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Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Book Name: NCERT Solutions

Exercise 5.1

 

Question 1:

 

Prove that the function f x 5 x 3 is continuous at x 0, x 3 and at

x 5.

Solution 1:

 

The given function is

f

x

5 x 3

 

At

x

0, f

0

5x 0-3=3

 

lim

f

x

lim 5

x

3

5x0-3=-3

 

x

0

x

0

 

lim

f

x

f

0

 

x

0

Therefore,

f

is continuous at

x 0

 

At

x

3, f 35x-33 18

lim

f

x

lim

f

5

x

3

5x

-3

3

 

18

x

3

x

3

 

lim

f

x

f

3

 

x

3

Therefore,

f

is continuous at

x

-3

 

At x 5, f x f 5 5x53 253 22

 

lim

f x

lim

5

x

3

5x5-3

22

 

x

5

x

5

lim

f

x 5

x f

5

 

Therefore,

f

is continuous at

x

5

 
Question 2: f x    2 x 1 x  3 2 Examine
Question 2:
f x
 2
x 1
x  3
2
Examine the continuity of the function
at
.
Solution 2:
f
 x
 2 x
2 1
The given function is
x
 3, f
x  f
3
 2x3
2 117
At
lim
f x
lim
2
x
2
1
2x3
2
 
1
17
 lim
x
3
f
x  f 
x
3
3
x  3
x  3
Thus, f is continuous, at

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 3: Examine the following functions for continuity. a) f  x  x 5
Question 3:
Examine the following functions for continuity.
a) f  x  x 5 , b)
x  5
x  5
Solution 3:
f x x 5
 
a) The given function is
k
k is k 5 .
It is evident that
f is defined at every real number
lim
 lim
and its value at
f x
f x 5
k
 k  5  f k
It is also observed that
 lim
x
k
x
k
f
x  f k
x  k
Hence,
f is continuous at every real number and therefore, it is a continuous function.
k  5
b). The given function is
for any real number
, we obtain
lim
f x 
lim
1
1
x
5
k
5
x
k
x
k
1
k  5
 lim
f
x  f k
x  k
Hence,
f is continuous at every point in the domain of
f and therefore, it is a continuous
function.
c). The given function is
c 5
x  5
For any real number
, we obtain
lim
lim
x
2
 25
 x
5

lim
x
5
f x 
lim
 x
5
c
5
x 
5
x 
5
x
c
x
c
x 
c
x  c
c  5
 lim
f
x  f c
x  c
Hence
f is continuous at every point in the domain of
f and therefore. It is continuous function.
 x if x
,
5
d). The given function is
x
 5,
if x
5
This function
f is defined at all points of the real line.
c  5
c
 5
Let c be a point on a real line. Then, c  5or
case I : c  5
or

f x

f x    1 , x  5 , c) f x  

1

,

x

5

, c)

f x

f x    1 , x  5 , c) f x  
f x    1 , x  5 , c) f x  

x

2

25

, x 5

d)

5

x  

x 5

Also,

f k

Also, f k     As k  5 
Also, f k     As k  5 

As k

5

f

x

x

2

25

,

x

5

Also,

f c

Also, f c     c  5  c  5  
Also, f c     c  5  c  5  

c

5



c

5

c c

5



as

c

5

f x

f x    x  5   5

x 5

  5

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

f  c  5  c Then, lim f  x   lim
f
 c

5  c
Then,
lim
f
 x
 lim
5
x
  c
5
x
 c
x
c
 lim
f
 x
f c
x
 c
Therefore,
case II : c
 5
f is continuous at all real numbers less than 5.
f
 c

f 555 0
Then,
lim
f
 lim
x
 
5 
x
5
5
 0
x  5
x  5
lim
f
 lim
x
 
x
5
0
x  5
x  5
 lim
f x 
lim
f x
f c
x  5
 
x
 c
x
 c
Therefore,
case III : c  5
f is continuous at
f
 c
 5
f
c 5
Then,
lim
f
 x
 lim
f x
5
 c 
5
x x
c
c
 lim
f
 x
f c
x
 c
Therefore,
f is continuous at real numbers greater than 5.
Hence,
f is continuous at every real number and therefore, it is a continuous function.
Question 4: f   x  n x  x Prove that the function
Question 4:
f 
x  n
x  x
Prove that the function
n is continuous at
is a positive integer.
Solution 4:
f 
x  x
n
The given function is
n
n
It is evident that
f is defined at all positive integers,
n , and its value at
n is
.
lim
f
n 
lim
f x  n
n
n
Then,
lim
x
 n
f x  f n
x
 n
n
n
x  n
Therefore,
f is continuous at
, where
is a positive integer.

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 5: f x   x if x  , 1   Is
Question 5:
f x   x if x 
,
1
Is the function
x  0?
f defined by
x 1?
x  2?
5,
if x 
1
Continuous at
At
,At
Solution 5:
The given function
if x 
1
At x = 0,
5,
It is evident that
lim
f is defined at
f
 x
 lim
0 and its value at
0 is0 .
x
 0
Then,
 lim
x 
0 x
0 
0
f
x  f
x  0
x  0
At x 1,
Therefore,
f is continuous at
1.
f is defined at 1and its value at is
x 1is,
The left hand limit of
f at
lim
f x
 lim
x
 1
x
1
x
1
x 1is,
The right hand limit of
f at
lim
f x
 lim
f
5 
x
1
x
1
lim
f x
lim
f x
x 1
x
1
x
1
Therefore,
x  2,
f is not continuous at
At
5.
f is defined at
lim
2 and its value at
2 is
f
 x
lim
f
5
5
Then,
 lim
x 
2 x
2 
2
f
x  f
x  2
x  2
Therefore,
f is continuous at

f is

f x   x , if x

f is f x   x , if x    1
f is f x   x , if x    1

1

Question 6:

Find all points of discontinuous of

f x   2 2

 

x

3,

if x

2

x

3,

if x

2

f

, where

f

is defined by

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Solution 6: x  3, if x  2 f x   2 2
Solution 6:
x
3,
if x  2
f x   2 2
The give function
f is
x
3,
if x  2
It is evident that the given function
c
f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line. Then, three cases arise.
c
I.
c
   2 2 2
II.
Case i c  2
III.
 
lim
f x
 lim
2
x
3
2
c
3
Then,
 lim
x
c
x
c
f x  f c
x
x  c
x  2
Therefore,
Case ii c  2
f is continuous at all points,
, such that
f c
 
2 c
3
Then,
lim
f x
 lim
2
x
3
 c 
2
3
x
c
x
c
lim
f x
f c
x
x  2
x
 c
Therefore,
Case iii c  2
f is continuous at all points
, such that
x
 2
Then, the left hand limit of
lim
f
x
lim
f at
is,
2
x
3
2x2
 
3
7
x
2
x
2
f
x
2
The right hand limit of
lim
f
x
lim
at
is,
2
x
3
2x2
 
3
1
x  2 
x
2
f
x
2
It is observed that the left and right hand limit of
f
x  2
at
do not coincide.
x
 2
Therefore,
is not continuous at
f
Hence,
is the only point of discontinuity of
.
Question 7: f f Find all points of discontinuity of , where is defined by
Question 7:
f
f
Find all points of discontinuity of
, where
is defined by
f x
  2
x if
,
 
3
x
3
x 
2,
if x
3
  6

 

x

3,

if x



3

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Solution 7: The given function f is f x      2
Solution 7:
The given function
f is
f x
  2
x , if
  x  3
3
x 
2,
if x
3
  6
The given function
f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
c 3,
f c
 c 
3
If
then
lim
f
 x
 lim
 
x
3
 c 
3
x
 c
x
c
 lim
f
x
f c
x
x 3
x
 c
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
, such that
c 3,
then f 33 3  6
If
lim
f
 x
 lim
 x 
3 
   
(
3)
3
6
x
 3
x
3
 lim
f
 x
lim
f
 2
x 
2x
-3
6
 lim
x
3
f x  f  3
x
3
x  3
x 3
Therefore,
Case III :
f is continuous at
3  c  3,
f c
2
c
lim
f x
lim
2 x
 
2 c
If
then
and
 lim
x 
c x
 3
c
f x  f c
x  c
3,3.
Therefore,
Case IV :
f is continuous in
c  3,
x  3
If
then the left hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f
 x
 lim
f
2 x
 2x3=-6
x  3 
x
3
x
 3
The right hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f
 x
 lim
f
6
x
2
6x3+2=20
x  3 
x
3
It is observed that the left and right hand limit of
x
 3
f at x  3 do not coincide.
Therefore,
Case V :
f is not continuous at

 

x

3,

if x



3

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

c  3, f   c 6 c  2 lim f x 
c  3,
f
 
c
6 c  2
lim
f x
 lim
6
x
 2=6c+2
If
then
and
 lim
f x  f c
x
c
x
c
x  c
x  3
Therefore,
x  3
f is continuous at all points
x , such that
f
Hence,
is the only point of discontinuity of
.
Question 8: f f  x  , if x  0 f x 
Question 8:
f
f
x
, if x
 0
f x
Find all points of discontinuity of
, where
is defined by
  x
if x  0
0,
Solution 8:
x
, if x
 0
The given function
f is
f x 
 x
if x  0
 
0,
Therefore, the given function can be rewritten as
x
 x

1
if x
0
x
x
f x 
0,
if x 
0
1
if x
0
x
x
The given function
f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
c  0
f
 c 1
If
, then
lim
f x 
lim
 
1
1
x
c
x
c
lim
f x
f c
x  0
x
 c
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
c  0
x
 0
If
, then the left hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f x 
lim
1

1
x
0
x
0

It is known that,

x

0

 

x

 x

and

x

0

 

x

x

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

x  0 The right hand limit of f at is, lim f x 
x  0
The right hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f x 
lim

1
1
x
0
x
0
x  0
It is observed that the left and right hand limit of
x  0
f at
do not coincide.
Therefore,
Case III :
f is not continuous at
c  0
, f
 c 1
If
lim
f
x 
lim
1
 1
x
c
x
c
lim
f x  f c
x  c
x  0
Therefore,
x  0
f is continuous at all points
x , such that
f
Hence,
is the only point of discontinuity of
.
Question 9: f f  x , if x  0    x
Question 9:
f
f
 x
,
if x 
0
x
Find all points of discontinuity of
, where
is defined by
f x
 
1,
if x
0
Solution 9:
,
0
  x
x
The given function
f is
f x 
if x 
 
 1,
if x
0
Therefore, the given function can be rewritten as
 x
,
if x 
0
f x
x
 
1,
if x
0
x R
 f  x 1 for
all
lim
f x 
lim
 1
  1
Let c be any real number. Then ,
lim
x  c
x  c
f c  
1
f x
Also,
x  c
Therefore, the given function is continuous function.
Hence, the given function has no point of discontinuity.

It is known that,

x

0

 

x

 x

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 10: f f  1 if x  1 f x   x
Question 10:
f
f
1
if x
1
f x   x
Find all the points of discontinuity of
, where
is defined by
x
2
1,
f x
1
Solution 10:
f x   x  1 if x  1
The given function
f is
x
2
 1,
f
x  1
The given function
f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Case I :
Let c be a point on the real line.
f c
 c
lim
f x
 lim
f x
2
1
 c 
2
1
If c 1then
2 1and
 lim
x
c
x
c
f x  f c
x
x  c
x 1
Therefore ,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
, such that
c 1,
f
 c

f
111 2
If
then
x 1is,
The left hand limit of
f at
lim
f x
 lim
x
2
1
1
2
 1 
2
x 1is,
x
1
x
1
The right hand limit of
f at
lim
f x
 lim
 x
2
1
 
1
2
 1 
2
x
1
x
1
lim
f x
f c
x 1
x  1
Therefore,
Case III :
f is continuous at
c 1,
f 
c c 1

If
then
lim
f x
 lim
x
1
 
c
1
x
c
x
c
lim
f x
f c
x
x 1
x
 c
Therefore,
f is continuous at all points
, such that
Hence, the given function
f has no points of discontinuity.

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 11: f f 3  3, if x  2 f x  
Question 11:
f
f
3
3,
if x
2
f x   x
Find all points of discontinuity of
, where
is defined by
x
2
1,
if x
2
Solution 11:
3
 3,
if x  2
f x   x
The given function
f is
x
2
 1,
if x  2
The given function
f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
c  2
f 
c  c
lim
f x
 lim
x
3
3
 c 
3
3
If
, then
3 3 and
 lim
f x  f c
x
c
x
c
x
x  c
x
 2
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
,
such that
c  2
f 
c  f
2
 2
3 3  5
If
, then
lim
f
 lim
x
 
3
3
x
3 
2
 
3
5
x  2 
x
2
2
lim
f
 lim
x
 x
2 
1
 
2
 1 
5
x  2 
x
2
lim
1
f x
f
2
x
 2
x  2
Therefore,
Case III :
f is continuous at
c  2
f 
c  c
2 1
If
, then
lim
f x
 lim
x
2
1
c
2
1
x
c
x
c
lim
f x
f c
x
x
 2
x
 c
Therefore,
f is continuous at all points
,
such that
Thus, the given function
f is continuous at every point on the real line.
Hence,
f has no point of discontinuity.

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 12: f f 10  1, if x  1 f x  
Question 12:
f
f
10
1,
if x
1
f x   x
Find all points of discontinuity of
, where
is defined by
x ,
2
if x 
1
Solution 12:
f x   x  1, if x  1
10
The given function
f is
x
2
, if x  1
The given function
f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
c
1,
f
c
c
lim
f x
 lim
x
1 
10
 c  1
10
If
then
10 1and
lim
f x  f c
x
c
x
c
x  c
x 1
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
x , such that
c 1,
x 1
If
then the left hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f
 x
 lim
 x
10
1
 
10
10
 1   
1
1
0
x  1 
x
1
x 1is,
The right hand limit of
lim
f at
f
 x
 lim
x
2
1
2
1
x  1 
x
1
x 1
It is observed that the left and right hand limit of
x 1
f at
do not coincide.
Therefore,
Case III :
f is not continuous at
c 1,
f 
c  c
2
If
then
lim
f x
 lim
x
2
 c
2
x
c
x
c
 lim
f x  f c
x 1
x
 c
Therefore,
f is continuous at all pints
x , such that
x 1is
Thus, from the above observation, it can be concluded that
f .
the only point of discontinuity
of

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 13:  x  5, if x  1 f x   
Question 13:
 x
 5,
if x 
1
f x 
Is the function defined by
a continuous function?
x  5,
if x 
1
Solution 13:
 5,
if x  1
f x   x
The given function is
x  5,
if x  1
The given function
f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
c 1,
f
2
c
5
lim
f
 x
 lim
x
5
c  5
If
then
and
 lim
x
 c
x
c
f
x  f c
x
x  c
x 1
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
, such that
c 1,
f 11
5  6
If
then
f
x
The left hand limit of
at
1is,
lim
f
x
lim
x
5
 1 
5
6
x
1
x
1
f
x 1is,
The right hand limit of
at
lim
f
x
lim
x
5
 1 
5
4
x  1 
x
1
x 1
It is observed that the left and right hand limit of
x 1
f at
do not coincide.
Therefore,
Case III :
f is not continuous at
c 1,
f c c 5
 
lim
f
 x
 lim
x
5
 c 
5
If
then
and
 lim
f
x  f c
x
 c
x
c
x
x  c
x 1
Therefore,
f is continuous at all points
, such that
x 1
Thus, from the above observation, it can be concluded that
f .
is
the only point of
discontinuity of

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 14: f f 1 f x   Discuss the continuity of the function
Question 14:
f
f
1
f x
Discuss the continuity of the function
, where
is defined by
 4,
if
1
 x 
3
  if  x 
5,
3
10
Solution 14:
 3,
if
0  x  1
f x
The given function is
 1
4,
if
 x  3
  3  x  10
5,
if
0,10.
The given function is defined at all points of the interval
0,10.
Let c be a point in the interval
Case I :
0  c 1,
f
 c

3
lim
f x 
lim
3
 3
If
then
and
 lim
x  c
x  c
f
x  f c
x  c
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous in the interval [0,1).
c 1,
f
3
3
If
then
x 1is,
The left hand limit of
f at
lim
f
x 
lim
3
3
x
1
x
1
f
x 1is
The right hand limit of
at
,
lim
f
x 
lim
4
4
x  1 
x
1
It is observed that the left and right hands limit of
x 1
f at x 1 do not coincide.
Therefore,
Case III :
f is not continuous at
1 c  3,
f
 c

4
lim
f
x 
lim
4
 4
If
then
 lim
f
x  f c
x 
c x
c
x  c
1,3.
Therefore,
Case IV :
f is continuous at all points of the interval
c  3,
f c
 
5
If
then
x
 3
The left hand limit of
f at
is,

3,

if

0

x

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

lim f  x   lim  4   4 x  3
lim
f
x 
lim
4
4
x 
3 x
3
x  3
The right hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f
x 
lim
5 
5
x  3 
x
3
It is observed that the left and right hand limit of
x  3
f at x  3 do not coincide.
Therefore,
Case V :
f is not continuous at
3  c 10,
f c
 
5
lim
f
x 
lim
5
 5
If
then
and
 lim
f x  f c
x  c
x  c
x  c
3,10.
Therefore,
f is continuous at all points of the interval
x
x  3
Hence ,
f is not continuous at
1and
.
Question 15: f f  2 x , if x   x 0 
Question 15:
f
f
 2 x ,
if x 
 x
0
Discuss that continuity of the function
, where
is defined by
f x 
0,
if 0
 1
4 x ,
if x 
1
  
Solution 15:
x ,
if x 
0
  2
The given function is
f x
 0,
if
0
 x 
1
x ,
if x 
1
  4
The given function is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
c  0
f c
 
2 c
If
, then
lim
f x 
lim
2
x
 2
c
x
c
x
c
lim
f x
f c
x  0
x
 c
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
x , such that
c  0
, then f  c  f 0 0
If
x  0
The left hand limit of
f at
is,

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

lim f  x   lim  2 x   2x 0=0 x
lim
f
 x
lim
2 x
2x 0=0
x
 0
x
0
x  0
The right hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f
x 
lim
0 
=0
x
 0
lim
x
0
f
x  f
0 
x  0
x  0
Therefore,
Case III :
f is continuous at
0  c 1,
f x
 
0
lim
f x 
lim
0
 0
If
then
and
 lim
x  c
x  c
f
x  f c
x  c
0,1.
Therefore,
Case IV :
f is continuous at all points of the interval
c 1,
f
 c
 1
f
0
If
then
x 1is
The left hand limit of
f at
,
lim
f
x 
lim
0 
=0
x
 1
x
1
x 1is,
The right hand limit of
f at
lim
f
 x
 lim
4 x
=4x1= 4
x
 1
x
1
It is observed that the left and right hand limits of
x 1
f at x 1 do not coincide.
Therefore,
Case V :
f is not continuous at
c 1,
f
 c

4 c
lim
f x
 lim
4 
x
 4
c
If
then
and
 lim
f x  f c
x
c
x
c
x  c
x 1
Therefore,
f is continuous at all points
x 1
x , such that
Hence,
f is not continuous only at
Question 16: f f   2, if x  1   Discuss the
Question 16:
f
f
  2,
if x 
1
Discuss the continuity of the function
, where
is defined by
f x
 2
x if
,
 
1
x
1
  2,
if x 
1

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Solution 16:  2, if x  1   The given function f is
Solution 16:
 2, if x  1
The given function
f is
f x
 
2
x if
,
1  x  1
2,
if x  1
The given function is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
c 1,
f
 c 2
lim
f x 
lim
2

2
If
then
and
 lim
x
c
x
c
f
x  f c
x  c
x 1
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
x , such that
c
1,
f
 
c
f
12
If
then
f
x 1
The left hand limit of
at
is,
lim
f
x 
lim
2

2
x 
1 x
1
x 1
The right hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f
x 
lim
2 x
-1

2
x

1
 lim
x

1
f x  f  1
x  1
x 1
Therefore,
Case III :
f is continuous at
1 c 1,
f c
 
2 c
If
then
lim
f x
 lim
2 
x
 2
c
 lim
x
c
x
c
f
x  f c
x  c
1,1.
Therefore,
Case IV :
f is continuous at all points of the interval
c 1,
f
  1
c
f
2x1= 2
If
then
x 1is,
The left hand limit of
f at
lim
f
 x
 lim
2
x  2x1=2
x
 1
x
1
x 1is,
The right hand limit of
lim
f x 
f at
lim 2
2
x
1
x
1

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

 lim f  x  f c    x  1 x
 lim
f
x  f c
x  1
x  2
Therefore,
Case V :
f is continuous at
c 1,
f 
c
lim
f x 
lim
2
2
If
 2 and
x
2
x
 2
 lim
f
x  f c
x
x  c
x 1
Therefore,
f is continuous at all points,
, such that
Thus, from the above observations, it can be concluded that f is continuous at all points of the
real line.
Question 17: f x   ax if x  1,  3  
Question 17:
f x   ax if x
1,
3
Find the relationship be
x
 3
a and
b so that the function
f defined by
bx
3,
if x
3
is
continuous at
.
Solution 17:
f
 1,
if x
3
f x   bx ax
The given function
is
x  3,
 3,
if x
3
If
f is continuous at
then
lim
f
 lim
x
 
f x
f
3
x
 3
x
3
(1)
Also,
lim
f
 lim
x
 
f ax
1
3
a
1
x
 3
3
lim
f
 lim
x
x
 
f bx
1
3
b 
3
x  3 
x
3
f 3
3a 1
Therefore, from (1), we obtain
3
a
 
1
3
b  3 
3
a
1
  3
3
a 
1
b 
3
 b  2
3
a 
3
2
  
a
b
3
2
a  b 
Therefore, the required relationship is given by ,
3

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 18:  x  2    0 f x   
Question 18:
 x
2
 0
f x 
For what value of
x  0?
 is the function defined by
x 
2 x , if x
if x  0
continuous at
  
4
1,
what about continuity at x 1?
Solution 18:
 x 
2
 0
f x 
The given function
f is
x  0
  
4
x 
2 x , if x
if x  0
1,
If
f is continuous at
, then
lim
f x
lim
f x
f
0
x
0
x
0
2
2
 lim
 x
2
x
lim
4
x
1
0
2 x0
x
0
x
0
 0=1=0,
 
2
0
2 x0
4 x0+1=0
which is not possible
x  0
At x 1,
Therefore, there is no value of
 for which
f is continuous at
f 1
4 x 1 4 x 1 + 1  5
lim 4
x  1  4x1+1=5
x  1
 lim
f x  f

1
x  1
x 1
Therefore, for any values of  ,
f is continuous at
Question 19: g x   x  x x Show that the function defined
Question 19:
g x
 
x

x
x
Show that the function defined by
x 
is discontinuous at all integral point.
Here
denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to
.
Solution 19:
g x x  x
 
The given function is
It is evident that
g is defined at all integral points.
Let n be a integer.
Then,
g
 
n
n n  n  n  0
x  n
The left hand limit of
f at
is,
lim g
x
 lim  
x
 
x
  lim
x
 lim
x
 
n
 n
1
1
x
n
x
n
x
n
x
n

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

x  n The right hand limit of  is, x  x  
x  n
The right hand limit of
is,
x
x
 
f at
lim g
 lim  
x
  lim
x
 lim
 
x 
 n  n  0
x
 n
x
n
x
n
x
n
x  n
x  n
It is observed that the left and right hand limits of
f at
do not coincide.
Therefore,
f is not continuous at
Hence,
g is discontinuous at all integral points.
Question 20: f  x   x 2 sin x  5 x 
Question 20:
f 
x
 x
2 sin x  5
x  p ?
Is the function defined by
continuous at
Solution 20:
f 
x  x
2 sin
x  p
x  5
The given function is
It is evident that
x ,
f 
x  f   sin 5   0  5   5
f id defined at
2
2
2
At
lim f
x
lim
x
2
sin
x
5
Consider
x  h
x 
x 
x ,
h 0
Put
If
lim
f x
then it is evident that
lim
x
2
sin
x
5
x

x

 lim 
  h 
2  sin
  h
5 
h  0
lim
 h
2  limsin
 h
 lim5
h  0
h  0
h  0
0 
2
lim
 sin
cosh 
cos
 
sinh
 
5
h  0
 
2  limsin
cosh
 limcos
 sinh
 5

h  0
h  0
2
 sin cos0  cos sin 0  5

 0 x 1-
2
-1 x0+5

2
 5
 lim f
x  f 
f
x
 n
x
 x
Therefore, the given function
is continuous at

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

Question 21: Discuss the continuity of the following functions. a) c) b) f f f
Question 21:
Discuss the continuity of the following functions.
a)
c) b) f f f    x x x   
sin sin sin x x x   x cos cos cosx x x
Solution 21:
g + h, g - h
g,h
It is known that if
g and
h are two continuous functions, then
and
are also
continuous.
gx sin x
hx cos x
It has to proved first that
and
are continuous functions.
gx sin x
Let
gx sin x
It is evident that
x  c
is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number. Put x= c  h
If
gc sin c
, then h 0
lim g
 x
 lim
g
sin
x
x
c
x
c
 limsin
 c
 h
h  0
 lim
 sin
c cosh
 cos
c sinh
h  0
 lim sin
c cosh
 lim
cos
c
sinh
 sin c cos0cos c sin0
h  0
h  0
 sin c 0
 sin c
 lim g x  g c
x  c
Therefore ,
h
 
x
cos x
g is a continuous function.
Let
h
 
x
cos x
It is evident that
x  c
is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number. Put x  c  h
If
h
 
c
cos c
, then h 0
lim h x
 limcos x
x  c
x  c

limcos

h 0

c h

 limcos h  0  c  h 
 limcos h  0  c  h 

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

 lim cos  c cosh  sin c sinh  h  0 
lim cos
c cosh
 sin
c sinh
h  0
limcos
c
cosh
limsin
c
sinh
 cos c cos0sin c sin0
h
0
h
0
 cos c x 1 - sinc x 0
=cos c
 lim h x  h c
h  0
Therefore,
h is a continuous function.
Therefore, it can be concluded that
f f   x x   g  x  h  x  sin x  cos x
a)
is a continuous function
b)
g  x  h  x  sin x  cos x is a continuous function
f
 
x
g
x
x h
x

sin
x x cosx
c)
is a continuous function
Question 22: Discuss the continuity of the cosine, cosecant, secant and cotangent functions. g h
Question 22:
Discuss the continuity of the cosine, cosecant, secant and cotangent functions.
g
h
Solution 22:
It is known that if
and
are two continuous functions, then
 0
is continuous
1
, g
x
 0 is continuous
ii.
1
, h x 0 is continuous
iii.
h
 x
g
 
x
sin x
h
 
x
cos
x
It has to be proved first that
 
and
are continuous functions.
g
x
sin x
Let
g
 
x
sin x
It is evident that
is defined for every real number.
x  c,
h 0
Let c be a real number. Put x  c  h
If
g
 
c
sin x
then
lim g
c
 limsin x
x  c
x  c
 limsin
c  h
h  0

i.

h

g

  , g

x

x

x

g

x

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

 lim sin  c cosh  cos c sinh  h  0 
lim sin
c cosh
cos
c sinh
h  0
lim sin
c
cosh
lim
cos
c
sinh
 sin c cos0cos c sin0
h
0
h
0
 sin c 0
 sin c
lim g x g c
x  c
Therefore,
h x cos x
 
g is a continuous function.
Let
h x cos x
 
It is evident that
x
® c
is defined for every real number.
0
Let c be a real number. Put x  c  h
If
h
 
c
cos
, then h ®
c
lim h x
 limcos x
x
c
x
c
 lim cos c
 h
h  0
 lim cos c
cosh
 sin
c sinh
h  0
 lim cos c
cosh
 limsin
c sinh
h  0
h  0
 cos 0
cos
c
sin
c
sin 0
 x 1 - sinc x 0
cos
c
 lim h x  h c
= cos c
x  c
h
 
x
cos
x
Therefore,
is continuous function.
It can be concluded that,
1
cos
sin x
ec x x n n Z is continuous
,
X  np , n I Z
^
Therefore, secant is continuous except at
1
cos x
sec
x x
,
 2
n
1
n Z
is continuous
2
Therefore, secant is continuous except at
2

cos

ec x

,sin

x

0

is continuous

sec

x

,

cos

x

0

is continuous

2

x n

1

n Z

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

cot

x

0

is continuous

Z is continuous

Therefore, cotangent is continuous except at

x np

, nI z

x

cot

,

cos x

sin

,

sin x x x nn

Question 23:  sin x  Find the points of discontinuity of f x 
Question 23:
 sin x
Find the points of discontinuity of
f x 
f , where
 
x
if x  0
x  1,
Solution 23:
 sin x
, if x
 0
The given function
f is
f x 
x
if x  0
  
x  1,
It is evident that
f is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
c  0
If
 lim f x  f c
x  c
x  0
Therefore,
Case II :
f is continuous at all points
x , such that
c  0
f c c 1
 
lim f
x
 lim
x
1
 c 
1
If
, then
and
c
x
c
 lim f x  f c
x
x
x  c
x  0
Therefore,
Case III :
f is continuous at all points
, such that
c  0
, then f  c  f 0
0 11
If
x  0
The left hand limit of
f at
is,
sin x
lim
f x 
lim
 1
x
 0
x  0
x
x  0
The right hand limit of
f at
is,
lim
f x
 lim
x
1
1
x
0
x
0

, if

x

0

, then

f c

, then f c    sin c and lim c x  c f
, then f c    sin c and lim c x  c f

sin c

and

lim

c x

c

f x

sin c and lim c x  c f x    lim x 
sin c and lim c x  c f x    lim x 
sin c and lim c x  c f x    lim x 
sin c and lim c x  c f x    lim x 
sin c and lim c x  c f x    lim x 

lim

x

c

c and lim c x  c f x    lim x  c

  

x x   

sin

sin

c

c

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

 lim f x    lim f x  f   
lim
f x
lim
f x  f
0 
x
0
x
0
x  0
Therefore,
f is continuous at
From the above observations, it can be conducted that
line.
f is continuous at all points of the real
Thus, f
has no point of discontinuity.
Question 24:  1 x 2 sin f defined by f x   
Question 24:
1
x
2 sin
f defined by
f x 
Determine if
 
x
, if  0
if x  0
is a continuous function?
 
0,
Solution 24:
1
x
2 sin
,
f x 
The given function
f is
 
x
if  0
if x  0
 
0,
It is evident that
f is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
1
c
lim f
x
f c
x  0
x
c
f
Therefore,
Case II :
is continuous at all points
c  0
f
0
0
If
, then
x  0
1
 
1
sin
 1,
It is known that,
x
1
 x
2  sin
 x
2
x
 lim
x
2
lim
x
2
sin
x  0
x
0
  
1
x   
lim
x
2
x
0

If

c 0

, then

f c

c

2 sin

lim

x

c

f x

lim

x

c

lim x  c  f x   lim x  c   

 

x

2

sin

1

x

  

lim

x

c

 x 2 sin 1 x      lim x  c x

x

2

  

limsin

x

c

x      lim x  c x 2    

1

x

  

c

2 sin

1

c

lim

x

0

lim x  0   f x   lim x  0  

f x

lim

x

0

x  0   f x   lim x  0   

  

x

2 sin

1

x

  

lim

x

0

 0     x 2 sin 1 x     lim
 0     x 2 sin 1 x     lim

  

x

2

sin 1 2

Class XII

Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability

Maths

 1    x  0  x   1  
1 
x  0
x 
1 
x  0
x 
lim
f
x
0
x  0
lim
f x
f
0
 lim f
x
x  0
x  0
x  0
Therefore,
f is continuous at
From the above observations, it can be concluded that f is continuous at every point of the real
line.
Thus, f is a continuous function.

0

 

lim

x

2

sin

0

lim

x

2

sin

0

Similarly,

lim

x

0

Similarly, lim x  0   f x   lim x  0 

f x

lim

x

0

 0   f x   lim x  0    

  

x

2

sin

1

x

  

lim

x 0

  

x

2

sin

1

x

  

0

Question 25: f f x  cos x if x ,  0 f x
Question 25:
f
f
x
 cos
x if x
,
 0
f x   sin
Examine the continuity of
, where
is defined by
1
if x 
0
Solution 25:
x
 cos
x if x
,
 0
f x   sin
The given function
f is
1
if x 
0
It is evident that
f is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
c  0,
f
 
c
sin c
 cos c
If
then
lim
lim f x f c