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Unit V:

It is something which makes the object for
- Better appealing
- More attractive
- Give pleasure to observation
Color is an illusion
Colour as visual sensation arising from the stimulation of retina of the eye. It is a perceptual response to light
that enters the eye either directly from self-luminous light sources or, indirectly, from light reflected by
illuminated objects.
In chemist : It may be a chemical compound (dyes or pigment)
In physicist : It is a scattering or absorbtion of light or reflectance spectra of the object.
In physiologist : It is a measurable electrical activity of the nerves
In psychologist : It is a complex process in brain of interpreting the nerve signal
In artist : Create the sensation in the mind of the observer
The art to predict an illusion from a physical measurement
CIE definition 845-02-18: (perceived) color
Attribute of a visual perception consisting of any combination of chromatic and achromatic content. This
attribute can be described
– By chromatic color names such as yellow, orange, brown, red, pink, green, blue, purple, etc., or
– By achromatic color names such as white, gray, black, etc., and
– Qualified by bright, dim, light, dark etc.,or
– By combinations of such names
Colour stimulus
 The light reaching the eye is called the colour stimulus
Color term categories
Subjective color term:
 A word used to describe a color attribute perceived by a human. Example: the colorfulness of a flower
Objective color term:
 A word used to describe a physical quantity related to color that can be measured. Example: the
energy radiated by a source
Subjective color terms
 Hue, value and chroma
• The attribute of a color perception denoted by blue, green, yellow, red, purple, and so on. Denoted the
name of the colour
Unique hue:
 A hue that cannot be further described by use of the hue names other than its own. There are four
unique hues, each of which shows no perceptual similarity to any of the others: Red, Green, Yellow,
and blue
• The attribute of a visual sensation according to which a given visual stimulus appears to be more or
less intense, or according to which the visual stimulus appears to emit more or less light
• The attribute of a visual sensation according to which the area in which the visual stimulus is
presented appears to emit more or less light in proportion to that emitted by a similarly illuminated
area perceived as a “white” stimulus. Brightness is absolute, lightness is relative to an area perceived
as white
Chromaticness or Colorfulness:
• The attribute of a visual sensation according to which an area appears to exhibit more or less of its
• It nothing but depth of colour
• Purity of color
• Intensity of color
The attribute of a visual sensation which permits a judgment to be made of the degree to which a chromatic
stimulus differs from an achromatic stimulus of the same brightness
Three fundamental components of measuring color:
• Light sources
• Samples illuminated by them (Object)
• Observers
The nature of colour
Source of light
• Light is a form of energy. It propagates in the
form of electromagnetic wave. Wave length is
important characteristics of electromagnetic
wave. It varies from fraction of nano meter to
kilometer characteristics of electromagnetic
wave change with wave length. Gamma rays, X-
rays, UV rays, visible rays, infrared rays
microwaves and radio waves are all part of the
spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. But the
human visual system is only capable of sensing a
very narrow band of wavelengths in the
approximate range 360 –780 nm (a nanometer is 10-9 metres).
• The light from any source can be usefully described in terms of the relative power emitted at each
wavelength in the visible spectrum. A source of light is characterized by the relative power distribution at
different wavelengths. Light source – candle light, sunlight and incandescent lamp.
Line spectrum
The energy radiated by mercury arc lamb is concentrated in a narrow band of wave length
The perceptual description of colour depends on
1. Spectral power distribution of source
2. Energy reflected by the object at different wavelengths
3. Spectral sensitivity of the eye.
The colour rendition
The object which may be bright orange under tungsten lamp may become dirty brown in mercury lamp. This
property of light source to influence the colour of the object is called as colour rendition
The physical basis of colour
Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its wavelength (or frequency) and its intensity. When the
wavelength is within the visible spectrum (the range of wavelengths humans can perceive, approximately
from 390 nm to 700 nm), it is known as "visible light".
The illuminating radiations are modified by the object by physical processes such as transmission, reflection,
absorption and scattering
When emerging light is in the same directions as incident light, it is said to be transmission. A transparent
gelatine paper transits and absorbs light. Paper appears blue or red means its absorbs all spectral components
of radiations expect blue or red
The absorption of light by transparent objects governed by Lambert – beer’s law.
• Lambert law states that equal amount of absorption occurs when light passes through equal thickness
of material.
• Beers law states that equal amount of absorption occurs when light passes through equal amount of
material ( concentration)
Diffuse reflection or transmissions
• The light may be scattered. In scattering process light travels in many directions other than incident
direction. When sufficient scattering occurs, it is said to be Diffuse reflection or transmissions.
• The amount of light scattered depends on relative refractive index and particle size
– Particle size is small – Less scatter
– Particle size is high – More scatter.
• The appearance of the object is characterized by its spectral reflectance curve.
Color of objects
• The color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the
characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain.
• Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which normally
depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as
well as potentially on the angles of illumination and viewing.
• Some objects not only reflect light, but also transmit light or emit light themselves, which also
contribute to the color.
• A viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its
surface, but also on a host of contextual cues. so that color differences between objects can be
discerned mostly independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc. This effect is known as
color constancy.Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn
• Light arriving at an opaque surface is either
– Reflected "specularly" (that is, in the manner of a mirror),
– Scattered (that is, reflected with diffuse scattering), or
– Absorbed or
– Some combination of these.
• Opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of
light they scatter strongly (with the light that is not scattered being absorbed). If objects scatter all
wavelengths with roughly equal strength, they appear white. If they absorb all wavelengths, they
appear black.
• Opaque objects that specularly reflect light of different wavelengths with different efficiencies look
like mirrors tinted with colors determined by those differences.
• An object that reflects some fraction of impinging light and absorbs the rest may look black but also
be faintly reflective; examples are black objects coated with layers of enamel or lacquer.
• Objects that transmit light are either translucent (scattering the transmitted light) or transparent (not
scattering the transmitted light).
• If they also absorb (or reflect) light of various wavelengths differentially, they appear tinted with a
color determined by the nature of that absorption (or that reflectance).
• Objects may emit light that they generate from having excited electrons, rather than merely reflecting
or transmitting light.
• The electrons may be excited due to elevated temperature (incandescence), as a result of chemical
reactions (chemoluminescence), after absorbing light of other frequencies ("fluorescence" or
"phosphorescence") or from electrical contacts as in light emitting diodes, or other light sources.
• The common detector of light and colour is eye, nerve system and brain.
• The light that is reflected by objects or emitted by light sources enters the eye, where it may be
absorbed by visual pigments in the photoreceptors, or cones, contained within the retina.
• The eye focuses the image of the object on retina. The photosensitive detectors on retina are called as
rod and cone from their shape. The rod only detects the light - no ability to specify the colour. The
colour is detected by cone.
Three type of cone receptors in retina
1. Blue sensitive cones
2. Green sensitive cones
3. Red sensitive cones
The ultimate sensation of colour depends on degree of stimulation of these three colour receptors.
- All three equally stimulated – gives the sensation of grey to white depending on degree of stimulation
- if blue and red receptors are simultaneously excited, the sensation of purple is created.
- if green and red receptors are stimulated at the same time, the sensation of yellow is created
Human Vision and Color Perception
The steps in this sensory process are
1. The stimulation of light receptors in the eyes,
2. Conversion of the light stimuli or images into signals
3. Transmission of electrical signals containing the vision information from each eye to the brain through
the optic nerves.
4. This information is processed in several stages, ultimately reaching the visual cortices of the
The human eye is equipped with a variety of optical
components including
1. The Cornea,
2. Iris,
3. Pupil,
4. Aqueous and Vitreous Humors,
5. A Variable-focus Lens, and
6. The Retina.
Together, these elements work to form images of the objects that fall into the field of view for each eye.
• When an object is observed, it is first focused through the convex cornea and lens elements, forming
an inverted image on the surface of the retina. A multi-layered membrane that contains millions of
light-sensitive cells.
• In order to reach the retina, light rays focused by the
cornea must successively traverse the aqueous humor
(in the anterior chamber), the crystalline lens, the
gelatinous vitreous body, and the vascular and neuronal
layers of the retina before they reach the photosensitive
outer segments of the cone and rod cells. These photo
sensory cells detect the image and translate it into a
series of electrical signals for transmission to the brain.
• Despite some misconceptions due to the wide spectrum of
terminology employed for describing eye anatomy, it is the cornea, not the lens, which is responsible
for the major part of the total refractive power of the eye.
• The Cornea also protects the eye by providing a
physical barrier that shields the inside of the eye
from microorganisms, dust, fibers, chemical, and
other harmful materials. Although much thinner in
width than the crystalline lens, the cornea provides
about 65 percent of the eye's refractive power. As the
window that controls the entry of light into the eye,
the cornea (Figure) is essential to good vision and
also acts as an ultraviolet light filter.
• The cornea removes some of the most damaging ultraviolet wavelengths present in sunlight,
thereby further protecting the highly susceptible retina and crystalline lens from damage. If the cornea
is curved too much, as in the case of nearsightedness, distant objects will appear as blurry images,
because of imperfect light refraction to the retina.
• In a condition known as astigmatism, imperfections or irregularities in the cornea result in unequal
refraction, which creates distortion of images projected onto the retina.
• The outer epithelial layer of the cornea is packed with
thousands of small nerve endings, making the cornea
extremely sensitive to pain when rubbed or scratched.
• The partial or complete loss of transparency by the
crystalline lens, or its capsule, results in a common
condition known as cataracts. Cataracts are the leading
cause of blindness worldwide
• Clear vision is prevented by a reduction in the amount of
light that reaches the retina and by clouding of the image
as though the individual were observing the environment through a fog or haze.
• The function of the retina is similar to the combination of a digital image sensor (such as a charge-
coupled device (CCD)) with an analog-to-digital converter, as featured in modern digital camera
• The image-capturing receptors of the eyes, known as rods and cones, are connected with the fibers
of the optic nerve bundle through a series of specialized cells that coordinate the transmission of
signals to the brain.
• The amount of light allowed to enter each eye is controlled by the iris, a circular diaphragm that opens
wide at low light levels and closes to protect the pupil (the aperture) and retina at very high levels of
• In the brain, the neural fibers of the optic nerves from each eye cross at the optic chiasma where visual
information from both retinas traveling in parallel pathways is correlated, somewhat like the function
of a time base correction generator in a digital video tape recorder.
• From there, the visual information travels through the optic tract to the knee-shaped lateral geniculate
nuclei in the thalamus, where the signals are distributed via the optic radiations to the two visual
cortices located on the lower rear section of each half of the cerebrum.
• The central fovea is located in an area near the center of the retina, and positioned directly along the
optical axis of each eye. Known also as the "yellow spot", the fovea is small (less than 1 square
millimeter), but very specialized. These areas contain exclusively high-density, tightly packed cone
cells (greater than 200,000 cones per square millimeter in adult humans; see Figure).

• This is offset by the fact that humans constantly scan objects in the field of view, resulting in a
perceived image that is uniformly sharp. In fact, when the image is prevented from moving relative to
the retina (via an optical fixation device), the eye no longer senses an image after a few seconds.
• The central fovea is the area of sharpest vision, and produces the maximum resolution of space,
contrast, and color. Each eye is populated with approximately seven million cone cells, which are very
thin (3 micrometers in diameter) and elongated. The density of cone cells decreases outside of the
fovea as the ratio of rod cells to cone cells gradually increases. At the periphery of the retina, the total
number of both types of light receptors decreases substantially, causing a dramatic loss of visual
sensitivity at the retinal borders. The arrangement of sensory receptors in the outer segments of the
retina partially determines the limit of resolution in different regions of the eye. In order to resolve an
image, a row of less-stimulated photoreceptors must be interposed between two rows of
photoreceptors that are highly stimulated.
• With a center-to-center spacing ranging between 1.5 and 2 micrometers for the cones in the central
fovea, optical stimuli having a separation of approximately 3 to 4 micrometers should produce a
resolvable set of intensities on the retina. The radius of the first minimum for a diffraction pattern
formed on the retina is about 4.6 micrometers with 550-nanometer light and a pupil diameter of 2
millimeters. Thus, the arrangement of sensory elements in the retina will determine the limiting
resolution of the eye. Another factor, termed visual acuity (the ability of the eye to detect small
objects and resolve their separation), is generally highest in the central fovea, which spans a visual
field of about 1.4 degrees. The spatial arrangement of rod and cone cells and their connection to
neurons within the retina is presented in Figure.
• Rod cells, containing only the photopigment rhodopsin,
have a peak sensitivity to blue-green light (wavelength of
about 500 nanometers). They are the most common visual
receptor cells, with each eye containing about 125-130
million rod cells.The light sensitivity of rod cells is about
1,000 times that of cone cells.
• The images generated by rod stimulation alone are
relatively un sharp and confined to shades of gray, similar
to those found in a black and white soft-focus
photographic image.
• Rod vision is commonly referred to as scotopic or twilight vision because in low light conditions,
shapes and the relative brightness of objects can be distinguished, but not their colors. This mechanism
of dark adaptation enables the detection of potential prey and predators via shape and motion in a
wide spectrum of vertebrates. In broad daylight, humans can visualize objects in the glaring light from
the sun, while at night large objects can be detected by starlight when the moon is dark.
• At threshold sensitivity, the human eye can detect the presence of about 100-150 photons of blue-
green light (500 nanometers) entering the pupil.
– For the upper seven decades of brightness, photopic vision predominates.
– It is the retinal cones that are primarily responsible for photoreception.
– In contrast, the lower four decades of brightness, termed scotopic vision, are controlled by the
rod cells.
• Adaptation of the eye enables vision to function under such extremes of brightness. Several
mechanisms are responsible for the ability of the eye to adapt to a high range of brightness levels.
Adaptation can occur in seconds (by initial pupillary reaction) or may take several minutes (for dark
adaptation), depending upon the level of brightness change. Full cone sensitivity is reached in about 5
minutes, whereas it requires about 30 minutes to adapt from moderate photopic sensitivity to the full
scoptic sensitivity produced by the rod cells.
• When fully light-adapted, the human eye features a wavelength response from around 400 to 700
nanometers, with a peak sensitivity at 555 nanometers (in the green region of the visible light
• The dark-adapted eye responds to a lower range of wavelengths between 380 and 650 nanometers,
with the peak occurring at 507 nanometers.
• For both photopic and scoptic vision, these wavelengths are not absolute, but vary with the intensity of
light. The transmission of light through the eye becomes progressively lower at shorter wavelengths.
• In the blue-green region (500 nanometers), only about 50 percent of light entering the eye reaches the
image point on the retina. At 400 nanometers, this value is reduced to a scant 10 percent, even in a
young eye. Light scattering and absorption by elements in the crystalline lens contributes to a further
loss of sensitivity in the far blue.
• Cones consist of three cell types, each "tuned" to a distinct wavelength response maximum centered at
either 430, 535, or 590 nanometers.
• The basis for the individual maxima is the utilization of three different photopigments, each with a
characteristic visible light absorption spectrum. The photopigments alter their conformation when a
photon is detected, enabling them to react with transducin to initiate a cascade of visual events.
Transducin is a protein that resides in the retina and is able to effectively convert light energy
into an electrical signal. The population of cone cells is much smaller than rod cells, with each eye
containing between 5 and 7 million of these color receptors.
• True color vision is induced by the stimulation of cone cells. The relative intensity and wavelength
distribution of light impacting on each of the three cone receptor types determines the color that is
imaged (as a mosaic), in a manner comparable to an additive RGB video monitor or CCD color
camera. As mentioned above, pure cone vision is
referred to as photopic vision and is dominant at normal
light levels, both indoors and out. Most mammals are
dichromats, usually able to only distinguish between
bluish and greenish color components.
• In contrast, some primates (most notably humans)
exhibit trichromatic color vision, with significant
response to red, green and blue light stimuli.Figure are
the absorption spectra of the four human visual
pigments, which display maxima in the expected red,
green, and blue regions of the visible light spectrum. When all three types of cone cell are stimulated
equally, the light is perceived as being achromatic or white.
• For example, noon sunlight appears as white light to humans, because it contains approximately equal
amounts of red, green, and blue light.
• An excellent demonstration of the color spectrum from sunlight is the interception of the light by a
glass prism, which refracts (or bends) different wavelengths to varying degrees, spreading out the
light into its component colors.
• Human color perception is dependent upon the interaction of all receptor cells with light, and
this combination results in nearly trichromic stimulation. There are shifts in color sensitivity with
variations in light levels, so that blue colors look relatively brighter in dim light and red colors look
brighter in bright light. This effect can be observed by pointing a flashlight onto a color print, which
will result in the reds suddenly appearing much brighter and more saturatedWhen only one or two
types of cone cells are stimulated, the range of perceived colors is limited.
• For example, if a narrow band of green light (540 to 550 nanometers) is used to stimulate all of the
cone cells, only the ones containing green photoreceptors will respond to produce a sensation of seeing
the color green.
• Although the human visual system features three types of cones cells with their respective color
pigments plus light-receptive rod cells for scotopic vision, it is the human brain that compensates for
variations of light wavelengths and light sources in its perception of color.
• Metamers are pairs of different light spectra perceived as the same color by the human brain.
Intermediary neurons that ferry visual information between the retina and the brain are not simply
connected one-to-one with the sensory cells.
• Each cone and rod cell in the fovea sends signals to at least three bipolar cells, whereas in the more
peripheral regions of the retina, signals from large numbers of rod cells converge to a single ganglion
• The sensory, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells of the retina are also interconnected to other neurons,
providing a complex network of inhibitory and excitatory pathways. As a result, the signals from the 5
to 7 million cones and 125 million rods in the human retina are processed and transported to the visual
cortex by only about 1 million myelinated optical nerve fibers.
• The eye muscles are stimulated and controlled by ganglion cells in the lateral geniculate body, which
acts as a feedback control between the retina and the visual cortex. At some point in ganglion layer the
electrical signal is converted into nerve impulse which is transmitted to brain through the fibres of
optic nerve. This generation of electrical signal and nerve impulse is a physiological process. The
electrical impulses set up in rods and cones are programmed are sorted out somewhere on the way to
brain. The exact mechanism of coding is not known, but some form of message is conveyed to brain
by optic nerve.
• The messages from rods convey about light or on light (i.e. shape, movement of object etc.) while The
messages are decoded and -coupled with the memories stored in brain and the final consciousness of
colour and vision is experienced. This process of interpretation of signal and retrieving information
from the nerve impulse in brain is a psychological process. Thus process of colour and vision initiated
by physical stimulus progress through physiological process and finally ends with psychological
process., the messages from cones tell about the colour of the object under observation.


• The series experiments to produce gamut of colours by adding colured lights were carried out in good
old days by Newton. But the fundamental difference in mixing light and pigments / dyes was first
recognized by Helmholtz (1852). The former is now known as additive colour mixing and the later as
subtractive colour mixing. Industrial applications, like textile, paint, paper and plastic the desired
colours are produced by mixing two or more colorants.
• Therefore it is of significant importance to know the resultant colour obtained by mixing various
colorants in different proportions. The laws governing the colour of a mixture of colorants are known
as colour mixing laws
Mixing lights
• To people accustomed to mixing dyes or pigments, the colours produced by mixing lights may
sometimes be surprising. For example,
• A blue light mixed with a yellow light might well give white,
• While red and green lights could be mixed to give a yellow.
• (Yellow and blue dyes would be expected to give green, while red and green dyes would probably
give a dirty brown colour.)
• Quite obviously, mixing dyes and pigments is fundamentally but different from mixing colored lights.
Since the CIE system is based on mixtures of lights, these must be considered further.
• Additive color is color created by mixing a number of different light colors, with Red, green, and blue
being the primary colors normally used in additive color system. it occurs when two or
more lights are added by focusing them on a white screen. The primary colours
selected are independent in the sense that mixture of two will not
produce third primary colour. In case of the primaries
selected for additive mixing we have
Additive Colors Combined in Equal Parts
• Blue + Green = Cyan
• Red + Blue = Magenta Green + Red = Yellow
• Red + Green + Blue = White
Additive Colors Combined in Unequal Parts
• 1 Green + 2 Red = Orange
• 1 Red + 2 Green = Lime
• 1 Green + 1 Blue + 4 Red = Brown
Another simple method of demonstrating additive colour mixing is the Maxwell disc. This is a disc made
of sectors of various colours, Which is spun at increasing speed.
Above a certain speed we see
• the colours blending together in an additive manner.
The colours produced can be varied by
• Altering the relative areas of the differently coloured sectors
Examples additive colour
• Computer monitors and televisions are the most common examples of additive color.
• Subtractive mixing is much more common but usually involves more complex processes. The
subtractive primary colors are cyan, magenta and yellow (CMY). These are the three colors used in
printer ink cartridges.
• Photographs, magazines and other objects of nature such as an apple; create color by subtracting or
absorbing certain wavelengths of color while reflecting other wavelengths back to the viewer. This
phenomenon is called subtractive color.
• When the source of color is pigment or dye, the result of combining colors is different from when the
source of color is light. Subtractive color mixing occurs when light is reflected off a surface or is
filtered through a translucent object.
• For example, a red pigment or filter only appears red because it absorbs (subtracts) all of the light
that is not red and only reflects or allows the red light. A green pigment only reflects green light and a
green filter only passes green light. The removal of part of incident energy can occur by the process of
absorption and scattering.
• In absorption process, the light energy is converted into heat and/or absorbed by the atoms of the
Types of subtractive mixing
• When the subtraction is made by absorption only. It is said to be simple subtractive mixing.
• When the light is removed by scattering and absorption, it is said to be complex subtractive mixing.
Subtractive Colors: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow
Absorbs Creates
• Blue + Green Red Cyan
• Red + Blue Green Magenta
• Green + Red Blue Yellow
• A red apple is a good example of subtractive color; the apple really has no color; it has no light energy
of its own, it merely reflects the wavelengths of white light that cause us to see red and absorbs most
of the other wavelengths which evokes the sensation of red.
• The viewer (or detector) can be the human eye, film in a camera or a light-sensing instrument.
• The subtractive color system involves colorants and reflected light. it starts with an object (often a
substrate such as paper or canvas) that reflects light and uses colorants (such as pigments or dyes) to
subtract portions of the white light illuminating an object to produce other colors.
– If an object reflects all the white light back to the viewer, it appears white.
– If an object absorbs (subtracts) all the light illuminating it, no light is reflected back to the
viewer and it appears black.
• It is the subtractive process that allows everyday objects around us to show color. Color paintings,
color photography and all color printing processes use the subtractive process to reproduce color.
• In these cases, the reflective substrate is canvas (paintings) or paper (photographs, prints), which is
usually white. Printing presses use color inks that act as filters and subtract portions of the white
light striking the image on paper to produce other colors. Printing inks are transparent, which
allows light to pass through to and reflect off of the paper base. It is the paper that reflects any
unabsorbed light back to the viewer.
• The offset printing process uses cyan, magenta and yellow (CMY) process color inks and a fourth ink,
black. The black printing ink is designated K to avoid confusion with B for blue. Overprinting one
transparent printing ink with another produces the subtractive secondary colors, red, green, blue.
• The illustrations below show process inks printed on white paper. Each process printing ink (cyan,
magenta, yellow) absorbs or subtracts certain portions of white light and reflects other portions back to
the viewer. Process printing inks are transparent. It is the paper that reflects unabsorbed light back to
the viewer.

• The methods deviced to quantitatively describe the colour are called as colour order systems. A
system for categorizing colors. An arrangement of color perceptions, color stimuli or material color
samples according to certain rules
• A subset of the world of color according to three attributes that constitute the coordinates of the color
system, A rational plan for ordering and specifying all object colors by a set of material standards
We classify the colour order systems in two groups as follows:
1. Colour order systems which are based on collection of samples.
•Munsell system, Ostwald system. OSA-UCS system and ISCC-NBS system and may other come
under this class.
•Each this system is represented by its colour atlas. The atlas contains various colour chips, which are
arranged in definite configuration and are identified by definite name or numbers .
2. Colour order systems which describe the colour by mathematical numbers.
•The descriptions of colour in these system are based on the measurement of spectral reflectance of the
•Hunter L.a.b, CIE system and others obtained by its transformation come under this class. These
colour order systems are used in instrumental colour measurements
Description of Colour
• The desert island experiment described by Judd provides a very good illustration about the
arrangement of colours in colour space. The experiment is based on natural and logical approach of a
person to the gamut of colours available to him. what will be the activity of a person sitting alone in a
desert island and surrounded by large number of pebbles having a wide variety of colours. Suppose a
person with normal colour vision and no experience of dealing with colours is idling away their time
on a desert island, surrounded by a large number of pebbles of similar texture but having a wide
variety of colours. Suppose they wanted to organise these pebbles in some orderly way, according to
their colour.
How can we describe colour in terms of what they might do?
• One possible way would be for out experimenter to think about colour in terms of the common names
red, blue, green etc and separate those out without hue – that is those that are white, grey or black.
Thus they separate the chromatic pebbles from the achromatic ones. The observer may find that the
achromatic pebbles could arranged in a logical order in a series going from white to light grey to dark
grey to black. This arrangement in terms of lightness, provides a place for every achromatic pebble.
(value, whiteness or blackness)
• The chromatic pebbles differ from one another in several ways not just by differences in lightness. Our
experimenter could separate them by hue, into different piles they call red, yellow, green, and blue.
Each pile may be subdivided as finely as they want, for example, yellow-green, green and blue-green
piles. Each group of pebbles of a given hue could be separated by lightness just as the achromatic
pebbles were.
• The red pebbles could be separated into a series staring with the lightest pinks and becoming gradually
darker, ending with the dark cherry reds. Each red pebble would be equivalent in lightness to one of
the grey pebbles in the achromatic series. But the pebbles also differ in another way other than
lightness and hue.
• For example, a brick red could be compared to a tomato-red colour. They are the same hue (neither is
yellower or bluer red than the other). They also have the same lightness. (being equivalent in
lightness to the same medium-grey stone taken from the achromatic pebbles)
• This third kind of difference relates to how much the stones differ from grey – in crude terms how
much colour they contain. The stones with a single hue and a single lightness that vary in their hue are
said to have varying chroma.
• Hue: Attribute of visual perception according to which an area appears to be similar to one of the
colours, red, yellow, green and blue, or to a combination of adjacent pairs of these colours considered
in a closed ring (CIE 17.4).
• Lightness: Attribute by which a perceived colour is judged to be equivalent to one of a series of greys
ranging from black to white (ASTM E 284).
• Chroma: Attribute of colour used to indicate the degree of departure of the colour from a grey of the
same lightness (ASTM E 284).
• Textile dyers use the terms “brighter”, “duller”, “weaker” and “stronger” to represent specific changes
in lightness and chroma. Changes in dye concentration relate to stronger or weaker colours, and one
may need to change the choice of dyestuff to increase a colour’s “brightness”.
Colour Notation Systems
Collections of samples are often used to provide examples of colour products. (e.g. Patches of paint,
swatches of cloth, pads of papers, printings of inks, etc.)
• Munsell (1905)
• Pantone
• Natural Colour System (NCS)
• OSA Uniform Color Scales System
• The Colorcurve system
• These systems provide a set of symbols that denote a colour precisely.
Natural Colour System (NCS)
• Colours are ordered by reference to the four primary hues of
red, green, yellow and blue.
• Colours are further modified by adding in proportions of
black (swarthy) and white.
• The NCS system is based on single hue triangles with white,
black and a pure colour at the corners.
• The surface colour colour could be described With six
elementary attributes whiteness, blackness, redness,
greenness, yellowness and blueness
• The NCS colour atlas is published (2 nd Edition 1996) as a Swedish National Standard, and has
achieved World-wide status as a colour reference standard. The colour spacing is based on 60,000
visual observations, giving uniform colour scales.
• Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value
(lightness), and chroma (color purity). Several earlier color order systems had placed colors into a
three-dimensional color solid of one form or another. Munsell was the first to separate hue, value, and
chroma into perceptually uniform and independent dimensions, and was the first to systematically
illustrate the colors in three-dimensional space. In 1905 Albert Munsell invented a complete colour
description system. This system consists of:-
– A set of master physical samples whose
colours are the basic reference colours.
These are carefully spaced out as to cover
colour space evenly and as completely as
– A colour notation by which each colour can
be described and located.
– Commercially available colour atlases,
which contain carefully made copies of the
original master reference colours.
• The system consists of three independent
dimensions which can be represented cylindrically
in three dimensions as an irregular color solid:
– Hue, measured by degrees around horizontal circles;
– Chroma, measured radially outward from the neutral (gray) vertical axis; and
– Value, measured vertically from 0 (black) to 10 (white).
• Hue – The quality of colour. Described using terms such as Blue, Yellow, Green and Red etc.
• Value (Lightness) – The quality described by the terms light\dark etc., relating any colour to a grey of
the same lightness.
• Chroma – The quality that describes how the colour differs from a grey of the same lightness.
• There are five colours: Red, Yellow, Green, Purple and
• We may thus identify two elementary achromatic colours :
white and black
• Colours are equally spaced around the circle and arranged
clockwise in the order given when viewed
• 10 principal hues and 10 steps of value. The 10 hues are
arranged in a circle – Red (R), yellow-red (YR), yellow
(Y), green-yellow (GY), green (G), blue-green (BG), blue
(B), purple-blue (PB), purple (P), red-purple (RP). Each
principal hue is divided into 10 sub hues.
• Value varies between black(0) and white(10). Achromatic
colours are notated with the prefix “N”.
• The centre of hue circle is a gray pole, varying in value. This lightness dimension is called as Munsell
• Value or lightness is defined by reference to an equal visual step grey scale where black=0 and
• Chroma is on a variable length scale of equal perceptual steps ranging from zero to 20.
• The colour increase in saturation as the radius of hue Circle increases. so that the most saturated
colours occur at the periphery. This saturation scale is called as Munsell Chroma.
• Munsell chroma has its value zero for neutral and increases in a step of 2. It increases up to 14 for non-
fluorescent red and yellow paints As an illustration 2.5 R-5/6 represents 2.5 red hue corresponding to
value 5 and chroma 6
Differences between the NCS and Munsell Systems
The NCS differs from the Munsell system in two important respects:-
• Colours are defined by reference to measured numeric colour specifications, not master samples.
• Many more colours (16,000) are defined than can be put in a typical colour atlas.
Ostwald System
• The first system based on modern understanding of spectrophotometric properties of dyes and
pigments was proposed by Ostwald (Ostwald, 1931, 1969, Jacobson 1948).
• The colours in Ostwald system are produced by mixing the colours of high chroma with black and
white colorants. The colour atlas based on Ostwald system is not much used in practice.
• Colour Harmony Manual produced by Container Corporation of America is based on the Ostwald
system (Granville and' Jacobson 1944). The colour chips in the atlas are prepared on transparent
cellulose acetate base.
The OSA-UCS System
• The task of developing the colour catalogue exhibiting uniform visual spacing was undertaken by
Optic al Society of America. With an intensive effort for-30 years, a Uniform Colour Scale Committee
prepared 558 colour chips spaced according to redness-greenness, yellowness-blueness and lightness
(Nickerson 1978, 1981). The system provides the chips illustrating high chroma colours.
• The perception of colour includes source, object and observer. In 1931 CIE (Commission International
del'Eclairage international commission of illumination) introduced a system to quantify the colours in
terms of mathematical numbers. The system is of great use in instrumental colour.
CIE standard illuminants
• The source of light works as a physical stimulus in perception of colour. Each source of light is
characterized by the light energy that it emits at different wavelength. These sources may be sun light.
Tungsten lamp or fluorescent lamp.
• In physics important group of sources are called as blackbodies. These sources are not black in colour,
but the energy radiated by them at different wavelengths
• The temperature of blackbody is called as its colour temperature and The temperature of the source is
referred as colour temperature
• This colour temperature is not equal to their actual temperature. But their spectral power distribution
is equivalent to that of a black body at the correlated colour temperature. Thus the spectral power
distribution of a 100 watt tungsten lamp closely approximates to the energy radiated by a black body
at temperature 2854K. Similarly the day light spectral power distribution is equivalent to energy
radiated by blackbody at 6500 K.
Following this criteria CIE defined the standard sources based on their colour temperatures. CIE
recommended three standard illuminants for colour calculation.
Those sources are called as CIE standard illuminants A, B and C
• CIE illuminant A has colour temperature of 2854 K. Its spectral power = 100 watt tungsten lamp
• CIE illuminant B has colour temperature of 4800 K. Its spectral power = Noon light
• CIE illuminant C has colour temperature of 6500 K. Its spectral power = Avg. day light
CIE defined above illuminants with their spectral power distribution in visible wavelength range from 380 nm
to780 nm. 1965 CIE defined the day light illuminant D65 with colour temperature of 6500 K.
• The task of defining a standard observer which may represent a normal colour vision of average
human population was difficult. A visual colorimeter similar to the arrangement was used to obtain the
results of matching spectrum matching the spectrum colours used three primaries (red at 700 nm,
green at 546 nm and blue at 436 nm). The spectrum colours of different wavelengths can be matched
by adding different proportions of primaries r, g and b. The observer views the test colour ill half of
the field of views and in other half the mixture of r. g, b. All test colours cannot be matched with
combination of three primaries. The resultant tristimulus values when determined for all spectrum
colours, will at least contain few negative values.
• CIE selected one set of primaries and define standard observer data x, y, z. The y curve is eye
response curve. The new set of data X, y, z are known as 2° 1931 standard observer figure
The CIE 1932 2° observer data were prepared using fovea region of the human eye.
• In practice in visual assessment of colour, one uses larger areas of retina surface. The Structure of
fovea and surrounding region of the retina is different. Therefore CIE in 1964 defined another
observer using 10° field view. The supplementary standard observer x10, y10, z10
Characteristics of Object
• In CIE system, object is characterized by its reflectance at different wavelengths in visible spectral
region, with respect to perfect diffuse.
• The perfect diffuse 100 percent light energy incident on it with equal amount of energy reflect in all
possible directions.
• CIE proposed a method to reduce these sets of numbers in three numbers called as CIE
• These values are determined by Multiplying the relative power P of CIE illuminant, the reflectance
factor R and each of colour matching functions x, y, z for
wavelengths in visible spectral range and addicting them to
give three numbers.
• Thus if Rλ is expressed as a percentage, Y runs from zero (for
a sample which reflects no light) to 100 (for a sample which
diffusely reflects all the light incident on it) and is independent
of any units used. The ranges for X and Z depend on the illuminant.
Colour measurement
• Colour measurements are essentially measurements of visible light shining through an object or visible
light reflected from an object.
Types of colour measurement
– Colour measurement divides into two areas,
– Reflectance and
– Transmittance
– Each of these can be further divided into
– Diffuse and
– Regular
• It means the light travels through undeviated or is reflected off the sample in a mirror-like way
without change of frequency.
• It means that the light is scattered as it is reflected by, or transmitted through, a sample, again
without change of frequency of the light.
The total reflectance or transmittance : It is the sum of the regular and diffuse parts.
Reflectance and transmittance
They are defined in terms of the ratio of the incident light to the reflected or transmitted light
Regular reflectance
• Regular reflectance is the regularly reflected or specular component of the illumination,
• i.e. light that is reflected in a mirror-like way off a surface at the same angle and in the same plane as
the illumination beam.
• It is not usual when making colour measurements to measure this component separately, as it has the
same spectral profile as the illumination.
• Regular reflectance is usually only measured on its own when the sample has a very high regular
reflectance, such as a mirror.
Diffuse reflectance
• Diffuse reflectance is probably the measurement that most people think of when referring to colour
• This is measurement of light scattered from a surface and is most commonly measured using an
instrument incorporating an integrating sphere.
• The simplest measurement geometry is illumination at the sample normal or near normal and detection
over the whole hemisphere, but excluding the regular or specular component.
• For reflectance measurements, the trade-off is between light level and the ratio of the sphere surface
area to total port area.
Regular transmittance
• Regular transmittance is light that is undeviated as it passes through a sample. The sample may
attenuate (absorb) the light but the direction is not changed. This is the normal type of light
transmission such as looking through a clear pane of glass.
Diffuse transmission
• Light that does not pass through a sample in a regular way is diffuse transmission, i.e. the light
direction has been changed. An example of this is the covers to lamps that spread the illumination over
a larger area than would be possible without them.
Radiance factor and transmission factor
• Radiance factor and transmission factor are the fundamentals of the reflectance and transmittance
measurement geometries.
• It means illumination of a sample in a specific direction, over a specific angular range, with detection
at another specified direction and angular range.
• The most common colour measurement geometry of this type is illumination at the normal (0°) to a
sample with detection at 45° to the sample normal (or vice versa).
Geometries of measurement
• There are endless ways of arranging the optical system to make colour measurements. The colour of a
sample varies, depending on the way it is measured.
• A sample may reflect differently depending on the
 Illumination Angle,
 Whether The Sample Is Translucent,
 The State Of Polarization Of The Illumination,
 The Detection Angular Range,
 The Way The Detector Measures The Reflected Light, Etc.
• The CIE1 recommends the use of three reflectance measurement geometries:
 Specular included,
 Specular excluded and
 0°/45° and their reciprocal geometries.
• Use of these geometries is not mandatory but it makes sharing and comparing measurements with
others a possibility.
These effects included
• Translucency – sideways spreading of light;
• Fluorescence – emission of light at a different wavelength from the incident light;
• Metallics – metal flakes within a surface coating that have mirror like properties, but are orientated
parallel to the sample surface;
• Interferometric effects – the colour is different depending on the illumination and viewing
• All of these are difficult to measure in a conventional manner with an integrating sphere or by using
single angle geometry.
Colour measuring instrumentation
• Precision is a measure of how well as instrument repeats a measurement.
• Accuracy is a measure of how well the instrument will make measurements compared to particular
standard reference materials
Single-scale instruments
• These are instruments that are primarily for measuring a specific colour measurement scale, in order to
ascertain where the sample lies on the scale. These types of instruments are used in medicine,
chemistry, manufacturing control, food processing, etc
Visual instruments
• Visual instruments are usually of a comparative nature. They allow a sample to be viewed under the
same conditions as a reference artifact and the user determines if they are a match.
• The most common of these would be a simple light box, which usually has neutral grey walls, and a
choice of light sources designed to simulate recommended sources
• The reference and the test samples can be viewed side by side. This is how the textile industry used to
do much of its colour matching
Hand-held/portable instruments
• Hand-held instruments come in a variety of types, from small spectrophotometers to much simpler
colourimeters. Generally, these are small instruments, measuring a small area. They have the
advantage that they can be taken to the object to be measured instead of bringing the sample to the
instrument. This means that finished products such as cars, vehicle interiors, large objects and interior
decoration can be measured in situ without the need to remove samples for testing
Multiangle instruments
• Multiangle instruments have a lot of the features of other instrumentation, but offer several fixed angle
geometries, rather than just 0°/45° or a sphere based geometry. They are an attempt to measure
appearance or special effect samples. By looking at their properties at several angles, the user can pick
out the best angles for meaningful results on the sample types being investigated.
Benchtop instruments
• Most of the colour measuring instrument manufacturers sells more instruments of this type than any
other. For reflectance measurements, these instruments generally incorporate diode array detectors in
their optical systems.
• The light source is generally a xenon flash tube. Because of these features, measurements can be made
very rapidly. Bench-top instruments are mainly set up to perform comparisons of one sample against a
reference, for example, in a dye house for matching a production sample to the required reference
colour. The software allows for easy comparison of samples and references. Tolerances on the
closeness of colour match can be set to the user’s requirements.
• For reflectance instruments the data resolution may vary from 5 nm at the top end through 10 nm to 20
nm. The spectral range available is also variable. All spectral instruments will include the range 400
nm to 700 nm, but the better instruments will offer wavelengths outside this range, down to 360 nm
and up to 780 nm.
• For transmittance instruments measurements in the range 200 nm to 800 nm plus will generally be
available with at least 1 nm resolution. Spectral range and resolution are important for the type of
samples to be measured. Those with sharp or rapidly changing features will require more point
measurements to avoid features being smoothed out or missed. Bench-top reflectance instruments are
usually supplied with a white reference standard.
• The instrument should also come with a good black reference that approximates to zero – a black trap
for integrating sphere geometries and a black glass for 0°/45° geometry. Typical manufacturers are
Datacolor, GretagMacbeth, X-Rite, Tintometer and Analytik


Computer Color Matching System (CCMS):
 Computer Color Matching (CCM) is the instrumental color formulation based on recipe calculation
using the spectrophotometric properties of dyestuff and fibers.
The basic three things are important in CCMS:
• Color measurement Instrument (Spectrophotometers).
• Reflectance (R%) from a mixture of Dyes or Pigments applied in a specific way.
• Optical model of color vision to closeness of the color matching (CIE L*A*B).
Functions of Computer Color Matching System:
The following works can be done by using CCMS
• Color match prediction.
• Color difference calculation.
• Determine metamerism.
• Pass/Fail option.
• Color fastness rating.
• Cost Comparison.
• Strength evaluation of dyes.
• Whiteness indices.
• Reflectance curve and K/S curve.
• Production of Shade library.
• Color strength
1. Color Match Prediction:
 The main function of CCMS is to predict the color of a sample.
 In lab dip section it is necessary to match the shade of the sample.
 CCMS makes it easy to match the shade quickly.
 It also makes easy the work of a textile engineer who is responsible for it.
2. Color Difference Calculation:
– The spectrophotometer analyzes the color of the sample.
– It also calculates the color difference of the sample and dyed sample which is dyed according to the
recipe of the CCMS.
3. Determine Metamerism:
– CCMS also show the metamarism of the sample color.
4. Pass / Fail option:
– The sample which is dyed according to the recipe of the CCMS is it matches with the buyers sample
that could be calculate by this system.
– If the dyed sample fulfill the requirements then CCMS gives pass decision and if can’t then it gives
fail decision. So, pass-fail can be decided by CCMS.
5. Color Fastness Rating:
– Color fastness can be calculates by CCMS. There is different color fastness rating (1-5/1-8). CCMS
analyze the color fastness and gives result.
6. Cost Comparison:
– Cost of the produced sample can be compare with others. It also helps to choose the right dyes for
7. Strength Evaluation of Dyes:
– It is important to evaluate the strength of the dyes which will be used for production.
– All of the dyes have not same strength. Dyes strength effects the concentration of dyes which will be
used for dyeing.
8. Whiteness Indices:
– Whiteness Indices also maintained in CCMS.
9. Reflectance Curve and K/S Curve:
– Reflectance curve also formed for specific shade by which we can determine the reflection capability
of that shade.
10. Production of Shade Library:
– Computer color matching system also store the recipe of the dyeing for specific shade.
– This shade library helps to find out the different documents against that shade.
– It is done both for the shade of sample and bulk dyed sample.
11. Color Strength:
– Computer color matching system also determine the color strength of the sample.
Working Procedure of Computer Color Matching Systems ( CCMS ):
• The working procedure of CCMS which is used for dyeing lab to match the shade of the products.
• Generally buyer gives a fabric sample swatch or Panton number of a specific shade to the producer.
• Producer gives the fabric sample to lab dip development department to match the shade of the fabric.
• After getting the sample they analyze the color of the sample manually.
• In the other hand they can take help from the computer color matching system.
• At first it needs to fit the sample to the spectrophotometer which analyzes the depth of the shade and it
shows the results of the color depth.
• At the same time it needs to determine the color combination by which you want to dye the fabric.
• Then it will generate some dyeing recipe which is nearly same.
• Here it needs to determine the amount of chemicals which you want to use during dyeing.
• After formation of dyeing recipe it needs to dye the sample with stock solution.
• Then sample should dye according to the dyeing procedure.
• After finishing the sample dyeing it needs to compare the dyed sample with the buyer sample.
• For this reason dyed sample are entered to the spectrophotometer to compare the sample with the
buyer sample.
• Then CCMS gives the pass fail results.
If the dyed sample match with the buyer sample than CCMS gives pass results.
 After that, dyed samples send to the customer or buyer.
 After getting the approval from the buyer producer goes for the bulk production.
 If the dyed sample does not match with the buyer sample than the CCMS analyses the color difference
and correct the recipe.
 Then another sample dyeing is carried out for matching the shade of the sample.
Advantages of Computer Color Matching System (CCMS) :
• Customers get the exact shade wanted with his knowledge of degree of metamerism.
• Customers often have a choice of 10-20 formulation that will match color. By taking costing,
availability of dyes, and auxiliaries into account, one can choose a best swatch.
• 3 to 300 times faster than manual color matching.
• Limited range of stock color needed.
• It is a photometric device that measures spectral transmittance, spectral reflectance relative spectral
emitance. It compares light leaving from the object with that incident on it at each wavelength.
• According to Beer's law, the amount of light absorbed by a medium is proportional to the
concentration of the absorbing material or solute present.
• Thus the concentration of a colored solute in a solution may be determined in the lab by measuring the
absorbency of light at a given wavelength. Wavelength (often abbreviated as lambda) is measured in
nm. The spectrophotometer allows selection of a wavelength pass through the solution.
• Usually, the wavelength chosen which corresponds to the absorption maximum of the solute .
• Absorption Spectroscopic methods of analysis rank among the most widespread and powerful tools for
quantitative analysis. The use of a spectrophotometer to determine the extent of absorption of various
wavelengths of visible light by a given solution is commonly known as colorimetry. This method is
used to determine concentrations of various chemicals which can give colours either directly or after
addition of some other chemicals.
The Instrument of Spectrophotometer:
All spectrophotometer instruments designed to measure the absorption of
radiant energy have the basic components as follows:
• A stable source of radiant energy (Light);
• A wavelength selector to isolate a desired wavelength from the
source (filter or monochromator);
• Transparent container (cuvette) for the sample and the blank;
• A radiation detector (phototube) to convert the radiant energy
received to a measurable signal; and a readout device that displays
the signal from the detector.
The energy source is to provide a stable source of light radiation, whereas
the wavelength selector permits separation of radiation of the desired
wavelength from other radiation.
 Light radiation passes through a glass container with sample.
 The detector measures the energy after it has passed through the sample.
 The readout device calculates the amount of light absorbed by the sample displays the signal from the
detector as absorbance or transmission.
The spectrophotometers which are used for such measurements may vary from simple and relatively
inexpensive colorimeters to highly sophisticated and expensive instruments that automatically scan the
ability of a solution to absorb radiation over a wide range of wavelengths and record the results of these
measurements. One instrument cannot be used to measure absorbance at all wavelengths because a given
energy source and energy detector is suitable for use over only a limited range of wavelengths. Both filters
and monochromators are used to restrict the radiation wavelength.
• Photometers make use of filters, which function by absorbing large portions of the spectrum while
transmitting relatively limited wavelength regions. Spectrophotometers are instruments equipped with
monochromators that permit the continuous variation and selection of wavelength. The effective
bandwidth of a monochromator that is satisfactory for most applications is about from 1 to 5 nm.
• The sample containers, cells or cuvettes, must be fabricated from material that is transparent to radiation
in the spectral region of interest.
• The commonly used materials for different wave length regions are:
– Quartz or fused silica: UV to 2 mm in I R
– Silicate glass: Above 350 nm to 2 mm in I R
– Plastic: visible region
– Polished NaCI or AgCI: Wave lengths longer than 2mm
• Cuvettes or cells are provided in pairs that have been carefully matched to make possible the transmission
through the solvent and the sample.
• Accurate spectrophotometric analysis requires the use of good quality, matched cells. These should be
regularly checked against one another to detect differences that can arise from scratches, etching and wear.
• The most common cell path for UV-visible region is 1 cm. For reasons of economy, cylindrical cells are
frequently used. Care must be taken to duplicate the position of such cells with respect to the light path;
General Measurement Procedures :
As explained above, the Beer-Lambert Law forms the basis of the measurement procedure. The amount of
light radiation absorbed by a compound is directly related to the concentration of the compound.
The general measurement procedure consists of 5 steps:
• Prepare samples to make colored compound
• Make series of standard solutions of known concentrations and treat them in the same manner as the
sample for making colored compounds
• Set spectrophotometer to l of maximum light absorption
• Measure light absorbance of standards
• Plot standard curve: Absorbance vs. Concentration,
• Whiteness is an important parameter to judge the quality of process like textile, paint. Paper and
plastic. White is a colour, which gives sensation of purity, freshness and cleanness. The usefulness of
colorimetric method for quantifying whiteness has been recognized since 1934. (MacAdan.1934,
1955). White colour can be assessed by normal colortmetric method used for other colours.
• Whiteness is more than lightness L which is measured by Y using formula L = 10Y1/2.
• In physical terms, white surface will reflect more light throughout the visible spectrum.
• Therefore, in principle, the degree of whiteness measures the degree of departure of the object from
perfect white. The visual sensation of whiteness depends on spectral reflectance curve.
• The increase in reflectance over entire spectrum gives the impression of more white.
• Often the increase in reflectance in blue region makes the object bluish white, which is preferred by
customer over yellowish white
The Hanson formula for whiteness measurement: W = 100 - ( R670 - R430 )
The Stephenson formula is : W = R430 - ( R670 - R430)
• Here R is reflectance factor at a wavelength shown in equation. The quantification of whiteness can
also be made using colour coordinates.
Most widely used coordinates in defining whiteness by single number are hunter L.a.b system. Hunter
developed the formula and incorporated in his colorimeter (Hunter 1960)
W = L - 3b
Here L estimates lightness, b measures yellowness and blueness. Parameter 'b is weighted by factor 3.
Stensby (1967) proposed formula incorporating all the three Hunter coordinates.
W = L - 3b + 3a
Hunter incorporating two or three colour coordinates arc given below (Hunter 1958,196O)
w = 100 - (100/L)2 + (a2+b2)1/2
w = 100 - (100-L)2 + (10b2)1/2
Berger _ proposed formula to quantify WHITENESS used CIE tristimulus colour coordinates (1959).
w = O.333Y + 1 .060Z - 1.227X
• Here X, Y, Z, are for CIE 1931 standard observer.
More whiteness formula is poured in the literature than colour difference equations. CIE undertook the study
of important formula in 1967.
It was in 1982 that CIE recommended whiteness index (McLaren 1983 pp 147)
 W = Y + 800 (xn-x) + 1700 (yn-y)
• here x, y and z are colour coordinates for illuminant D 65 tor CIE 2° or 10° standard observer. x n, yn- are
chromaticity coordinates for the light source.
For perfect reflecting whiteness index will be 100. The samples treated with optical brightening agents will
have whiteness index greater than 100. In this case the hue of the white sample may change towards blue, red
or green depending on the quality of blighting agent.
• Therefore the specific hue imparted by the whitening agent is also calculated with-whiteness index as
tint factor
 Tw = 1000 (xn-x) - 650(Yn - y)
 Tw,10 = 900 (xn,10 - x10 ) - 650 (Yn10- Y10)
• The above equations are to be used for CIE 1931 standard observer and GIE 1964 supplementary
observer respectively.
• If Tw is near zero. the hue of the specimen is blue with dominant wavelength 466 nm. Large positive
value of T indicates greenness and more negative value indicate redness.
• The visual perception of yellowness results due to absorption in blue region of spectrum.
• In practice, yellowness Is associated with scourching, soiling and degradation of product by light or
chemical exposure.
• Yellowness indices used to measure this type of degradation.
• There are number of relations suggested in the literature to measure yellowness index.
• Yellowness index (YI) equations commonly used are given below :
YI = 100 (1.28X-1.06Z)/Y
YI = X-Y/Z x 100