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Chemistry Hands on

Chapter Acid Bases and salts

Basicity of Acid
 It is the number of ionizable H+ ions present in an acid e.g.
HCl is mono basic, it ionizes to produce one H+ ion
HCl ============== H+ + Cl-
H2SO4 is Dibasic, It ionizes to produce two H+ ions.
H2SO4 =============== 2H+ + SO42-
H3PO4 is Tribasic, it ionizes to produce three H+ ions.
H3PO4 ============== 3H+ + PO43-
Acidity of a Base
• It is the number ionizable OH- ions present in an base. e.g.
NaOH is monoacidic
NaOH ========== Na+ + OH-
Ca(OH)2 is diacidic
Ca(OH)2  ============== Ca2+ + 2OH-


Robert Boyle described the qualities of acids and bases in 1661. These
characteristics may be used to easily distinguish between the two sets up chemicals
without performing complicated tests:
 taste sour (don't taste them!)... the word 'acid' comes from the Latin acere,
which means 'sour'

 acids are corrosive

 acids change litmus (a blue vegetable dye) from blue to red

 their aqueous (water) solutions conduct electric current (are electrolytes)

 react with bases to form salts and water

 evolve hydrogen gas (H2) upon reaction with an active metal (such as alkali
metals, alkaline earth metals, zinc, aluminum)
 taste bitter (don't taste them!)
 feel slippery or soapy (don't arbitrarily touch them!)

 bases don't change the color of litmus; they can turn red (acidified) litmus
back to blue

 their aqueous (water) solutions conduct and electric current (are electrolytes)

 react with acids to form salts and water

Milk is acidic or basic

 The pH of milk determines whether it is considered an acid or a base.
Milk is slightly acidic or close to neutral pH.
 The exact value depends on when the milk was produced by the cow,
processing done to the milk, and how long it has been packaged or opened.
 The lactose is present as a natural component of foods only in milk.
 When milk become sour (means it turns to curd/yogurt) lactose converts in
to lactic acid by the action of bacteria.
 As milk goes sour, it becomes more acidic and the pH gets lower. This
occurs as bacteria in milk convert the sugar lactose into lactic acid.

 Calcium hydroxide: Ca(OH)2

Calcium hydroxide is considered a strong to medium strength base.Calcium

hydroxide is also known as calcium dihydroxide, calcium hydrate,
hydralime, hydrated lime, caustic lime, slaked lime, lime hydrate, lime water
and milk of lime. The chemical is white or colorless and may be crystalline.

 Potassium hydroxide: KOH

Potassium hydroxide is a strong base. It is also known as lye, sodium

hydrate, caustic potash and potash lye. Potassium hydroxide is a white or
colorless solid, used extensively in laboratories and everyday processes. It's
one of the most commonly encountered bases.

 Sodium hydroxide: NaOH

Sodium hydroxide is a strong base. It is also known as lye, caustic

soda, soda lye, white caustic, natrium causticum and sodium hydrate.
Sodium hydroxide is an extremely caustic white solid. It's used for many
processes, including soap-making, as a drain cleaner, to make other
chemicals, and to increase the alkalinity of solutions.
 Magnesium hydroxide : Mg(OH)2

Magnesium hydroxide is a non-toxic inorganic base. Its aqueous suspension

is known as milk of magnesia, a common antacid. Due to its mildly basic
and non-toxic nature, magnesium hydroxide is widely used as an antacid to
neutralize stomach acids and prevent indigestion and heartburn. It is also
used as a laxative, antiperspirant, underarm deodorant, to treat sores, in
wastewater treatment, and as a fire retardant.

 Ammonium hydroxide: NH4OH

Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many

household and industrial cleaners. Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the
manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber.
Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys,
and galvanized surfaces. Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.

pH—Short note
 pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of
the acidity or alkalinityof a solution. The pH scale usually ranges from 0 to
14. Aqueous solutions at 25°C with a pH less than seven are acidic, while
those with a pH greater than seven are basic or alkaline.
 The term "pH" comes from the German word potenz, which means "power"
combined with H, the element symbol for hydrogen, so pH is an
abbreviation for "power of hydrogen".


 We work with many acids (low pH) and bases (high pH) every day.
Examples of pH values of lab chemicals and household products include:

 0 - hydrochloric acid
2.0 - lemon juice
2.2 - vinegar
4.0 - wine
7.0 - pure water (neutral)
7.4 - human blood
13.0 - lye
14.0 sodium hydroxide

 pH is used in everyday life as well as science and industry. It's used in
cooking (e.g., reacting baking powder and an acid to make baked good rise),
to design cocktails, in cleaners, and in food preservation.

 It's important in pool maintenance and water purification, agriculture,

medicine, chemistry, engineering, oceanography, biology, and other

Sl Common Chemical Name Chemical Acids

No Name formula /
1 sodium hydrogen carbonate/
baking soda sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3

Epsom salt magnesium sulfate heptahydrate MgSO4.7 H2O

potash potassium carbonate K2CO3

lime calcium oxide CaO

limestone calcium carbonate CaCO3

lye sodium hydroxide NaOH

marble calcium carbonate CaCO3

milk of magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2


muriatic acid hydrochloric acid HCl

oil of vitriol sulfuric acid H2SO4

plaster of calcium sulfate hemi hydrate CaSO4. 1/2

paris H2O
gypsum calcium sulfate dihydrate CaSO4.2 H2O

salt sodium chloride NaCl

salt substitute potassium chloride KCl

saltpeter potassium nitrate KNO3

slaked lime calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2

salt sodium chloride NaCl

salt substitute potassium chloride KCl

saltpeter potassium nitrate KNO3

slaked lime calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2

washing soda sodium carbonate decahydrate Na2CO3.10


wood alcohol methyl alcohol CH3OH

salt sodium chloride NaCl

Calamine Zinc oxide ZnO

Differences between Organic acid and inorganic acids.

Organic Acids Inorganic Acids

Are organic compounds Are inorganic compounds

A few such as HCN contain carbon

All contain carbon atoms

Generally weak acids Generally strong acids

Dissolve poorly in water Dissolve well in water

Dissolve well in organic solvents Dissolve poorly in organic solvents

Biological origin Mineral origin