-
sented FCI in differentiating boundaries of the
possible quick clay zones from other geologic
units. The FCI resistivity model successfully in-
cludes the parametric information provided by
other geophysical and geotechnical surveys and
maintains the same degree of fitting between ob-
served and computed data as shown by the general
inversion.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Figure 10. Measured and computed data after L1-norm and fuzzy constrained L1-norm We thank X. Garcia (associate editor), R.
inversions for the field ERT data of Esp, Trondheim, Norway. (a) Measured apparent Schaa, and two anonymous reviewers for their
resistivity, (b) computed apparent resistivity using L1-norm inversion (for resistivity comments and suggestions which helped to im-
model shown in Figure 6b), (c) difference between the data shown in (a and b, d) com- prove the quality of the manuscript. A. Singh
puted apparent resistivity using fuzzy constrained L1-norm inversion (for resistivity
model shown in Figure 8a), and (e) the difference between the data shown in (a and d). thanks the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
Kharagpur and the Ministry of Human Resources
and Development (MHRD) India for financial as-
we have a general idea of the number of different geologic units sistance of a research fellowship. Geological Survey of Norway
present in the study area as a priori information. This a priori in- (NGU) is thanked for providing the 2D ERT data. This work is a
formation helped the FCI to select the number of clusters for the part of the doctoral dissertation of A. Singh.
ERT data inversion. However, there could be geologic scenarios in
which we may not have such a priori information. In those geologic
scenarios, one can obtain the optimal number of cluster centers based APPENDIX A
on statistical analysis of clustering results (Milligan and Cooper,
1985; Halkidi et al., 2001).
MEASURES OF THE LENGTH OF VECTORS
Misfit error between observed ERT and computed ERT data can
be calculated using various norms. Let us assume following data
CONCLUSION error vector:
Application of any clustering algorithm as a postinversion proc-
e ¼ dobs − dpre : (A-1)
ess may vary from the actual model obtained from inversion of the
measured data. Therefore, an approach for delineating geologic
The measure of equation A-1 in general Lp-norm is defined as
units from the geoelectrical resistivity models by incorporating a
clustering process within the inversion algorithm is proposed. The X
N
method is based on incorporating FCM clustering to the 2D inver- kekpp ¼ jek jp ; (A-2)
sion of the ERT data. FCI fulfills two needs: (1) obtaining a resis- k¼1
tivity model in which the response minimizes the data misfit
function and (2) the recovered resistivity model will be guided by where N is the number of observed ERT data. The variable p can be
additional a priori parametric information. We demonstrate with the ≥ 1 depending on the chosen norm. In the present study, we have
help of synthetic examples that the boundaries between geologic used a modified version of Lp-norm (Ekblom, 1987; Farquharson
units are less pronounced in models obtained from conventional and Oldenburg, 1998; Sun and Li, 2014) defined as
Fuzzy constrained inversion 11

p 8
lðeÞ ¼ ðe2 þ ε2 Þ 2 ; (A-3) < Wd ðdk þ Sk Δmkþ1 − dobs Þ j ¼ d
Lj¼ðd;s;iÞ ¼ Wm ðmk þ Δmkþ1 − mref Þ j ¼ s ; (B-5)
: sm k
Wi ðm þ Δmkþ1 Þ j¼i
X
N
p will lead to
⇒ lðeÞ ¼ ðe2k þ ε2 Þ 2 ; (A-4)
k¼1
∂ϕ ∂½ϕd fLd g − ϕ 
¼
where ε is a small positive scalar quantity (10−6 in the present study). ∂ðΔm Þ
kþ1 ∂ðΔmkþ1 Þ
P

∂½α1 ϕm1 fLs g þ 4i¼2 αi ϕm2 fLi g


APPENDIX B þ λ1 : (B-6)
∂ðΔmkþ1 Þ
MINIMIZATION FOR THE INVERSE PROBLEM
USING GENERAL MEASURES Differentiating the right side of equation B-6 by the chain rule and
putting the value of Ld , Ls , and Li from equation B-5 result in
Considering the minimization of model regularization parameter
along with data misfit function and using Tikhonov parametric ∂½ϕd fLd g − ϕ  ∂ϕd ðLd Þ ∂ðWd ðdk þ Sk Δmkþ1 − dobs ÞÞ
function (same as equation 6) in the present study: ¼ ;
∂ðΔmkþ1 Þ ∂ðLd Þ ∂ðΔmkþ1 Þ
ϕtotal ðmÞ ¼ kW d ðFðmÞ − dobs Þkpp þ λ1 fjjα1 Wm ref p
s ðm − m Þjjp ∂½ϕd fLd g − ϕ  ∂ϕ ðL Þ
¼ ðSk ÞT ðWd ÞT d d ; (B-7)
X
4 ∂ðΔm Þkþ1 ∂ðLd Þ
p 
þ jjαi Wm
i mjjp g; s:t: ϕ < ϕ ; (B-1)
i¼2 where superscript T is the transpose of the matrix. Similarly, putting
the values of all the differential terms in equation B-6 results in
where ϕ is the target misfit. Using the same nomenclature of Far-

quharson and Oldenburg (1998), the objective function to be mini- ∂ϕ ∂ϕ ðL Þ
mized can be written as ¼ ðSk ÞT ðWd ÞT d d
∂ðΔm Þ
kþ1 ∂ðLd Þ
 

X ∂ϕm2 ðLi Þ
T ∂ϕd ðLs Þ þ
4
ϕ ¼ ϕd fWd ðFðmÞ − dobs Þg − ϕ  þ λ1 ½ϕm1 þ λ1 α1 ðWms Þ α i ðW m ÞT :
∂ðLs Þ i
∂ðLi Þ
X
4 
i¼2

× fα1 Wm (B-8)
s ðm − m Þg þ ϕm2 α i Wm
ref
i m : (B-2)
i¼2
Differentiation of equation A-3 will result in
Let us assume that model at kth iteration is mk , predicted data are
dk for this model and model update at k þ 1th iteration is ∂lðeÞ p

mkþ1 ¼ mkþ1 − mk . Writing equation B-2 for mkþ1 using Taylor’s ¼ pðe2 þ ε2 Þ 2 −1 e: (B-9)
∂e
series expansion of FðmÞ and discarding the second and higher or-
der derivatives result in Following the analogy of equation B-9,
   

∂F ∂ϕd ðLd Þ
ϕðmkþ1 Þ¼ ϕd Wd Fðmk Þþ Δmkþ1 −dobs −ϕ p
¼ pððLd Þ2 þ ε2 Þ 2 −1 ðLd Þ; (B-10)
∂m ∂ðLd Þ

þλ1 α1 ϕm1 fWm
s ðm þΔm
k kþ1
−mref Þg

4
∂ϕd ðLd Þ
þ αi ϕm2 fWm
i ðm þΔm
k kþ1 Þg ; (B-3) ¼ Rd Ld ; (B-11)
i¼2
∂ðLd Þ

where Rd is a diagonal matrix of which elements can be expressed


using equations B-10 and B-5 as follows:
⇒ ϕðmkþ1 Þ ¼ ½ϕd fWd ðdk þ Sk Δmkþ1 − dobs Þg − ϕ  0 1
2 2 −1 p
p½ðWd1 ðdk1 þ Sk Δmkþ1 − dobs
1 ÞÞ þ ε 
2
þ λ1 α1 ϕm1 fWms ðm þ Δm
k kþ1
− mref Þg B k Δmkþ1 − dobs ÞÞ2 þ ε2 p2 −1 C
B p½ðW ðd
d k
þ S C
Rd ¼ diagB C:
2 2 2

B .. C
X
4 @ . A
þ αi ϕm2 fWm ðm k þ Δmkþ1 Þg : (B-4) p½ðWdN ðdkN þ Sk Δmkþ1 − dobs 2 2 −1 p
N ÞÞ þ ε 
i 2
i¼2
(B-12)
Now differentiating equation B-4 with respect to Δmkþ1 and
assuming Similarly,
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Fuzzy constrained inversion 15

Queries
1. Pidlisecky et al., 2008 has been changed to Pidlisecky and Knight, 2008 per the reference list. Please check.

2. Please provide full reference information for the citation Wade et al. (2004), or may we delete the citation?

3. Please provide full reference information for the citation Hansen, 1998, or may we delete the citation?

4. Please check the inconsistencies in the usage of "Wm m


i " and "W i ".

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