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“Curriculum is at the heart of schooling”

“Sabre Tooth Curriculum” by : Harold Benjamin


1. Basic Education - this include Kindergarten, Grade 1 to 6, Grade 7 to 10, Grade 11 and 12
2. Technical Vocational Education – post-secondary technical vocational educational training.
(TechVoc track in SHS of DepEd) DepED and TESDA work in close coordination
3. Higher Education – Bachelor Degrees, Graduate Degrees (Masterate and Doctorate) under the
regulation of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED)

CURRICULUM – is what is taught in school, a set of subjects, a content, a program of studies, a set of materials,
a sequence of courses, a set of performance objectives, everything that goes within the school. In short,
Curriculum is the total learning experiences of the learner, under the guidance of the teacher.


1. Recommended Curriculum – for Basic Education, these are recommended by the Department of
Education (DepED) and for Higher Education by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and
Vocational Technical Education by Technical Education Skills and Development Authority (TESDA).
The recommendations come in the form of memoranda or policy, standards and guidelines.
2. Written Curriculum – documents based on the recommended curriculum. ( course study, syllabi,
modules, books, instructional guides). The most recent written curriculum is the K-12 for Basic
3. Taught Curriculum – from what has been written and planned, the curriculum has to be implemented
or taught. The teacher and the learners will put life to the written curriculum.
4. Supported Curriculum – is described as support materials that the teacher needs to make learning
and teaching meaningful. These include print materials ( books, charts, posters) and non-print
materials (powerpoint presentation, movies, slides, models, realias, mock ups). Also includes the
facilities where learning occurs (playground. Museum, zoo, classroom)
5. Assessed Curriculum – taught and supported curricula have to evaluated to find out if the teacher has
succeeded. (Assessment for learning, as learning and of learning)
6. Learned Curriculum – if a student changed behavior he/she has learned. Non-reader to a reader,
from not knowing to knowing.
7. Hidden /Implicit Curriculum – this curriculum is not deliberately planned, but has a great impact on
the behavior of the learner. Peer influence, school environment, media, parental pressures, societal
changes, cultural practices, natural calamities are some factors that create the hidden curriculum.

1. Knows the curriculum – it is the mastery of the subject matter. (knower)

2. Writes the curriculum – the teacher writes books, modules, lesson plan and also takes record of
knowledge, concepts, subject matter or content. (writer)
3. Plans the curriculum – a good curriculum has to be planned. It is the role of the teacher to make a
plan of the curriculum. This will serve as a guide in the implementation of the curriculum. (planner)
4. Initiates the curriculum – whatever curriculum recommended by the different agencies mentioned,
the teacher is obliged to implement it. “Transformative teacher’. (initiator)
5. Innovates the curriculum – creativity and innovation are hallmarks of an excellent teacher. A
curriculum is always dynamic, hence keep on changing. good teacher, therefore innovates the
curriculum. (innovator)
6. Implements the curriculum – the curriculum that remains recommended or written will never serve
it’s purpose. Somebody has to iimplement it. It is this role where the teacher becomes the curriculum
implementor. An implementor gives life to the curriculum plan. The success of a recommended, well
written and planned curriculum depends on the implementation. (implementor)
7. Evaluates the curriculum – the teacher evaluates the curriculum. (evaluator)


1. Robert M. Hutchins – “permanent studies” where rules of grammar, reading, rhetoric, logic and
mathematics 3R’s for basic education are emphasized.
2. Arthur Bestor – mission of the school should be intellectual training, and the focus is on intellectual
disciplines of grammar, literature and writing, math, science, history and foreign language.
3. Joseph Schwab – sole source of curriculum is a discipline. He coined the word “discipline” as a ruling
doctrine for curriculum development.
4. Phillip Phenix – curriculum should consist entirely of knowledge which comes from various


1. John Dewey – “education is experiencing”. Reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular
element that is tested by application.
2. Holin Caswell and Kenn Campbell – “curriculum as all experiences children have under the guidance
of teachers.
3. Othaniel Smith, William Stanley and Harlan Shore – curriculum as a sequence of potential
experiences, set up in schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of
thinking and acting.
4. Colin Marsh and George Willis – curriculum as all the experiences in the classroom which are
planned and enacted by the teacher and also learned by the students.

1. Curriculum as a Content or Body of Knowledge

The focus is on the subject matter


1. Topical Approach – much content is based on knowledge and experiences are included.
2. Concept Aproach – fewer topics in cluster around major and sub concepts and their interaction,
with relatedness emphasized.
3. Thematic Approach - combination of concepts that develop conceptual structures
4. Modular Approach – leads to complete unit of instruction.


1. Significance – it is significant if the content becomes the means of developing cognitive, affective
or psychomotor skills of the learner.
2. Validity – the authenticity of the subject matter, forms it’s validity. It measures what it aims to
3. Utility – usefulness of the content in the curriculum is relative to the learners who are going to
use these. (relative to time)
4. Learnability – the complexity of the content should be within the range of experiences of the
5. Feasibility – the subject content be learned within the time allowed, resources available,
expertise of the teachers and and the nature of the learners.
6. Interest – will learners take interest in the content? Interest is one of the driving force for
students to learn better.


BALANCE – content should be fairly distributed in depth and breadth.

ARTICULATION – seamless flow of content vertically or horizontally in the curriculum.

SEQUENCE – logical arrangement of the content

INTEGRATION – content does not stand alone or in isolation. It has some ways of relatedness or

connectedness to other contents.

CONTINUITY – content is enduring and perennial, from past to future.

2. Curriculum Approached as a Process

Curriculum is not seen as physical thing or a noun, but as a verb or an action. It is the interaction
among the teachers, students and content.

The intersection of the content and process is called the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
3. Curriculum as a Product
Product is what the students desire to achieve as a learning outcomes. The real purpose of
education is to bring about significant changes in student’s pattern of behavior. Curriculum product is
expressed in form of outcomes which are referred to as the achieved learning outcomes.


1. Curriculum planning – consider the school vision, mission and goals. It also includes the philosophy
or strong education belief of the school.
2. Curriculum designing – is the way curriculum is conceptualized to include the selection and
organization of content, the selection and organization of learning experiences or activities and the
selection of the assessment procedure and tools to measure achieved learning outcomes.
3. Curriculum implementing – putting into action the plan which is based on the curriculum design.
4. Curriculum evaluating – determines the extent to which the desired outcomes have been achieved.
This procedure is on-going as in finding out progress of learning (formative) or the mastery of learning


1. Ralph Tyler Model : Four Basic Principles (Tyler’s Rationale)

 What purpose should school seek to attain? (purpose)
 What experiences can be provided attain the purpose? (related exp. )
 How can thsese experiences be organized? (organization)
 How can we determine whether the purposes are being attained or not? (evaluation)

2. Hilda Taba Model: Grassroots Approach (begins from the bottom)

 Learners need
 Formulation of learning objectives
 Selection of contents
 Organization of contents
 Selection of learning experiences
 Evaluation

3. Galen Saylor and William Alexander Curriculum Model

 Goals, Objectives and Domains
 Curriculum Designing
 Curriculum Implementation
 Curriculum Evaluation

a. Perennialism (curriculum is enduring)
Aim: to educate the rational person; cultivate intellect.
How to teach : centered around teachers-students engaged in Socratic dialogues or mutual inquiry
sessions to develop an understanding of history’s most timeless concepts.
Focus: curriculum is universal or general- heavy on the humanities, general education-less
emphasis on vocational and technical education- they use great books (bible, Koran, classics)
b. Essentialism
Aim : learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills and values. to promote intellectual growth of
learners to become competent.
How to teach: emphasize mastery of subject matter- teachers are the fountain of information and
paragon of virtue- rely heavily on the use of prescribed textbooks. Teachers are sole authorities in
the subject area.
Focus: the basic skill or the fundamental 3R’s, right conduct needed in preparation for adult life.
c. Progressivism
Aim: promote democratic social living
How to teach: employ experiential methods-learning by doing –John Dewey- heavily rely on the
problem-solving method (scientific method) hands-on-minds-on; teacher leads for growth and
development of lifelong learners.
Focus: need-based and relevant curriculum-curriculum that respond to students’ need and relates
to students’ lives and experiences-accept the impermanence of life and inevitability of change,
everything else change. Interdisciplinary subjects. Humanistic education
d. Reconstructionism
Aim : to improve and reconstruct society. Education for change
How to teach : teacher acts as agent of change and reforms
Focus : global education, collaboration and convergence. Standards and competencies.

- Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
* father of the Classical Condition Theory the S-R Theory
* the key to learning is early years of life is to train them what you want them to become.
* S-R Theory is a foundation or learning practice called indoctrination.

- Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-19-49)

* championed the Connectionism Theory

* proposed the three laws of learning

- law of readiness -law of exercise -law of exercise

* specific stimulus has specific response

- Robert Gagne (1916-2002)

* proposed the hierarchical Leaning Theory. Learning follows a hierarchy

* behavior is based on prerequisite conditions.

* introduced tasking in the formulation of objectives

- Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

* Cognitive Development Theory

* key to learning ; assimilation (incorporation of new experience) accommodation (learning

modification and adaptation) equilibration ( balance between previous and later learning

- Lev Vygotsky

* cultural transmission and development

* children could, as a result of their interaction with society, actually perform certain cognitive
actions prior to arriving at developmental stage.

* learning precedes development.

* Sociocultural Development Theory

* pedagogy creates learning processes that lead to development

* child is an active agent in his or her educational process.

- Howard Gardner

* Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

- Daniel Goleman

* Emotion contains the power to affect action.

* Emotional Quotient

Humanistic Psychology

- Gestalt
* learning is explained in terms of “wholeness” of the problem.
* Human beings do not respond to isolated stimuli but to an organization or pattern of stimuli.
* learning is complex and abstract
* learners will perceive something in relation to the whole.

- Abraham Maslow
* Self-Actualization Theory
* classic theory of human needs.
* A child whose basic needs are not met will not be interested in acquiring knowledge of the world.
* put importance in human emotions, based on love and trust.

- Carl Rogers
*Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning
* children’s perceptions, which are highly individualistic, influence their learning and behavior in
*curriculum concerned with process, not product; person needs, not subject matter, psychological
meaning, not cognitive scores.
Social Foundations of Curriculum

- Schools and Society

* Society as a source of change
* schools as agents of change
* knowledge as an agent of change

- John Dewey
*schools and civil society as major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage
experimental intelligence and plurality

- Alvin Toffler
*author of Future Shock
* believed that knowledge should prepare students for the future


Axioms for Curriculum Designers

1. Curriculum change is inevitable, necessary, and desirable.

2. Curriculum reflects as a product of it’s time.
3. Curriculum changes made earlier can exist concurrently with newer curriculum changes.
4. Curriculum change depends on people who will implement the change.
5. Curriculum development is a cooperative group activity
6. Curriculum development is a decision-making process made from choices of alternatives.
7. Curriculum development is an ongoing process.
8. Curriculum development is more effective if it is a comprehensive process, rather than a “piecemeal”.
9. Curriculum development is more effective when it follows a systematic process.
10. Curriculum development starts from where the curriculum is.

Elements or Components of a Curriculum Design

(Lesson Plan as a miniscule curriculum.)

1. Behavioral Objectives or Intended Learning Outcomes

Begin with the end in view. It is a desired learning outcome that is to be accomplished in a particular
learning episode, engaged in by the learners under the guidance of the teacher. Intended learning
outcomes are expressed in action words found in the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives
(Andersen and Krathwohl) for cognitive skills. For the affective skills, the taxonomy made by Krathwohl
and for psychomotor domain by Simpson.

2. Content / Subject Matter

3. References

4. Teaching and Learning Methods

5. Assessment /Evaluation

Learning occurs most effectively when students receive feedback.

3 Main forms of assessment

1. SELF-ASSESSMENT- through which a student learns to monitor and evaluate their own learning.
(reflective and self-critical)
2. PEER-ASSESSMENT – in which students provide feedback on each other’s learning. This can be
viewed as an extension of self-assessment and presupposes trust and mutual respect. Students can
learn to judge each other’s work.
3. TEACHER ASSESSMENT – in which the teacher prepares and administers tests and gives feedback
on the student’s performance.


Types of Curriculum Design Models

1. Subject-Centered Design
 Subject Design – is the oldest and so far the most familiar design for teachers. The drawback of this
design is that sometimes, learning is so compartmentalized. It stresses so much the content and
forgets about students’ natural tendencies, interests and experiences. The teacher becomes the
dispenser of knowledge.
 Discipline design – focuses on academic disciplines. Discipline refers to specific knowledge learned
through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields
 Correlation design – subjects are related to one another and still maintain the identity of the
subject. Ex. English literature and social studies correlate well in the elementary level. While
History is studies, different literary pieces are being studied. The same true when science become
the core, mathematics is related to it, as they are taken in chemistry, physics and biology.
 Broad field design/interdisciplinary – thus subjects such as geography, economics, political
science. Anthropology, sociology, and history are fused into one subject called social studies.
Language arts will include grammar, literature, linguistics, spelling and composition.

2. Learner-Centered Design
 Child-centered design – attributed to the influence of John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi and Froebel.
The curriculum design is anchored on the needs and interests of the child.
 Experience-centered design – experience of the learners become the starting point of the
curriculum, thus the school environment is left open and free. Learners are made to choose from
various activities that the teacher provides. The emergence of multiple intelligence theory blends
well with experience-centered design curriculum.
 Humanistic design – the key influence in this design are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
Maslow’s theory of self-actualization and self-directed learning. It stresses the whole person and
the integration of thinking, feeling and doing.

3. Problem-Centered Design
 Life-situations design – the connections of subject matter to real situations increases the relevance
of the curriculum.
 Core problem design – it centers on general education and problems are based on the common
human activities. The central focus includes the common needs, problems, concerns of the


1. Child or Learner-Centered Approach

The learner is the center of the educational process.
2. Subject-Centered Approach
3. Problem-Centered Approach
CURRICULUM MAPPING (making a map to success)

It is a process that follows curriculum designing. This process was introduced by Heidie Hayes Jacobs
in 2204. This approach is an ongoing process or “work-in-progress”.

Curriculum Map – are visual timelines that outline desired learning outcomes to be achieved, contents, skills
and values taught, instructional time, assessment to be used. It provides quality control of what are taught in
schools to maintain excellence, efficiency and effectiveness.


This is the phase where teacher action takes place. It is one of the most crucial processes in curriculum
development. “A good plan is work half done”. If this is so the other half to the success of curriculum devt rest
in the hands of the implementer who is the teacher.

Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process

“Kurt Levin’s Force Field Theory and Curriculum Change”

Kurt Levin as the father of social psychology explains the process of change.

In the education landscape, there are always two forces that oppose each other. These are driving force and
the restraining force. When these two forces are equal, the state is equilibrium, or balance. However, when
the driving force overpowers the restraining force, then change will occur. If the restraining force is stronger
than the driving force, change is prevented.

Driving Force E Restraining Forces

Government Intervention U Fear of the unknown
Society’s Values L Negative Attitude to change
Technological Changes B Tradition values
Knowledge Explosion I Limited Resources
Administrative Support M Obsolete equipment

Categories of Curriculum Change

1. Substitution – the curriculum will be replaced or substituted by a new one. Sometimes we call this a
complete overhaul. Ex. Changing an old book to entirely new one, not merely a revision.
2. Alteration – there is a minor change to the current or existing curriculum. Ex. Graphing paper –
graphing calculator.
3. Restructuring – major change or modification in the school system. Ex. K-12, parents guidance in the
school instead leaving everything to the teacher.
4. Perturbations – changes that are disruptive. Ex. Shortened time, change of schedule to accommodate
unplanned extracurricular activities.
5. Value orientation –

3 important elements in the process of change in curriculum and implementation

1. Developmental – there will be continuous reflection, feedback and refinement. Progressive steps
from orientation to reflection.
2. Participatory – participation of the people that are involve in the curriculum implementation.
3. Supportive – material support like supplies, equipment, conducive learning environment. Likewise,
human support is very needed.

Time is an important commodity for a successful change process. 3-5 years innovation is needed to
institutionalize a curriculum.

DepED Order No. 70 s. 2012 – teachers of all public elementary and secondary schools will not be
required to prepare detailed lesson plans. They may adopt DAILY LESSON LOGS (DLL) which contain the
needed information and guide from the teacher guide and teacher manual.

The main parts of a lesson plan

1. Objectives or Intended Learning Outcomes

2. Subject Matter
3. Procedure
4. Assessment
5. Assignment

1. Objectives
This will be the focus of the lesson. It is based on Taxonomy of Objectives presented to us as
cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised Bloom’s by Lorin Anderson and David







1. Factual Knowledge – ideas, specific data or information
2. Conceptual Knowledge – words or ideas known by common name, common features, specific
examples. This are facts that interrelate with each other to function together.
3. Procedural Knowledge – how things work, step by step actions
4. Metacognitive Knowledge – knowledge of cognition in general, awareness of knowledge of
one’s own cognition., thinking about thinking.

2. Subject Matter – comes from a body of knowledge. It is the “WHAT” in teaching.

3. Procedure – this is the crux of curriculum implementation


Factors for Technology Selection

1. Practicality – is the equipment (hardware) or already prepared lesson material (software) available?
If not what would be the cost?
2. Appropriateness – is the medium suitable to the learners’ ability to comprehend?
3. Activity /suitability – will the chosen media fit the set instructional event?
4. Objective-matching – overall, does the medium help in achieving the learning objectives?


1. Learners are at the core of the curriculum

2. Teacher are curricularist. The most important person in curriculum implementation is the teacher.
3. School leaders are curriculum managers (school head/principal)
4. Parents . parents are significant school partners. Schools have one way of engaging parents
cooperation through Brigada Eskwela.
5. Community as the Curriculum Resources and a Learning Environment- “It takes the whole village
to educate the child”First lady Hillary Clinton
6. Other Stakeholders in Curriculum Implementation and Development
Government Agencies
 DepED, TESDA, CHED – agencies that have regulatory and mandatory authorities over the
implementation of the curricula.
 PRC and CSC – the first agency certifies and issues teacher licenses to qualify one to teach

Non-Government Agencies

 GAWAD KALINGA – to build communities means to include education.

 SYNERGIEA – foundation that support basic education to elevate education through reading, science,
mathematics and English.
 METROBANK FOUNDATION – supports continuing teacher development programs



As a process it follows a procedure based on models and frameworks to get to the desired results. As a tool, it
will help teachers and program implementers to judge the worth and merit of the program and innovation of
curricular change.


1. Identifies the strengths and weaknesses of an existing curriculum that will be the basis of the intended
plan, design or implementation. (needs assessment)
2. Related to monitoring
3. Curriculum evaluation will guide whether the results have equalled or exceeded the standards, thus
can be labeled as success. (terminal assessment)
4. Basis for decision making

1. Bardley Effectiveness Model

 Vertical curriculum continuity – ex. If you are looking at science 5, below means science 4 and above
means, science 6.
 Horizontal Curriculum Continuity – ex. All English 101 for all 1st year college students.
 Instruction Based on Curriculum – lesson plans/syllabi/course design derived from the curriculum
and strategies.
 Broad Involvement – involvement of the stakeholders in curriculum planning, designing and
 Long Range Planning – time allotment

2. Tyler Objective Centered Model

(his monograph was entitled Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction)

3. Daniel Stufflebeam Model – Context , Input, Process Product Model (CIPP)

(product of the Phi Delta Kappa committee chaired by stufflebeam)
The model made emphasis that the result of evaluation should provide data for decision making.

Four Stages of Program Operation

1.Context Evaluation – assess needs and problems in the context for decision makers to determine
the goals and objectives of the curriculum.
2.Input Evaluation – assess alternative means based on the inputs for the achievement of objectives
to help decision makers to choose options for optimal means.
3.Process Evaluation – monitors the process both to ensure that the means are actually being
implemented and make necessary modifications.
4.Product Evaluation – compares actual ends with intended ends and leads to series of recycling

4.Stake Responsive Model – evaluation focuses more on the activities rather than intent or purposes.

5. Scriven Consumer Oriented Evaluation – Michael Scriven introduced this when education products
flooded the market. Consumers of educational products which are needed to support an implemented
curriculum often use consumer oriented evaluation. (uses criteria and checklist as a tool for either
formative or summative evaluation purposes.)
 Achieved Learning Outcomes
Is defined in OBE as a product of what are have been intended in the beginning of the learning
process. Indicators of the learning outcomes which are accomplished are called “achieved learning
outcomes”. (standards and competencies as indicators)

 Knowledge, Process, Understanding Performance (KPUP) – Levels of Learning Outcomes.

Level 1 – Knowledge – factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge,

Level 2 – Process – skills that the students used based on facts and information
Level 3 – Understanding – big ideas or concepts
Level 4 – Performance – what products (material/tangible) or performance (oral, visual, written etc,)
as evidence of learning (portfolio, paintings drama, research projects).

 Assessment Tools for Each Level of Learning Outcomes

o Types of Test to Measure Knowledge, Process and Understanding.

1. Objective Tests – requires only one correct answer. Difficult to construct but easy to check.
a. Pencil and Paper Test – test written on paper and requires a pencil to write.
b. Simple recall – the most common tool to measure knowledge.
- Fill in the Blanks
- Enumeration
- Identification
- Simple recall

c. Alternative Response Test - two options or choices are provided.

- True or False
- Yes or No
d. Multiple Choice Test – most versatile test type because it can measure a variety of learning
e. Matching Type Test – useful in measuring factual information as well as relationships.
2. Subjective Test –
a. Essay – freedom of response
- Restricted Response Item – ex. What are the main parts of the plant? Describe each part.
- Extended Response Item – ex. What can you say about same sex marriage?

 Assessment Tools to Measure Authentic Learning Performance and Products (KPUP)

o Performance Assessment Tools
1. Checklist
2. Rating Scale
3. Rubrics for Portfolio

 Planning , Implementing and Evaluating:

Three process in curriculum
development that are taken separately
but are connected to each other.

What has been planned, Planning is an initial step in

should be implemented and curriculum development
what has been implemented
should be evaluated Implementation continues
IMPLEMENTING after planning.

Evaluation follows
The Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 (K-12)

Republic Act 10533, otherwise known as the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, is the latest
educational reform in the Philippine Education signed into law by President Benigno Aquino III last May
15, 2013. The Enhance Basic Education Act of 2013 popularly known as K to 12 includes 1 year of kinder
garten education, 6 years of elementary education, and 6 years of secondary education. This 6 years
includes 4 years of junior high school and 2 years of senior high school. With k -12 the existing 10
years of basic education is increased to 12 years with Kindergarten education as a prerequisite to entry
in Grade 1.

Why K-12?

1. Insufficient mastery of basic competencies due to congested curriculum.

2. The Philippines is the only one country in asia with a 10-year basic education.

The K-12 Curriculum

a. Curriculum shall be learner centered, inclusive and developmentally appropriate;

b. The curriculum shall be relevant, responsive and researched based;
c. The curriculum shall be culture-sensitive;
d. The curriculum shall be contextualized and global;
e. The curriculum shall use pedagogical approaches that are constructivist, inquiry based, reflective,
collaborative and integrative;
f. The curriculum shall adhere the principles and framework of Mother Tongued-Based Multilingual
Education (MTB-MLE).
g. The curriculum shall use the spiral progression approach to ensure mastery of knowledge and skills
after each level; and
h. The curriculum shall be flexible enough to enable and allow schools to localize, indigenize and enhance
the same based on their respective educational and social contexts.

Senior High School Curriculum (15 core subjects, 7 contextualized subjects, 9 specialization subjects)

 STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math)
 HUMMS (Humanities and Social Sciences)
 ABM (Accounting, Business and Managemen)
 GAS (General Academic Strand)
It became the fundamental philosophy of higher education in the Philippines.
W. Spady defined OBE as clearly focusing, and organizing everything in the educational system
around the essential for all the students to do successfully at the end of their learning experiences. It
starts with the clear picture of what is important for students to be able to do.
 All students can learn and succeed, but not at the same time or in the same way.
 Successful learning promotes even more successful learning.
 Schools and teachers control the conditions that will determine if the students are successful
in school learning.

4 Essential Principles in OBE

1. Clarity and Focus

A clear focus on what teachers want students to learn
2. Designing Backwards
3. High Expectations
4. Expanded Opportunities