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8/30/2017 Fit tolerances and applications - mec Engineering Spreadsheets

Fit tolerances and applications


This section reports a summary of the available information that can be found on technical literature about
the fit tolerance between shafts and holes.
The aim is to help the designer to choose the appropriate and preferred fit tacking into account the standard
uses for mechanical applications.
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ISO and ANSI Standards CATEGORIES


The following tables report the preferred metric fits and tolerances for hole and shaft basis systems given by
the ISO 286-1 (2010) and ANSI B4.2-1978 standards. The use of these tolerances is advised for economic DOCUMENTATION AREA
reasons.
ACTIVATION/SUPPORT

ISO Symbol COURSES


Hole Shaft Description
Basis Basis
CONTACTS
Loose running fit for wide commercial tolerances or allowances on
H11/c11 C11/h11
external members.
Free running fit not for use where accuracy is essential, but good for LINKS
H9/d9 D9/h9 large temperature variations, high running speeds, or heavy journal
pressures. TERMS AND CONDITIONS
Clearance
Close running fit for running on accurate machines and for accurate
Fits H8/f7 F8/h7
location at moderate speeds and journal pressures.
Sliding fit not intended to run freely, but to move and turn freely and
H7/g6 G7/h6
locate accurately.
Locational clearance fit provides snug fit for locating stationary parts;
H7/h6 H7/h6
but can be freely assembled and disassembled.
Locational transition fit for accurate location, a compromise between
H7/k6 K7/h6
Transition clearance and interference.
Fits Locational transition fit for more accurate location where greater
H7/n6 N7/h6
interference is permissible.
Locational interference fit for parts requiring rigidity and alignment with
H7/p6 P7/h6 prime accuracy of location but without special bore pressure
requirements.
Interference
Medium drive fit for ordinary steel parts or shrink fits on light sections,
Fits H7/s6 S7/h6 Custom Search
the tightest fit usable with cast iron.
Force fit suitable for parts which can be highly stressed or for shrink
H7/u6 U7/h6
fits where the heavy pressing forces required are impractical.
Preferred fits table (ANSI B4.2-1978) Accepted payment method.

Basic Tolerance classes for shafts


Hole Clearance Fits Transition Fits Interference Fits
Payment and Delivery info
H6 g5 h5 js5 k5 m5 n5 p5
H7 f6 g6 h6 js6 k6 m6 n6 p6 r6 s6 t6 u6 x6 Powered by:
e7 f7 h7 js7 k7 m7 s7 u7
H8
d8 e8 f8 h8
H9 d8 e8 f8 h8
H10 b9 c9 d9 e9 h9
H11 b11 c11 d10 h10
Preferable fits of the hole-basis system (ISO 286-1:2010)

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Shaft Clearance Fits Transition Fits Interference Fits
h5 G6 H6 JS6 K6 M6 N6 P6
Share us with your friends and
h6 F7 G7 H7 JS7 K7 M7 N7 P7 R7 S7 T7 U7 X7 colleagues.
h7 E8 F8 H8
h8 D9 E9 F9 H9 
 
 
 
 

E8 F8 H8
h9 D9 E9 F9 H9
B11 C10 D10 H10
Preferable fits of the shaft-basis system (ISO 286-1:2010)

Note: For economic reasons, the first choice for a fit should, whenever possible, be made from the tolerance
classes shown with green color.

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The tables below report the preferable zones of tolerance for standard couplings from the UNI norms.

ZONE OF TOLERANCE RECOMMENDED FOR SHAFTS


Quality a b c d e f g h j js k m n p r s t u x
5 x x x x x x x x x x o
6 x x x x x x x x x x x o x
7 x x x x x x x x x x x x o x x
8 x x x x
9 x x x x x
10 x x
11 o o o x

ZONE OF TOLERANCE RECOMMENDED FOR HOLES


Quality A B C CD D E F G H J JS K M N P R S T Z ZB ZC
6 x x x x x x x x x x x o
7 x x x x x x x x x x x o
8 x x x x x x x x x x x
9 · x x x x x x x
10 · x x x
11 o o x · x x
13 ·

Legenda:
x general use, fine mechanical precision, watchmaking
o only general use
• only fine mechanical precision, watchmaking

The following tables report some recommended fits for some applications. Of course the tables don’t
pretend to be exhaustives and uniques.

The selection of a specific fit should take into account some aspects such as: constructional and
technological views, economical aspects, measuring instruments, gauges and tools which are implemented
in the production.

In the tables the preferred fits, as defined also by the ANSI B4.2, are in bold.

Clearance fits:

ISO Symbol Description Applications

H11/a11, H11/c11, Pivots, latches, fits of parts exposed


H11/c9, H11/d11, Fits with great clearances with to corrosive effects, contamination
A11/h11, C11/h11, parts having great tolerances. with dust and thermal or mechanical
D11/h11 deformations.
Running fits with greater
H9/C9, H9/d10, H9/d9, Multiple fits of shafts of production
clearances without any special
H8/d9, H8/d8, D10/h9, and piston machines, parts rotating
requirements for accuracy of
D9/h9, D9/h8 very rarely or only swinging.
guiding shafts.
H9/e9, H8/e8, Running fits with greater Fits of long shafts, e.g. in
H7/e7, E9/h9, E8/h8, clearances without any special agricultural machines, bearings of
E8/h7 requirements for fit accuracy. pumps, fans and piston machines.

H9/f8, Running fits with smaller Main fits of machine tools. General
H8/f8, H8/f7, H7/f7, clearances with general fits of shafts, regulator bearings,
F8/h7, F8/h6 requirements for fit accuracy. machine tool spindles, sliding rods.
Parts of machine tools, sliding
Running fits with very small
gears and clutch disks, crankshaft
clearances for accurate guiding of
H8/g7, H7/g6, G7/h6 journals, pistons of hydraulic
shafts. Without any noticeable
machines, rods sliding in bearings,
clearance after assembly.
grinding machine spindles.
Easily demountable parts, distance
Slipping fits of parts with great
rings, parts of machines fixed to
H11/h11, H11/h9 tolerances. The parts can easily be
shafts using pins, bolts, rivets or
slid one into the other and turn.
welds.
H8/h9, H8/h8, Sliding fits with very small Precise guiding of machines and

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H8/h7, H7/h6 clearances for precise guiding and preparations, exchangeable wheels,
centering of parts. Mounting by roller guides.
sliding on without use of any great
force, after lubrication the parts can
be turned and slid by hand.

Transition fits:

ISO Symbol Description Applications

Tight fits with small clearances or Easily dismountable fits of hubs of


H8/j7, H7/js6, H7/j6, negligible interference. The parts gears, pulleys and bushings,
J7/h6 can be assembled or disassembled retaining rings, frequently removed
manually. bearing bushings.

Similar fits with small clearances or


small interferences. The parts can Demountable fits of hubs of gears
H8/k7, H7/k6,
be assembled or disassembled and pulleys, manual wheels,
K8/h7, K7/h6
without great force using a rubber clutches, brake disks.
mallet.

H8/p7, H8/m7,
Fixed fits with negligible clearances Fixed plugs, driven bushings,
H8/n7, H7/m6, H7/n6,
or small interferences. Mounting of armatures of electric motors on
M8/h6, N8/h7, N7/h6
fits using pressing and light force. shafts, gear rims, flushed bolts.

Interference fits:

ISO Symbol Description Applications

Pressed fits with guaranteed


H8/r7, H7/p6, H7/r6, P7/h6, interference. Assembly of the Hubs of clutch disks, bearing
R7/h6 parts can be carried out using cold bushings.
pressing.
Pressed fits with medium
interference. Assembly of parts
H8/s7, H8/t7, H7/s6, Permanent coupling of gears
using hot pressing. Assembly
H7/t6, S7/h6, T7/h6 with shafts, bearing bushings.
using cold pressing only with use
of large forces.
Pressed fits with big interferences.
H8/u8, H8/u7, H8/x8, H7/u6, Assembly using pressing and Permanent couplings of gears
U8/h7, U7/h6 great forces under different with shafts, flanges.
temperatures of the parts.

Additional information about the standard fits that can be found in the practice are reported in the following
tables for the Hole Basis and Shaft Basis system respectively.

HOLE BASIS

Type of fit Fits Assembling Applications

For components that must be disassembled very free


Clearance respect to one another with abundant mechanical play:
H11 - a11 by hand
Fits dsf operating temperature much higher than the one at
mounting.
For components that must be disassembled very free
Clearance respect to one another with abundant mechanical play:
H10 - d8 by hand
Fits operating temperature much higher than the one at
mounting.
For general rotating couplings, with low loads and
Clearance without needs of fine centering.
H8 - f8 by hand
Fits Ex .: Shaft and transmission bushes with a manual
drive, without great importance.
For general rotating couplings, with low loads and
Clearance without needs of fine centering.
H7 - f6 by hand
Fits Ex .: Shaft and transmission bushes with a manual
drive, without great importance. Idle pulleys.
Rotating parts with high precision, with low and heavy
loads, lubricated rationally, with correct hydrodynamic
Clearance
H6 - g5 by hand sustenance.
Fits
Ex .: Rotating steel shafts, hardened and ground
bushings.
For components that must be disassembled very free
Clearance respect to one another with abundant mechanical play:
H11 - b11 by hand
Fits operating temperature much higher than the one at
mounting.
Clearance H8 - e7 by hand For components that must move relative to one another
Fits with abundant mechanical play, generally with a rotary

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motion.
For general rotating couplings, with low loads and
Clearance without needs of fine centering.
H8 - f7 by hand
Fits Ex .: Shaft and transmission bushes with a manual
drive, without great importance.
Clearance For components which must move relative to one
H7 - g7 by hand
Fits another, but without excessive play.
For components which in all cases must be able to be
Clearance assembled or disassembled by hand and for which, in
H13 - h11 by hand
Fits spite of the large working tolerances, it is requested a
possibly minimum play.
Couplings sliding axially lubricated, with no need of
precision, with long seat or with low loads.
Clearance
H8 - h8 by hand Ex .: Drawers and hydraulic taps. Shafts and
Fits
transmission bushes rotating at low speed and subject
to efforts of a limited entity.
Clearance For components of high precision which can move
H6 - h6 by hand
Fits respect to one another with slow motion.
For components that must be disassembled very free
Clearance respect to one another with abundant mechanical play:
H11 - c11 by hand
Fits operating temperature much higher than the one at
mounting.
Clearance For components which must move relative to one
H9 - f8 by hand
Fits another.
For very fast rotating components, even with imperfect
centering and sustenance not perfectly hydrodynamics
Clearance
H7 - f7 by hand and good mechanical play.
Fits
Ex .: High speed shafts, in general in its bushings.
Positioning pins with medium accuracy.
Rotating couplings with average peripheral speed (2-4
Clearance m/s), with need of limited plays.
H7 - g6 by hand
Fits Ex .: Shafts and bushes in general. Ball bearings not
very fast and not very loaded.
Couplings sliding axially, without needs of pecision.
Clearance Ex .: Holes of hinges or pins for command by pin hand
H11 - h11 by hand
Fits commands, bushings and sliding components without
importance.
Clearance For components that can move if lubricated respect to
H7 - h7 by hand
Fits one another, with slow motion.
For components with high precision sliding axially, or
equipped with rotary slow or oscillatory motion, with
Clearance internal lubrication.
H6 - h5 by hand
Fits Ex .: Oscillating levers moved by cams in bushing.
Command pivots and positioning pins with high
precision.

Type of fit Fits Assembling Applications

Transition by light taps of Couplings with discrete accuracy, with seat generally
H7 - j6
Fits mallet long, of mutually fixed parts, extractable by hand.

Couplings secured against mutual rotation by keyways,


Transition pins, etc., easily removable.
H7 - k6 by mallet
Fits Ex .: keying of ball bearings and roller bearings.
Keyways. Fixing joints in general.
For couplings slightly blocked, easily removable by
Mallet, press or hand, preferably for long seats to be secured against
Transition
H7 - n6 temperature mutual rotation.
Fits
difference Ex .: Fixed forced gears, mounted with keyways or on
splined shafts, to dismantle very rarely.
Precision couplings, with seat generally short, of parts
Transition by light taps of mutually fixed, extractable by hand.
H6 - j6
Fits mallet Ex .: Spare wheels mounted with keyways or splined
shafts.
Transition by hand with a Couplings secured against mutual rotation. Couplings
H6 - k6
Fits lead hammer by keyways for high torques.

For components fixed respect to one another, which can


Mallet, press or
Transition be mounted only by strong pressure; normally the two
H6 - n6* temperature
Fits parts must be secured against rotation and sliding.
difference
Ex.: Couplings without keyways to transmit low torques.

Precision couplings, with seat generally short, of parts


Transition by light taps of mutually fixed, extractable by hand.
H6 - j5
Fits mallet Ex .: Spare wheels mounted with keyways or splined
shafts.
Precision couplings, with seat generally short, of parts
Transition by light taps of mutually fixed, extractable by hand.
H6 - j5
Fits mallet Ex .: Spare wheels mounted with keyways or splined
shafts.
Transition H7 - m6 Mallet, press or For components mutually fixed, assembled and
Fits temperature demontable by hand or with little effort; fixed centering

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difference seats with good precision. Parts to be secured against
rotation and sliding.
Blocked couplings, not disassembled by hand, to be
Mallet, press or
Transition secured against mutual rotation.
H6 - n5* temperature
Fits Ex .: Fixed forced gears, mounted with keyways or on
difference
splined shafts, to dismantle very rarely.
(*) This coupling is classified by all the texts as transition fit, although there is never play in any combination of
values between the shaft and the hole.

Type of fit Fits Assembling Applications


Mallet, press
Interference and/or
H7 - p7 Components fixed respect to each other.
Fits temperature
difference
Blocked couplings not removable or demountable with
hot press. For the coupled parts that must behave as a
Mallet, press
Interference single piece, suitable to transmit axial loads and torques
H7 - s6 and temperature
Fits without the use of keys or similar systems.
difference
Ex .: Bushes in their external seat, to be never
dismounted.
Blocked couplings not removable or demountable with
Mallet, press hot press. For the coupled parts that must behave as a
Interference and/or single piece, suitable to transmit high axial loads and
H6 - p5
Fits temperature torques.
difference Ex .: Bushes in their external seat, to be never
dismounted.
For components with very strong blocking, with
Press and disassembly practicable only by substitution of one of
Interference
H7 - u7 temperature the components.
Fits
difference Ex .: Steel and bronze bushings in their seats and pins
with organs of motion.
Blocked couplings not removable or demountable with
hot press. For the coupled parts that must behave as a
Mallet, press
Interference single piece, suitable to transmit axial loads and torques
H7 - r6 and temperature
Fits without the use of keys or similar systems.
difference
Ex .: Bushes in their external seat, to be never
dismounted.
For components with very strong blocking, with
Press and disassembly practicable only by substitution of one of
Interference
H7 - u6 temperature the components.
Fits
difference Ex .: Steel and bronze bushings in their seats and pins
with organs of motion.

SHAFT BASIS

Type of fit Fits Assembling Applications

For components that must be disassembled very free


Clearance respect to one another with abundant mechanical
A11 - h11 by hand
Fits play: operating temperature much higher than the one
at mounting.
For components that must be disassembled very free
Clearance respect to one another with abundant mechanical
D10 - h8 by hand
Fits play: operating temperature much higher than the one
at mounting.
For components that have to be disassembled very
Clearance
F9 - h8 by hand free respect to one another with abundant mechanical
Fits
play.

For very fast rotating components, even with imperfect


Clearance
F7 - h7 by hand centering and sustenance not perfectly hydrodynamics
Fits
and good mechanical play.

Rotating couplings with average peripheral speed (2-4


Clearance m/s), with need of limited plays. Couplings with
G7 - h6 by hand
Fits alternate axial movement with medium and high
speeds.
For components that must be disassembled very free
Clearance respect to one another with abundant mechanical
B11 - h11 by hand
Fits play: operating temperature much higher than the one
at mounting.
For components that have to be disassembled very
Clearance
E9 - h8 by hand free respect to one another with abundant mechanical
Fits
play.
Clearance For general rotating couplings, with low loads and
F8 - h8 by hand
Fits without needs of fine centering.
Clearance For general rotating couplings, with low loads and
F7 - h6 by hand
Fits without needs of fine centering.
Clearance G6 - h5 by hand Rotating parts with high precision, with low and heavy
Fits loads, lubricated rationally, with correct hydrodynamic

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sustenance.

For components that must be disassembled very free


Clearance respect to one another with abundant mechanical
C11 - h11 by hand
Fits play: operating temperature much higher than the one
at mounting.
For components that must move relative to one
Clearance
E8 - h7 by hand another with abundant mechanical play, generally with
Fits
a rotary motion.
Clearance For components which must move relative to one
F8 - h7 by hand
Fits another with sensible play.

Clearance For components which must move relative to one


G7 - h7 by hand
Fits another, but without excessive play.

Type of fit Fits Assembling Applications

by hand or by For components which must not run too easily respect
Transition
J7 - h7 light taps of to one another, but that can be easily assembled and
Fits
mallet disassembled, secured against rotation and sliding.
Transition by light taps of Precision couplings, with seat generally short, of parts
J6 - h5
Fits mallet mutually fixed, extractable by hand.

Transition Mallet or hand


K7 - h6 Fixed components removable with light pressure.
Fits press

Mallet, press or For fixed members, respect to one another, assembled


Transition
M6 - h6 temperature and disassembled without big pressure. Parts secured
Fits
difference against rotation and sliding.
Mallet, press or For couplings slightly blocked, difficulty removable by
Transition
N7 - h6 temperature hand, preferably for long seats and to be secured
Fits
difference against mutual rotation.
Transition by light taps of Couplings with discrete accuracy, with seat generally
J7 - h6
Fits mallet long, of mutually fixed parts, extractable by hand.

by hand or by Components fixed respect to each other, assembled and


Transition
K8 - h7 light taps of disassembled without excessive pressure and secured
Fits
mallet against rotation and sliding.

For components fixed respect to one another, which can


Transition
K6 - h6 by mallet be easily assembled and disassembled, to be secured
Fits
against mutual rotation.

Mallet, press or For components fixed respect to one another, hardly


Transition
N8 - h7 temperature removable by hand and secured against rotation and
Fits
difference sliding.

Mallet, press For components fixed respect to one another, which can
Transition
N6 - h7 and temperature be mounted only by strong pressure; normally the two
Fits
difference bodies are secured against rotation and sliding.

by hand or by For components which must not slide too easily respect
Transition
J8 - h7 light taps of to one another, but that can be easily assembled and
Fits
mallet disassembled, secured against rotation and sliding.

Precision couplings, with seat generally short, of parts


Transition by light taps of
J6 - h6 mutually fixed, extractable by hand. Parts to be secured
Fits mallet
against sliding and rotation.

Components fixed respect to each other, assembled and


Transition Mallet or hand
K7 - h7 disassembled without excessive pressure and secured
Fits press
against rotation and sliding.

Components mutually fixed, assembled and


Mallet, press or
Transition disassembled by hand or with little effort; fixed centering
M7 - h6 temperature
Fits seats with good precision. Parts to be secured against
difference
rotation and sliding.
Mallet, press or
Transition Components fixed respect to each other and secured
N7 - h7 temperature
Fits against rotation and sliding.
difference
Mallet, press
Transition Blocked couplings, not disassembled by hand, to be
N6 - h5* and temperature
Fits secured against mutual rotation.
difference
(*) This coupling is classified by all the texts as transition fit, although there is never play in any combination of
values between the shaft and the hole.

Type of fit Fits Assembling Applications

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Mallet, press and


Interference
P7 - h7* temperature Components fixed respect to each other.
Fits
difference

Blocked couplings not removable or demountable with


Mallet, press and
Interference hot press. For the coupled parts that must behave as a
R7 - h6 temperature
Fits single piece, suitable to transmit axial loads and
difference
torques without the use of keys or similar systems.

Blocked couplings not removable or demountable with


Mallet, press and
Interference hot press. For the coupled parts that must behave as a
P6 - h5 temperature
Fits single piece, suitable to transmit high axial loads and
difference
torques.

Blocked couplings not removable or demountable with


Press and
Interference hot press. For the coupled parts that must behave as a
S7 - h6 temperature
Fits single piece, suitable to transmit axial loads and
difference
torques without the use of keys or similar systems.

Mallet, press and


Interference
R8 - h7 temperature For fixed members respect to one another.
Fits
difference

(*) This coupling is classified by all the texts as stable, even if it presents a minimum play for some combination of
values between the shaft and the hole (shaft at min and hole at max).

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