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Practical Electronics

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©.-.'. a constructor's amplifier


using PWM, except for the 11 TRANSISTORS

NO HEW
SINCLAIR X-10 SIZE
SIJII

INTEGRATED 10 WATT
AMPLIFIER AND 6'xf
pre-amp ^mm

Hi Fi Quality Add your own


for very choice of
tone control
modest outlay
The Sinclair X-10 marks a radical departure sients and less current requirements.
Input sensitivity
from conventional amplifier design which is
certain to influence future developments in
Indeed, the X-10 can be satisfactorily opera-
ted from a couple of 4/- lantern batteries.
ImV into Ikn
the audio field enormously. Already the THE SINCLAIR X-10 MANUAL in-
Total harmonic
power and quality obtainable from this ex- cluded every X-10 explains how it
with
tremely small amplifier bring entirely new functions, and also gives tone control and
approaches to styling and housing domestic stereo matching circuits, none of which cost
distortion <o.1%
audio equipment, which the absence of heat more than a few shillings. The X-10 Manual
sinks helps greatly. Is available separately, price I/-, Output up to
Leaving the X-10 user to add a tone control
system of his own choice to the integrated
• X-10 USERS WRITE 10 watts into 15 ri
pre-ampiifier stage enables any sound input
source to be accurately matched. The X-10
has many other important advantages as a
"1
self
must si/ that the amplifier certainly delighted ray.
and others with its beautiful crisp quality."
Operates from
W.L. Leeds, 2.
result of using Pulse Width Modulation, in-
"I was able to try it out yesterday and would like Co
12 to 15 volts D.C
cluding incredibly low distortion figures, no
say that am very pleased with its performance."
I

falling off of higher frequencies, better tran- R./vl., KeifMey.

AH parts including It transistors and X-10


Manual come
e to

£5.19.6
Ready butft and tested
tested with
wi\ X-10 Manual

TWO STAGE
BLOCK DIAGRAM shows in simplified form the
stages of function of this remarkable amplifier. Such
£6
£6.19.6
Ay- Ptt AMP design with its very much better standards of
performance is made possible by use of the very AC Mains Supply Unit {ready £*\ \At
latest in transistors and high' quality components. built) for one or two X-IQs fcA«l"-l

To SINCLAIR RADIONICS LTD. COMBERTON, CAMBRIDGE


>0ST YOUR Please send items detailed below— £ s. d.

NAME
ORDER
TO-DAY! ADDRESS.

Full Service
Facilities always TOTAL
ai table to Sinclair
Customers For which I enc/ose CASHjCHEQUElMOhllY ORDER P«4
ETCH YOUR OWN
PRINTED nee CUBE

CIRCUIT KIT
Sofid state semi-conductor mod-
ules— fully transistorised and
ENC«P5Ul«TttlCllleulT
' SHE
SOLON
21-0 completely wired and te$ted cir-
cuits that only require a 6-vol"
battery and connection to input
and output to provide a compact
GETS THINGS
Each contains over 60 sq. in, of ready-made unit. Encapsulated

TOGETHER
.

laminated board and sufficient types are shock proof and almost
chemicals co make dozens of tndestruccible. Supplied with
printed circuits, plus comprehen- instructions*
sive instruction book giving PUBLIC ADDRESS AMPLI-
advice and examples on trans- FIER — needs
only crystal
lating theoretical circuits into
layouts ready for etching.
quality materials
High

completely safe
microphone and any speaker.
Frequency response designed to
provide maximum intelligibility.
FOR
to handle

'* ' '-—



carefully prepared to
ensure fine definition and uniform
Pfi5u Its without laboratory control

"^ '
J. ' ° ' ' ' '
' ' / ^
With 15 in. Speaker sound covers
hundreds of yards. Fully encap-
sulated. Size only ljxl£x£
GOOD A
PM speaker to produce accurate
repetitive beats at adjustable
rates ilrom 40 to more than 208
beats per minute. Low battery SOLON ELECTRIC SOLDERING
Electroluminescent lamps an — drain, simple connections.
22/6. P. & P. I/-.
IRONS are made by Seven models
AEI.
amazing new scientific develop- 2 WATT GRAM AMPLIFIER
ment which the whole of the suitable for all soldering jobs. The 15
in
illumination produced emanates
— connect to any crystal pick-
just
and 25 watt radio work, the 65 watt
up and 3-ohm speaker for above for
from the entire surface of a average output with excellent
specially created, flat steel plate for heavier duties. All parts are replace-
tonal quality. l-megohm poten-
protected by a thin coating of tiometer recommended for vol.
glass. No heat is generated and
able.. Prices from 24/8.
control. Compact, high quality
there is no filament to burn our. unit. 30/-. P. & P. I/-.
Makes intriguing home decora- CODE PRACTICE OSCIL-
tion, illuminated door numerals, LATOR — simply connect with
small darkroom lights, night-
lights, etc. Connects directly to
mains and burns continuously for
a whole year at a cost of a few
morse key, any P.M. speaker and
any 1^— 6v battery. Fully tran-
sistorised and assembled on rigid
board size 2x Ifin.
SOLON TRADE MARK
From your radio or
electrical supplier.

12/6
pence only. Available in plate
size 3 in. x 2 in, and in green or
BURGLAR needs ALARM —
only 8-ohm loudspeaker, switch
blue colour (state which re-
quired). Each plate takes one
and rnicfoswicch (or reed switch ST.
and magnet) to complete,
numeral (stick-on of number Operation of sensing switch trig-
choice supplied freeif required).
ger upward screaming syren to
Complete with plastic protecting give instant alarm. For home or
wrap and full instructions.
motor car protection. 30 -, P. &

I
Make a wonderful ranye
of inexpensive dev/ces^^
tains temperature
con-
sensor and
P. I/-.
FIRE ALARM — module TAPE RECORDER COVERS
operates in conjunction with 8-
DRY REED SWITCHES^ ohm loudspeaker and 2 megohm Smart waterproof cover
potentiometer. Increase of room _-. *^^Hb! lftm?R8^k.
Can be actuated by permanent or temperature above pre-sct level to K' ve complete protec-
electromagnets to provide ex- HfflfcjSaB^l^b^
immediately triggers screaming
cellent basis for a wide range of attk ^Ssflfl ^Ln Eton to your tape recorder.
syren alarm. 30 -. P. & P. I,-.
inexpensive devices such as I Made from rubberised
burglar alarms, limit switches, w
Mohfl simple ff_ canvas navy, wine, tan,
door bell switches, etc. Tre- in
mendous reliability factors and a ; AUTOMATIC grey and bottle, green
working life of about 100 times
that of microswitches and the with white contrasting
uses to which they can be put is
limited only by imagination. Each SULPHIDE CADMIUM pipings, reinforced base,
switch supplied complete with PHOTO-CELLS handy zip microphone
specification, instructions and pocket and name panel.
ideas information. SUITABLE Now, inexpensive
MAGNETS I/- extra. photo - conductive
REED SWITCH COILS
Specially manufactured to provide
4 -twstfrvc Cells act as light
sensitive resistors Tnpt I
that increase conductivity with
OH ?
ti^]£lM Cossor
..
1604
1605
...

...
79/-
M/-
electro-magnetic operation of
Dry Reed Switch described above. increased light. 1,000 times more Stella 5T455 ... til-
Coil is simply pushed on to glass sensitive than selenium cells with „ ST454 ... 57/6
tube and centrally located over greater reliability, and can easily ., ST45B ... 79/-
switch contacts. Works from be built into a wide range of ., ST459 ... 84/-
any 4-12 v. D.C. supply. Size simple circuits. Typical uses Grundij TK I ... 49/6 Telefunken 85 ... 65/- Siba 63,'-

overall { in. diam. x J in. long. include: automatic light controls, „ TK5 ... 55/- 75/15 & Elilabethan FTI ... 66/-
exposure meters and many other TK6 ... 67/* 76K ... 55/- FT3 ... 75,-
MINIATURE MAINS 4 for devices. Requires simple tow TK8 ... 63/. 95 ... 69/6 LZ29 75/-
5 - Post power source from battery or TK 14 Philips 8108 ... 57/6 Fi-Cord IA ... 52/6
INDICATOR LIGHTS mains transformer. Two types 5c 23 3c IB 59/6 3548 No Price Fidelity Arjyle ,,. 55/-*

Give positive indication that available: Type f: Max. voltage TK20 ... 52/6 . 3534 ,,. 87/. Clarion (with strap) 52/6
equipment tools,
instruments, 200 v. Output 0-5 watt. Sens, TK24 ... 55/- 3459 ... 79/6 Brenell Mk. 5 ... 77/-
apparatus, etc,, Switched on. is range 400^800 mu. 10/- post free. TK2S ... SSI- , EL3538 ... 63/- 3 star ... 69/-
Complete assembly of neon, re- Type 2: Max. voltage ISO v. TK30 ... 60/- EL3S42 ... 63/- Truvox R92 and 94 99/.
sistor, insulation and flying leads Output 015 watt. 8/6d. post free. TK3S ... «/- . EL3536 ... 70/- Robuk RK3 ... 67/6
that requires only connection to Both types have a resistance TK40&4I 66/- , EL35I5 ... 57/6 Ferrograph ... 88/-
switch. Small size and- insulation range of 5 megohms at aero TK46 ... 82/- . EL354I/I5 57/6 Sony 521 90/-
permit simple fitting-— just drill to 500 ohms at 1,000 lust. TK55 ...63/-* . 354 l/H ... 72/- Revox 84/-
small hole in panel or tape or clip Sensitive range is 400-800 mu. TK 60 ... 75/-» Starmaker 66,'-|Optacord 4 14 -412 43/-
to equipment, Current consump- Supplied with specification, in- TKS30/3D 63/- Cossor 1602 ... 57/61
tion negligible. New manufacture. structions and typical circuits. Cub ... 35/.» „ 1601 ... 63/- 1 * Without pocket

PR OOPS Ul TOTTENHAM
PHME;LAHghamOI4l.
IttMi: 1 1 m - tpm .
COJflT ROAD, L.QND0W Wl.l

3 ft It
HOWU:
AIL DAI OH
f aw-lpm
5 « I -J R D* I
I

I
24-28
A. BROWN
GEORGE STREET, HULL.
& SONS LTD.
TEL.: 25413,25412

3SR
THE
WHARFEDALE
Super Range

:
Sf>
s^

gives

constructors

the

simplest . .

most
efficient . .

WIRING BASE for any electronic assembly


work — whether experimental or quantity
production. Patented Veroboard is an advance
on tag board wiring techniques and printed
circuits, and because of its absolute stability
under all conditions it is in fact now extensively
used by manufacturers all over the world instead
of printed circuits.

A sample of Veroboard is provided FREE in this


issue of Practical Electronics and it is obtainable
in many sizes of which 4 are available through VERO ELECTRONICS
LTD. ,dept n)
the retail trade. For the name and address of SOUTH MILL ROAD, REGENTS PARK, SOUTHAMPTON
TEL. 7106T TELEX 47593
your nearest Retailer please write to :
ENQUIRIES FROM RETAILERS AND MANUFACTURERS WELCOMED

.SOLDI-: It WITH
zevA BRAND
PRIMAX and
SUPER EFFICIENT SPOTLIGHT
SOLDERING GUNS
PRIMAXA
HAND AND FOOT-OPERATED SEALING TOOLS
FOR ALL KINDS OF PLASTICS
s.r$
_
The "PACKFJX" for
cellophane and poly-
thene bags. Hand or
foot-operated, all
voltages, From £10.

FLT cellophane and polythene


bag sealer. Foot operated or
magneto electricallv driven.
Seals bags up to 15|" width.
From £42.

Hot plates thermostatically


controlled. Small and large
sizes for cellophane,
polythene and shrinking foils.
From £12.

LET US SOLVE YOUR SEALING PROBLEMS.


WRITE FOR COMPLETE ILLUSTRATED LISTS
TO DISTRIBUTORS: NEW ADDRESS !

S. KEMPNER Ltd., 384 FINCHLEY RD., LONDON, N.W.2 Distributors: S. KEMPNER LTD
TEL. : HAM 6365 384 FINCHLEY ROAD, LONDON, N.W.J. Tel, : HAM 6365
390 • ••
L. K. ELECTRONICS
The Cheapest— The Best— Quickest Service
Famous Autochanffer or Single Player Units supplied with ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^-^ -^-^-^^^^^^^^^^-^^ - .

brand new, two-tone* de-luxe portable cabinets, 17 X 15 X 85 in. Strong


carrying handle, gilt Finish dips and hinges are used by famous make for THE SIOUX 60 WATT MULTI-PURPOSE
22 gn. model. Ready cut out motor board, I3in,Kx
Front baffle AMPLIFIER
7x 4in. High flux loudspeaker and 3 watc amplifier. Amplifier ready IDEAL FOR GUITAR— BASS OR LEAD — ORGAN -
built on metal chassis with output transformer, volume and tone
rontrols. All items ft together perfectly. Assembly in 30 minutes.
VOCAL GROUP — PUBLIC ADDRESS
Only 5 wires to join, 12 months' written guarantee. Available
separately or package deals as below.
Our NEWMK II Superb Kits are now being dispatched*
L K PRICES FOR
Autochanger Kits as above
COMPLETE KITS; IT ONLY
B.S.R. U.A„ 14, T,C, 8 Mono * £10.15.0 P.P. 5/6
Garrard Autoslim, Mono „, £11.7.6 P.P. 5/6
Single Player Kits as above
Garrard S.R.P, ID. Mono 5%
E.M.I. Autostop. Mono
£10.12.4
£1 0J7.fi
Individual Prices For those who wish to purchase separately.
P.P.
P.P. 5/6 UU ONS.

Record Player Cabinet with Cut-out Board ......... £3.10.0 P.P. 3 6


Amplifier with 7x4in. speaker ..„ £3.10.0 P.P. 2,6 CARS, &
SCOOP! B.S.R, U.A. 2S Autochangers. T.C. 8 Mono P.U. ^j-tv PACKING
Brand new and boxed. Wired for stereo. Note price £5.15*0. OUR " EXTRA
P.P. 5/-. The very, very latest model.
SCOOP! BS.R. U.A. 14 Autochangers. T.C. 8 Mono P U. Incorporating Ten High Duty Speakers in two columns of five
Brand new and boxed. Wired for stereo. Note price £5,10.0- OUR designed to handle efficiently the full output of Amplifier at
P.P. 5.-. Latest model. frequencies down to 25 c.p.s. Heavily made Cabinet in two-
#5COOP! Garrard Autoslim. Mono P.U. Brand new and tone Vynair. For 200-250 v. to 50 c.p.s. A, C. Mains operation.
boxed. Wired for stereo* Latest model. Note OUR price £6.5.0 Four jack socket inputs and two independent volume controls
only. P.P. S/-i for simultaneous connection of up to four Instrument pick-ups
SCOOP! Garrard] A.T.5. Wired for stereo, inclusive of or microphones. Level frequency response throughout the
head and mono cartridge (A.T.5 Is an auto transcriptor). The finest Audible Range. OUR
INCLUSIVE PRICE FOR
changer of them all. OUR
price, brand new and boxed, £7.10-0 only.
AMPLIFIER. MIKE, STAND, SPEAKERS,
P.P. 5/-.
LEADS, ETC, (NO H,P.), ONLY 39 GNS.
AUTOCHANGERS
Single Players
E.M.I. Autostop, Mono £5*10,0 P.P. 4/6
SCOOP! Cartridges — Ceramic Diamond Styli Stereo
f — —
Garrard S.R.P, 10, Mono £5.10.0 P.P. 4/6 By Acos. Limited Number only at one [ of original price— 15- only
E.M.L Separate Pick-up £3.5.0 P.P. 3/6 -•-P.P. I/-. While stocks last.

Transcription Units— Stereo Head - Mono Speakers ex Equipment. 5in. Sfe 7in.x4in. */-» 6in. 6/6, 8in. 7/-.
Garrard 4 H.F. Stereo £15.10.0 P.P. 5,-
P.P. 1/6 each.
Phillps A.G. 10/16. Stereo £12.10.0 P.P. S; -
Garrard A.T.6, Stereo „ £10.10.0 P.P. S - SCOOP! A Limited Number Only. Tape Decks by B.S.R.
Garrard 301 £16,10.0 P.P. 5/- Latest model. A.C.;20G;240 v. Brand new and boxed.
SCOOP! Record Player Cabinets. Two-tone, de-luxe finish OUR price £6.10.0 only. P.P. 4/6.
with cut-out board. These are brand new and product of very famous
national manufacturer. OUR price £3.5.0 only. P.P. 3/6. SCOOP! 1964 Radiogram Chassis, Stereo 3-wave bands, long,
medium, short. 5 watts per channel. 6 valves. Latest MuMard
SCOOP! 3-wa.tt Gramophone Amplifier. Complete with 5in,
A.C. 200/250 v. Ferrtte aerial. Horizontal wording.
Glass dial.
Speaker, 49/6. P.P. 5/-*
Size I3in.x4in. Aligned and calibrated. Concentric controls.
The amplifier Is complete, on a fabric-covered baffle board. Output Isolated chassis. Size I3£in.x?in, high X Sin. deep. Product of
transformer included. Tone and volume controls and on/off switch.
Ready to swkch on and play. Terrific volume. Sire I2|in.x 6in,X famous national manufacturer. Brand new and boxed. Maker's
guarantee,
3iin. back to front, for 200-250 v. A.C. Output 3 watts.
OUR price £14.10,0. List price £19.8.0. P.P. 5/6. Our Chassis List
SCOOP!
O.A.SI vision detector.
Diodes— over 1.000,000 m stock — ideal substitute —
quotes prices the keenest in the Trade. are Mam Agents for the Wc
complete range of Brittamer Chassis and Amplifiers. ''Brittamer"
Note OUR price £1-0.0 per 500.
P.P. 2,'-. (In 500 lots onfy), makers of Radiogram Chassis to the Top Names, in Radio,
SCOOP! Transistor Tape Recorder. The best obtainable
by very
famous manufacturer. Brand new, boxed, guaranteed. SCOOP! For 27 gns. only. A
fabulous offer. Package Deal
Reduced from 12 gns. OUR
price £7.10.0. P.P. 3/6- Complete Garrard A.T.5 Transcriptor, plus 2 I2in. IS watc Hi-Fidelity
speakers, plus the very latest Continental push-button chassis by
with microphone, tape, batteries and operational booklet. Features
push-pull amplifier, two motors, single switch operation, pause, speed, Brittamer. Stereo, 3-wave band, 6 valves, 5 watts per channel. The
wind, rewind, record, play back. Can be used in any position, indoor fmes: chassis of its type in the world. You will be amazed at perfor-
or outdoor. mance and quality. We
unhesitatingly recommend this chassis. P.P.
SCOOP! Hi- Fidelity Speakers, 15-watt. Very famous national 21,'-.

manufacturer we cannot mention name. -45-13,000 c.p.s., 3 or


15 ohm voice coils, response 45-13,000 C.p.s. Magnet 15.000 lines. In TRANSISTOR SECTION

carton -unopened and unused, OUR
price £4,4,0 only. P.P. 4 6.
SCOOP! A fir5t-class 2 wave-band 8 transistor superhet chassis
SCOOP! A Stereophonic Amplifier with the following features. by world famous manufacturer. Fully built, aligned, tested, guaranteed.
A twin ganged tone control in a special negative feedback circuit, Full coverage long and medium waves. Note price only £6.0,0.OUR
giving a wide range of tone correction. A balance control enabling the P.P. 2 6. Suitable speaker- 10/6. p.p. 1/6. A few cabinets can be
amplifiers to be equalized in output to compensate for pick-up, lead,
speakers, recording differences. A speaker switch. Ml, single
supplied at 22/6 each. P.P. 2.-, OUR
price for the package deal
£7.4.0 only. Ideal for Caroline. P.P. 3.6.
amplifier. M2, dual amplifiers for increased Monaural output. 5,3,
two speakers at 5 watts per channel. Twin gauged volume con- S.A.C enquiries please. Our Complete Lists I/- only— credited
trots and all four controls placed equidistant along the front or the against your order
chassis. Designee?, made and guaranteed by Brittamer Ltd. Brand new
and at a fraction of original cost. OUR
price £7.10.0 only. P.P. 4 6. IF NOT ADVERTISED IT IS STILL IN STOCK

LK. ELECTRONICS (Victoria) LTD.


1
' 17 GILLINGHAM ROW, WILTON ROAD, LONDON, S.W.I.

391
Sr t •• "",
j

t>

VIMOT BUILD ONE OFOUR


PORTABLE TRANSISTOR
RADIOS...
BACKED BY OUR SUPER AFTER SALES SERVICE
ROAMER
S
SEVEN
WAVEBAND PORTABLE OR CAR RADIO
Amaz'ms performance and specification £ Now with PHILCO MICRO-ALLOY R.F, TRANSISTORS
9 stages—7 transistors and I diodes #
Covers Medium and Long Waves, Trawler Band and two Short Waves to approx. !5 metres.
Push-pull output for room filling vol ume from rich toned heavy d uty " Celes lio a " speaker. Air spaced
ganged tuning condenser. Ferritc rod aerial for & L Waves and telescopic aerial for
S Waves. Real leather- look case with gilt trim and shoulder and hand straps. Size 9 x 7 x 4in,
M
approx. The perfect portable and the ideal car radio. (Uses PP7 battery available anywhere.)
Total cost of parts now only £E I Q A P. & P.
Parts Price List and easy build plans 3/- 5/6

NEW TRANSONA MELODY


Pll/r Home, Light, A.F.N,,
**
t * * amazed at volume

S,C,
and performance
has ready come up to my expectations *,
Stocklon-an-Tces*
1

I Vb at good volume.
all
G.P. Durham
Ltt.\,
SIX # & stages— A transistors and 2 diodes
#7 stages— 5 transistors and 1 diodes Our latest completely portable transistor
Fully tunable over Medium and Long radio covering Medium and Long Waves.
Waves and Trawler Band. Incorporates Incorporates pre-tagged circuit board, 3in.
Ferritc rod aerial, tuning condenser, heavy duty speaker, top grade transistors,
voJume control, new type fine tone volume control, tuning condenser, wave
super dynamic 2£in, speaker, etc.
change slide switch, sensitive 6in. Ferrite
Attractive case. Size 61 x 4i X IJ:in, rod aerial. Push-pull output. Wonderful
(Uses 1289 battery available anywhere.) reception of B.B.C. Home and Light,
Total cost of all XT P. & P, Parts Price List and easy buUd
20,8 and many Continental stations,
If.
parts now only ~A/l# 3/6 plant 2 -
Handsome leather-look pocket size case,
only dj x 3± x !£in, approx. with gilt
POCKET
# stages— 5 transistors and 2 diodes
7
FIVE speaker grille
Ports Price List and
and supplied with hand and shoulder straps.
Total cost of all nOi
m*J*7*v
P. & P.
easy build plans 2/- parti now only 3 -

Covers Medium and Long Waves and Trawler


Band, a feature usually found in only the most
expensive radios. On lest Home,
Luxembourg and many Continental
were received loud and Designed round
Light.
stations TRANSONA SIX
clear.
supersensitive Ferrite rod aerial and fine
#8 stages—6 transistors and 2 diodes
lone 2iin. moving coil speaker, built into This is a top performance receiver cover-
attractive black case with red speaker grille* ing full Medium and Long Waves and
Siie 5i x lj- x 3iin. (Uses 1289 battery available anywhere.) Trawler Band. Push pull output. High-
Forts Price fist and Total cost of all /Jt P. St P. A^ grade speaker makes listening a pleasure.
cosy butid plans I 6 parts now only *tA/W 3^ Ferrite rod aerial. Many stations
listed in one evening including Luxem-

SUPER
#
SEVEN
9 stages—7 transistors and 2 diodes
bourg loud and clear; Attractive case
in grey with red grille. Size 6^ X 4^ x
ljin. (Uses PP4 battery available any-
Covers Medium and Long Waves and where.)
Trawler Band. The ideal radio for home, Total cost of all CO if. P. 8t P. Parts Price List and Easy build
car, or can be fitted with carrying strap parts now only &7JV 3;$ pions 2/-
for outdoor use. Completely portable

reception.
has built-in Ferrite rod aeFial for wonderful
Special circuit incorporating
RF Stages, push-pull output, 3in. speaker
2
ROAMER
NOW WITH PHILCO MICRO-ALLOY
SIX newu
TRANSISTORS R.F.
(will drive large speaker). Size 7i X 5} X
liin. <Uses9v battery, available anywhere.) # i WAVEBAND!!
Total cose of all
J P. * P.
£ Parts Price List and easy buitd
9 A # stages— 6 transistors
8
parts now only
1
3 6 plans 2-- and 2 diodes
Listen to stations half a world away
COMPONENT BARGAINS wilh this 6 waveband portable. Tunable
TRANSISTORS TUNING CONDENSERS on Medium and Long Waves. Trawler
PHILCO JV1ADT Type 2 N 1 727 Air spaced fine quality German band and three Short Waves. Push pull
Maximum frequency of oscilla- manufacture with slow motion output. Sensitive Ferrite rod aerial and
tion 150 Mc/s .. .. 8/6. drive. 00005 with oscillator telescopic aerial for short waves. Top
PHILCO MADT Type 2N1728 section . . 5/6 Post W-
. . grade transistors, 3-inch speaker, hand-
Maximum frequency of oscilla- Suhniiniature similar 00 with some case with gilt fittings. Size
tion 150 Mc/a 9/6. tuning and oscillator sections 6/6 7± X 5i X liin.
Post J
PHIL-CO MADT (Micro Alloy
Submjniature mica
f-
dielectric •ir Extra band for easier tuning of
Diffused) Type 2N503 Maxi- LUX., etc.
with trimmers. Tuning 200 pf,
mum frequency of oscillation
over 500 Mcjs .. .. 15/-
Oscillator 50 pf
Mica dielectric
4;6 Post l/»
00003 mfd.
Paris Price List
easy build plans 2/-
and Total cost of all
pares now only
/TlOfS
fcJ,, ' lV
P.
3;6
& P.

Diodes .. .. . 1/6 .
2/9 Post 6d (Carrying Strap 1/6 extra.)
Standard interleaved op trans-
formers for valve op stages 3/6 DIALS AND KNOBS All components used in our receivers may be purchased
3in. dial with polished brass
SWITCHES Insert and M/L
calibrated disc separately if desired. Parts price fists and easy build plans
heavy springs
Slide, single pole, 6/6 supplied free with sets of parts or available separately at
2 - Post 3d 1 in. cream knobs with polished
fixed prices stated.
Yaxley «-way,2 pole 4 6 Po*t 3d brass insert and rim 1/3 each

RADIO EXCHANGE Ltd Colters side entrance


Barratti SJiO* Shop
Open 9—5 p.m.
61a, HIGH STREET, BEDFORD. Phone: 2367 Sots/ 9—'12.30 p.m.
1
392
Jason tuners and test
equipment offer a wide
choice of models designed
to meet present-day re-
quirements and are a de-

iiMmA
light to build.

JTV2 SWITCHED TUNER. AM BBCf.m. transmissions and BBC-I


and (TV television sound
channels ac the turn of
switch. All components in-
cluding turret and coil plate
bur. less four valves
£14. Os. 46. 250V
looovhooov
-....»
.1. 250V
\:%
v
JTL TAPE PREAMPLIFIER
>- ^ i; ^-r
designed to suit any tape deck or head.
. — Will simultaneously record
.

and playback stereo or mono


/y ioov with the' ioov y"
*
,

'Cv
using two or four track heads.
All components including
valves £22. Is. Od. Ready
built and tested. £J0. 9t. Od.

OTHER JASON KITS


FMTI F.M. Tuner, less valves £S. 19s. Od.
FMT2 F,M. Tuner, less valves 9s. Od.
(less power supply components) £7. 15s. Od.
FMT3 F.M. Tuner; less valves £10, Od.
(less power supply components) is. 15s. Od.
MERCURY 2 Switched tuner, less valves ... £». 15s. 4d.
ARGUS Transistor m.w, tuner, complete ,„ tft £7. 10s. Od.
AG 10 Audio generator, complete £15. 19s. Od.
s
OC 10 Oscilloscope, less c.r.t.
...

£18. 10s. Od.


xi performance *ia
Wl Wobbu later, complete
I £14. 19s. Od.
EMIO Valve voltmeter, complete ... CU. Os. Od. Njjfe XI0O/ i i ibmA
SB26 Tape deck (built only) j" track mono ... 31 gns,
4 track stereo 3? gps.

Write for descriptive leaflets and name of nearest stockist

Jason Electronic Designs Ltd.


18 Tudor Place, Tottenham Court Road
London, W.I Telephone : MUSeum 4666 8

D.I.Y. with

HIGH FIDELITY

A Practical Guide to
MULTIMINORjft/
The newly improved model of this famous A.VO
full listening enjoyment. pocket size multi-range instrument has been enthusiastic-
ally acclaimed in all parts of the world for its high
The Manual is much more than
a catalogue of Goodmans High
standards of accuracy and dependability as well as for its
Fidelity Loudspeakers —
contains practical and informative
it
modern styling, its highly efficient internal assemblies and
articles. Those of particular interest to the D.I.Y. enthusiast
its resistance to extremes of climatic conditions.
include special beginners page, advice on stereo, stage-built
It is simple to use, one rotary switch for instant range selection,
systems and full cabinet drawings. Whether building or improving only one pair of sockets for all measurements, and a 2}--mch clearly
your own audio set-up or choosing a complete speaker system, marked scale-plate. It is, supplied in an
you'll find it useful and interesting as well as informative. Ask or attractive black carrying case complete with
interchangeable test prods and clips, and a

r-
Write for your FREE copy.

Please send me a free copy of the



— —Goodmans High
-i

multi-lingual instruction booklet. I » if

| Fidelity Manual
RESISTANCE : 0-2Mft in 2 ranges, using I.SV cell
• Name I | SENSmvrry. lO.OOOil/V on <f.c. voltage ranges to send you a full
I.00OSVV on a.c. voltage ranges specification of this
Address great little instru-.
ment. It measures only
7Jx4
d
P.Ei

AVOCET HOUSE VAUXHALL BRIDGE ROAD


x t

weighs only 24 oxs.


j ins, and

GOODMANS [GOODMANS INDUSTRIES LIMITED


Axiom Works, Wembley, Middlesex
Telephone: WEMbtey 12DO
• 92-96
Telephone: Victoria 3404 {1 2 lines)
LONDON S.W I

A Member of the Renlaset Group

393
THE LINEAR SUPER 30' HIGH FIDELITY
PUBLIC ADDRESS AMPLIFIER
TECHNICAL DETAILS: A HIGHLY
SENSITIVITY FOR 30 WATTS EFFICIENT 30 WATT
Gram. —
50 millivolts GENERAL PURPOSE
Mic. I 5
Mic. 2 150 microvolts PUBLIC ADDRESS
FREQUENCY RESPONSE UNIT
± 2 d.b. 30 c.p.s. — With input mixing facilities
20,000 c.p.s-
BASS CONTROL
and outputs for 3 7.5 15 — —
and 330 ohms (100 volt line).
+ 15 d.b. to -15 d.b. at
50 c.p.s.

TREBLE CONTROL A special feature of the


+ 12 d.b. to -12 d.b. at SUPER 30 is its high
10 Kcs.
degree of stability, en-
HUM AND NOISE suring that the longest
-60 d.b.
output leads can be used
HARMONIC DISTORTION
0-5%
VALVES
for 30 watts

ECCS3, ECC83,
RETAIL
PRICE
Send S.A.E. for leaflet.
33 Gns. without fear of the usual
troubles associated with
instability.
Mullard For operation on standard 200—250 v. 50 c.p.s*
ECC83, EL34, EL34, GZ34 AtC. mains, 110/120 v. models available for
export.
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Trade and export enquiries invited, Three high sensitivity standard
20 d.b. Jack inputs with provision for
DAMPING FACTOR LINEAR PRODUCTS LTD. high and low impedance micro-
12 ELECTRON WORKS, ARMLEY, LEEDS phones.

OXLEY
TYPE 062
SAVBIT ALLOY
saves wear on
soldering iron bits
SUB-MINIATURE The world-famous copper SAVBIT SIZE 1 CARTON
'BARB" INSULATORS loaded alloy containing 5 Contains approximately 30
cores of non-corrosive feet of 18 s.w.g. SAVBIT.
A new OXLEY Patented sub miniature
flux, that saves the solder- It is also sup-
insulator which Is speedy to assemble find
ing iron Ersin Multicore
bit. plied in 14 s.w.g, f?
with outstanding physical characteristics;

The P.T.F.L bush, which is supplied with


the heai/ily silver Plated brass"barb"partly
Solder also available in
is
high tin quality alloys. 60/40
and 16 s.w.g.
tainable from ra-
dio and electrical
Ob-
Sm9
in 22 s.w.g. for printed
inserted, is located in an ordinary ,062' Ola, stores.
fiolEand the barbed circuits, transistors, etc,
spill is pressed firmly 5/- each
through the assembly, thus expanding
the P.T.F.E. bush on the tar side of the „THE HANDY DISPENSER
and locking the complete
chassis,
BIB WIRE STRIPPER
assembly firmly in the chassis. Easy to find in the
tool box— simple to AND CUTTER
Working voltage 500 v.DC; Capacity less use. Virtually a third
hand for tricky sold- Strips insulation
than .5 pF; Temperature range - 55*C to
ering jobs. 12 feet
without nicking
-+2WC: Resistance to pull in either
wire, cuts wire
direction 3 lbs: Chassis thickness -2254; 5 core 18 s.w.g.
ERSIN MULTICORE cleanly, adjust-
SWG - .0227,028- - 0.56 072 m m; able to most
= = i-5Sm,m SAVB1T alloy in a
Mounting hole dia.. 062" 1.16' r

continuous coil used thicknesses.


Splits extruded
100 of these insulators mounted occupy
direct from free-
plastic twin flex.
1
,

only one square inch of chassis space.


standing dispenser.
2/6 each 3/6 each

OXLEY MULTICORE SOLDERS LTD.


MULTICORE WORKS • HEMEL HEMPSTEAD • HERTS. (BOXMOOR 3636)
DEVELOPMENTS CO., LTD.
ULVERSTflN LUEASHIIE.
:

lfl[f>» »['lf»ST0fl K17

394
For the Finest Value and Service to the

lasxTs HOME CONSTRUCTOR AND


RADIO T HE
j

j
petenl to build thu Sri,
EL EC TRONICS
We conflideTaureonstruetion parcels to
you may return
ENTHUSIAST
be the finest value 00 the home eonBtruclor market, IT on receipt you Jeel notcom-
it as received within 7 d&ys, when iii» turn pud wilt be refunded less posted, i

TRANSISTOR PORTABLES CONSTRUCTORS BARGAINS


THE SKYROVER RANGE The "Sixteen" Multirange
7 transistor and 1 diode superhet
portables— Covering med. plus 6 full METER KIT
SW Bands. This outstanding meter was featured! by I'raclirrat tYireteft.
The SKYROVER Mk II. In the Jan. '64 issue. Lasky's are now able to nff*r the com-
plete kit of Darts us speciiied by thu designer.
(Illustrated!. Mow supplied with redesiKTued
cabinet, edgwiSB iipntrols. New colour tuning RANGE SPECIFICATION:
scale and cabinet la Siera Tan D.C. volts: D-2LS-2a<3U-ttiiU-50u at ati,DO0£2/V\
Oonirols: 'Wavcbamti welec-L (jr. Volume Control A.C, volla: 0-25-50-230-500 at l.OOon/V,
with on/off Switch, Tuning Control. In plas- U,C. current: (J-BflfiA, 0-2.5-50-250 mA.
tic cabinet, stw 1*1 X *^J X j"?Ui- wi throe Uit Resistance: 0-^DOOf 2 f 0-M0(rkQ, 0*20 MQ.
trim and carrying hun>Jlq. Basic movenieot: 40jIa f.l.d, moving coll. tVith uuivcriiiil sbuul
ro 4Q ,0
Can now
be built for *°
HP, Termi : £1 ctepotil and II monthly
" C
P. & r.
5/- extra
lull teals deikclion current is QQjiA.
Size/Hnisb: Black plastic case 3j — XS|x
Ijin,
CoutTols: 12 petition range switch: Separate slide switch for

ir LONG WAVEBAND paytnenls of lo/S. Total H.P.P. ilfl.ls.&d. —


A.C. volts D.C ohm&; ohms zero adjustment pot. meter;
meter zero, internal connections: Two 4 ram. aockels lor
H.P. Tenni: ai/-
de posit and b monthly
COVERAGE IS NOW AVAIL- The SKYROVER De Luxe teaL lead plugs. payments ol 21/-.
ABLE FOR THE SKYROVER Tone L'ircn.l is incorporate*!, with separate
Power requirements; One 15v, and one 1.5v. bnt' Complete Data itnd cin-nit avail-
and SKYROVER DE LUXE, a Tunc ConirnI in addition to Volume
with all parla and lull construction details. able k? para lei y, 3/fJ;
sin ud .'!! i] provide^ refunded if all parts
-il- circuit, Control. Tuning and "Waveband
LASKY'S PRICE
t
:

Ctuotttj]
bought.
coverage Ol the 1100/lOoOU. band Un- Selector. In n Wood cabinet, size ltjxljj x £5.19.6 ,..,,/.
batteries
Fair
_

_'/• <'\
of
Fit,
winding IfJUOAI. Light praBrauuno). This
I

3iO. fowreii with | washable znnierinl, with


la audition to all existing Medium
in
and Short wavebands. Alt necessary
i:;t-Tic srini and currying handle. Also ear
aerial socket fitted.
BUILD A HIGH QUALITY TAPE RECORDER
components wiih construction data. Can now j+4 r\ 4 Q £» P. A P-
Using the famous ColUro "STUDIO" deck and MARTIN pre*
Only 10/- extra Post Free. be built lor *IU'l'-0 5/-cxtm.
assembled amplifiers
COLLARO STUDIO TAPE DECK,
2- or 4- track models.
This conversion is suitable for both recei- H.P. Terms; 25^- deposit and II manlhly
vers that have already been constructed. paymenU ol 20/-, Total H.P.P. £12.5*.
West model S sped. « lutilwrs. Take Tin. reels. Fitted with balf-tTack he;i'l9.
LASKY'S PRICE £10/10/-* New snd Vnuscd. Que. A Pack. V/6.
Data Refunded if you purchase the parcel. Four US
tor each receiver
battcrkx S/4 rxtra. A
2/fl extra.
components available separately. COLLARO STUDIO TAPE DECK, as above but fitted with the latent
qoarter-tradcheaafc LASKY'S PRICE £13/19/6. Carr, Pack. tfL

^
A:

REALISTIC SEVEN MARTIN TAPE RECORDER AMPS. Denned for n c with CcJIaro 3
Pully long and medium bands, Uses 7 Milliard
iniKtlile Studio Tape Deck. In .iuh-;ia9cmblies for miiucdlfil^? In^tiillation. 6-vnlve circuit. Com-
Translators; plus Diode QA7l>. prehensive instructions mafae final assembly as atorpta !l« iiosalbile. EverythiUff supplird
STAR futures: tiu'JiLJiiig vn-lvca, etc. Monitoring facilities^ j-uhrn output, speed equalising,, tli:. For
• 7 Tran&Sslor Superhet. 350 Milliwatt output 4iu. # 2(H)-2JiO v. A.C. mains, \
high flux speaker. AJ1 components mounted on a # PRICES 4-track Model lllfll!-. J*track Ibdel £13/13/-. P. * P. 2/6-
jjingle printed circuit board, size ftiln. x &ttu, ha one Portable carrying ease designed tu take tbc Uulhro ritudio Tape Beck ajid the Martin
complete assembly, Plastic cabinet, with carrying # Tape Amplifier, Fitted wlib U x d'w, speaker. Price cimt-kte with spy.ikcr S&.'Sj-.
handle, bud 7i». i;10in,x3iin., in blue/grey. Basy •
to rend dhkl. External socke: for car aerial. • I.rV #
frequc-ncy 470 Ke/s.

• Fertile rod Internal aerial,
Open tee from PPDor&imllar battery. * Tail con* Ou be built for
FROM PRE-AMP TO 20 WATT HI-FI STEREO {
*
ACCCMDtv AVAILABLE
A&bEMBLY DY BUILDING WITH MARTIN AUDIOKITS—
prehenstve data supplied with each Htcclvcr.
coils and I,>\s. etc.. fully wound ready for immediate
An outstanding Reoelver.
.-
All # £5 A P.
. 19
P.
. 6 irsiTur specially
FROM STOCK
developed circuits, the very latest tauutstoxs and printed ctrctrlUl
/
.)
;.:. t; i i :
:
i .
4/6, tbcNe kits are all i u]]y chucked Jtn-J tested before leaving the factory. Although tin- kit
]ty request a Di
popular \
ire basically designed for 0M tL'gether the pre-amplltler ami mixer singes niay be used
REALISTIC SEVEN De Luxe L.UX6 version oi the well- to frreat advantage vith existing valve or transistor cijuipmcnt.
f
j
ktimvii Seven now available. Wiih
>;.-., :',
j,; thesam* elect ricnj spceiilcai ion as standard KIT 1. 5-stage Matching Input Selector Unit LASKY'S PRICE 47
model— PLUS A SUPERIOR WOOD CABINET IN CONTEMPORARY STYLLMJ KIT £, Pre-ampliflor w ih volume cent rol
I LASKY'S PRICE 37; 8. f
covered in attractive washable material, Tilth super-chrome trim and carrying; handle. KIT S-C-hannel Miser with ping-in adapiora ior
3. #
Also a full viaioa circular dial, external) v mounted to further enhance the pleasant individually malching each circuit. Adiipiors \
*
styling. ONLY £1 EXTRA &6eacb ,, ., LASKY'S PRICE 79 6.
Both models: Battery 3/8 extra. (All components available separately.) Data and KIT 4. Pre-amplifSerMHth tone/volume control atiigns LASKY'S PRICE 63 6. f
in&triiriri'tL- ^y;.r.-Lrp]y g 'S, r it y-'"i pur-.-'r.ri-- j ;!:• :. :- 1 - 3 r s
I - '
KIT 5. If) and 1 watt K*M Amnliiler. .,. LASKY'S PRICE S5 It 6. 1
KIT Power supply converter unit LASKY'S PRICE S3
SINCLAIR; TWO SINCLAIR SUPER MINIATURES KIT
KIT
6.
7.
8.
15 ohm version ot Kit 5
Power supplv fxr Kit 7
LASKY*S
LASKY'S
PRICE £6
PRICE £2
ft,

12
15.-.
ft. f
i
MICH0-6| THE MICRO-6 Self-contained pootet radiu. Hize only
i 4:s x l 8/l# $in. '•'
A
rnair«l of modern lutniiiLurisalion— truly
arpatEtag performiunee. "Withotil a doubt thp most ndv[iriced
SPECIAL INTEREST ITEMSI
transiaior circuit ever offered to home cnnMmclors yet inay be
built in itii eveuhigr Complete wiih earphone and detailed con-
— TEST METER ADAPTOR
struction daia. Can Tie built for only cq/c -Allrartssold
Mercury cell 1^1 1 txtra {- required). sepaniteiyi D9/D —
Type P.E. 320 tills- is tXBty transistorised device which enables any E0 micro-imp
D.C\ Multimeter to be used in place of a valve volt meter. On the 1 V. ruga na
Impedance oj l megohm U offered which irrcrcaafa on the 1000 V. mnge to 100 meg-
THE SLIMLINE The ucwainazinK performance 2-trao^is-tur pocket radio size ohms. 7 ranges: 1 to 1060 volts. Designed lor immediate connection to Avo 7* h and
similar sue meters but <mUc suitable ior use with any other £0 microntup meter, isde
oniv *J}in. X 13 w !Jb). Micro allov transistorised and All components av-
Atk e
prinu-.l riniiiit. J.^y to asarmhlo. BE BUILT QAK FOR **" ailable separately.
"
X 6X ain. New and boxiil. Lilt Pike 7 Ons.

NEW! ANOTHER SINCLAIR SUPER MINIATURE LASKY'S PRICE 39/6 p.* P. 4*6. Sk( of balteries 7/5 extra.

THE XIO 10 watt power amplifier fitted with, integrated jire-ainpllfier, Requires
only 1 niV. fur an output of 10 W&LUuildlStOTteii. FreriUcucyrcaponsc is flat |dBfrOni
5 «;'.?. to J!U kc,E. Size only SX&Xf^B. Weight ft 02. Btlilt on printed clrpuit.
VEROBOARD — NOW IN STOCK
A really remarkable* lime paver in fiettiojf out COitiplicatad experimental circuits.
Opernlta from 13 i% D.C, at 73 mA- quiescent. Circuit
UECS7 M.A.T.sand 4 Ef power trawistori.
KIT C C rest.
I, » D
f 1Q
13 Verobourd ia a high grade laraiiuied bosird with copper strips bonded to it and pierced
PRICE ' 1 r
-

AVAn,ABLE READY BUILT, TESTED AND GUARANTEED, ffl*l&,u Post Free. ;; with a regular matrix of holes. Ideal for producing single items.
-!
put^. for yoluine, Bagg and Treble. 7/8 the a e.v.tra. alaius pom-r pack if required.. 54 -,
As ieaiured in" Practical Electronics February "65 issue.
Boards Accessories
TRANSISTORS all brand new and guaranteed 42/ 150 ?' 21- X Jin .,,. 3/8 Terminal pins pkt. oi 3G —
3.3
GET m GET 85, GET S6 2/8; A7SA, B74P 3/B; OC45, Ot'71, OC8ID 4/8; OC 44, 43/1504 2£ X 3J 1ft, v .. ....... ....... &l- sfpr>» fji.ee cutler tool

40/1807 SlX Bin.


t
OC 70» OC" "6, OC 81 5/B; (match pair lOj'BI; AF 217, OC 7a, OC 200 6/B; 5/3 Pin inserting lool t „„,,..,,, 9.9
OC 43, OU 4. JtC 73, OU 82D 7/8; OC 201, OC 204 15/- 00 2», 00 203 19/6; OU 2S
r

j
40/130S 3| X 31 ia. ,,...„.,.. 3,8
24/fl. •14/1505 S|x 17 i:i 13/6 P. & P. flfi. per item extra

TRANSFILTERS By BRUSH CRYSTAL CO. Available irom stock. THE "HARROW" POWER PACK
TO— Olli 465 kc/3. ± 2 kc/a. I TO— 03D 470 kc/a. ± 1 kc/a. 6/6 EAGH Battery eliminator for portable radioE, etc. Converts J'our lialtery radio to A.C. Tnnin..
TO— 01 D 470 ke'5, ± 2 kc/ff. TF— 0]B 465 fec/e. ± $ kc/a t Replaces 4i v., d v. ami y v. batts. Size onlv 3in,>- ilin.x 2tin. Stute vc-hapc
TO— 02B 465 kc/s. ± 1 kc/s, TF— OlD 470 fct/j. ± 3 kc/s. P. & P. 6d. required when orderiiiK. LASKY'S PRICE 29:4 P. 4 P.
107 EDGWARE ROAD, LONDON, W.2. 33 TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD, W.I. IS2/3 FLEET STREET, LONDON, E.C.4.
j
Near Praed St. PADdinglon 3271/2 Nearest Stn., Goodge Si. MUSeum 2605 Telephone: FLEet Street 2 S 3 3 )
BOTH OPES ALL BAT SAT. Sarin Clotixs ZViurj Afail Orders fa Sep!. r.E., £07 Eisteart Rd., W.2. OPES ALL DA T TUCItSDA T. Earlu Clorlnt Sal. i

LASKY'S FOR SPEEDY MAIL ORDER SERVICE


395
.. . ,
. ,

FOR — IMMEDIATE — DESPATCH — PHONE — US — TODAY


BUILD YOUR RECORD PLAYER NEW ELEGTROLYTICS FAMOUS MAKES
TUBULAR TUBULAR CAH TYPES 12' GUITAR HEAVY DUTY 25w.
4 Speed Autochanee 1 350 v. 100. 24 T. . . S.'SOO T 9'-
2- tor.si. Cabinets 17 s. 2 350
4 350 v.
». 250 25 v,
500 12
. . 16/800 7 12:- LIFETIME GUARANTEE, 5 gns.
15 X 8|te, Hi_b. Has v. .
le-io/iooT. 7/a
loudspeaker and 3 wait 5 ISO v. 1.000 12 v. 32-32,350 1. 5/6
2-valvo Z tinge ampli- 1'! -150 « 8 8/460 1. 3/6
. 32-32/450 7, 67-
FOR BASS, tEAD AND RHYTHM
fier ready built. Quality 32430 V S 16/450 v. 3,9 50-50/350 V. 71- GUITARS
output. Volume and 25,25 V. 18 r 16/450 v. 4/3 64-120,350 7. 11/6
Tone
items
fect! 7-
controls.
fit
All
together per-
Special in-
50/50 v.

TAPER CONDENSERS.
32 32/350 V,
-
4/6

O.OOlmld,, 7kV„ 6/8; 20kV., 10/9;


100 -200/275 7.12/6
BAKERS
slrudiona O.lmld., 7 kV., 9/6; Tubular 500 v. 0.001 to 0.05. 9d 1
assembly
enable
U-i 0.25 1/6; O.1/350 v. 8d.; 0.5/350 v. 1/9; O.01'2.000 v
'Selhurst'
in 30 min-
2/8; 0.05 '2,000 v. 3.6. CERAMIC. 500 V. 1 PF, to 0,01 ml*.,
utes, only 5 wires
9d. Disc Ceramics 1,- each. Pulse 100 pF., etc., 12 kV., 2'6.
15 OHM VOICE COIL
to join. 12 months'
wriltBQ guarantee. SILVER MICA, (plus or minus 1 PF,), 2.2 to 47 pF., 1,-; 20-10,000 cps
ditto 1°; 50 to 615 pF. V
; 1,000 to 5,000 pF., 1'9.
BASS RESONANCE
TWIN GANG. 208 pF-178 pF., 10,6; 365 pF, miniature
KITS 10-; 500 pF. standard with trimmers, 8r-j midget Wita 80 cps
Cumulate -as above. trimmers, 9 -; 500 pF. slow motion, standard B/-; small
B.S.R, Monarch £10, IB 6 P.P.
3-Baiw 500 pF. 1? 6. Sinsle "0" 365 OF. 7/6. GENUINE MUSICAL
Garrard Antoslim SHORT WAVE, SinelB 10 pP„ 25 pF., 50 pF., 75 pF„
ALL AVAILABLE SEPARATEtV
BlI'lB/fiPP
100 pF„ 160 pF., 56 each. Couplers 9d. each. INSTRUMENT
Cabinet with board 14 x 13in £3;9.'6 P.P. TONING AHD
REACTION. 100 pF„ 300 pF., 500 pF., LOUDSPEAKER
Amjilitlnr with speaker £3.1?,'6 p p
3/8 each, solid iiclectric. Trimmer with knob loODpF., 2'-
AXTTOCHANGERS Stereo Mono : 15- exlra}
TRIMMERs. Compression ceramic 30, 50, 70 pF., 9d ; HI Fl AND PUBLIC ADDRESS MODELS
B.S.R. UA25 SupersUm £5. L9.6 P.P.
100 pF„ 150 pF., 1;3; 250 pF„ 1/8; 600 pF., 750 pF„ 19.
Garrard Antoslim Mono £0 pp liin. STANDARD HEAVY DUTY 20 v».

SINGLE FLAYERS
'lov--
MAINS TRANSFORMERS More powerful magnet 14,000 7 gns.
Garrard SRP 10 auto, stop/atari . £5 5- p p
/ ,
suspension. 40-14,500 c.p.s.
lines, special
Recommended wbereyor a
E.M.L Latest niodel auto stop r . . £411$!- pp.
STANDARD 250-9-259, 80 mA, 0.3 i. 3.5 a., tipped high standard of reproduction is desired.
i v. 4 a. Rectifler 6.3 via. tapped 5 v, or 4 v. 2 a 22/6 MODEL
Q MAX CHASSIS CUTTER Ditto 350-0-350
MULLAED0 " 51 " MAINS TRANS. TO SPEC
29,6
.
I5in, AUDITORIUM
Improved maenet alcomax wita heavy
35 w. ifi
plated assembly, 17,000 lines, 20-12,000 c.p.s. Heat
c
ajs***1. '" a n
Complete: a dfe, a punch, am Allen screw and ke/i 300-0-300 120 mA., 6.3 7, CT 4a, 0, 5, 6,3 1. 2 a. 33/3 prooled Coil Former. Ideal lor Electric Guitars.
-Jin. 14 6 14*1. ra- If in. 226 MINIATURE 200 v. 20 mA., 9.3 i. 1 a, 10/6 Ilepnirs .S'cn'ire for tinkers and ft.T.C. I.tmdnpeakcrs.
tin. 14 6 liin. in
MIDGET 220 v. 46 mA., 6.3 v. 2 a 15/6
2in. 34/3 SMALL, 250-0-250 v, 45 mA„ 8.3 7. 2 a 17/6
S/tn. 15 6 Ijin. 18 6 2£in. 37/9 STANDARD 250-0-250 85 n)A., 6.3 7. 3.5 a LOUDSPEAKERS. 3 OHM FAMOUS MAKES, 5in., 1 x 4in.,
17/9 .

Jin. IS 9 4+:n. 20 - 2|in. 44 9 HEATER TRANS. 6.3 7. lj A 15/6 ea,; Sin, 17/6- 6Jiu. 18/6; 10m., 12io. 30/- ae. (15 ohms
.7/8 4s 10/8
- 35/-',; 10 X 6in. 22/6. 9 x 61n. 21/-, SxSiu. 17/8-
lin. 18 1 -in 20 6 in.sq. 316 Ditto tapped sec, 1. 4 v.. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.3 v, 1/ amp,. g/6
1

GENERAL PURPOSE LOW VOLTAGE. Outputs 3. 4. 5,


WAVE-CHAHGESWITCHESwithlongsplndlei 3 8 each. 2 p.
way, or 2 p. 8-way, or 3 p. 4-way, or 1 p. IB-way; 4p.
CRYSTAL MIKE INSERTS. HichOPifi 6, 8. S.
AUTO TRANS.
10, 12, 15, IS, 24 and 30 7. at 2 a £2/8
2-way, or 4 p. 3-way. 6 '6; 8 p. 4-way, 2 wafer,
ACOS MIKE INSERT 12 x Jin. 8/4 .
AUTO TRANS.
150 w„ 0, 115 7. 800. 230, 250 7.
500 w. 0. 115. 200, 230, 250 7,
. . 22/8
Wavechange l * MAK1TS " Waters available 1 p. l£-way. 2 p.
ACOS STICK MIKE 39-1
;
. 82/6
357- 6-way, 3 p. 4-way, 4 p. 3-way, 6 p. 2-way. Prices include
T.S.L. DE LUXE STICK MIKE"!... 25/- click spindles, adjustable stops, 1 wafer, 8/6; 2 water, 12/0;
TELEPHONE CONTACT MIKE... 10/6 Special Offer of Manufacturers' Surplus 3 wafer. 18/-. Extra wafers up to 12. 3/6 each.
TOGGLE SWITCHES.
GUITAR XTAL MIKE 15/4
s,p„ 2'-; d.p. 3/8; i.p.d.t.. i/-.

PROFESSIONAL MAGNETIC GUITAR 2 VALVE GRAM AMPLIFIERS


MIKE
with Vol. and Tone Controls 59 6
Moving CoiT Mike 90.I-, Floor Stand Wll- Valves: UY8S Rectifier and UCL82Triode/Pen-
BOOKS (Please Add Postage)
TANNOY CARBON tode giving 3^ watts output. Chassis size (inc. "W.W." Radio Valve Data 7/6
MIKE S/6 High Fidelity Speaker Enclosures... 5/-
valves) 5 5? >. 2 in. deep. New and Tested
;

FULL WAVE BRIDGE SELENIUM RECTIFIERS: complete with valves, 3 ohm output trans- At a Glance Valves, CRT Equivalents 3/6
2, 8 or 12 v. outputs, li amp., 8 9; 2 a. 11 '3; 4 a.. 17'8 former and knobs for cone and volume on off
TV Fault Finding 6/-
CHARGER TRANSFORMERS. Tapped input 2OO|250 v controls. Mullard Audio Amplifier Manual... 8 6
lorcharging at 2. 6 or 18 v.. ll amps., 15 6: 2 amps., 17'6, ONLY 37/6 P. * P. J.* Radio Valve Guide, Books 1,2, 3 or 4 ea. Si-
4 ampa., 23/6. Circuit included. Amp meter 5 amp, 10/6 Practical Radio inside Out
Complete ready for use 200 250 v. A.C. or can 3/6
be used with 80 v. motor tap or 160 v. motor.
Master Colour Code 1/6
MINIATURE PANEL METERS 2% Coil Design and Construction Manual 5,/-
International Radio Stations List ... 2/6
Size lijin. sq. Precision jewelled bearings, "THE POWER MITE" 45/- Boys' Book of Crystal Sets 2/6
0.1 m A, 27/*; 0-5 mA. 27;*; 0-300 V. 27/'*: PM9 Mains
as P.F.9.
Unit 9 volt lor Transistor Radios.
Mains Input 200-250 A.C.
Same size
Stroboscopic Disc 33, 45, 78 r.p.m. ... 1/-
0-50 uA 39/6; 0-500 ,i A 32/6. "S" meter 35/- How to Receive Foreign T.V S/-
WEYRAD P50 — Transistor Coils
MOVING COIL MULTIMETER TK20A, O-l.OOO v. AC,'B.C. Ferrite aerial— RA2W
12 6. Ose, 5 4. 1st and P50UC JACKS, Standard open-circuit 2/6, closed-circuit 4/6,
ohms. to 100 K.. 0-150 mA. Pocket size 2in. scale, 49.6. 2ndl,F. P50 2CC 5/7 each. 3rd I.F. F50.3CC 8'-, Spare Grundig type 3-pin 13; Grundig Lead Tupe 3/8.
Cores, 6d. Driver Trans— LFDT4 9/6. Printed Circuit B, 6. Phono Plugs 1-, Socket 1>. Banana Plugs 1-. Sockets 1/-.
TRANSISTOR 4 CHANNEL MIXER 35 ohm Speakers. 5 in., 17/6., 6 x 4 in,, 21-.
lug Gang 10. 6. Booklet 8/-.
J,B Tun- JACK PLUGS STANDARD, Screened 3'-. Grundig 3-pin 3/8.
BULGIN NON-REV PLUGS and SOCKETS. PJ4 2-pln 4/3;
with 4 separate input-output controls, 59/6 P73 3-pln 4.6; P184 6-pin 8/8: P466 8-pin 12.8; P380 4/-.

VALVE HOLDERS. EA50 fld. MOULDED lot. Oct. or


NEW MULLARO TRANSISTORS RESISTORS. Preferred values, 10 ohms to 10 meg.

Mazda. Oct. <M.; B7G, B8A, BSG, B9A, 9d.; B7Q with can
0C71 8Z-; 0C72 7;fl; OCSSD 7/8; 0081 7'6; AF115 10/B- i w., I v/..20% 4d.; 11 w. 8d.; 2 w, 1/-; i w, 10 Bd.
1 w., %
1/6, B9A with can 1/9. Ceramic Oct., EFSO^BrG, BOA,
AF1I4 11/-; OC44 8/-; OC45 8/-: OC171 9/-; OC1J0 8/6 HIGH STABILITY, i w. 2/-. 1%
Preferred values.
AF117 8/6. OC28 12/8; Transistor Holders 1/3. Sub 10 ohms to 10 meg. Ditto 8%, 10 ohms to 22 meg., 9d,
1/-. Valve case plugs E7G, B9A, Int. Oct., 2/3. Miniature Condensers. 0.1 tnFd., 30 v, 1'3; 1, 2 4 5 8 5 watt | 1/8 .

18. 25. 30, 50, 100 mFd., 15 volt 2 6. Diode OAai 3 - 1


'
10 wart / W1SF..WOUND RESISTORS 1 1/9
1965 RADIOGRAM CHASSIS Volume Controls
15 watt 10 ohms 6,800 ohms
10K. 15K, 20K, 25K, 10W.
L 21-
3J-
CABLE MAINS DROPPERS. Midget. With sliders. 0.3 a., IK.,
Lor,? spindles. Midget Sire Semi-air spaced 8d. yd, 0.2 1.2 K., 0.15 a„ 1,5 K„ 0.1 a., 2 K„ 6/- each.
a.,
5 K. ohms to 2 Mei;. LOG or 40 Ti. 176. 00 yd. 25/-. LINE CORD 100 ohms It. 3-way 1/-
LIN. L.S 3 -. D.P^ 4,6. WIRE-WOUND 4-WATT
Low loss 5dB, per iOcii, Pols. WIRE-WOUND
Stereo L S 10/8. D.F. 14,8. at 500 mc.'s. WATT Fre-aet Hin. T.V. STANDARD SIZE POTS.
Linear or Log Tracks. Ideal 625 lines 1,0 yd. Type. All values 10 ohms LONG SPINDLE VALUES
to25K., 3,-ea.;30K. 4.'-; 60 OHMS to 50 K., 0/6;
COAXIAL PLUG 1/-. PANEL SOCKETS 1 -- LINE SOCK- Carbon 30 K. in 2 meg., 3/-. 100 K. 7/6.
ETS B-, OUTLET BOXES, SURFACE OR FLUSH 4'- SPEAKER-FRET. Tycan various colours, 5Bin, wide from
BALANOED TWIN FEEDERS 6d. yd., 80 or 300 ohms, 10/-lt.; 26in. wide Irom 5,'- ft, Samples, large, S.A.E,
TWIS SCREENED FEEDER 1/- yd., 80 ohms, TELE- EXPANDED METAL, OoU 12 x 1211, 6/-,
SCOPIC CHROME AERIALS. 12in. extends to 33in. 6/8 AEDENTE TRANSISTOR TRANSFORMERS
each. CAR AERIAL PLUGS 1/8. Sockets 1/3. E3035, 7.3 CT 1 Fust Pull to 3 ohms lor OC72, 0C81
: lli- . .

D3034, 1.75 1 CT. Push Pull Driver lor OC72. OC81


; 11/- . .

D3058, 11.5 : 1 Output to 3 ohms for OC72, OC81 11/-


Three W^Tebands Five Vnlres: ECH81.
THE "INSTANT" D239, 4.5 : 1 Dri7er; D240. 8,6 : 1 Driver
. .

ea. 11/i
Leroir.. Med.. Short. EF8G. EBfJSl, E1.B4, EZ80, BULK TAPE ARDENTE TRANSISTOR POT. 5 K. switched VC1545 5/3
12-monlh guarantee. A,C 200-25O v. Ferrite Aerial Aoti-Parasilic beads dux. 316
A V.c. Negative Feedback. 5 watts 3 ohm, Chassis
h
h

ERASER AND BLANK ALUMINIUM CHASSIS. 18 3.W.B. 4 sides, rlvetid


llijic. X ?i:n. hiEh x Sin. deep. Glass dis,l size 13m. :.4in y
RECORDING corners, lattice fixing holes, 2lin. sides, 7x4in., 6'6: 9k
horizontal wording. Two Pilot Lumps. Four Knobs, 7in„ 6:6; lln3ln. 6/8; 11 7in. 7/8; 13x9in. 9/«; 14x
.-.

Alifmcd calibrated. Chassis isolated Itom. mains. HEAD Ilia, 18/6; 15xl4Su„ 15/-. ALUMINIUM PANELS 18
s.w.g. 12>:12in. 5/8; 14«»in. 4/6; 12xSln. 3(6; 10x7in.
BRAND NEW £9.15.6 DEMAGNETIZES 2/9;8x6in. 2/-; «x«ln. 1/6.
Carr. 4,6.
Leaflet S.A.E.
ARMSTRONG 'GRAM CHASSIS V.H.F. MODEL. 127M. B.T.H. TAPE MOTORS IIS v A.C. 28 I
MED. and F.M. £26.10, Stereo £37. IS. 200/250 7, A.C- 12/6 pair, for 200 250 v. (in series)

RETURN OF POST DESPATCH (Export. Sen-d remittance and extra fivstage, no CO,D.) CALLERS WELCOME
RADIO COMPONENT SPECIALISTS "' WHITEH0R5E ROAD,
WEST CROYDON rw°iLs
Written guarantee with every purchase. Buses 133, 68 pass door, S.R, Stn. Selhurst. P,P. Charge II-, Full List f/-, C.O.D. lj- extra.

396
The NEW Stern-Clyne
ELECTRONIC CONCERT ORGAN
TO BUILD YOURSELF
DESIGNED -
— For the Electronic amateur seeking the most fascinating
project.
— For the discriminating organist seeking an instrument
which DOES sound like a pipe organ.
NEW -
— Constructional methods introducing "sectional com-
plete instrument" building.
— Extended range of tone colours. Without unrealistic
"Gimmick" effects.

THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE KIT OF


PARTS AVAILABLE IN THIS COUNTRY
START BUILDING FOR AS LITTLE AS
£75.15.0 approx. (H.P. Terms Available) VISIT US AT
162 HOLLOWAY ROAD, LONDON, NJ
Send 2/6 for data and information booklet (credited on initial and hear thisfabulous new Electronic Concert
purchase) to: Electronic Organ Dept., 162 Holloway Road, Organ demonstrated.
London, N,7.

STERN-CLYNE
GREAT BRITAIN'S GREATEST ELECTRONIC HOBBIES ORGANISATION

397
I

Quantity

CLEARANCE of COMPONENTS CONDENSERS (TRIMMING AIR DIELECTRIC)


500 100 Pf. .Jackson type 3 tor 2/-
50 30 Pf. Polar (spindle }• long) m
at GREATLY REDUCED PRICES! 50 20 pr. Jackson type 1/6

CONDENSERS (TRIMMING POSTAGE STAMP TYPE)


200 300 Pf. + 1000 Pf. « for 2/6
Here is your once-a-year chance! We must clear 500 50 Pf. + 50 Pf. + 50 Pf, + 50 Pf. 4- 50 Pf. 1/-

these lines to make way for new stocks. On the DIODES


left-hand side we list the quantity available, in case HIGH DUALITY. Suitable P.M 1/6

you wish to make an offer for the iot. Call in or METERS


34 40amp. (10 ma. without shuni) 21" scale
write TO-DAY 20 500 Micro-amp 2;' scale marled 0-15 and 0-600 ...
19/6
IS/-

MICROPHONE INSERTS
PLEASE INCLUDE
If ordering by post 2/- EXTRA Carbon granule inserts ,. 4 ror Zi-

TO COVER POSTAGE & PACKING. MISCELLANEOUS


6 Miniature Electric Motors ... „ 2/6
1 Scanning Coll, type WB/108 ... ... Si-
Quantity 2 Jason Audlo-Arrenuatot Ready Built (List £S) ...
Each ... £4
1 Jason Audio-Attenuator Kit (List £5.5) £3
14 Deaf Aid type Earphones
CO-AX PLUGS AND SOCKETS 10 Gram Escutcheons. Speaker grille and hole cirher end
g/fj

200 Films & Equipment co-ax Plugs II- for controls. ,,. ;}/«
40 Films & Equipment co-ax Sockets... 3/6 12 CrundlE Leads with Jack Plug 3/6
36 Handles, Brass, 4" 2/-

CHOKES
10 Handles, Metal, covered in grey plastic J f 1/-
30 l.F. Transformers. 10 M/c ... 2/e
100 Heavy Duty Suppressor Chokes 1/-
1 Kit G.E.C. Lite Writer (for Children) 12/6
1 Kit G.E.C. Alarm System ((or Children) ... J2/6
100 Knobs, Television, Marked "FOCUS, BRILLIANCE,
CERAMIC COIL FORMERS BRIGHTNESS. CONTRAST". Fit f spindle Set Of 4 1/-
50 la* x j
T
. wirh fixing lugs ,
Neeked knob with if exrenslon. Marked "Volume,
on/off". Fit 1' spindle. Spring clip fixing ... 1/-
Panel Mounting Neon lamps complete with G.E.C.
CONDENSERS (ELECTROLYTIC) SINGLES tunoon bulb and suitable resistance for mains use ... 2/-
100 500 Mf. 25V. T.C.C. 21" X If 1(6
Hlgh Voltage Lead-throughs H" x r, fixing disc 1 ... F 2/-
30 300 Mf. 25V. T.C.C. 2' X f 1/9
100 250 Mf. 50V. T.C.C. 21- x If 1/6 POTENTIOMETERS
20 250 Mf. 50V. T.C.C. 2" 1- 390 2 M.ohm Pre-scts 6 for 4/6
:•:
1/6 ...
30
40
100
32
Mf.
Mf.
50 V.
150V.
T.C.C. If
1}- x |*
X f •21- 32 Bank of 4 Frc-scrs. 1 Meg. 220K, 220K, 270K per bank 2/6
T.C.C. l/«
30
200
25 Mf. 50V. T.C.C. li'x f II- ' RELAYS
16 Mf. 375V. T.C.C, 4!" x H" 4 for 2/-
Mf Siemens high speed change-over relays, 1000 ohms (500
200 16 350V. DUBILIER 2" X 1- 4 for 2/-
SO ohms each coil) per pair 15/-
6 Mf. 450V. T.C.C. 1 }' x ]' II-
24 4 Mf. 450V. T,C,C. 1 i" X 1 II-
RESISTORS
1 M.ohm. Wire wound 1% non-inductive. Surprise
CONDENSERS (ELECTROLYTIC) DOUBLES your friends,show them a million ohm wire-wound
10 8X8 4/5V. SPRAGUE (Single hole fixing) 2/- x f. Surprise us too by buying onel
resistor, siic 1* 6d.
230 16 X 16 300V. T.C.C. 2f x f 1/6
SWITCHES
CONDENSERS (NON-ELECTROLYTIC) Toggle Switches D.P.D.T. 230V 3 Amp 21-
2 Pole 4 way Ceramic
4 Mf. 600V, DUBILIER 4J" x 2 x Iff
4 Pole 4 way Ceramic
3/ft
.,
4/6
V1SCONOL TYPE
2 Mr. SOO'V. DUBILIER 4:' v. 2 x If
V1SCONOL TYPE 3/6
TRANSFORMERS
200 2 Mf. 600V. DUBILIER 2f X If x I f 3/6 10 Modulation 1 : 1,1 c-anfincrs. Very heavy duty ... 10/-
300 2 HI. 500V. DUBILIER 2}" X I}' X f 1/6 250 Output Transformers 7K to 3 ohms suitable ECL86.
300 2Mf. 500V. WEGO 2f x If x f li- Made to high Admiralty' Specification. Make a cheap
50 .01 Mf. 400V. HUNTS W97 lt- Stereo outfit ... 2for7/6
Frame Output Transformer for Magnavox and Supervisor S/-
CONDENSERS (DISC CERAMICS)
5000 Pf. ERIE I
VALVES
EF85 Mullard Valves. Brand new 57-
12 EM80 Mullard valves. Brand new 5/-
CONDENSERS (HIGH VOLTAGE CERAMIC) 70 EF92 Mullard valves. Brand new 5/-
3pf. 4KV, working 200 Till Valves. Brand new 2/6
1/6
1000 Pf. 3KV. working 3/6
200 Pf. 10KV. working 4/- YJJBRATORS
24 volt. Non synch 3/6
CONDENSERS (TUNING)
20 3 gangs 500 Pf. (each section)
VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT PANELS
3/6
20 3 gangs 350 Pf. (each section) J/6 Philips type Rotary Adjusters marked ISO, 200, 220, 240
10 2 gangs AM/EM 500 Pg. and 10 Pf. (cacti section) ... 3/6
24 2 gangs 50 Pf. (each section)
3 Single gang 400 Pf. ...
476 To avoid delay make sure you add the extra 2^ for postage & packing.
3/6
80 Single gang 160 Pf. Eddystone S.W. Condenser 3/6
24 Single gang 5CPf. „. ... 3/6 Have you an up-lo-date copy of the famous Home Radio Components
Slnglegang 20 Pf. Eddystone S.W. Condenser
Single gang 20 Pf.
a/6 Catalogue? Jt is a MUST
for all constructors. Send 6/- (5/- II- +
1/6 post and packing) and your copy wilt be sent by return post.

HOME RADIO LTD., dept. p.e., ist london road, mitcham, surrey. Phone: MITchom 3282

398
1

VOL 1 No. 6

APRIL 1965 Practical Electronics

INITIAL REPORT THIS MONTH


THE publication of this our sixth issue might well pro-
vide a suitable occasion for reporting briefly on the CONSTRUCTIONAL PROJECTS
general reaction from readers following our debut five
months ago, and for discussing (again, briefly) progress PICK-UP AMPLIFIER AND
made to date. EQUALISER 402
During this period we have received a steady stream of
correspondence. While this represents but a small propor-
IMPEDANCE MATCHING UNIT 405

tion of our present day readership which has already PULSE COUNTER 407

reached an impressive figure it must without doubt con-
INEXPENSIVE OSCILLOSCOPE 411
stitute a fair cross section of the whole.
MAGIC BOXES 428
AUDIO AMPLIFIER 435
From its very first appearance our magazine has met
with considerable approval and we are delighted to have MULTIVIBRATOR 438
gained such a broadly based readership; for on the evidence AUDIO OSCILLATOR 440
of letters received, it embraces a wide range of age, ex-
perience and knowledge; it includes amateurs from all walks
of life and professional electronics engineers.
We are naturally gratified and encouraged by this response SPECIAL SERIES
and for the emphatic manner in which it has confirmed
our own belief that keen interest in electronics exists among SEMICONDUCTORS— 419
a large section of the technically minded public. To have BUILDING BLOCKS— 422
provided something that was (as subsequently revealed) quite
definitely needed is a cause for some satisfaction, naturally BEGINNERS START HERE—6 432

enough. But we cannot be complacent indeed this very
word has no place in the vocabulary of electronics.
GENERAL FEATURES
Many useful and interesting ideas have been put forward INTRODUCTION TO
by some of our correspondents and all of these will be
considered as we endeavour to make further improve-
LAMINATED WIRING BOARD 400
ments in our contents and style of presentation.
We have had our critics too. Regrettably there have
been a few occasions that warranted the admonishment
received. Such pitfalls as these we shall make strenuous
NEWS AND COMMENT
efforts to avoid in future. But as the saying goes —
we are, EDITORIAL 399
after all, only human!
DETACHED PARTICLES 427
ELECTRONORAMA 430
We think it will be generally agreed that in these few
months under review we have already given some good THE 73 PAGE 434
indication of the possibilities offered by electronics. The NEWS BRIEFS 442
constructional projects described so far represent, of course,
only a small number of the infinite variety of devices that
COLOUR TV SURVEY 444
the amateur can build for himself or his friends. NEW PRODUCTS 449
The very variety of possible projects makes electronics READOUT

a widely attractive hobby but also presents us with certain
453
problems of selection. However, by judicious choice of
subjects it is hoped to provide the widest coverage of
different specialised .interests in the shortest period of time Our May issue will be published on
possible. Thursday, April IS

All correspondence intended for tile Editor should be addressed to: Tile Editor, PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS, George Newnes Ltd., Tower
House, Southampton Street, London, W.C.2. Editorial and Advertisement Offices: PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS, George Newnes Ltd.,
Tower House, Southampton Street, London, W.C.2. Phone: Temple Bar 4363. Telegrams: Newnes Rand London. Subscription Rates
including postage for one year, to any part of the world, 35s. © George Newnes Ltd., 1965. Copyright in all drawings, photographs and
articles published in PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS is specially reserved throughout the countries signatory to the Berne Convention and
the U.S.A. Reproductions or imitations of any of these are therefore expressly forbidden.
...TO LAMINATED WIR

By
Gordon |. King
this month's issue we are giving a free sample The wires on the components are then soldered to
In
of a modern type of laminated wiring board the pins; the circuit wiring
is processed beneath the
(Veroboard) which many readers wilj recognise from board. The mechanics of this method are similar to
previous articles. The following articles illustrate, those of the printed circuit board, since the components
with practical circuits, some of the ways in which it are held by their connecting wires and electrically
can be used to provide inexpensive miniature units. connected by soldering. The conductors in this case,
We stress, however, that only one piece is provided free. of course, are ordinary wires and not printed wiring.
This sample piece has been manufactured specially A good compromise between perforated boards and
for Practical Electronics and is not generally home-made printed circuit boards, from the point of
available in the size given. However, among the larger view of the practical experimenter in electronics, is
sizes available the most suitable for general circuit Veroboard. This is essentially a universal wiring
construction are as follows panel which follows a set pattern of straight parallel
Type 42/1503 2-5in x 5in 16 copper strips copper strips bonded to a piece of s.r.b.p. (synthetic
43/1504 2-5in x 3 -75in 16 copper strips resin bonded paper). Assembly and soldering tech-
45/1507 3-75in x 5in 24 copper strips niques, similar to those used in printed circuit wiring,
46/1508 3-75in x 3-75in 24 copper strips can be adopted without the need for detailed planning
Before going into the details of the individual units, and etching.
it may be of interest to discuss some of the methods A study of the sample piece (lfin X lfin, 99 holes)
which have been used in electronic circuit construction presented with this issue will reveal that a set pattern
in the past, followed by a brief description of Veroboard of holes has been provided making up a matrix with
itself. a pitch of 0-1 5in x 0'15in between adjacent centres.
Our counterparts of a decade or two back found it The copper strips are Olin wide, 0-0015in thick and
necessary to commence a project in electronics first by spaced 05in apart.
creating a metal chassis, on which the circuit in mind They form the interconnecting wires between com-
could be tailored. Prior to this, a slab of timber ponents, which are laid across the board on the plain
(hence the term "breadboard", which is used still side (see later articles). The component wires are
today) or ebonite formed the foundation of the con- bent as required, passed through the appropriate
struction exercise. holes and soldered to the copper strips. Any. surplus
In this present age of the printed circuit and solid wire can be cut off. A
variety of component layouts
state electronics, we no longer need to resort to the can be achieved by cutting the copper strips and using
vintage breadboard methods of our fathers. We
can, wire links where necessary.
ifwe wish, etch printed circuits to our own require-
ments. This is not an unduly difficult task, but it
does demand the use of chemicals and a certain amount
of drawing experience.
An alternative method features perforated resin-
bonded laminate and terminal pins. The pins are
designed to push tightly into the holes in the board,
as required by the circuit design.

1 Pick-up Amplifier and equaliser


{page 402)
2 Impedance Matching Unit {page 405)
3 Pulse Counter {page 407)

4 4 Audio Amplifier {page 435)


5 Multivibrator {page 438) Fig. I. Breaking the copper strips. The spigot on the
end of the tool is located in the appropriate hole;
6 Audio Oscillator {page 440) the tool is then turned clockwise to cut the strip

401
The first article in this series shows just howa many
b © © © components can be accommodated on such
one given in this issue.
piece of Veroboard as the
small

The circuit, shown in Fig. 1, is a two-stage d.c.

° (?) ©
coupled audio amplifier with
frequency selective
? feedback. The design is suitable for boosting and
equalising the signal from a crystal or ceramic pick-up
so as to obtain a "fiat" output of sufficient level to
© drive a medium impedance, medium gain audio
amplifier.
The unit can be employed to provide a signal of
adequate level to permit the use of an ordinary crystal
or ceramic pick-up with a transistor radio. Normally,
of course, when such a pick-up is connected direct to
Fig. 2.General view of the tool with an enlargement the audio stages of a transistor radio the results are
showing the details of the cutting edges. The inset drawing poor due both to lack of signal and poor impedance
shows the effect of using the tool on the copper strip

COPPER STRIP BREAKS


It is not unduly difficult to process the breaks in the
copper strips. There are a number of obvious methods
of doing this which do not call for skill.
There is a special tool which can be used if a neat
clean finish is required (see Fig. 1). As will be seen
from the photograph in Fig. 2 it looks like a short
twist drill, with a spigot in the centre for locating in
the hole of the board. It is available from the makers
of Veroboard (Vero Electronics Limited, South Mill
Road, Southampton) and from a number of retailers
under part number 2030/3011.
An alternative method is to use a sharp thin bladed
penknife, adopting a backward and forward "sawing"
action. The piece of copper to be removed should be
cut on either side of the hole. It can then be lifted by
inserting the blade carefully under the copper.

The following articles will be concerned with show-


ing how a piece of Veroboard of such small dimensions
can be used to build a number of interesting and useful
electronic devices. Fig. /, Circuit diagram of the complete unit

402
PICK-UP AMPLI

EQUALISER

matching. If matching and/or equalising is attempted,


the signal is generally so badly attenuated that there When a gramophone record is made, the velocity
is nowhere near enough drive and the output is of the cutter increases with increase in frequency, as
very weak. shown by the curve in Fig. 2a. This is known as the
Moreover, some audio amplifiers require extra recording characteristic. To replay such a recording
pick-up signal boost to drive them properly, especially a correction circuit, or equaliser, with a response
when the signal is from a low-level pick-up. There complementary to that shown in Fig. 2a is necessary.
may also be
complications regarding the type of This is shown in Fig. 2b. Hi fi amplifiers usually
equalisation necessary for a crystal or ceramic pick-up incorporate such a circuit in the pre-amplifier stages
when connection is made direct to the pick-up sockets to obtain a "flat" or "equalised" output.
of an amplifier or control unit.
The amplifier can help solve someof these problems.
p-
If necessary, the output signal can be applied to a i—

"flat" input channel, such as the "radio" input. This 3


hi
avoids the possibility of "double equalisation", which UJ
is a state that can sometimes exist when a high
5
impedance crystal or ceramic pick-up is applied to an s J^*
equalised pick-up channel of an amplifier. 100 1,000 iqooo
The amplitude of output signal from a crystal or FREQUENCY (tA)

ceramic pick-up is proportional to the extent of Fi| ;. la. Recording characteristic


displacement of the stylus. This means that the signal
voltage is increased with increase in amplitude of
movement of the stylus. The rate of the movement or
the velocity of the stylus has no direct bearing on the X "-»^^_
output voltage with this kind of pick-up. The reason 1 -\
for this is that the output is derived from piezo
electricity when the crystal is subjected to mechanical 1 \
stress by twisting, bending or flexing. The greater 100 1,000 10,000
the stress, the greater the output voltage. FREQUENCY (t/s)

Fig. 2b. Replay characteristic using an equaliser


MAGNETIC OUTPUT
A magnetic pick-up differs operationally from this Since the output from a crystal or ceramic pick-up
in that its output signal amplitude is related to the is proportional to the force to which the stylus is
velocity of the stylus, meaning that the output voltage subjected when tracing a groove, the open-circuit
rises with increase in frequency (i.e. velocity of the voltage is approximately proportional to the logarithm
stylus movement). This is because the magnetic of the frequency with reference to the recorded ampli-
pick-up works rather like an electric generator, the tude. Provided a crystal or ceramic pick-up is loaded
voltage output of which rises with increase of armature with a very high impedance (in the order of 1 or 2
velocity. The stylus acts as a component part of the megohms), the output versus frequency characteristic
a,rmature which moves in a magnetic field, is almost the inverse of the recording characteristic.

.itn
.

Equalisation is thus automatic.


Unfortunately, it is not always possible to load such COMPOHENTS .
pick-ups with very high impedance circuits, especially
those employing transistors, since transistors have a
low input impedance. Resistive pads can be used to
increase the input impedance, but these greatly reduce Resistors
the stage gain and emphasise signal/noise problems. Rl l-SkO RS 3-3kO
R2 lOkQ R6 ISOfJ
R3 27kO R7 2200
R4 2 2kD R8 680f5

LOW LOADED CRYSTAL All resistors £ watt 10% carbon


These problems can be solved by applying the pick-up
signal to alow impedance input. When this is done
Capacitors
the pick-up output voltage falls and the automatic
CI 25,iF 25V elect. (T.C.C. type CE8V)
equalisation function is destroyed. The loss of voltage (T.C.C. type PMX2)
C2 0'033ftF
can be restored by stage gain, of course, and the loss C3 0-068/iF (T.C.C. type PMX3)
of equalisation by frequency selective feedback in the C4 100/uF ISV elect. (T.C.C. type CE9H)
pre-amplifler. CS 2S^F ISV elect. (Radiospares)
The source impedance of a crystal or ceramic pick-up C6 10tVF ISV elect. (T.C.C. type CE9H)
is a capacitive reactance. When it is loaded by a
relatively low impedance the signal current circuit,
passed from the source (pick-up) into the load
(amplifier) increases with increase in frequency. This Transistors
gives a characteristic similar to that of the magnetic
TRl OC7S (Mullard)
TR2 OC75 (Mullard)
pick-up. Thus, a crystal or ceramic pick-up loaded
with a relatively low impedance (say, 10,000 to 50,000
ohms) can be applied direct to the equalised magnetic
pick-up input of an amplifier, provided the output Miscellaneous
from a crystal or ceramic pick-up so loaded is sufficient Sample Veroboard, screened wire, 9 volt battery,
to drive the amplifier. good signal/noise ratio is A battery connector.
achieved by feeding the pick-up current direct into the
base of TRl (see Fig. 1) via the coupling capacitor CI.
e necessary eq -Kill satic »n is provide d bj r Kl

H (0 9 s T 6 5 4 2 l

::
..::. :::.;o:,.: :: ::::: ::::: ::.:::..-.--

© © © O © © © • • •
• o o • • © • © © ©
• • © • • • (©)• • • ©
O • • © o © • © © • O
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© o r c • c o • • T:

c • © • • c • © o O o
o o © o • • o © • • ©
o o • o © o c • © © o
Fig. 4. Component layout. Capacitors C2, C3, C4, C6, and
Fig. 3. Underside view of the board showing the R7 hove been omitted for clarity but their connections
resistor
copper strip breaks are shown

C3 in the negative feedback circuit between the provided by the unbypassed resistor R6 in the emitter.
collector and the base of TRl, so that greater feedback The pattern of the Veroboard copper strips is clearly
occurs at the higher frequencies. The effective output shown in Fig. 3, as also are the inter-connecting links.
at high frequencies will be relatively low. The assembly of the components on the top of the
The collector signal of TRl is fed direct to the base Veroboard is shown in Fig. 4. It will be seen that
of TR2 and the equalised output signal appears at the components are fairly close together, but there
the collector of TR2. This is coupled to the output should be no great difficulty in obtaining components
via C5. Stabilisation at d.c. is provided by the direct small enough to be accommodated.
coupling between TRl and TR2, and the current The pre-amplifier circuit is based upon a design by
feedback loop via R2, little extra feedback is A Mullard Limited. -jfc-

404
This second project takes the form of an impedance
matching unit employing a single transistor. The
circuit is given in Fig. 1. From this it will be seen that
the transistor is connected in the common collector
mode. This is sometimes referred to as an "emitter-
follower" circuit, having features similar to that of the
valve cathode follower circuit. The input signal is
applied at the base and extracted from the emitter.
The circuit exhibits a high input impedance and a low
output impedance. Although the current gain is high,
the power gain is low because the voltage gain is less
than unity, the power gain being the product of the
voltage gain and the current gain.

IMPEDANCE CONSIDERATIONS
The common-collector circuit is not used basically
an impedance matching device, often
to amplify, but as
being part of a multistage amplifier, and acting as a
buffer stage. It is also used to replace a transformer
in audio circuits in particular where a good frequencv
response is required. Typical matched input and out-
put impedances are in the order of 40,000 ohms and
1 ,000 ohms respectively. The input impedance can be
further increased by the use of a series input resistor,
such as Rl, in the circuit. The output impedance is
approximately equal to the source impedance divided
by the current gain of the transistor, while the input
impedance is approximately equal to the current gain
of the transistor divided by the load resistor. Phase
differences between input and output are responsible
for slight discrepancies in these expressions, therefore
Ohm's Law is not strictly obeyed. Thus, the higher
the current gain of the transistor, the greater is the
mput impedance, while the greater the source
impedance, the greater the output impedance.
One application of the device is for the coupling and
matching of, say, a medium to high impedance output
circuit on a tape recorder to a low impedance
circuit
on an amplifier.

IMPEDANCE MATCHING UNIT


Match your high impedance 0-9V

microphone to a low imped'

ance amplifier input with this

EMITTER FOLLOWER
CIRCUIT Fig. I, Circuit diagram of the emitter follower
o+

405
: .

Another application is for the connection of a


medium to high impedance microphone to a low
impedance input on an amplifier or tape recorder.
COMPONENTS . .

Note, however, that as the circuit does not amplify


there must be a reasonable level of signal available Resistors
from the microphone. Some tape recorders and
Ri 33kQ
amplifiers have a 600 ohm signal input. This will not
R2 270k£i
accept the signal direct from a low or high impedance R3 2-2kO
All i watt 10% carbon
microphone or programme circuit unless correct R4 8-2kQ
matching is achieved. The gain of a 600 ohm pro-
gramme source is usually adequate to overcome the Capacitors
lack of gain of the matching device.
CI 25 M F 25V (T.C.C. type CE8V)
C2 25uF 25V (T.C.C. type CE8V)

LOW IMPEDANCE MICROPHONE CABLE Transistor


possible to connect the output of the device
It is also
OC7I
TRI (Mullard)
to a medium or high impedance tape recorder input
channel without undue loss of quality. Thus, should
Miscellaneous
one require to extend the microphone cable it is best to
do this at low or medium impedance rather than at Sample Veroboard, screen wire, 9 volt battery,
high impedance, since the cable is far less likely to battery connectors
pick up hum.

II » 9 a 7 6 5 4 3 J t
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OUTPUT
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Fig. 2. Underside view showing component connect/ ins


Fig. 3. Component layout of the unit

While the input impedance high to is sufficiently


match almost perfectly into the high impedance of a
ribbon or moving coil microphone containing its own Resistor R4 across the output provides d.c. con-
transformer (there are many of these now used with tinuity should this be required at the microphone input
tape recorders), the impedance is not generally con- socket of the tape recorder or amplifier, R3 is the
sidered sufficiently high to match into a crystal micro- emitter load resistor, while R2 sets the base current
phone. of the transistor. At normal room temperature this
This is because a crystal microphone has a capacitive sets the collector current to about 0-3mA at 9 volts.
reactance and, in conjunction with the input impedance
of the matching device, a response rising with increase
in frequency is achieved, This gives treble boost or CONSTRUCTION
bass attenuation (see the article on the crystal pick-up
amplifier and equaliser). Fig. 2 shows the pattern of the conductors on the
Provided that the microphone has sufficient output Veroboard to suit this project. The connections of the
to counter additional loss in the matching device, this
components can be seen from the black "filled-in"
holes. The components are mounted on the reverse
bass attenuation effect with a crystal microphone can
side of the board, as with the other projects.
be avoided by increasing the value of Rl. The value
Fig. 3 shows the actual layout of the components
should be increased to a maximum consistent with
usable microphone gain. on the reverse side of the board. There is no problem
at all in the construction of this circuit, and it is ideal
If hum is troublesome near the microphone, the unit
as a beginner's exercise. Check that the circuit is
should be fitted into a metal housing, such as a small
tobacco tin or similar container, the tin being connected
working by measuring the total battery current which
to "earth" or battery positive.
should be in the order of 0-3mA, as already mentioned. -^

406
POISE COUNTER
This third project differs somewhat from the nature This deletes any "noise" which may be present on the
of the previous ones. Here we have a transistor- pulses.
ised device designed to indicate pulse rate by deflecting The transistor TR1 normally at collector current
is
the pointer of a moving coil meter. The deflection cut-off, since the base returned through R3 to the
is
increases almost in direct proportion to the pulse rate. positive supply. However, the application of a pulse
One application of the device is for the measurement to the base switches the transistor "on" and thus
of the speed of an internal combustion engine by causes a fall in voltage at the collector, due to the
arranging for the pulses generated by the ignition flow of collector current in R4. When the pulse
system, at the contact breaker, to operate the counter finishes, the transistor is quickly switched off again,
and deflect the meter in proportion to the turnover and the voltage at the collector rises to the negative
speed of the engine. The scale of the meter may then supply value.
be calibrated direct in revolutions per minute (r.p.m.). In this way amplified and clipped pulses occur at the
The pulse repetition frequency of a four-stroke collector of the transistor.
engine is equal to r.p.m. x k/120, where n is the The pulses are fed through C4 to the diode D2.
number of cylinders. Thus, a four-cylinder engine A direct voltage is thus, in effect, developed across
running at, say, 3,000 r.p.m. has an ignition pulse VR1, and this is fed on to the meter from the slider
rate of lOOc/s. Similarly, a six-cylinder engine run- ofVRl.
ning at 5,000 r.p.m. has a pulse rate of 250c/s. At Now, since the pulse current is fed through C4, the
the same speed, a single-cylinder, four-stroke engine amount of current flowing through VR1, and hence
produces nearly 42 pulses per second. The pulse rate the voltage developed across it, is governed by the
is doubled on two-stroke engines at the same speeds. reactance of C4. The higher the pulse rate, the lower
For instance, a single-cylinder, two-stroke engine the reactance of C4 and the greater the voltage developed
running at 5,000 r.p.m. produces almost 84 pulses per
second, while a four-cylinder, two-stroke engine
running at 3,000 r.p.m. has a 200c/s pulse rate.

THE CIRCUIT
The circuit is perfectly straightforward and is given
in Fig. 1. The pulses are applied to the base of a
transistor, via a filter comprising Rl, R2, CI, and C2.
>.ncr SI R2 " /

J^CI I C2

•Ipf

Fig. I. Circuit diagram of the pulse counter. Capacitor


C4 can be from O'lpF to 0'47jif. See text for details of
jumper link A
407
.

across VR1. Thus, it will be appreciated that the greater sensitivity in the lower frequency ranges C4
voltage across VR1 will rise almost in direct proportion should be measured in value. This can be up to
to the pulse rate (i.e., the speed of the engine). 0-47/*F, while maintaining a reasonable physical size
for this application. This circuit lends itself to experi-
HOW TO CALIBRATE mentation.
Potentiometer VR1 is used to calibrate the meter
over the range of speeds required. For instance, if
COMPONENTS
full-scale deflection at, say, 5,000 r.p.m. is required, The Zener diode Dl is a refinement which maintains
then an engine would be run to this speed and the a constant pulse amplitude. It avoids errors in reading
adjustment made for full-scale deflection. due, for instance, to an increase in battery voltage _

Alternatively, calibration could be undertaken by at high charging currents and it allows powering over
an audio signal generator having a low impedance a range of about 6 to 15 volts. However, the circuit
output. The frequency corresponding to the speed of [1 work at slightly increased sensitivitj without this '

the engine should be established on the generator and )4e.


the signal applied "live" to the pulse input and the
earthy side to positive supply line, with link "A" con- H 10 9 S T 6 5 * 3 ?.' ,

nected to point (1) on the circuit. The generator •


'"
© © © • •! © © • • e :)
output should be turned well up to ensure adequate ' ':./.',. ..

clipping by the transistor. O • • • • © © ]_* © © ©


(
H

COMPONENTS . .
:
-

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e ©©©©••• ..... ...


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e © e e © © © © e • • F

© © e e e © e © • © o E
Resistors
R! 2-2kQ
R2 3-3kn
R3
R.4
4-7kft
820Q c © ©©©•©•• © • D

All£ watt 10% carbon R5 lOkii


o
, .:
"

o
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#©•••©©
-««•!

© © C

Potentiometer
VR'I 2-5kQ Preset skeleton miniature type © © ©•©•©•• © © 5

Capacitors • • O • • ©(©')• © © © A

CI PMX4)
0-l/iiF(T.C.C. type
C2 0I^F(T.C.C. type PMX4)
C3 25uF 1 5Velect. (Radiospares) Fig. 2. Underside view showing the breaks in the
C4 0047^ (T.C.C. type PMX3) copper stripsand component connections
Transistor
TR1 OC7I (Mullard)

Diodes
Dl OAZ200 Zener 4-7 volts (Mullard)
D2 OA8I (Mullard)
Miscellaneous
Sample Veroboard. Moving coil meter 100/iA
f.s.d. Battery (see text).

To work in conjunction with a car ignition system,


the pulse input lead should be connected to the contact
breaker on the distributor (that is, the terminal marked
"CB" on the ignition coil). With positive-earth
electrical systems (seen by the positive terminal of the
battery being in direct contact with the metal chassis
of the car), the negative supply lead on the unit should
be connected to the ignition switch side of the ignition Fig. 3. Component layout and external lead connec-
coil (that is, the terminal marked "SW") and the tions. Holes 7D ond JA ore tne a/ternotive eonnec-
positive supply lead should be connected to battery tions for jumper link (A) from hole 7A (see text)
positive or to the metal work of the car. On the unit
itself, link "A" should be connected to point (1). The pattern of the Veroboard to accommodate the
With negative-earth systems, the positive supply components and circuitry is shown in' Fig. 2. Link
lead on the unit should be connected to the "SW" A and points (1) and (2) are also shown here.
ignition coil terminal, while the negative supply lead Fig. 3 shows the physical layout of the components
should be connected to battery negative or to the on the top of the Veroboard, Note here the polarity
metal work of the car. Also, link "A" on the unit of the diodes and the electrolytic capacitor C3.
should be connected to point (2). VR1 is a present potentiometer mounted vertically
It will be understood, of course, that the device in one corner of the board. If the three tags do not
could be used to measure not only pulse repetition line up exactly with holes in the board, a good fit
rate but also audio frequencies from a low impedance can be achieved by extending them with a piece of
source direct in terms of pointer deflection. For stout p.v.c. insulated copper wire. -^r

408
OUR BARGAIN OF THE YEAR
Complete kit oJ parts to build this 6-trBnsistor 2 wave
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rpec/
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c l iu
It fully covers themedium- wave band anil thai part of
the lung-wave bund to tiring hi E.B.fl. hitfhi.. The circuit
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are avFill&ble, 15/- each. Xoeslm for carriage if ordered will, components.

Speaker Bargain Dark Room Timer


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A selection of Test Instruments . .

S FLAT-FACE
in. GENERAL PURPOSE 6 in. DE LUXE VALVE VOLTMETER, Model
OSCILLOSCOPE. Model IO-I2U. An out- IM.isU. Measures ar and dc volts 0-1.5 to ,500V in 1

standing 'scope. "Y" sensitivity. 10 mV rms per 7 ranges. Res* to 1,000 Mii in 7 ranges. Modern
cm at kc/s; Bandwidth 3 c
I sto 4.5 Mc/s. T/B styling, with gimbal mount, Kit £18.18,0. Assembled
IOCS to 500 kc/s. Kit £31.11.6. Assembled £41.10.0. £26.18.0.

VALVE VOLTMETER, Model V-7A. DC volts


H SERVICE 'SCOPE. Mode! OS-I Light (wt, I0J
to 1,500, AC to 1,500 rms and 4,000 V pk. to pk. IM-I3U
fb.).compact, 5* K 8" x 14+", The ideal portable
for servicemen. Kit £22.18.0. Assembled £30.8,0. Res. 0.1-1,000 Mil. Kit £13.18.6. Assembled
£19.18.6. RF Probe 309-CU £1.13.6 Probe
kit. HT
TV ALIGNMENT GENERATOR, Model HV.336 £2.19.6 kit. Will extend ranee of models
KFW-I. 3.6 to 220 Mid on fundamentals. Unique V-7A or IM-I3U.
electronic sweep oscillator. Built-in Fixed and
variable marker generators (5 Mc/s crystal). Kit ELECTRONIC SWITCH, Model S-3U. Convert
£34.18.0. Assembled £44.10,0. your 'scope to dual trace. Kit £12,18.0. Assembled
£18.10.0.
MULTIMETER. Model MM-IU. 0-I.Sv to l,500v
A,C. and D.C. 150/jA to ISA D.d 0.2 to 20 MO. DECADE RESISTANCE, Model DR-I'J. Range
V Su.uA meter. Kit £12.18.0. AssembIed£18,U.6. l-99,999n
£14,8,0.
in IQ steps. Kit £10.8.0. Assembled

R.F. SIGNAL GENERATOR, Model RF-IU. IO-I2-U S-3U


Freq. coverage from 100 ke/s- 00 Mc.'s or six bands.
1 DECADE CAPACITOR, Model DC-IU range.
on fundamentals and up to 200 Mc.'s on calibrated lOO.iutF to O.llliiF in lOOtujF steps. Kit £7.5.0.
harmonics. Kit £13,8,0, Assembled £19,18.0. Assembled £10.8.0.

Hi-Fi Equipment . .

"MALVERN" HI-FI EQUIPMENT CABINET, AM/FM TUNER. Covers FM 86-108 Mc/s, AM


Will house all your Hi-fi equipment. Left "in the 16-50, 200-550, 900-2,000 M, Tuning heart (£4.13.6
white." Sire: 39 x 32 X 211 in.
ff inc. PT) and IF Amp. Case, Total £26.10.0 Kit
Kit £18.1.0 (inc. P.T.)
A wide range of other cabinets. 6W STEREO AMPLIFIER. Model S-33H. An
"COTSWOLD" HI-FI SPEAKER SYSTEMS.
inexpensive stereo/mono amplifier. Ideal for use MALVERN COTSWOLD
with the Decca Deram lightweight pickup. Modern
Acoustically designed enclosures, complete with attractive styling. Kit £15.17.6 Assembled £21.7.6
J2 in. bass speaker, elliptical mid-range speaker,
and tweeter to cover full frequency range of 30- "GARRARD" AUTO RECORD PLAYER.
20,000 c.s. Cross-over unit, level control, etc. Model AT. 6. A four-speed stereo/mono unit with
Left "in the white," Standard "Cotswold", Size: auto, record selection. Fitted with R.I05 crystal
26 x 23 x 14 in. Kit £23.4.0 pickup £13,12.1 (inc. P.T.). With Dccca Deram pickup
£14.6,1 (inc. P.T.).
MFS "Cotjwold' for the smaller room. Size:
36 X 164- X 14 1. Kit £23.4.0 HI-FI FM TUNER, Range 88-108 Mt/s. Avail-
SSU-I SPEAKER SYSTEM, A practical solution able in two units, sold separately. (FMT- TUNER FM TUNER S-S9
to the problem of a low-price speaker system. Two 4U) 10.7 Me.ls IF £*.IS.O (inc, P.T,), IF AMPLIFIER
speakers. Without legs £10.17.6 Kit (inc. P.T.) (FMA-4U) power supply and valves £13,3,0, Total
With legs £11.12.0 Kit (Inc. P.T.) Kit £15.18.0.

SW MONO AMPLIFIER. Model MA-5, A 9 + 9W HI-FI STEREO AMPLIFIER, Model


general purpose amplifier based on model S-33- S-99. Ganged controls, Stereo/Mono Gram.,
Scparate bass and treble controls, gram and radio Radio, Tape inputs, P.C. board construction.
inputs. Printed circuit. Kit £10.19.6. Assembled Attractive presentation. Kit £27.19.6. Assembled
£15,10.0. £17.19.6.

Radios and other models . . RG-I


"OXFORD" LUXURY TRANSISTOR PORT- GENERAL COVERAGE RECEIVER. Model
ABLE, Model UXR-2. Beautiful solid leather case. RG-I, Freq, coverage 600 1. 5 kc/s- Mc/s. 1.7-32
LW and MW Coverage. Kit £14.18.0 (inc. P.T.) Met* in 6 switched bands. Features incl. } lattice
Kit £39.16.0. Assembled £53.0.0.
JUNIOR ELECTRONIC WORKSHOP, Model crystal filter.

EW-l. exciting experiments can be made.


20 50W PUBLIC ADDRESS AMPLIFIER, Model
Special solderless connections. Kit£7,l3.6 (inc. P.T.) PA-I. A multi-purpose unit, suitable for vocal
and instrumental groups. 4 inputs for guitars,
"MOHICAN" TRANSISTOR GENERAL mics, etc, 2 heavy duty speakers, vol. indicator,
COVERAGE RECEIVER, Model GC-IU, Freq. variable tremolo, modern cabinet. Kit £54.15.0.
coverage 580 kefs to 30 Mci's in 5 bands. Electrical Assembled £74,0,0.
band spread on 5 additional bands covers "amateur"
from 80-10 M. B.F.O. Tuning and Zener SOW POWER AMPLIFIER, Model MA-50. AT-6
free,,
diode. Assembled £45.17.6.
Kit £37.17,6, Ideal for sound reinforcing syscems, etc. Kit
Assembled £27,18.0.
TRANSISTOR INTERCOM, Models XI-IU and £19.18.0.
[INTERNATIONAL MAIL ORDER SCHEME
XIR-lLt. Ideal for home or business. Each master 80-IOm AMATEUR TRANSMITTER, Model [covering the American Heathwit range of 250
(XI-IU) will operate up to S remote stations. DX-40U. Crystal controlled. Power input 7Sw. c.w. \ models. Illustrated American catalogue and full
I details can be obtained from us for I/- post paid.
XI-IU (Master) kit £10.19.6, Assembled £16.19.6. 60w. peak controlled carrier phone. Output 40w.
XIFUU (Remote) kit £4.7.6. Assembled £5.16.0. Kit £33.19.0. Assembled £45.17,6.

Deferred Terms over £10 in U.K,


Send for FREE British Catalogue of full range. Prices include delivery U.K.

Please send me FREE BRITISH CATALOGUE (Yes/No)


AMERICAN CATALOGUE.
I

I/,incl. Postage

DAYSTROM LTD. Full details of

NAME
model's) ...

Dept. P.M. 4, GLOUCESTER, ENGLAND I

I (BLOCK CAPITALS)
Home Heathkit Models ADDRESS
The of British |

•11U
wVm*
p# By
P. Cairns

PART TWO
The construction and layout
clearly shown in various
of the oscilloscope is the connecting leads to the valve pins being short and
detailed drawings and direct. Some of the components however, particularly
photographs included in this month's article, bias and grid return resistors, can be wired directly
As will be noted, tag boards and tag strips are used between the valve pins and a suitable earth tag or tag
extensively throughout for the mounting of the smaller strip. The positioning of the various earth tags is
components, both above and below the chassis. The shown in the appropriate drawings.
large block capacitors, mains transformer and smooth- It may be mentioned that the layout in general is
ing choke are mounted on the top; also on the top by no means critical. Those parts of the circuit with
are the tag boards associated with the e.h.t. supply, which rather more care should be taken are the first
and attenuator. The actual layout
calibration unit section of the Y amplifier and synchronising sections.
above and below the chassis can be seen from Figs. Here, the leads should be kept as short as possible and
5, 6 and 7. well away from heater wiring, etc.
The heater leads themselves should consist of tightly
METAL WORK twisted twin wire and should be wired in first, being
Both the chassis and the front panel are made from laid along the bottom of the chassis. The sequence
&in aluminium sheet. Drilling details for the front of heater wiring should be transformer x-x to V2,
pane* are given in Fig. while the chassis dimensions
4, V3, V6, V5, and V4, in that order. The heater centre
and drilling details appear in Fig,
5. The various tap and h.t, secondary centre tap should be earthed
brackets and clamps for the tag boards, c.r.t. mounting, together with the incoming mains earth lead to the
etc., are also made from the same material. earth tag on the rear of the chassis under the fixing
It is advisable to cut out all the larger holes in the screw of Tl (see Fig. 6). The heater wiring should be
chassis before bending, the smaller holes being marked kept as clear as possible from the various valve com-
off from the actual components and drilled to suit. ponent tagboards and associated wiring.
Few dimensions other than for valveholder centres, The e.h.t. and calibration components should be
transformer, choke, and c.r.t. are given as the actual wired up on their tag boards as shown in Fig. 9 and
size of tag boards and components used will vary flying leads provided for the various input and output
somewhat between individual units. The position of connections. The tag boards are then mounted
all parts is obvious, however, from the drawings and vertically on their brackets to the chassis (see Fig, 5).
sufficient space is available to compensate for any The flying leads can be made off later to fit in with
differences in dimension which may occur. existing wiring runs. This procedure not only makes
It will be noted from the drawings that the mains construction simpler but gives a much neater appear-
switch SI is mounted at the rear of the chassis. This ance when finished.
saves having to run two lengths of mains lead the full If K3/25 rectifiers are used in place of OA210s,

length of the chassis as would have to be done if the they will be found to be too large to mount on the

switch were on the front panel and so prevents the tag board; they can, however, be mounted vertically
pick-up and screening problems which would ensue between tag strips on the back of the bracket which
if such an operation were carried out. supports the base of the tube.

SCREENED LEADS The Y attenuator resistors are also mounted on a


tag board with short leads connected (see Fig. 9),
It will also be noted that quite a number of screened the tag board is then mounted vertically as close as is
leads are used throughout in the wiring. Here again practicable behind S3 (see Figs. 5 and 6), to which the
this is to prevent stray pick-up and interaction between leads are then connected, these being kept as short as
circuits. The use of screened leads also allows much possible. CI 1 is connected directly between the input
more freedom in circuit layout. Generally speaking, coaxial and OZ sockets, and S3. The earth tag on the
the components associated with a particular stage are rear of the coaxial socket and the earth tag on the
mounted on the tag board or strip next to that stage, base of V2 should be connected together, all earth

411
fig. 4 The front panel drilling
fteft).
panel consists of a piece
details. This
of aluminium sheet -fein thick

FIXING HOLES FOR Fig. 5 (facing page, top). Plan view


CRT. SCREEN AND of the top of the chassis. All essen-
VISOR {IF USED)
tial dimensions for the construction
of the chassis appear in this diagram
0" -•e-
or in Fig. 6 immediately below.
Details of the visor are also included

- '/j DIA. HOLES


FOR SWITCHES

^(j' OIA HOLES


^- COAXIAL
FOR D.Z. SOCKETS ''SOCKET

Vf*f£f-
fig- 6 (facing page, bottom). Side
view of the complete assembly. Here
ore included certain dimensions not
shown in the plan view, Fig. S. The
^,- -*7" A-
I

I
location of all the major components
is indicated, but the wiring is omitted

O
/- l

POSITION OF CHASSIS'*' O 48A FIXING HO'.ES

connections in the attenuator circuit and V2 circuit spigot at This is also shown in Fig. 1
bottom centre. 1

being taken to this common earth line. All other Any adjustment to the c.r.t. orientation can be
final
wiring should be kept well away from this part of the made later with the oscilloscope in operation, after
circuit. which the base clamp is locked in position.
Base connections for the three types of tube pre-
viously mentioned (3BP1, 3EP1 and 3GP1) are given
WIRING UP THE CONTROLS in Fig. 11.
The various wires to the front panel controls are Perhaps it should be repeated at this juncture that
brought up from beneath the chassis through a number all the above mentioned tubes are American surplus
of grommets situated along the front of the chassis. types. Although type 3BP1 is used by the author, the
Wiring from the c.r.t. base to the e.h.t. board is quite other two alternatives are very similar and can be used
short as this board is mounted quite near the tube with confidence. Any minor readjustments that may
base. The e.h.t. leads to the focus and brilliance be necessary for the 3EP1 or 3QP1 tubes will be des-
controls are rather long, but this does not matter as cribed in the final article in this series which will deal
they are only carrying d.c. and are effectively de- with testing and setting up the oscilloscope.
coupled.
The connections between the amplifier outputs and
the tube deflection plates should be wired correctly, MU-METAL SCREEN
i.e. V3a anode must be connected to Yl on the tube. The mounting and fixing arrangements for the mu-
This ensures that the convention of positive going metal screen can be seen in Figs. 5 and 6. This arrange-
signals giving an upwards deflection and the time base ment can be varied to suit individual requirements,
scan going from left to right is maintained. as the clamping and fixing arrangements tend to vary
If the 3BP1 tube is used, it should be mounted in the slightly depending upon the type of screen obtained.
position shown in Fig. 1 1 . Looking at the base end There is ample space on the chassis to meet the various
of the tube the spigot should be approximately 40 requirements and, as mentioned previously, the lay-
degrees anticlockwise from the lower vertical axis. This out is not too critical so that the component layout
ensures that the time base line lies in the horizontal plane. in top of the chassis may be slightly rearranged if
Types 3EP1 and 3GP1 should be mounted with their necessary.
412
HOLE DIAMETERS
3
I '/g DIA. FOR V) , 4 DIA. FOR V4-V8
Vg DIA. FOB GROMHETS
2" +« *"— -2lf

3^8
'VM

~T7
VI50R

Id
VR2

V2
NEON TAGS
MARKED
DENOTE
'E'
EARTHING
CONNECTIONS
-VR-
VR3 TO CHASSIS

HU-HETAL
C.R.7. BASE SCREEN

CRT. FIXING 8RACKETS


TAG80ARO MOUNTING
BRACKETS ETC.
MADE FROM tjjTH'K ALUMINIUM

413
I

GR0MMET(O)
V8 V7
o
ol CIO lo FRONT
°* Jo PAKEl

ma !
©
V8 COMPONENT V6-V7 COMPONENT
i mn_ TAGBOARD TAG90AR0
S EJI3 o
R2 O O O "O o o

GROMMETS IJIR60

© © © © GROMMETS

GROMMET
V5
|C0KP0NENT o o o — —o o r=~i .

TAG BOARD '

V4 ,fo3E
COMPONENT
TAGBOARD
-@i

BRILLIANCE FOCUS

Fig. 7 (above,!.La /out


of tag boards and other (VR3)
major items under-
neath the chassis.
Details of the com-
ponent tag boards are X SHIFT
given in Fig. 9

(VR9) (YR5

(VR7)

SL0W> *XFAST 0'"'' <MAX.


l i .4
%

« %'
AMP

W^ <d»X.
». 2 34 .X.00

miiii 6»x joo


"• (S3)
Y ATTENUATOR
CS2)((g)j) (Vi) l(S4)

Fig. 8 (right). The OK EXT. SVNC


completed front panel

© m ®t® m
with all controls and
sockets clearly labelled.
Letter transfers are
m m
recommended for a CAL X INPUT EXT. SYNC Y INPUT

neat and "profess-


ional" appearance

e
414
TOP TCP

^•tt" -R32-

-R29-

• MS •

• — e» • -R26-
Fig. 9. Suggested arrange'
merit of components on the

• — -me •
various tag boards. Com-
ponents should be assemb-
ledand wired up on these
•—— s» m -R23- boards prior to the fatter
being fitted in position on
-R21- the chassis

-tare-

-R5J- -R1J-

V6-V7 TAG BOARD ATTENUATOR TAG BOARD CALIBRATION UNIT TAG BOARD
11 WAY 11 WAY 11 WAY

TOP
-R38-

-RM- -02- -R39-

-M7- -R40-

-K7- -W6-

-R58-

VB TAG BOARD -ca- -C16-


5 WAY

-C9- -R37-

-R3S- EHT TAG BOARD -R41-


7 WAY
-R33- V5 TAG BOARD
8 WAY
-R34-

Fig. 10 (below, left). Base


-CI3-
and lead connections far the
V4 TAG BOARD valves and semiconductors
4 WAY used In the oscilloscope

Fig. II (below). Base connections for


FOB 6-3 VOLT HEATER the three types of cathode ray tube.
OPERATION CONNECT Note the position of the sp/got In each
PINS 4 i. 5 TOGETHER case; this determines the correct align'
AND WIRE HEATER LEADS
BETWEEN THIS ment of the trace wfth respect to the
CONNECTION AND PIN 9 chassis of the instrument

ol 9o> TOP TOP


Ai^* --"hi TAP
ECC81 k ECCB2

u/ 5 * 7 \X1

15PDT
xzl •3 (-H- — »• Y1

y«2 y lOe/
( SPOT
\v* 1
1 t 11
*y/
"

m
fbc
B C
H^-^K
3EP(,3GP1

0C2OO OMI K3/25


I CHASSIS CHASSIS

OA2IO

415
Some components not shown in the drawings are being calibrated in volts per centimetre. When
the time base capacitors C21-C24. The large capaci- making such measurements care must be taken to
tor C24 is mounted as in Fig. 5, the remainder (C21- view the screen directly and not at an angle as this
C23) are connected directly between the common point leads to parallax errors and consequent inaccuracy
on this capacitor and the tags on S5. This keeps the in the measurements.
lead length between the time base capacitors and S5 Another point which may be mentioned is that
to a minimum. while the calibration unit is an obvious asset to the
Another point which should be mentioned is the oscilloscope, it is by no means essential to its function
positioning of the mains transformer and smoothing and can be omitted if required. For this reason the
choke. These two components should be aligned calibration circuit in Fig. 1 is shown inside a broken
in the position where the magnetic field has least effect line and can always be added at a later date if necessary,
on the c.r.t. and the connections to it, i.e. the field
should run parallel with the c.r.t. and not at right HOUSING THE INSTRUMENT
angles to it. This is to prevent magnetic pick-up Finally, the outer case can be constructed from
effects which can give a distorted trace —
and is, of iin or fin plywood or, if adequate workshop facilities
course, one of the reasons why the mu-metal shield are available, from Ain aluminium with metal bracing
for the cr.t. is of such importance.
The base and pin connections for the various valves,
at the edges and corners. A
number of ventilation
holes should be drilled around the top and bottom
transistors and diodes are shown in Fig. 10. edges of the sides, and a hole must be cut in the back
Details of the lettering and layout of the controls, plate in the appropriate position to allow access to the
switches, sockets, etc., are shown in Fig. 8. The mains switch. A
three or four inch handle on top
various titles and scales can be put on the front panel of the case helps towards making the instrument
in a number of different ways. For those with a steady relatively portable.
neat hand they can be marked with draftsman's ink.
Another method is to use letter transfers of which a ERRATA
wide selection of types are available. Otherwise the
The following amendments to Part 1 of this article
various titles can be simply typed out and transferred
(last month) should be noted.
by means of double backed adhesive paper to the
Specification (page 328): Time base range No. 3
front panel. Finally, a coating of clear quick drying
should be lms/cm to 100/ts/cm.
lacquer (clear nail varnish is ideal) over the labels will
Components list (page 331): R45 is rated at 1W;
keep them clean and legible,
add C28 0-1/tF paper 150V.
Fig. 3. Time base generator and X amplifier circuit
VISOR AND GRATICULE (page 335): Capacitors C21 to C24 inclusive have
Two "extras" which may be simply constructed and been inadvertently reversed in this diagram. These
add to the usefulness and appearance of the instrument capacitors should be connected to the time base
are a visor and graticule. switch S5 as follows : switch position (1) C24: (2) C23
The dimensions of a suitable visor are shown in (3) C22; (4) C21.
Fig. 5. This item can be made from ^in sheet brass
bent around a former of suitable diameter, the joint
Next month: Testing and setting up the oscilloscope
being soldered. Alternatively, a tin of the right
diameter can be cut to the appropriate length. The
visor can be fixed to the front panel by means of three
small right angle lugs, soldered to the visor and screwed
into the front panel.
The inside of the visor should be painted matt
black to prevent reflection and a piece of split heavy
A TRANSISTOR TV RECEIVER FOR
wire insulation (a piece of coaxial cable with the THE HOKE CONSTRUCTOR!
centre core and screen removed is ideal) gummed
around the outer edge to prevent any cuts occurring.
if Fully transistorised, except for the c.r.t.
The visor will allow waveforms to be viewed under
conditions of high ambient light and also help to prevent and e.h.t. rectifier.

accidental damage to the c.r.t. face.


~k Operates from 12V car battery, Ever Ready
A graticule can be easily made from a piece of itin
TVI dry battery, or a.c. mains.
perspex or other transparent material. The engraving
can be performed with a sharp cutting tool with a ir I4in 90° picture tube.
fine edge, care being taken not to let the too! slip
when carrying out this operation. First the two axes, -Ar Unit construction for flexibility
horizontal and vertical, are marked exactly at right
angles to one another so that they intersect exactly in
* High performance using latest techniques.
the centre of the circle of material. A series of fine
-k Low noise level (better than 5dB) giving
lines exactly one centimetre apart are then marked
clear "snow-free" pictures.
from each of these centre lines so that the final result
is a circle of material divided into one centimetre
squares which just fits inside the visor and can be Described in April issue of
pressed flat against the face of the tube. The finely
etched lines can be filled with black crayon so as to be
easily seen against the tube face.
PRACTICAL TELEVISION
The advantage of a graticule is that it allows quick On Safe March IB
and reasonably accurate calibration checks to be made
Y
and allows signal levels to be read direct, the amplifier
416
LEARN
ELECTRONICS
-AS YOU BUILD
CIRCUITS
EXPERIMENTS
TEST GEAR

• CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE


Valve Experiments Square Wave generator
Transistor Experiments Morse Code Oscillator
Electro-magnetic Experiments Simple Transmitter
Basic Amplifier Electronic Switch
Basic Oscillator Photo-electric circuit
Basic Rectifier Basic Computer Circuit
Signal Tracer Basic radio receiver
Simple Counter A.C. Experiments
Time Delay Circuits D.C. Experiments
The equipment supplied comprises: valves, transistors, photo-tube, modern type chassis board; printed circuit board; full
full
range and inductors; transformers; potentiometers; switches; transistors; valves; all hardware, wiring and
resistors, capacitors
every detail required for all practical work plus CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE for demonstrating results of all experiments
carried out. All practical work fully described in comprehensive PRACTICAL MANUALS. Tutor service and advice if needed.

This complete practical course will teach you all the basic principles of electronics by carrying
out experiments and building operational apparatus. You wilt learn how to recognise and handle
all types of modern components; their symbols and how to read a completed circuit or
schematic diagram. The course then shows how all the basic electronic circuits are constructed
and used, and HOW THEY ACTUALLY WORK BY USING THE OSCILLOSCOPE
PROVIDED. An application
is given in all the main fields of electronics, i.e. Radio; control
circuits; computers and automation; photoelectrics; counters, etc., and rules and procedure
for fault finding and servicing of all types of electronic equipment.

NO PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE NEEDED NO MATHS USED OR NEEDED REASONABLE FEE— NO EXTRAS REQUIRED
SENT IN ATTRACTIVE BOX COMPLETE ADVICE SERVICE EVERYTHING REMAINS YOUR OWN PROPERTY

A completely NEW up-to-date .! POST NOW FOR FREE BROCHURE '

home study experimental course by To: BRITISH NATIONAL RADIO SCHOOL, READING, BERKSHIRE.
send free Brochure, without obligation, to;

BRITISH NATIONAL NAME. I


RADIO SCHOOL - ADDRESS
I
Britain's Leading Electronic
Black Capitals Pleose I
Training Organisation. OR WRITE IF YOU PREFER NOT TO CUT COUPON

417
FOR THE
FIRST TIME
Plug-in ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS
SMALL- FULLY ENCAPSULATED PLASTIC CASED •

TERMINATIONS OF STEEL CORE


These new T.C.C, small plas1ic-cased electroly-
tic capacitors have been specially developed
for COPPER WIRE—
vertical mounting on printed circuit boards, and specially solder coated for fast, ripple solder-
are designed for operation at temperatures from: ing technique.
— 2QC to -r70"C and for intermittent operation QUICKER ASSEMBLY
up to 85'C. Three case sizes are available Steel cored wire gives precision acceptance of
in rated voltages up to 50V. The standard capacitors when inserting into punched
tolerance of the range is —20%
+100% of rated printed boards.
capacitance. The anodes are of super-purity
aluminium, with all-welded internal connections. QUICKER IDENTIFICATION
A special electrolyte ensures low impedance at Colour coding and embossed values enable in-
all frequencies in the audio range. stant selection of the right capacitance and
voltage.
LOW LEAKAGE CURRENT & LONG LIFE-
leakage in jjA = 002CV. -t-20. HIGHLY COMPETITIVE PRICES
For full details please write for Technical Bulletin No, 102

THE TELEGRAPH CONDENSER CO. LTD.


NORTH ACTON, LONDON W.3 Telephone: ACOrn 0061 (16 lines) Telegrams: Telefarad, Wesphone, London. Telex: 26136
(also at) CHESSINGTON. SURREY - BATHGATE, SCOTLAND

GUITAR AMPLIFIERS
WITH TREMOLO
Five jiiL'k socket
inputs, " four with
separate mixing
Mi-. volume controls, mid
See the Longfellow hi-fi cabinet in one input "straight
Room Audio Fair, Russell
447, through' 1 . All in pi its
are of very high
Hotel. W.C.I (April 22-25).
sensitivity only 10
See how this Juperb cabinet^wiH take
h millivolts Input is
required for full out-
you [-records, turntable, tape-re (.order,
amplifier and turner— all within ics 77
inches length. HI-FI? IS^I
•.jgL
IllWlBlEP jnjjll
-
"if
S rut, making
suitable lor all types
of guitars and micro-
phones. Separate
them

*5 '} Bass find Treblecon-


±§r troJs, giving a wide
pf range lix" lift and cut,
4 ' Sepurnte master gain
control. Tremolo
speed and depth
controls. Jack
socket for remote
tremolo switching.
Outputs for 3 and 18 ohms speakers. Valves used in the SO watt and
50 watt amplifier ECC83, ECCS3, EL34. ELS4, G-Z34, Tn the 15 watt
amplifier ECC83, ECC63, ELS4, ELS4, EZS!, An extra valve EOCSS Is
used in the tremolo circuit. The chassis 13 complete with baseplate and
is solidly made of IS gauge steel, Jinished silver grey hammer.

Walnut or Mahogany 39 gns. Size 12 x S X G* inches high.


PRICES—
Teak 42 gns. 30 watt with tremolo. .£20,10.0
50 watt less tremolo . . ,£19.10.6
30 watt with tremolo £15,10.0
30 watt less tremolo ,,.,.,,,,,,.,,„,,, £14,10.0
RECORD 15 watt with tremolo,.
1 5 watt leas tremolo
.,,.,....
* , ,
£12.10.0
£11.10.0
Add carriage 10/- any amplifier. Send for free descriptive leaflet.

Write now for catalogue of full range and nearest stockist (UK only): CREDIT TER1LB ARRANGED

(Dept. PE4) Brook Road, London, N.22 STROUD AUDIO


PAGANHILL LANE, STROUD, GLOS. Stroud ?8S
Telephone : Bowes Park 7487
418
THE
O Q

PART 3. PNP JUNCTION TRANSISTORS


BY CHARLES NORMAN

the first article of this series we discussed the position in the circuit should be analogous to the grid
IN of a valve, is called the base. The lower section takes
rectifying action of a pn junction. Basically, a
transistor is a device with two such junctions, one of
the place of the valve cathode and is called the emitter.
which controls the current through the other. Al-
Some differences in the nature of the two devices
will become obvious when we examine the direction
though the effect is approximately the same as that of a in which the voltages are applied. The base bias,
valve, the control mechanism is completely different. which is usually termed Vbb, makes the base negative
A germanium pnp transistor consists of two layers with respect to the emitter. Bearing in mind that a
of p-type germanium separated by a much thinner pn junction is a rectifier in which the effective direction
layer of n-type material. Once this arrangement and of electron flow is from n to p, this means that a steady
the theory of the current flow is understood, transistors current, h, flows in the base circuit. In other words,
should present no problems. the base-emitter junction is forward biased. The
collector supply, V cc makes the collector negative
,

BASIC CONFIGURATION with respect to both base and emitter. So the col-
Fig. 1 shows the circuit diagram of a typical transis- lector-base junction is reverse biased.
tor amplifier. It could be the a.f. stage of a receiver, In a valve the anode-cathode circuit is forward
for instance. It has three connections: one is fed biased by the h.t. supply while the grid is reverse
via a load resistor from a low voltage supply; one is biased in opposition to the electron flow from cathode
supplied via a potential divider with a much lower to anode.
voltage; the other is led through a resistor to "ground",
[f we use batteries to represent the voltage supplies,
omit the resistors and replace the transistor circuit PRACTICAL EXPERIMENT
symbol with a diagrammatic section of the device, Before going into the theory it might be helpful to
the effective circuit is that shown in Fig. 2. Now
we connect up a transistor and see how
it responds to the

can compare the transistor configuration with that of a applied voltages. Make up the circuit of Fig. 4,
normal triode shown in Fig. 3. using any low power germanium pnp transistor. The
The triode too has three connections, one of which principles are the same whatever the type number
is connected to ground, one to a high voltage supply, used because all transistors in the same group behave-
and one to a lower voltage. In this respect at least the in a similar manner. Since this is merely a quick
circuits are similar. experiment there is no point at this stage in making,
The upper electrode of the transistor, which seems an elaborate construction job. Just make the neces-
to correspond to the triode anode, is called the col- sary connections and then get to work on the experi-
lector. The centre, or thin section, which from its ment.

-v,cc +HT

COLLECTOR

-v.
"V b b BASE

EMITTER

Fig. I. Basic grounded emitter Fig. 2. Diagrammatic section of Fig, 3. Basic triode configuration
configuration of a pnp transistor a pnp transistor with power sup- with power supplies connected
plies connected

419
of the transistor. Fig. 5, which shows the distribution
of the current carriers, should help.
In the case of a pup transistor the current will be a
movement of electrons. The physical thickness of
the base may be as little as 0-0005 inches. In the
thicker layers of p-type germanium which comprise
collector and emitter the current will be carried by
holes.
Since holes are positive, the base bias Km> tends to
Fig. 4, Experimental circuit to determine current gain move them in the direction shown. At the base-
emitter junction some of the holes are filled by elec-
Start with both potentiometers at the lower end so trons from the negative pole of the battery. The
that no voltage is applied either to collector or base. positive battery pole attracts electrons from the far
Then slowly turn up the collector supply potentio- end of the emitter, thus creating more holes. These
meter till nearly 9 volts is applied to the collector. move from positive to negative towards the base.
You should see virtually no current indication on the Because the base is so small, it cannot conduct sufficient
collector current meter. If the needle flicks over or electrons to fill all of the holes. So, in addition to the
if there is anything like a substantial current then steady flow of electrons, h, we get a concentration of
you have either chosen a faulty transistor or the col- holes on the emitter side of the base-emitter junction.
lector supply polarity is incorrect. By starting at The collector voltage, V„„ is connected in opposition
zero potential you minimise the likelihood of damage to the rectifying collector base junction and can only
due to mistakes. have a limited effect on the movement of current
Now begin to turn up the base voltage. You will either as holes or electrons. Some of the holes will
notice that as base current begins to flow the collector be "filled" in the collector and attract more electrons
begins to draw current. Further, while the base to the collector end remote from the collector-base
current can be measured in microamps, the collector junction. This produces a shortage of holes, which
current is in the order of milliamps. The ratio between of course is equivalent to a surplus of electrons, close
changes in the two will be about 50 to 1 depending to the junction.
on the current gain of the transistor used. For Tims, on one side of the microscopically thin base
instance, if the base current increases by 10 microamps layer we have a surplus of electrons and on the other
the collector current will increase by approximately side we have a concentration of holes. Under these
500 microamps or 05mA. conditions only one thing can happen. The electrons
Once you have satisfied yourself on these points try shoot through the thin barrier and fill the holes.
varying the collector supply voltage. It will have This continues for as long as the base bias maintains
some effect on the collector current but nowhere near the concentration of holes at the base-emitter junction
so much in proportion as the base voltage. On the and the collector voltage keeps up the shortage of
other hand, you will find that a small change in base holes in the collector. So a steady collector current
voltage causes an appreciable change in base current. flows.
The base layer is cannot conduct
so thin that it

CHARACTERISTICS sufficient electrons to fill 1 in 50


more than about
From this experiment we can draw the following of the concentration of holes that its potential draws to
conclusions the junction. The remainder are filled by electrons
1. Base voltage has a greater effect than collector from the collector. On the other hand, unless the
voltage on collector current. In this respect the base bias maintains a concentration of holes at the
transistor behaves like a valve. base-emitter junction, there are no holes for the col-
2. The output impedance of a transistor must be lector's surplus electrons to fill and no collector current
high because a change in collector volts has a relatively can How,
small effect on collector current. This too is similar Since for every hole filled by a base electron 50
to a valve. are filled by collector electrons the collector current
3. The input impedance of a transistor is low because is 50 times as great as the base current. So a small
the input current changes readily with base voltage. change in base current will be magnified 50 times
This is directly opposite to valve behaviour. in the collector. This current amplification is called
4. Unlike a valve, the input circuit is biased so
that the equivalent of a steady grid current flows.
vcc
5. Changes in input current produce much larger
.

changes in output current. So the transistor acts as


a current amplifier.
4 i

6. Because the input of a transistor draws current ©electrons ELECTjjgjg


it must put a load on the circuit preceding it. Conse-
quently, the signal operating a transistor amplifier OO ELECT R0N5* ••
must supply power whereas, under ideal conditions, ° O HOLES
a valve draws no power at all from the signal which i*»
operates it. This is the really big difference between o ° o o
ooo .H0LE5 oo O o
valves and transistors. >Oo ooo
THEORY COLLECTOR (c)
&ASEM
EMITTER(e)

Having established these points by experiment, we ELECTRONS©


can now set about deducing the theoretical reasons J
" "tin
for them. To do this we need to consider the be-
haviour of the electrons and holes in the three layers Fig. 5. Distribution of current carriers (pnp transistor)

420

I
the current gain of the transistor sometimes referred
to as /? or a'. Recent improvements in manu-
facturing techniques have produced transistors with
betas of well over 100, but it is true to say that the
average transistor has a beta in the region of 50.

VOLTAGE GAIN
So far, so good! We can use a transistor to amplify
a current change. But how do we achieve a voltage
gain? Theoretically, we need only to include a load
in series with the collector and take off the voltage
variations across this. Let us see if this is practicable.
Make up the circuit of Fig. 6. This is identical with Fig. 6. Experimental circuit to determine voltage gain
Fig. 4 except that a collector load resistor has been
added and we measure voltages instead of currents. Use the base control to set the collector voltage at,
With the base potential set to zero the collector say, 2 volts. Now measure the amount by which the
voltmeter will indicate 9 volts. This means that the base voltage must be reduced to increase the collector
transistor is cut off, which is consistent with the voltage to 7 volts. This will be in the order of 0-025
theory we have just discussed. As you increase the volts. Looking at this from an a.c. point of view it
base voltage the collector voltage will begin to fall. seems that a signal of 0-025 volts peak to peak would
This shows that the collector is drawing a current and give an output of 5 volts peak to peak. So this
a potential difference is produced across the load. circuit has a theoretical voltage gain of 200, which is
The exact results will depend to some extent on the not unreasonable.
transistor you are using, but by varying the base 'over It is safe to say that you will get a result of this

a small fraction of a volt, you should be able to vary order because the beta of most transistors in common
the collector voltage over a few volts. Collector use is about 50. As they all have a fairly high output
voltage will continue to fall as you increase the base impedance and a fairly low input impedance the per-
bias but with the circuit values shown it should be formance of one transistor at low frequencies is very
impossible to turn on the transistor to the extent of like that of another. At higher frequencies additional
causing damage. A collector load of about 10 kil- factors must be taken into consideration.
ohms should limit the collector current to less than Next month, in the concluding article of this series,
1 milliamp. we will discuss more practical circuits. -A-

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RUNNING A WORKSHOP
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Performance Analyses of a variety of Popular Models

BIG DEMAND! RESERVE YOUR COPY NOW— 2/fi

421
ELECTRONIC BUILDING BLOCKS

PART ONE by R. A. DARLEY


If the ratios of the two dividers are the same,
Any piece of electronic equipment, no matter how tions.
there will be zero voltage difference between the
f\ simple or complex its design, can be broken down R4,
junctions. If the ratio of only one divider (R3 :

into a number of basic electronic "building blocks".


for example) is known, and the value of only one of the
All readers will,no doubt, be familiar with the type of resistors in the other divider is known and the circuit
"block diagram" shown in Fig. 1.1. This particular gives zero voltage difference at the junction, the value
drawing depicts the functional layout of a conventional of the fourth resistor can be calculated. This prin-
superhet receiver and, as can be seen, shows that the ciple is used in the well known Wheatstone measuring
receiver consists of the following building blocks bridge. By using reactive, instead of resistive, com-
suitably arranged: r.f. amplifier, mixer, oscillator, ponents in the dividers, the circuit can be used to
i.f. amplifiers, detector, a.f. amplifier, power amplifier, measure values of capacitance, inductance, frequency
or phase shift,
and loudspeaker.
Once the principles of each of the above building PASSIVE ADDING OR MIXING NETWORKS
blocks has been grasped, it becomes simplicity itself to The simple resistive network shown in Fig. 1.4 enables
understand the working of the complete superhet. By voltages to be added together without effecting or
the same token, the intricacies of any piece of equip- loading one another. The output is smaller than, but
ment are easily grasped if the basic building blocks directly proportional to, the sum of the inputs. The
employed are understood and, similarly, a designer circuit may be used for addition in an analogue com-
must have a wide knowledge of all electronic building puter, or as a mixing network.

blocks if he is to develop a new piece of equipment to


FILTERS
carry out a particular function.
As the reader will realise, filters are devices which
It is the object of this series to lay before the reader
enable one narrow band of frequencies to be selected
the essential details of most of the basic building blocks from all others (such as in high pass or low pass
in use at the present time. Basic functional and networks), but the scope of this subject is so vast that
design details will be outlined in easily understood it will be possible to discuss it only very briefly in
this

terms; a non-mathematical approach to the subject series.


will be maintained, and in many cases practical circuits
DIFFERENTIATING CIRCUITS
for the experimenter will be given.
These consist of a resistor and a capacitor as shown
The first part of this series is devoted to introducing in Fig.1 .5. Also shown is the effect that the circuit may
the reader to some of the building blocks that will be have on a square-wave fed into it. The waveshape is
described in more detail in subsequent issues. considerably altered. The "decay" time of the modified
waveform can be calculated from the component
SIMPLE ATTENUATOR values chosen, one of the most valuable properties of
As the name is used to give an
implies, this circuit the circuit being that it contains an inherent time
output which smaller than the input by a predeter-
is constant. This time constant is one of the most
mined amount, but of the same general form. An important and useful properties in electronics. It
example of this circuit is the volume control. In this may be used, for instance, as a wave shaper. It also
case the precise amount of attenuation is of little presents one of the limiting factors in amplifier frequ-
importance and the control is not calibrated. In ency response.
many cases the precise amount of attenuation will be of
great importance, and the resistive values will have to DISCRIMINATING DIODE
be chosen with great care. The circuit shown in Fig. 1 .2 It can be seen from the diagram for the differentiating
gives an attenuation of 10 (or —
20dB) the upper resistor circuit that, if a square wave is fed in, the output wave-
being made 9 times as great as the lower one. form has a positive and a negative "spike". In many
cases only one of these spikes will be required; by
BRIDGE wiring the diode as shown in Fig. 1 .6, the negative spike
Avariation of the simple attenuator circuit will be virtually eliminated, i.e. the diode enables the
is the basic resistance bridge. It can be seen from Fig, circuit to discriminate between positive and negative
1 .3 that this circuit consists of two attenuator or voltage voltages. If required, the diode can be reversed and
divider networks, with a common supply. The output the other spike rejected instead. This circuit is often
is taken from between the two centre resistance junc- used in direct reading frequency meters.

422
V" A.G.C.

<
SPEAKERS

AMR XER DETECTOR POWER


R.F. VI I.F. AMP. I.F. AHP. A.F. AMP.
AND A.G.C. AMR

Fig. I.I. A "block" diagram of a superhet receiver. Note: The l.f. amplifiers
are another form of r.f. amplifier and the a.g.c. circuit is a variation of the
osc. detector. ERRATUM, The arrow feeding the a.g.c. line should come out of the
detector and a.g.c. block, not into as shown

Q-

Rl9 Rl

Vi. -O BY I

out - -jjr
R2

o -o
\

3. A basic bridge
Fig. 1.2. A simple attenuator Fig. 1

—O vi O R
INPUT OUTPUT

o- -Ih -O

-O V2 O- A/V
R
*^
T
JT ? l.hr
-O V3 O- AAA
R
u
oul
_VI + VJ + V3
3

Fig. 1,4. A passive adding network Fig. I.S. A differentiating network

:j~l J~L.
i=L-

Fig. 1.6. A differentiating network with a discrimi- Fig. 1.7. A differentiating network with a clamping
nating diode added diode added
CLAMPING DIODE IMPEDANCE AMPLIFIERS
If a rectangular waveform, which varies above and One of the drawbacks of the transistor is that it has a
below the zero voltage point, is fed into the circuit, as very low input impedance compared with the valve.
shown in Fig. 1.7, the output will be of similar form and To overcome this, it has been necessary to develop
amplitude (if component values are suitably chosen) impedance amplifying circuits in recent years. Two of
but will vary only in a positive direction. The diode these are illustrated in Fig. 1.14. That shown in Fig. 1 14a .

serves to "clamp" the output to the zero reference point. is known as the bootstrap amplifier. In many cases it is
The diode can be reversed if required, in which case the found that, while the single transistor circuit shown
output will vary only in a negative direction. gives the required high input impedance, the overall
frequency response of the circuit is inadequate; com-
DIODE LIMITING AND CLIPPING plex correcting networks have to be employed to
If a sine wave is fed into the circuit shown in Fig. 1 .8a, correct this fault, with the result that the complete
the diode will have the effect of clipping off all the bootstrap amplifier may contain as many as four
negative half cycles and passing only the positive ones. transistors.
This is, of course, the action of a conventional rectifier. Fig. 1.14b illustrates the circuit known as the Darling-
If the positions of the diode and resistor are trans- ton pair or super-alpha pair. It is possible, with both
posed, as in Fig. 1 ,8b, all the positive half cycles will be of the circuits shown, to obtain input impedances of
rejected and the negative ones passed. several megohms with little difficulty.

DIODE GATE SINE WAVE OSCILLATOR


One of several types of gate, the and gate, is shown in Broadly speaking, these devices can be broken down
Fig. 1 .9. This type of gate may have several inputs, but into two basic types: audio frequency and radio fre-
only one output; an output is available only when all quency oscillators. Each of these types can be sub-
inputs are applied. Another gate circuit, known as the jected to further breakdown into a vast range of
or gate, has several inputs and only one output, the sub-divisions. Some oscillators ca n be tuned by a vol tage
output being available whenever any input is applied. change instead of an actual component value change.
Two other widely used gates are the not and the nor
types.
SAWTOOTH OSCILLATOR
Another type of oscillator is that which generates a
AMPLIFIER sawtooth waveform. This type is generally used to
An amplifier may be put to many uses other than supply the time base for cathode ray tube displays.
a.f., or power amplification.
r.f., By employing a Some types give an output that can be controlled by an
large degree of negative feedback, for example, any externally applied potential, and can thus be used to
desired degree of gain can be accurately and reliably provide a time base for wobbulators.
obtained, making the amplifier suitable for use as a
mathematical multiplier. Th e block diagram of such "STAIR-CASE" GENERATORS
an amplifier is shown in Fig, 1.10. Yet another kind of generator is that which generates
a sawtooth waveform which rises in a series of distinct
IMPEDANCE CONVERTER steps rather than in a linear fashion. Such a device
It is often necessary to change the impedance in one may be used as a time base generator for a transistor
part of a circuit prior to reaching the next stage. For characteristics curve tracing oscilloscope, each step
example, it may be necessary to feed the output of an representing a particular test voltage or current.
oscillator to a low impedance attenuator, but direct A variation of this circuit is the "diode pump", in
coupling would upset the working of the oscillator. which the stair-case waveform is obtained from exter-
The use of an impedance converter between the two nally applied rectangular pulses. Such a device can
stages will overcome this difficulty. The best known be arranged as a counting or frequency measuring
device of this kind is the emitter follower circuit, an circuit.
example of which is shown in Fig. 1.11. This is the
transistorised version of the well known cathode
follower valve circuit. Both of these circuits have a
BLOCKING OSCILLATOR
Another type of oscillator circuit is that known as the
high input impedance and a low output impedance,
blocking oscillator, an example of which is shown in
with a stage gain of almost unity.
Fig. 1.15. This circuit can be arranged to perform in a
PHASE SPLITTER number of different ways. It can, for example, give a
regular series of bursts of oscillation, or large magnitude
It is two outputs, each out of
often required that
pulses of very short duration, triggered from an
phase with the other by 80 degrees should be available
1
external source.
from a single input. In this case the device known as
the phase splitter is called for, an example of which is
shown in Fig. 1.12. ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
This is a two-state circuit, in which either the first
LONG-TAILED PAIR transistor is on and the second transistor off, or the
This circuit may be arranged to give a number of first transistor is off and the second on (see Fig. 1.16).

different functions. If required, it can be made to The circuit will be in first one state, then the other,
operate as a phase splitter, fed from a single input. changing state of its own accord. The circuit is thus
Alternatively, it can be fed from two inputs, giving an said to be "free running". If an output is taken from
output which is proportional to the difference between one of the collectors, it will have a rectangular wave-
these two inputs (see Fig. 1.1 3) . The circuit can thus be form. The period between one change of state and the
used in an analogue computer to carry out subtraction other determined by the values of the coupling
is

functions. capacitors and resistive networks.

424
o- o—v\A-

AP
y.

R< .rux.
-o

0-r-
xfh y- TTU' o
INPUT I
n -o
4

INPUT 2
-o

OUTPUT

o- -o O -o o -o
Fig. 1.8a. Diode limiter, negative Fig. 1.8b. Diode limiter or clip- Fig. 1.9. An "AND" gate
part of signal dipped per, positive port of signal
clipped

o-
<9 <9
o
) OUTPUT 2(

O
Fig. i.10. A "fa/ock" diagram of Fig. I.lt. Emitter follower impe Fig. 1.12. Phase splitter
amplifier with negative feed' dance converter
back

OUTPUT
o- o
o
«
@
1

-€}© -o -AAA

Hl^ "out
<s
INPUT 2

t
o- -o b o-
Fig. 1.13. Long tailed pair Basic "bootstrap" impe'
Fig. 1.14a. Fig. 1. 14b. Basic "Darlington" or
dance amplifier "super-alpha" pair impedance
amplifier
Fig. 1.16. An astabls or free running multivibrator

Fig. 1.18. A monostable multivibrator

applied, as in the case of the bistable multivibrator,


but after a predetermined time the circuit will again
revert to its first state, as in the case of the astable
multivibrator.

SCHMITT TRIGGER
This is yet another two-state device, but in this case
the state depends on the input voltage level. In its
normal state, TR
1 will be off and TR2
on (see Fig. 1.19).
If the voltage is now applied to the input and slowly
raised in amplitude, a point will be reached where
TR1 will suddenly switch on and TR2 switch off. This
condition will be maintained as long as the input
voltage is not reduced below the "trigger" level. If
the voltage is so reduced, the circuit will switch sharply
back to its former condition. One of the many uses
of this circuit is that of producing a square wave from a
BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR sine wave input.
This again is a two-state device, but in this case it is
not free running (see Fig. 1.17). The change from one OTHER CIRCUITS
state to the other must be activated by an externally As well as the basic building blocks that have been
applied pulse or signal. Two input pulses are necessary briefly mentioned in this article so far, many other
in order to cause a complete cycle of changes of state, types also exist. In the field of mathematically
resulting in only a single output pulse. The circuit operating circuits, for example, alternative circuits can
thus divides by two, and is known as a binary divider, be used for addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, differentiation and integration, as well as
MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR circuits which follow Square or square-root laws.
This third member of the multivibrator family is a This concludes our initial survey of the subject of
combination of the other two (see Fig. 1.18). It has one building blocks. Detailed treatment of the various types
stable and one semi-stable state. To cause a change of circuit mentioned will be given during the course of
from one state to the other, an external pulse must be this series.

426
J o h I e n c e

CRYSTAL BALL RUSH HOUR ELECTRA'S THE NAME


The early months of the year seem Cor a final peep into the future let \A/e nowadays various com-
find
Tus come back home, where we find " mercial and non-commercial
to be particularly propitious for
the crystal gazers. From among a London Transport looking even organisationschanging their names
flood of predictions concerning the further ahead. According to an or modifying them to include some
social and scientific changes that are official of this body, by the year 2,000 reference to electronics.
likely to descend on us (with bene- we can expect an almost completely The Electrical Trades Union is one
ficial results, of course!) in the not automatic Underground. Just one of the latest organisations to decide

too distant future I note just two man per train and one man per station. that amore with-it title is desirable.
or three. Trains and passengers alike will be True they have delved back into
Data transmission by teleprinter controlled by magnetic fields, the Greek mythology and adopted the
network is a field where one can ex- first by magnetic pick-up coils, the name of a Trojan War leader's
pect continuing growth. In the United second by means of metallic coated daughter — Electra. But stillvery
States computer grid systems are tickets which will permit entry or exit apt, I think, for this is obtained from
already in operation. At the present via automatic gates. the abbreviated form of the proposed
time it is possible to make connection It will be just my luck to lose my full title —
which is Electrical, Elec-
with a computer at Massachusetts ticket and then discover that the tronics and Communication Trades
Institute of Technology from any- solitary custodian of the station has Association.
where in the United States. Such is gone off for his tea. By the way, it comes to mind that
the potential development of these Perhaps a slight disappointment a lady of the same name is oft seen in
computer networks that the American for Londoners: the Wellsian scene the Thames estuary waters. The lady
Telephone and Telegraph Company with moving pavements and high in this case is a launch owned by the

estimates that by 1970 more revenue speed monorail systems is not to be Marconi Company and used as a
will be received from the trans- expected by the end of the present practical showroom for marine radio
mission of computer data than from century. Don't know about you, but and radar equipment.
ordinary telephone conversations. I can't afford to wait much longer A final thought. Electra slaving
than that! over a hot open stove all those
hundreds of years ago could not,
ALL CHANGE despite her name, have had any pre-
HUMANS FIRST If a decision is taken shortly to
monition of the labour-saving kitchen
of today. But we must be careful.
DoWilldetect suggestion
I a hidden danger here?
this of lucrative
' change our currency over to a
decimal system, much will have been
The housewife of 1980 will probably
recall, as she pops a programme with
business tempt our own G.P.O. to due to the recommendations of the
complete menu for the evening meal
concentrate heavily in this direction to electronics industry.
into her electronic cooker prior to
the detriment of the ordinary (would- As we all know the question of a
setting off on a day's jaunt, just how
be) subscriber? decimal system has been under care-
tied down her mother was way back
Those long suffering members of ful investigation for the past few
in the 50's and 60's.
the public who are still trying to years. All the signs are that despite
speak to their fellow-men cannot be some stubborn resistance to any such
expected to enthuse over the news radical change by some individuals
that machine can talk to machine and a few organisations, the majority
from one end of the country to the of informed opinion in the country
other. We humans must exert our strongly favours the adoption of some
rights you know! form of decimal currency.
The year: the same. The scene: Just the
recently Economic
the United States as before. Development Committee for the
After all the dire warnings of un- electronics industry added its voice
employment resulting from the wide- to those in favour. The sale of
spread use of computers and auto- computers overseas is often handi-
matic processes, it is comforting (to capped at present due to the need to
some of us at any rate) to read that produce two different models one —
in the very birthplace of automation for the home currency in pounds,
itself, it is now forecast that 30,000 shillings and pence; the other for
additional journalists will be required the decimal system which is almost
by 1970. universally in use.
News — the unpredictable goings- If any further weight of opinion
on in the world brought about chiefly was needed to swing the balance
by erratic unprogrammed humans decisively one way br the other
will still need human gatherers and then it is my guess that the vital Frankly, mother, he doesn't think
recorders. computer industry has provided it. much of today's programme
427
Although over five hundred solutions were sent in
during the week following publication of our Feb-
,

ruary issue, no one provided an exact duplicate of our


original circuit as shown in Fig. 2 of last month's
article "Magic Boxes".
Many and varied were the circuits devised by our
ingenious readers. Most of these would undoubtedly
provide the required function, i.e. control of two lamps
over a single pair of wires, but in many cases the
circuits suggested were unduly complex, and indeed
likely to provide exceedingly uneconomical if one had
to buy all the components called for!
Three readers submitted circuits that were correct
in principle and would perform entirely satisfactorily,
but each of these differed in some minor detail from
the original design explained below.

THE WINNER
Mr. C. W. Jolly, Hornchurch, connected the
Zener diode Dl across LP1 (green) instead of across
LP2, and gave the rating of one lamp as 6-5V 002A
instead of 6V O06A. His supply voltages were correct
and, furthermore, by using only three taps on the
battery, appears to have improved somewhat on the
original design.
R. J. Ward, Warwick,
placed the Zener across the
right lamp but with reversed
polarity. A
9V supply
was included but tapped at +7-5, +6, 0, and — 1-5V.
The polarity of the supply was in accord with Zener
connection.
K. Wilson, Oldham, also connected the Zener
across LP2 but in reverse. His lamps were rated at
6V 04A and 6V 0-3 A, and the supply provided was
+6V, -6V, and + 12V.

Although these three were very close contenders for


the prize, itwas easy to declare C. W. Jolly the winner,
since apart from being the first of this trio to arrive
at our office, his answer does more closely match the
published circuit than the other two. A consolation
prize of one guinea has been awarded to each of these
two runners-up.

AN ABUNDANCE OF DIODES
Very hot on the were the thirty-odd readers who
trail
realised the secret lay in the use ofa Zener diode.
But afas, they were not content with only one, and
various combinations of Zeners and ordinary diodes
appeared.
Quite a few who had not seen the light concerning
Zener breakdown put their trust and hope in the

42S
common —
a single specimen, or any
or garden diode An alternating or pulsating supply was very much in
number up to five. favour by another large group, of about 100 but —
Most of the above mentioned arrangements would these were independent characters who devised the
appear to work, but all certainly required more com- means for generating the desired waveform inside the
ponents than the original design. box. Much enterprise was shown here naturally.
We had phase shift oscillators, valve and transistor
BY BATTERY ALONE multivibrators, electro-mechanical vibrators, binary
In the highly commended class come economically —
counters, variable frequency oscillators anyhow you
minded readers who eliminated diodes entirely. With name it, we have it!

three identical batteries, two lamps, and a three-way Quite a few alert readers "appropriated" the tran-
switch they almost got there: but not quite, for with sistor inverter circuit described in the previous page
this arrangement (see Fig. 1) no "off" position can be to that carrying the announcement of the "Magic
provided and therefore the lamp box is not completely Boxes". And some admitted it too!
under the control of the switch box. Furthermore, [We will have to be more careful with our page
in the "Green and Red" position, the lamps glow with arrangement in future —Editor.]
but half their normal brightness.
RELAYS IN STRENGTH
The second largest group was composed of the
relay devotees. Yes, we know you can do almost
everything with relays, but what about the cost? -and—
don't forget the boxes are supposed to be quite port-
able. Perhaps you will forgive us if we were a trifle dis-
appointed at this un-e!ectronic approach!
Our spirits were restored however by the small band
who suggested bona fide electronic means to achieve
our end. These included transistors operated as on/ofF
switches, and the humble neon also employed as an
on/ofF device.
Fig. I. This arrangement relies on all battery voltages
being identical. Unfortunately this circuit will not permit
both lamps to be extinguished at the some time MISCELLANY
You think we have about now exhausted all the ideas
brought forward? Not in the least. However, it is
Perhaps a note should be added here to explain that
possible to mention just one or two of the more unusual
while no "off" position was indicated in the published
suggestions.
circuit, it is nevertheless quite practical to incorporate
The problem imposed by the limitation to a pair of
one if one substitutes a four-way switch for SI. In
fact this has been carried out on the original model in
wires was tackled with some resolution it must be
conceded. A third "wire" was conjured up by a few
our possession — see photographs. readers who made both boxes of metal. Unfortunately
A.C. HELPS OF COURSE they completely overlooked the practical attribution
of the "Magic Boxes" as a means of remote control.
Now to the largest category of answers
refer to
Rather more subtle was the introduction of a
received. At least 80 readers stipulated an a.c. supply.
1
screened lead as one connection; this involved a
This, they suggested, was to be fed in from some external

source despite the fact that no additional leads or
modification to the crocodile clip and an additional
stud on Box B. Sorry, but that's cheating.
connections were indicated in our photograph of the
"Magic Boxes". Of course, once a.c. is permitted,
Oh yes, we did also get a pair of double-cored leads.
the remainder is easy!
A
Wheatstone bridge arrangement was suggested
and looked feasible.
Most of this group voted for a pair of diodes in each The adoption of a moving coil meter, so that its needle
box, connected up as shown in Fig, 2, although some-
would act as a switch wiper arm making contact with
times the diodes would be in parallel with the lamps.
various points according to the amount of current
The individualistic approach was also apparent: some
fed down the lines, appeared more than once.
used a battery for single lamp operation and a.c. for
Electro-mechanical engineering was well represented,
dual operation, while some used C
and L filters in quite a few ideas coming from model control enthusiasts
place of some of the diodes, and so on.
we suspect. One of the more intriguing ideas in this
department was a motor driven drum with metal
segments which would produce three different kinds of
signal according to speed and direction of rotation.

THANK YOU ALL !

The submitted often showed considerable


circuits
attention to detail both technically and from a drafting
point of view, with circuit values carefully worked out.
Many circuits were accompanied by clear explanations
of how the particular arrangement functioned.
all who participated in this little electronic
Thanking
we would emphasise that although the vast
exercise,
Fig. 2. No
real problem if a.c. is allowed, as this typical numbers involved make it impossible to acknowledge
circuit clear. Many variations of this idea are, of
makes each entry individually, each idea submitted received
course, possible careful scrutiny. -^
429
E
YftfTf D

lb

HIGHLIGHTS
1 MI
FROM THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE

Traffic Control by ARCH Stachus square in Munich, believed


to be the busiest traffic centre in
Europe, is undergoing extensive
rebuilding which will incorporate an
electronic automatic traffic control
system developed by Elliott Auto-
mation in conjunction with Signalban
Huber K.G. of Germany. The heart
of the system is an Elliott ARCH com-
puter which will control the traffic
How by using up to the minute infor-
mation provided by traffic conditions
prevailing at the time.
When the rebuilding operations are
complete, traffic will flow at four
levels; two of these will be used by the
underground railway, one for pedes-
trians and the fourth for motor traffic
and public transport. It is planned
to integrate the control of tramways
with motor traffic by storing and using
an abbreviated version of the tram-
way timetable in the computer. The
system will cover the control of four
neighbouring traffic centres and will
optimise the traffic flow at them by
comparing a series of fixed programmes
with varying. traffic densities.
Solid State Cooking

What is to be the world's


believed
cooker was exhibited
first solid state
by the Appliance Controls Branch of
Smiths Clock and Watch Division at the
Electrical Development Association Exhi-
bition at Harrogate in February. The
cooker controls are replaceable modules
for one hotplate, three non-linear regu-
lated hotplates, linear regulated grill, and
meat probe. An oven thermostat and
programming clock are also fitted.
All meals are said to cook perfectly
and the oven is switched off automatically
at the end of the cooking period. The
control modules are powered from a
12 volt supply.

Northern Lights
Awindowless channel electron multiplier will be used
for the first time in experiments to map the electron
density during an aurora —the event better known as the
"Northern Lights". This new device, developed by
Mullard, has been launched into space for the first experi-
ment from Northern Norway. The multiplier is essenti-
ally an open ended glass tube with a high resistance coating
on its inner surface.
When a voltage is applied between the ends of the tube
the coating acts as a continuous dynode. Electrons are
bounced off the coating at several random points. Secon-
dary electrons are emitted from the resistive layer and
drawn down the tube, each producing more secondary
electrons when it strikes the tube wall. The cumulative
effect is a cascade of electrons at the high potential end.
With 5,000 volts between the ends of the tube and power
consumption of only 0-2 milliwatt, the gain is of the order
of a hundred million.
The device is much simpler and smaller than a con-
ventional electron multiplier, which has separate dynodes
each needing a different voltage supply. It is expected
that the multiplier will be also used in mass spectrometry
and ultra violet spectroscopy.

I
Number Please
A
looks as if is on the
the telephone dial
It
way out at last. seems to be a logical
It

step in this push-button age to introduce


push-button telephones. In fact, plans
are under way in America to convert to a
radically new system of subscriber calling
although the order of letters and digits
remain much the same as before.
It is expected that the new system will be
operative throughout the U.S.A. (about
84+ million subscribers) within 10 years.
Tests have shown that it is more than
twice as fast to "press out" a call than to
dial. Furthermore it is claimed that this
new method is easier and more accurate.
BEGINNERS start here...
An Instructional Series for the Newcomer to Electronics

ELECTROLYTIC
CAPACITORS
Here is a representative group of
electrolytic!. The two large
components are dual units and
each incorporates two separate
32jiF 350V working capacitors
within the one metal can. The
common negative connection is
the centre tag.
The smaller components with
lead-out wires have the following
values and voltage ratings
(reading left to right): lOO^F,
ISV, 50pF 25V, 15/iF 12V, and
60 uF 10V.
A pair of plastic encased
miniature capacitors specially
designed for close packing on
printed wiring boards are also
shown. These have two pins
emerging at one end. The larger
one is SOO^F 10V, the other 25^F
25V.

We are all well aware of the desirability of getting


a quart into a pint pot. It is now our purpose
When a d.c. potential is applied to the
foil electrodes, a
aluminium
thin insulating film is formed on the
surface of the electrode connected to the positive side
to'explain how this has been achieved with capacitors.
of the supply. The large capacitance values realised are
Using any of the constructional methods described due to the extreme thinness of this film which acts as
last month, we find that the component becomes very the dielectric between the two aluminium foils. This
large and bulky as the value of capacitance increases. film has a high strength and can withstand voltages
For values of say 1/tF and upwards, the physical of up to about 600V.
size of a "paper" capacitor is often much too great
The paper which carries the paste is fully conductive
and therefore does not increase the effective thickness
for normal applications. This question of size is most
of the dielectric film in any way.
important nowadays with the continuing trend towards It should be noted that the so-called "dry" electro-
miniaturisation in electronic devices. lytic is not in fact completely dry; this term is used to
Together with this demand for smaller and more distinguish it from the earlier type of wet electrolytic
compact comes the demand for very
circuit assemblies which used a free liquid electrolyte.
large capacitance values (several hundreds of micro- Solid electrolyte aluminium foil capacitors which —
farads) due mainly to the special requirements of are truly "dry" have been developed recently. These
circuits based on transistors. have a semiconductor material in place of the usual
electrolyte.
The is no newcomer to the
electrolytic capacitor
scene but modern production techniques have advanced ETCHED FOIL
so tremendously that there is now little problem in By embossing or etching treatment, the effective

getting a quart into a thimble speaking figuratively surface area of the metal foils can be effectively in-
of course! Let us now look more closely at this creased and thus an even greater capacitance obtained
component. for a given bulk. Such capacitors are known as
etched foil type to distinguish them from the normal
ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS plain foil electrolytics.
Very high values of capacitance are achieved within The layers of aluminium foil and impregnated paper
modest volumes by replacing the normal solid di- are wound into a roll and this is then sealed in a metal
electric with an insulating film formed by electro- or cardboard case or encapsulated in a resin or plastic
chemical action. moulding. During the sealing process precautions
In the usual form of "dry" electrolytic capacitor are taken to prevent evaporation of the moist paste or
construction, two electrodes of aluminium foil are solution. These capacitors are not completely her-
separated by a paper foil which is impregnated with a metically sealed, however, as a certain amount of
chemical solution or paste. See Fig. 6.1. gas is formed inside during normal operation.
432
Thepolarity of the lead-out wires or soldering tags The method of construction does not lend itself to
is clearly marked on the body of the electrolytic fine control of capacitor values, and tolerances of
capacitor, and must be carefully observed in use. —20 per cent and +50 per cent are quite usual, while
Reversal of these polarities will cause a breakdown tolerances of up to 100 per cent are not uncommon
of the dielectric and the capacitor will be, in all prob- among certain types.
ability, ruined.
To the left of the photograph appears the circuit WIDE RANGE OF VALUES
symbol for an electrolytic capacitor. It will be seen
There is an extensive choice of capacitance values and
that the positive and negative plates are clearly
working voltages in the electrolytic type capacitors
distinguished.
currently available. The physical size of the com-
The maintenance of the dielectric film is dependent ponent is naturally determined by the magnitude of
upon the application of a d.c. polarising potential,
these two factors.
and a small leakage current is a normal characteristic Values ranging from about 01/jF to 1,000/«F for
of this type of capacitor. After a long period of non-
operation at 50 volts or lower are available in either
use, the film disintegrates subsequent application of a
;
a sub-miniature or normal size class. High working
suitable polarising voltage will cause a heavy current
voltages, such as 150, 350, 450 and 600 are provided
to flow initially, but as the dielectric film is restored,
in the normal size class of components, where the
this current will fall to its normal leakage value.
upper capacity limit is generally about 32/tF; although
The rated working voltage marked on an electro-
even here smaller components are becoming more
lytic capacitor is somewhat lower than the voltage
usual due to the etched foil technique.
applied during manufacture in order to "form" the
Standard values are multiples of 8/iF and combined
dielectric. Certain types, designed to withstand for a
units comprising two or three separate capacitor
short period voltages in excess of the normal rating,
sections are made. In such double or treble units, a
have in addition a surge voltage rating which is approxi-
mately the same as the forming voltage. Surge-proof
common negative connection is usually provided.
capacitors of this kind are used as "reservoir"
Some metal enclosed electrolytics have their outer
casing connected internally to the negative electrode,
capacitors in rectifier filter circuits.
while other types have their case isolated from the
NOT FOR A.C. ALONE internal electrodes. Indication of the method adopted
The not suitable for circuits
electrolytic capacitor is is printed on the side of the component, and should

where only but it is widely employed


a.c. is present, be noted before use.
in circuits where an a.c. component is superimposed Plastic sleeves are sometimes fitted to the smaller
on a steady d.c. potential; for example, in filtering tubular types to allow the metal case to be insulated
the pulsating output from power rectifiers and in de- from chassis or from adjacent components. This is
coupling cathode bias resistors in respect of low obviously not necessary in the case of plastic encap-
frequency signal voltages. As the frequency of the sulated types; these are very useful for close packing,
applied a.c. is increased, dielectric losses in the film for example on small printed wiring boards.
increase and the power factor becomes very large
(about 15 per cent). Consequently this restricts the NON-POLARISED ELECTROLYTICS
use of electrolytics to low frequency applications,
Non-polarised reversible versions of the foil type of
since at r.f. they present considerable impedance.
electrolytic are also manufactured. Such capacitors
This will be discussed more fully when we deal with
consist of, in effect, two separate capacitors connected
a.c. theory.
in series, back to back. The resultant capacitance
ALUMINIUM FOIL PAPER FOIL — is normally half that of the polarised type for a given
(CONNECTED TO IHPREGNATEO WITH
LEFT HAND TAG) ELECTROLYTE
working voltage.
Electrolytic capacitors (especially those of the
aluminium foil type) are more liable to be influenced
by external conditions than solid dielectric capacitors,
and their efficient and reliable operation is dependent
ALUMINIUM FOIL upon the strict observation of a number of points.
(CONNECTED TO
RIGHT HAND TAG) Ensure that the polarity
1. is correct before con-
necting up.

2. Donot exceed the maximum rated working


voltage. Likewise, do not operate under conditions
where the applied d.c. will be considerably less than
the nominal working voltage. Either extreme con-
dition could bring about a deterioration of the dielectric
^RUBBER- PLASTIC DISC film.
Fig. 6.1. The general form of construction of an electrolytic
capacitor. The assembly is housed in either a metal or 3. Never connect to a pure a.c. supply.
plastics case. Note that the ef/e/ectric— which consists of
a thin Insulating film deposited on one aluminium fait— is 4. Keep away from sources of heat, such as power
not actually shown in this diagram. This film is deposited rectifiers and large output valves.
by electro-chemical action during manufacture, and this
particular process Is referred to as "forming". It is
We have now dealt with the physical nature of
essential to connect electrolytic capacitors according to capacitors, and have indicated how they react to
the polarity indicated on the case. Sometimes the positive direct current (d.c). Further discussion of the
(+) tag or lead will be identified with a red mark and the capacitor will arise when we reach the subject of
negative (—) with black alternating current (a.c).

43J
!

14 Mc/s, 2,000 miles day, 8,000 operation while presenting the opera-
miles night; tor with the minimum amount of
21 Mc/s, world wide at certain writing to do.
times of year; The main callsign is G8LM, Sub-
28Mc/s, 50 miles ground wave at sidiary callsigns are added for "Stroke
sunspot 1 1 -year minima, world P" (portable) operation, "Stroke A"
wide at sunspot ll-year at an alternative address, and "Stroke
maxima. M" for mobile.
Please note the operative word Being a club station G8LM will
"broadly": thebands vary in their com- have an official list of GPO-approved
munication capability according to operators, one of whom signs the
the time of year as well as by day card and adds his own callsign, at
and night. Moreover, an individual the same time wishing the recipient
station's "breakthrough" capability the universally-known "73" or "Best
must be taken into account as well: Wishes".
one well sited and well equipped Suitably modified, a listener report
(not necessarily with high power) card could follow the style of this
will make himself heard in circum- —
one except that the callsign in large
stances that vary markedly from the letters would be replaced by the

P3yB Jack Hum above "broad guide to propagation". person's BRS (British Receiving
Station) or BSWL number, these
being allocated by the Radio Society
G5UM Question of the QSL
of Great Britain and the British
Short Wave League respectively.
Many—not ail —transmitting ama- Coloured QSL cards are not
Which Bands for What? teurs exchange QSLs to verify that inexpensive. So get plenty printed
Having equipped himself with a they have been in radio contact while your printer has the job in
receiver and an aerial in accordance with one another. "The QSL is the —
type and send them out sparingly
with the suggestions offered on this final courtesy of a QSO", as some only to operators whom you are
page last time (February) the prac- of them put it. pretty sure from the sound of their
tical electronician* will be in a Millions of QSL
position to take a serious interest cards shuttle about
in what goes on the short waves. the world during the Official Surim pf the RaJio Sertfen of Murphy Kii>fit> Sportl Club

Before all else, however, he would course of a year,


be well advised to re-read the terms
of his receiving licence.
get a surprise or two being
He may
at
some of them mailed
direct
verification
where
card
a
is
G8LM "OCelwyni Garden City,
Mens.. England

reminded that he is prohibited needed from a rare G8LM/P


from listening to anything outside country or station,
amateur and broadcast transmissions. but most of them G8LM/M
passing through the
Nobody can stop him from hearing
what he shouldn't: he cannot QSL Bureaux which G8LM/A
pretend that the forbidden stations the national societies Radio. &>AflZ^_. 1-3-tT qrgI^-Ih,.^
are not there as his tuning scale maintain.
passes across them, for the process The phrase "QSL"
of hearing is an involuntary and is one of many which •V-*Miifc »m unveil**? p..-*• W!°*J£jutats
virtually automatic one. Per contra, the amateur trans-
the process* of listening is a conscious mitting movement
and deliberate one and needs to be adapted for its own PSE QSL operator

use. (Originally it
— Any tj f« \ms <&Mi$
exercised circumspectly and within
the terms of the domestic licence. meant "Please send a
To readers who know what "73" receipt".)
signals will be glad to get them.
means the fascination of short- It was a North West London
wave listening will lie in the six amateur, G2TJV, who invented the What to do when the other men's
idea of the QSL card more than 40 cards start coming back to you? Use
h.f. amateur communication bands
years ago at a time when to work them as wallpaper? Thousands of
rather than in the frequency areas
allotted to broadcasting though this — anybody at all over the air was an amateurs do —
but how dustladen,
event, and some form of written faded and generally secondhand they
is not in any way to decry the latter:
confirmation that the event had look after a few years on display!
they have been known to turn up
some exotic growths to the enthusiasts happened was not at all a bad thing A sensible scheme is to pin up one
prepared to dig between the rows of to have. from each country heard or worked,
heavy kilowattage. And so the QSL Card was born, and to file the rest.
a colourful adornment to many a
Broad Guide to Propagation

"ham shack" and a curse to those
who do not collect them! For it
Every explorer of the high fre- must be admitted that the active
quency allocations soon discovers amateur with a prominent signal on
that each of the six bands possesses the band (any band!) will be deluged
distinctive characteristics capable of with useless reports from listeners
being tabulated broadly as follows: whose sole desire is to secure his
t-SMc/s, local by day, up to 500 card rather than to offer a worthwhile
miles by night; comment on his signal.
3-5Mc/s, 500 miles day, 1,000 It is to the weaker stations, those
miles night; hard to winkle out, those likely to
7 Mc/s, 1,000 miles day, 3,000 be surprised that their signals reached
miles night; your aerial at all, that listener reports
may be most profitably sent.
•And why not? Technicians, electricians, dieti-
Electronicians are in
Our illustration shows a QSL card
cians,and morticians! modes of
good company designed to cover all

434
AUDIO
AMPLIFIER
AND R.F. PROBE
This would cause a drop in the voltage at the collector
and a corresponding fall in current through the base
resistor Rl. Thus, the fall in base current would tend to
pull back the rise in collector current.
In the circuit under discussion, however, there is no
possibility of the transistor being damaged due to a
rise in collector current, since the current is safely
limited by the relatively high value collector load.
The maximum current that could possibly flow is only
For our next project we have chosen a two-stage audio about 1mA on a 4-5 volt supply. Nevertheless, this
amplifier, a device which has a multiplicity of appli- simple form of stabilisation is worth noting.
cations, as we The circuit of the amplifier is
shall see. An increase in leakage current, due for instance to the
given in Fig. 1. Both transistors are arranged in the transistor being subjected to high temperature in a cir-
common emitter mode. That is, the emitter is common cuit where the collector current is limited, results in a
to both the input and output signals. progressive drop in gain until eventually the transistor
The input signal is applied to the base of TR1, and saturates or "bottoms" and the gain drops to zero.
it appears in an amplified form at the collector.
The base current in TR2 is set by R3. For best
From
results the value of R3 should be adjusted for a collector
here the signal is coupled through C2 to the base of
current of about 3mA. The value chosen was found to
TR2. The signal current in the collector circuit of satisfy this condition in the prototype.
this transistor is fed through an earpiece or pair of
headphones.
-0-4W
Some sort of input level control necessary to avoid
is
overloading the transistors with powerful input signals.
This is arranged by using the potentiometer VR1,
which takes the form of a vertically mounted "printed
board" type skeleton preset.

CIRCUIT ACTION Tffl <>£ TR2


To avoid disturbing TR1 biasing conditions, the
signal is taken from the potentiometer to the base
through the coupling capacitor CI. Base current for
Vi** 0C70 6|jF V—* 0C7<

TR1 is set by R1 and a small degree of d.c. stabilisation


,

is provided by the action of the collector load R2.


This is because Rl is returned to the collector instead
of direct to the negative supply line. If there is a
tendency for the collector current to rise due to thermal -o+
effects, the voltage across the load R2 would also rise. Fig. I. Circuit diagram of the amplifier
435
SIGNAL TRACING
The amplifier is not difficult to construct and it COMPONENTS
operates well from a 4-5 volt battery. The earpiece
should be medium or high impedance. For signal
tracing, the input of the amplifier is connected across the
various signal circuits of the equipment under test.
For example, if the exercise is to locate a defect in a AUDIO AMPLIFIER
record player amplifier, the input would first be applied Resistors
across the pick-up circuit with the gain turned up. Rl 220k Q
The pick-up signal should be heard at good quality if R2 4-7kii Alii watt 10% carbon
R3 47k£l
|
this item of the player is working correctly.
The test amplifier input would then be connected to Potentiometer
the grid of the first stage, to the grid of the second stage VRl lOOkfi skeleton type preset (Radiospares)
and so on forward towards the loudspeaker. If the
signal can be heard at the grid of, say, the first stage, Capacitors
but not at the grid of the second stage, then the fault CI 6 M F 6V (T.C.C. type CE2)
would lie somewhere in the first stage or in the coupling C2 6^F 6V (T.C.C. type CE2)
between the first stage to the second stage. Further Transistors
component to component tests of this nature would TRI OC70 or OC7I (Mullard)
soon reveal the actual location of the fault. TR2 OC7I (Mullard)
Distortion could be checked In a similar manner, of
course, for the test amplifier would show exactly at Miscellaneous
Sample Veroboard, p.v.c. insulated wire, 4-5 volt
what point in the circuit the distortion takes place.
battery, earpiece medium impedance
Normal servicing techniques would then be used to
locate the faulty component.
The amplifier is sufficiently sensitive to check the R. F. PROBE
output of pick ups, tape heads and microphones direct.
Capacitor
However, as it stands it is suitable only for audio C3 1 ,000p F 2S0V tu bu lar ceram i e
signal tracing.

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Diode
II 10 1

Dl OA8I (Mullard)
• • © (©) O • © • © • © t
Miscellaneous
o © © © © o Ball- point pen (see text), screened wire, p.v.c.
e e • • © N
insulated wire, crocodile clip

e © e O © o © • • • G

• • • tt © © © • © © c =

o o © o © c 9 e © © © e CONSTRUCTION
Fig. 2 shows the Veroboard layout to suit the circuit
o • o © • • • © o © e D
in Fig. 1. This shows the copper strip side of the board.
Fig. 3 shows the components and link wire in position
o • © • c © • c o © o 2
on the top of the board. In spite of the relatively
© • large number of components used in this project, there
e • • © e o o B
accommodating them on
should be no difficulty in all

o o © © • © o o o o ~~i ft the small piece of Veroboard.


The potentiometer is mounted by its two outside
Fig. 2. Underside view showing connections tags, as in the sixth project. The centre tag (that
connected to the slider) needs to be bent carefully
underneath the component and extended to the
appropriate hole by a length of p.v.c, insulated copper
wire.
The resistors can be i- or i-watt insulated carbon
type, as before, while the electrolytic capacitors are
sub-miniature versions. Wire ended resistors and small
capacitors can be easily arranged to span the required
distances by bending the wires to meet the holes used.
This permits a degree of flexibility in the choice of
component.

R.F. PROBE
For the tracing of modulated r.f. signals, a detector
or demodulator must be used in front of the amplifier.
This is not a complicated device, and consists only of a
couple of components, as shown in Fig. 4. Here the
INPUT test r.f. signal is applied across a shunt rectifier via the
if
Fig. 3. Component layout and external leads capacitor C3, and when the circuit is connected to the

436
C5
TO AMPLIFIER INPUT
PROBE TIP-« [\-
•001 [JF

CISOLDERED
TO BALL HOLDER BRAID
^-^^—-'eahth'connection
^""^
my
Fig. S. Cut away section of the probe. Note the connection
^EftRTH COH SECTION of the braid to the clip and the diode; centre core to CI
Fig. 4. Circuit of r.f. probe and Dl

amplifier the input potentiometer (VR1) serves as the pass through a small hole in the pen top and soldered
detector load, across which the audio signal is to the clip. This provides the "earth" connection.
developed. The probe is completed by soldering an earth wire
The ideal arrangement is for the detector circuit terminated by a crocodile-clip to the outside of the
to be housed in an insulated plastics case which can metal clip. The far end of the screened lead is, of
form the basis of a test probe. Such a housing is course, connected to the input of the amplifier, in such a
shown in Fig. 5. This is the plastics case of an inexpen- way that the braid connects to the battery positive line.
sive ball-point pen which can be obtained from a
number of stationers. The type of pen in question has
a metal ferrule between its two screw-in sections.
The plastics ink cartridge and ball-point assembly is TRACING MODULATED R.F.
removed. Most of the plastics ink cartridge is cut off amplifier and probe combination is now very
The
and discarded, while the remaining metal ball-point tip useful indeed, for it allows the tracing of r.f. signals in
and a short piece of the tube are thoroughly cleaned. radio receivers. All that is necessary is to connect the
The ball-point end, in fact, forms the connector of the "earth" lead to the "earth" or chassis of the equipment
probe, as shown. under test and then to pick up the r.f. signal with the tip
The capacitor and diode are connected in series and of the probe at any convenient point in the circuit.
the free wire end of the capacitor is soldered to the A
reasonably powerful station can, in fact, be picked
metal ball-point assembly. Care has to be taken over up at the control grid of the frequency changer valve
this exercise to avoid damaging the remaining short in a radio set, for instance, and the signal can be fol-
length of plastics tube. lowed through the equipment, at i.f„ right up to the
Next, the free wire end of the diode and the junction input of the detector stage. Thus, any discontinuity
of the capacitor and diode are connected to two thin in the circuit will be immediately revealed.
insulated lengths of connecting wire. The retractor Care should be taken when using any test equipment
button at the pocket end of the pen housing is removed with a.c./d.c. type receivers where the receiver metal
and a three-foot length of thin, screened lead is threaded chassis or earth circuit may be connected to the "live'*
through the hole at the end of the barrel. The braid side of the mains supply. When testing equipment
is stripped back and soldered to the wire connected to of this nature, it should always be seen that the neutral
the free wire end of the diode. A
second, very thin side of the mains is on the "earth" or chassis circuit.
wire is also soldered to this screen. The test equipment should also be isolated by capacitors
The inner conductor of the screened lead is then — —
one in each lead not exceeding 0005^tF. Pre-
soldered to the wire which is connected to the junction ferably, the equipment under test should be isolated
of the capacitor and diode. The capacitor, diode and from the mains by a transformer.
ball-point assembly are then slid into the housing and For reasons of safety it is NOT recommended that this
the thin wire connected to the braid is then arranged to r.f. probe should he used on a.cJd.c. type equipment.

PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS BINDERS PRACTICAL WIRELESS


EASI-BINDERS specially designed to hold 12 THIS MONTH
issues ofPractical Electronics are now available. F. M. TUNER
These binders are finished in maroon waterproof High quality design using a pulse counter dis-
and greaseproof cloth and are embossed with gold criminator
lettering on the spine. THE IONOPHONE
Order your binder from: Describing a new loudspeaker technique
Binding Department, SINGLE SIDEBAND
George Newnes Ltd., Using a product detector
Tower House, PLUS FREE 24-page Pocket Guide
Southampton Street, Packed with information including comprehensive
London, W.C.2. wavelength/frequency conversion tables, decibel cal-
The price, per binder, is 13s, 6d., inclusive of culations, wire gauges, transformer matching.
postage. April issue on sale NOW, Price 2s.
437
Another interesting exercise in transistors is in the
/\ building of a multivibrator unit. very useful A
device of this kind can be easily built upon the sample
Veroboard, as this article reveals.
The complete circuit is given in Fig. 1. From this
it will be seen that two readily obtainable and inex-
pensive Milliard transistors are employed. The
collector of TR1 is capacitively coupled to the base
of TR2, while the collector of TR2 is back-coupled
capacitively to the base of TR1. This represents the
basic circuit of any multivibrator, except that where
valves are employed the control grid and anode are
wired to take the place of the base and collector of
transistors.
It is interesting to note that the first valve multi-
vibrator was evolved as early as 1918.

CIRCUIT ACTION
The cross-coupling multivibrator circuit
of the
produces what, in effect, is due to positive
an oscillator,
feedback. Oscillation is sustained due to the loop
gain of the circuit being greater than unity.
Actually, the circuit functions by one transistor
being switched on while the other is switched off.
The switching on and off alternates between the two
transistors at a rate determined by the time-constant
of the circuit.
When power is applied to the circuit from the bat-
tery, a slight unbalance in the components and random
current disturbances in the circuit push one transistor
towards current cut-off and the other towards full
conduction. This particular state is regenerative due
to the cross-coupling. One transistor is switched
fully on while the other is switched off, alternating
very rapidly with the reverse condition.
Let us suppose that TR1 is "on" and TR2 is "off".
This makes the collector end of C2 less negative than
the base end. CI thus charges and, at the same
time, the base of TR2 goes negative bringing it into
with this conduction from its "off" state. Again, the effect is
regenerative, so that TR2 is switched fully on and
TR1 is switched off.
This time CI charges, making the base of TR1 go
negative, thereby causing the cycle to repeat, but this

Multivibrator time in relation to the other transistor. The circuit


is in that way caused to oscillate in terms of switching
from one transistor to the other.
The speed of the switching or the repetition fre-
quency of the multivibrator is governed by CI dis-
charging through R2, and C2 discharging through R3,
and thus by the time-constants of these circuits. In
effect, there is also a discharge path through the bases
of the transistors, so that to some extent the repetition
frequency is governed also by base leakage currents
—and hence, by temperature.
to note that when CI x R2 equals
It is interesting
C2 x R3 the resulting square wave has equal on and
off (mark and space) times, as shown by the accom-
panying waveform in Fig. I. The mark/space ratio
can be adjusted by unbalancing C1.R2 and C2.R3,
but the circuit will fail to work correctly where such
unbalances are very large.

RICH IN HARMONICS
Thus, the multivibrator produces a square wave
output. This means that its output is very rich in
harmonics of the fundamental frequency, for a pure
square wave can be analysed as a fundamental sine

i
.

4-5V
wave plus harmonics of this fundamental frequency
up to infinity. Of course, there can be no perfect
square wave as it is impossible to obtain all harmonics
up to infinity! Nevertheless, very good wave shapes
are possible.
The harmonic output of the multivibrator is useful
for a number of applications, one being as a test
signal generator for fault-finding in audio and radio TRIf—v ci cz TR2^-v
equipment. To test the continuity of any audio or ,^/WWEFORM
l

radio channel up to several megacycles, the output +a^ 4700jiF 4700jjF X™rf OUTPUT
of the multivibrator needs to be connected to the input 0C7I 0C7<
0C7( q
of the equipment under test. The signal will then be
heard as a whistle or buzz in the loudspeaker.
The multivibrator is also suitable for checking the
high frequency range of an amplifier. An oscilloscope
will display a good clean square wave when connected Fig. t. Circuit diagram of transistor multivibrator. Note
to the amplifier output, while the input is fed with the that the puke repetition frequency is governed by CI,R2
multivibrator signal, provided that the high frequency -
and C2,R3, When these are equal, the mark/space ratio of
response of the amplifier is good. The oscilloscope the waveform is equal. The mark/space ratio can be
should also have a wide frequency range. It is worth adjusted as required by unbalancing CI.R2 and C2,R3. The
comparing the amplifier output waveform with the frequency can be locked by the application of synchronising
multivibrator waveform to ascertain any deficiencies pulses to the base or collector
in the response. It should be possible to determine
the response of an amplifier up to about 25kc/s or even
higher depending, of course, on the fundamental
frequency of the multivibrator. W ~ 9
•©©©©©••
(l
: -.
^
.

^h:,.^^. : :: ::.:.,, .::ar^~^WFr



Eiiiii FFTT
COMPONENTS . . o © © © © © ©
© © © © © e
Resistors
Rl !k.Q R3 27kO © © © © © ©
R2 27US1 R4 !kfi
AH resistors £W 10% carbon ooo
Capacitors
CI and C2 4,700pF (Radiospares type Hi-K)
© ©
C3 0-l/iF 250V fT.C.C. type PMX4)
© o © ©
Transistors
TRI and TR2 OC71 (Milliard) © © ©
Miscellaneous o © ©
Sample Veroboard l-jj-in x l|in
4'5 volt battery
Signal output wires
Fig. 2, Underside view showing the component connections

The signal tracing amplifier in the previous article


could also be utilised by picking up the injected multi-
vibrator signal at any point in an amplifier or receiver
chain.
The component values given in Fig. 1 give a pulse
repetition frequency in the order of 5,000c/s, this
OOO <E^&
being quite a useful frequency to use for a number of
applications.

CONSTRUCTION
Fig. 2 shows how the metal strip side of the Vero-
board issoldered to form the circuit in conjunction
with the components.
Fig. 3 shows the mounting of the components o o o o on
5
actually on top of the board. There are no undue
problems here. The largest components are CI and
o o o o
C2, but low-voltage capacitors of 4,700pF (i.e. o o o o oi
0O47^F) are readily obtainable of a size suitable for
the small board. o o o o o
The circuit works quite well from a 4-5 volt battery,
but care should be taken to avoid reversing the battery
polarity, as this could damage the transistors or alter
their characteristics. -^ Fig. 3. Mounting of the components on the top of the board
439
The next article in this series describes how Vero- Fig. 3 shows the components actually in position
board can be used to construct an audio oscillator. on the reverse side of the board, with the external
As will be seen from Fig, I, the circuit is very straight- connecting links which are required.
forward. It employs a single transistor to create a
positive feedback loop by means of transformer TL COMPONENTS
Feedback takes place from the collector to the base, Owing to the small dimensions of the board used,
and the signal is developed across the resistor in the obvious that miniature components must be used.
it is
emitter circuit. This circuit is known as a Hartley This applies particularly to items like capacitors,
oscillator.
potentiometers and transformers. Ordinary
To provide some control over the amplitude of the i or J watt
insulated carbon resistors are suitable. These have
output voltage, the emitter resistor constitutes the a body length of about 0-4in and a diameter of about
resistive element of a preset potentiometer VR1, the 01 Sin.
output signal being taken at the required level from The capacitors should be of the sub-miniature
the slider, via the coupling and isolating capacitor C2. type designed for low voltage transistor applications,
The base current is determined by the value of Rl, while the potentiometer (VR1) should be an open
and with an OC71 transistor a value of 220 kilohms was
found to be satisfactory. Capacitor CI acts as a
decoupling component in essence, and without it the
circuit will not oscillate. Abattery supply in the
order of 4-5 volts is adequate for normal operation.

CONSTRUCTION
Fig. 2 shows the copper strip side of the Veroboard,
m vr(
and reveals clearly how some of the strips need to be -1.5V
SIGNAL
- ffl£z--"V-
broken to form the pattern of the circuit. The filled- BATTERY OUTPUT

in holes indicate component connections with p.v.c.


+
insulated wire. Fig. I. Circuit diagram of the oscillator
440
(skeleton) preset type designed for vertical mounting
on a printed board. The type used in the prototype COMPONENTS . .
has dimensions of fin in height and Jin in width.
The centre tag of this type does not quite line up with
a hole on the board, but by bending it carefully under- Resistor
neath the body of the component, a small piece of Rl 220kn
copper wire can be used to extend the connection to
the appropriate hole on the board. The two outside Potentiometer
tags (i.e. those connected across the resistive element) VRI 2-SkIi skeleton type
should be arranged to pass through the appropriate
holes Al and CI.
Capacitors
CI 0-lpF 250V (T.C.C. type PMX4)
TRANSFORMER C2 0-l/xF 250V (T.C.C, type PMX4)

The other problem component is the transformer. Transformer


This should have a ratio of between 2:1 and 6:1. Tl Transistor driver transformer 2-8:1 (Radio-
A driver transformer designed for transistors is quite spares type T/T6)
suitable; the centre-tap on the secondary winding is
not used. Miniature types designed for transistor
Transistor
circuits and printed board mounting are obtainable
TRI OC7I (Milliard)
from component specialists.
The type employed in the prototype has thin wire
terminations which can be pushed into the appropriate Miscellaneous
holes in the board and will be quite firmly anchored Sample Veroboard, p.v.c. insulated connecting
when soldered to the copper strips. Some trans- wire, screened output cable, 4-5 volt battery
formers have lugs at the base of the metal clamp
which can be pushed through slots in the board and

11 (0 9 a 7 6 5 1 3 2 J (0 11

o © © © © O © © e © © i

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:.

• • • © (© C • • © © © a
.... .

o © © © © © © • o © • A

CENTRE TAP WIRE


NOT CONNECTED
Fig. 2. Underside view of the board showing the
copper strip breaks and Position of the transformer Fig. 3. Component layout of the unit. Note the wiring of
mounting lugs the transformer. If the correct phase
not achieved, the
is
connections on one winding only should be reversed if
oscillation is not apparent
twisted with a pair of pliers. If these lugs are not
needed they can be bent back underneath the body
of the transformer. APPLICATIONS
The circuit will only oscillate when the phasing of The device provides adequate output for working
the windings gives positive feedback. In practice it a pair of headphones. As a morse practice oscillator,
may be necessary to experiment by reversing one of the a morse key can be arranged to switch the power
windings in the circuit to achieve oscillation. It may supply.
be found possible to reverse the phase by changing The assembly can also be used as an audio test
over the wires which form the transformer termina- oscillator, the output in this case being applied to the
tions. If this is not possible, then the pattern of the input of the audio amplifier under test. By injecting
circuit on the board will need to be altered slightly to the oscillator signal to the control grid circuits of each
achieve the correct phase. stage, up to the loudspeaker or output terminals of the
Soldering should be performed with a small instru- amplifier, the defective stage can be located.
ment iron (15 or 25 watts). Prolonged heat on the The signal can also be employed to modulate an
small components, particularly on the transistor r.f. signal of either a small transmitter or a signal
wires, should be avoided by using a thermal shunt generator. Indeed, for any application where an audio
(pair of pliers) whenever possible. The transistor signal is required the oscillator can be brought into
wires should not be cut down. service. -jr-

441
Counting the Telephone Calls
Cameras are to replace paper and pencil for record-

NEWS BRIEFS ing millions of telephone exchange meter readings


which register each subscriber's telephone calls. After

extensive tests at Edinburgh where it cut the reading
time for 1,000 meters from 4 hours to 10 minutes the —
Cybernetic Drawing new photographic system is be introduced nationally.
to

Soviet engineers have devised a cybernetic method of Earlier Post Office experiments with photographic
drawing any black and white picture with the help meter reading over a number of years had been aban-
of an electronic computer and phototelegraph. doned due to technical difficulties and prohibitive costs.
Man's only job is to give the computer an assigment. The specially designed equipment which the Post
From numerous elements of images stored in the Office is now using consists of a pre-focused camera
computer's memory as sets of zeroes and unities mounted at the back of a "hood" resembling a pyramid
denoting black or white dots, the machine pieces shaped loudhailer. All the meter reader has to do is
together the picture required. to press the mouth of the hood on to a selected square
Engineers have designed an electronic machine which —
of upright rack which houses the meters and pull a
creates the images and transmits them on to a photo- trigger. This sets off a flash inside the hood, giving a
telegraphic receiver. a shadow-free picture of 100 meters on under a square
Although the machine performs up to 10,000 opera- inch of film. 3,500 meters can be "read" before the
tions per second, which is a comparitively slow per- camera needs reloading.
formance, it will take not more than 30 minutes to Films taken from the cameras are wound on to
synthesise an image, depending on the complexity of automatic projectors which show up individual meter
the picture. Usually it takes one to seven days for a readings in numerals half an inch high. Each reading
man to do this job by hand. No controller is required is recorded twice on a punched card by different

because the machine does the checking itself. operators. Both readings are checked against each
The cybernetic method of synthesising images is also other automatically before the final figure is passed to
applicable to other tasks: from designing of standard the telephone billing department.
types of buildings to the production of animated
cartoons.
Weather "Wheel" Rolls Around Earth

Sound in the Royal Festival Hall An accurate weather report from orbiting
daily
space "eyes" is getting nearer. The first such

A great deal has been said both publicly and privately


about the "assisted resonance" in the Royal
Festival Hall, and whether or not it is a realistic attempt
official programme is expected to commence next year
and its impact on world weather reporting will revolu-
tionise conventional meteorological systems. The RCA-
to enliven the acoustics. Mr T. E. Bean (General built TIROS launched on 20 January from Cape
Manager) insists, and quite rightly so, that there is Kennedy is the forerunner of the new space age weather

nothing magic about it no back room boys turning reporter.
up the bass control of a public address amplifier. Travelling at 460 miles high, the latest TIROS
The secret is in the ceiling as John Valence explained satellite is designed to photograph the entire Earth
last month. The effect can, however, be quite different every day, Equipped with two television cameras it
between a large orchestra and a small ensemble. Much will "roll" about its orbit like a cartwheel, sending back
depends also on the types of instruments used. valuable information.
Another feature of the modifications in the Hall is a
closed circuit television system. Patrons who normally
arrive after the concert has begun, usually wait until
the end of the first piece before entering the auditorium. UK3 fn Space
Now they can, to some extent, join in by watching the The third British satellite UK3, due to be launched
concert on four 23in television receivers installed by in the U.S.A. during the winter of 1966-67, is to be
E.M.I. Electronics. The cameras,are fixed in the spot- built entirely in the United Kingdom, experiments pa
light housing below the circle balustrade. the ionosphere will be carried out while the satellite is in
orbit at an altitude of 55 kilometres.
Communication with the satellite will be by the stan-
Retired Computer dard Goddard Space Flight Center pulse frequency
Leo I, claimed to be the world's oldest operating modulation telemetry system on a frequency band of
electronic computer, retired from active service on 136Mc/s for the transmitter and 148Mc/s for the
4 January. For nearly fourteen years the computer has receiver. Information received by the satellite will be
handled the finances of J. Lyons & Company. stored until it comes within range of the ground
Parts of this historic computer, which contains over communications centres. The manufacture of the
7,000 valves and half a ton of mercury, will be given to satellite structure is the responsibility of the British
the Science Museum in London. It was originally Aircraft Corporation, while the main contractor for
designed and installed by English Electric in 1951. the electronics is G.E.C. (Electronics) Limited. -^
442
3SL Practical Electronics

unmg
'
"• :

BLUEPRINTS
1. SIMPLE SHORT WAVE RECEIVER
2. AUDIO OSCILLATOR AND
OUTPUT METER
3. MICROPHONE MIXER UNIT

Other outstanding features include

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443
:

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444
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CRAMOPROXE
i quickly and easily through ICS. That's because
each course issetoutin easy-to-understand terms,

MASTER THE PRACTICAL SIDE


• EOCIPMEIN'T
ALL LATEST MODELS Credit Terms ICS show you how to develop your practical
ALL POST FREE Cash Price Deposit Mthly.'Pmts. Credit Price
RECORD CHANGERS engineering alongside your
abilities in electronic
GARRARD AUTOSLIM theoretical studies. It's the only sure way to
(Mono PU fixed head) £6.10.0 . . a. SO 6 of £
GARRARD AUTOSLIM success. AN training manuals are packed with
De-Lu»e AT6 (Mono PU)
GARRARD AUTOSLIM
£11.9.0 . , n 6.0 12 of
easy-to-follow illustrations,
AT6(Stereo Mono PU) £12.54 £2 9.4 12 of
GARRARD LAB AUTO A MASTER THE MATHEMATICAL SIDE
(GCBMonoPUl £16.12.6 £3 6.6 12 of
GARRARD AT5 LM (3000 LM) To many this aspect is a bitter problem. Even
Low mass pick-up arm
OTA Sterco.Mono PU) .. £12.150 £2.15.0 12 of more so because no electronicengineeris complete
GARRARD AT5
(Mono PU plug in head) .. £10. 8.2 £2. 4.2 12 of without a sound .working knowledge of maths.
B.S.R. UAIS But new ICS teaching makes mathematics easier
(TCe Mono PU) ,, .. .. £7 15 £1 .48.0 6 of
B.S.R. UAIS to learn.
..(TCeSStereo/LP/78) „ .. £8,15.0 £2. 6.0 s=r £1.4.0
Single Record Players and Transcription Unics also available Send for list
Wide range of courses available include:
• 11 i-i 'i LOUDSPEAKERS Radio/T.V. Engineering and Servicing, Colour Television,
Credit Terms Electronics, Electronics Maintenance, Instrumentation and
GOODMANS Cash Price it Monthly Pmts. Credit Price Servomechanisms, Telemetry, Computers, etc.
AXirrresin £5, 5. 7 £1. 5. 7 6 of 15,10 £6. 0.
AXIOM lOin a. 5.ii £1.12, 6 of ia;- £7, 0.1 NEW! Programmed Course on Electronic Fundamentals.
AXIOM 201 I2in. £10,17. 4 £2. 3. 4
1

I2o1 16 2 £11.17. 4
AXIOM 101 I2in, £15. 4. 6 £1. 1. K 2 of 22:4 £16. 9. 6 EXPERT COACHING FOR:
AUDIOM SI Bass I2in. £9. 2. 8 £1.17. B
1

2 of 13 9 £10. 2. 8
AUDIOM 61 Bass I2in. £14. 7. 8 £2.17. n
1

12 of 21 I £15,10. 8 INSTITUTION OF ELECTRONIC AND RADIO ENGINEERS


TREBAX 100 £6.10. 2 £1.19. CITY AND GUILDS TELECOMMUNICATION TECHNICIANS
XOSOOO Crossover Unit £2. 0. 1 — i 6 of 17,0 £7. 5. 2
CITY AND GUILDS SUPPLEMENTARY STUDIES
HFI0I6 Major lOin. .. £9. 8. 6 £1.18. f, 12 of 14/2 £10. *. 6 R.T.E.B. RADIO/T.V. SERVICING CERTIFICATE
HFI0I6 lOin £7. 7. £1.16. 6 of 21 -
HFI0I2 IQin £4.12. £1. 7. £ 3 of 15;.
£». 2.
£5, 2.
RADIO AMATEURS' EXAMINATION
H FBI 6 Sin.. . £6. 6. 6 or 18 6 £7. I. P.M.G. CERTIFICATES IN RADIOTELEGR APHY
TSlSSin. £5, 19.3 £1. 8. 3 6 of 17 a £6.14. 3
T359 Tweeter £1.12. 3 And there are practical "learn as you build" radio
T 10 Tweeter £4.12. 9 tsTl. 9 courses as well.
CX3000 Crossover Unii £1.13. 3
CXI500 Crossover Unit £2. 2.
Member of the Association of British Correspondence Colleges
• AUDIO KITS
MARTIX assemble .

High Quality, easy to Hi-Fi Units. Fully Transistorised for mono and
stereo/working. All units are assembled and tested and the constructor has only
to link together the units chosen for any particular installation. The following FOR FREE HANDBOOK POST THIS COUPON TODAY
mono units are available.
Unit Input selector 47/6.
I
Unrt 2 Pro-amplifier With volume control 37,6. I.C.S., Depl, 151. INTERTEXT HOUSE,
Unit3 Mixer Unit 79/6. Unit 4 Pre-amplifier with tone and volume controls 62,.'6.
Unit 5 Main Amplifier 10 watt, 3 ohm output £5.12.6. Unit 7 Main Amplifier PARKGATE ROAD. LONDON, S.W.ll
lOwatt l5ohmoutpus£6.12.6. Unit PowerUnitforUnicS 52/6. UnitS Power fi

Unit for Unit 7 55:'-. Special pre-amplifierror low output Pick-ups 55/-,
Unit9A
Units 1,2, 3 and 4 are available for stereo working at twice the prices shown. NAME
Smart plastic escutcheons are available for alt combinations of unics. Full details
In the Martin Illustrated Leaflet, available free.
ADDRESS

WATTS RADIO ( Order )


54 CHURCH STREET, WEYBRIDGE, SURREY
IaTIf
OCCUPATION ACE.., 4.65
Telephone Weybridee 475S6
Please note: Postal business only. Callers welcome by appointment.
INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS
445
COLOUR TELEVISION SURVEY
MANUFACTURERS VOTE FOR NTSC
The television industry in the United
receiver CONTROLLABILITY
Kingdom has given much
consideration to the The recent BREMA home viewing tests have proved
choice of a system of colour television. It is considered that the controls on an NTSC receiver are stable and
that the important factors to be taken into account are easy to handle, even by unskilled viewers although it
;

those which arise from the point where the signal leaves is perfectly satisfactory to have separate tuning, colour
the transmitting aerial. intensity, and hue controls, the NTSC system is flexible
The earlier stages concern only a limited number of and all these controls can be made automatic if desired.
installations where there are skilled staffs, whereas The tuning control (a problem with all systems on
receivers have to be operated by members of the public, u.h.f.) is probably the most important of these, and can
who have no special skills; receivers must, therefore, be simplified by the employment of automatic frequency
be simple to operate and as reliable as possible. The control, either with or without push-button channel
system must nevertheless be capable of producing good selection.
quality colour pictures on these simple receivers, while The colour intensity control can be automatic with
the quality of picture displayed on monochrome NTSC, but is very useful in correcting for differing
receivers (i.e. the compatibility) will, for many years, ambient fighting conditions and for the preferences of
be of the utmost importance. individual viewers; SECAM is considered unsatis-
As a result of its investigations the Industry, repre- factory in this respect.
sented by The British Radio Equipment Manufac- The hue control (also normally available with NTSC
turers' Association (BREMA), is firmly of the opinion but not with SECAM) enables the viewer to adjust the
that of the three systems currently on trial the NTSC picture to his personal preference and to compensate
system is the most suitable for a public broadcasting for different tints of ambient lighting or small changes
service. of colour whi(5h may occur at the programme source.
At the meeting of CCIR Study Group XI Sub-Group The NTSC system is in practice non-critical in terms
on Colour Television held in London in February 1964 of i.f. response for both the luminance and chrominance
it was evident that, although the U.K. receiver industry channels; the use of suppressed colour sub-carrier
was unanimously convinced of the superiority of NTSC ensures accuracy and stability of white balance. NTSC
(and indeed this was the preference expressed as the receivers are less complicated than those for other
official U.K. view), further documentary evidence would systems.
be desirable, and that this evidence should be fully
available to other European countries.
It was recognised that there had been suggestions in WEAK SIGNAL RECEPTION
certain quarters that the public could not operate these Due either to the attempt to receive a signal in an
receivers easily and that the absence of the hue and area not yet properly covered by the u.h.f. service or to
colour intensity (saturation) controls in a SECAM the use of inefficient receiving aerial installation it has
receiver was a point in its favour. BREMA
therefore been found that some receivers have to work under
decided to conduct its own large-scale trials which have exceptionally poor reception conditions. It is therefore
established that this suggestion is a fallacy. The differing essential that the receiver circuits should not fail to
types of NTSC receivers produced by a number of U.K. operate under such conditions, and that a very low
manufacturers were stable and easy to handle, and signal/background "noise" ratio should not cause a
under normal home-viewing conditions it was found disproportionate degradation of the picture. Experience
desirable to have hue and colour intensity controls. shows that the NTSC receiver gives the best results
under these conditions.
COLOUR PICTURE QUALITY
NTSC has the highest horizontal colour definition
potential, while the vertical colour resolution is greater
COST OF RECEIVERS
than the other systems (twice that of SECAM) and is not Estimates of the costs of the latest SECAM
receivers
subject to spurious horizontal beat patterns. NTSC show little difference from the known cost of NTSC

has, therefore, the highest potentiality for good colour receivers, but the new SECAM techniques involve
pictures. It is assumed that the colour pictures trans- simplifications of circuitry which have so far given
mitted will be of a high standard, and it has been proved disappointing results. The cost of a PAL receiver is
that NTSC receivers are fully capable of reproducing significantly more expensive than an NTSC receiver.
them. The NTSC system offers the greatest scope for im-
NTSC gives the best results on monochrome receivers proved definition of colour pictures and good compata-
sinceit has the lowest colour sub-carrier visibility and tible performance on monochrome receivers. It is also
an absence of spurious patterns on moving pictures, the most suitable system for use with single-gun tubes
which can be troublesome on both the other systems. should these become available. -jAr

446
! 1 .

NOW ADD F.M. RADIO TO YOUR MARTIN


AUDIO KIT SET-UP
with only 3 easy-to-assemble
prefabricated units
The unique and outstandingly successful system de-
veloped by Martin Electronics whereby prefabricated
transistorised units can be assembled to make your
Sensitivity— 20 micro-V own choke of hi-fi now brings 3 further Units, Nos.
for 20db signal noise 15, 16 and 17 to enable you to build a modern F.M.
ratio: 5 micro-V foMQdB Tuner of exceptionally good design and performance.
# A.F.C.—e nsures easy Intended primarily for those who have chosen an
accurate tuning Audiokit hi-fi set-up, the Tuner may also be used
# Tuning—88 to 108 M.cs with other good amplifiers if desired. With a few
# Audio Response— F I a I simple connections, you will have a tuner of
from 30 to 15,000 c/s
excellent appearance to please the most critical ear,
9 Controls —Tuning and yet it is surprisingly inexpensive.
oi-o'l with switch
through stage for re- A whole range of AudiokitUnits is available which you
cording, etc. can buy and assemble separately as you wish with ease
View above shows Units 15, 16 and 17 and complete success. Ask for the Audiokit Leaflet.
assembled. Below, the attractive escutcheon.
MARTIN ELECTRONICS, 154 High St, Brentford, Middx.
UNIT 15 /r
"*•' *) £ UNIT 16 /[Ti
"./•»
UNIT 7
£1-17.6 Q
F.M. Head f.F. Amp. Counting drive Send F.M, Tuner Leaflet Audiokit Leaflet Q
&. tuning condenser Strip «
escutcheon & control. {Tick as required)

SUPERB QUALITY FOR VERY MODEST OUTLAY NAME


From Radio and Hi-fi Stockists Trade enquiries invited
ADDRESS.
MARTIN ELECTRONICS LTD., IS4/5 High St., Brentford, Middx.
tSLewortb 1161/2
u
Pe.4

NEW 1965

^ LISTEN - BARGAIN RADIO


\ AND ENJOY THE
6:
AMATEIH
4^ WORLD'S RADIO AMATEUR *9f,
AND BROAD CAST STATIONS WITH OFFER HANDBOOK
WE
THE GREATEST OF EASE
SAVE SOLVED yaur atrial irablem for
! I !

WORLD-WIDE
1965
by A.R.R.L.
RECEPTION— HO MATTER WHERE Y00 LIVE ! I
lOGns. 40 Postage 2!-
World Expert Radio Amateur WIBB
(U.S.A.) claims the " JOYSTICK " aerial P. & P. FREE
—easier to rood stations than with his TRANSISTOR MAN UAL. 7th ed. Inter:
massive 520' VEE aerial W
high I 1 GEC 17/-. Postage 1/4.

ZL4GA, wfco probobly


Is NEW -* Vc :v latest BSR DA25 Susersljm, 4-speei fully au:o- CLOSED - CIRCUIT TELEVISION
ZEALAND'S best known Radio Amateur, j.ii:ttic changer. HANDBOOK, by L. A. Worcman.
has scrapped his outstanding 300' 45' * AttiactivQ cabiEet- solidly constructed with t apart 41j: Postage I/-.
.finish in two tone rexins, with Vynair and ffojd'wjiitfl
high aerial and has worked ell Continents trim. Size 16" x lfi* x 8" and complete with out out DESIGN OF LOW-NOISE Transistor
on the "/OYST/CK" In under 12 hours. motor Eourcl Input Circuit!, by W. A. Reinfelder.
30,.. Postage
"CQ" Radio Amateur's Journal
the ic Wains tranBlormeF-240v AC. Entirely sale and reliable. I/-.

claims "JOYSTICK" better for recep- *Ar Ready built printed circuit amplifier, with EX84 output BASIC THEORY & APPLICATION
tion than the world popular DIPOLE and 7" i 4' speaker. OF TRANSISTORS. U.S. Dept. of
(four different receivers used to confirm ir 30 minutes to build, only 6 connections to make. Army. 10,'-. Postage I.'-.

tills decision I) Complete 10 Gds. Beady built 13 Gns.


kit ELECTRONIC ORGAN HAND-
YOU DAK BE THE PROUD QWHER OF THE WORLD'S MOST
De-Luxe Model kit 11 Das. Built 15 Gas. BOOK, by H. E. Anderson. 35/..
TERMS: C.W.O. P. A: P. F&EE. Postage [/-.
VERSATILE 4 COMPACT "JOYSTICK" COMPLETE RE-
CEIVIKS SYSTEM FOR AS LITTLE AS
PROBLEMS IN ELECTRONICS, by J.
C. Higgins, 24/*, Postage I/-.
£5.11.0 (SlamJard system) p. S p. included
RADIO VALVE DATA 7th Ed. Compiled
op the De Luse sjslem for £5.1 1.0 „ „ by "WW". 7,4. Postage lOd.
Money Back if not Delighted COMPLETE CATALOGUE. I/..

Not convinced? Then send for*


brochure and showers of testimonials
THE MODERN BOOK 00.
A handsome highly sensitive 7 transistor LW'MW tabl« BRITAIN'S LARGEST STOCKISTS
PARTRIDGE ELECTRONICS LTD. radio. Fully built and tested. Siz* 133 x4F
jr.3±". Takes of British and American Technical Books
(Dept. PE) 4 i US batteries. Price £9.19. 6 leas batteries. P. P. & I KEE.
19-21 PRAED STREET
7 SOWELL STREET, BROAQSTAIRS PEARCE-FIELDING LONDON, W.2
KENT 6b GRAPE LANE, WHITBY, YORKS. Phone: PADdmgton 4IB5
Open p days 9-6 p.m.

447
RSC STREET, LEEDS I.
MAIL ORDERS

S4
TO:
Dept, PE
WELLINGTON
BASS-MAJOR 30 WATT AMPLIFIER
A MULTI-PURPOSE HIGH FIDELITY.
Eminently
HIGH OUTPUT UNIT
FOR VOCAL AND INSTRUMENTALIST GROUPS
suitable for LEAD, RHYTHM & BASS
Terms C.W.O, or C.O.D. No C.O.D.
under £1. Postage 2,9 extra under £2, GUITAR and alt other musical instruments
xtr? UI, "' Trade Supplied. Incorporating two I2in. heavy Four jack socket inputs and two
= withL all?*
r •fc
t't
S.A.E. duty 25-watt high flux (17,000 fines)
enquiries please, personal independent volume controls for
shoppers welcomed at any of the branches loudspeakers with 2in. diameter simultaneous connection of up to
below. Open all day Saturday. speech coifs, Designed for effi- four instrument pick-Ups or
ciently handling full output of microphones.
BRADFORD (Half-day
Wednesday)
amplifier at frequencies down to
25 c.p.5.
"jf Separate bass and treble controls
providing mor« than adequate
10 NORTH PARADE Dual Cone in second speaker re- "Boost" or "Cut *, 1

produces frequencies up to 17,000 -^r; LEVEL frequency response


D D CTfi I
|bf I .'.1 "r?^e r. Cascle s
(Half-day Wednesday)
cp.s.
* throughout the audible range,
SUPERIOR TO UNITS AT
Heavily made cabinet of con-
TWICE THE COST. -
Tel: gj9C>4 venient sfze 24x21 X 14in. has an
exceptionally attractive covering a
i-k.

40'l.nr I >*» Send


.

BIRMINGHAM 3^^""™ in two contrasting tones of


Vynair. J75UnS, £
S.A.E. for
OR DEPOSIT
of £4,3,0 and 12
leaflet

(N oh „ f-day) For 100-250 v., 50 cp.s., AX. main*


fflSlSatg, Carr, monthly payments of
operation. 17/6, £3,8,4. (Total 43 Gns.)
nCDDV
L/CftDI
2S Osmaston Rd , The Spot
(Half-day Wed.) Tel: 4I3&I
HIGH FIDELITY
PUSH-PULL ULTRA LINEAR OUTPUT
WATT 12-14 AMPLIFIER TYPE All
unnunuivn
DARLINGTON l3 p °" H °"=
Wynd (Hllf d>y
"BUILT-IN" TONE CONTROL PRE-AMP STAGES
.
Two input sockets .1 ith associated control allow mixing of "inilce" and gram., Ha
Tel: 68043 Wednesday) in AID, High sensitivity. Includes 5 valves, £CC83, ECC8H, EL64, EL84, EZB1,
m. — -- 133 Lepth Street High Quality sect ionally wound output transformer specially designed for TJttlft
Linear operjitinm and reliable small own tensers of curn;:ir. mui. tut: cure. INDI-
EDINBURGH
LUII1UUI1UII = wavc,
(Half-day
L , /, u
Wed.) VIDUAL CONTllOLS l-'OK 11ASS ASD THEBLE "Lift" and "ant".
,j

*.| a«*.mjMjM 326 Ar Ey'e Street



Frequency response 3 dB 30-30.000 c/s. Six negative feedback loops. Hum
level GO dB down, OSLV 23 millivolts INPUT required for 1M.XL OUTPUT.
GLASGOW
UkHJUVIf (Half-day Tel: CITy 4158
Tuesday) Suitable for itae with all makes and types of pick-ups and microphones. Com-
parable with the very best deslgna for STANDARD or LONG PLAYING
LJ 51 Savllc Street
II Tel: 20505 EEC0P.DS. F»r MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS such as STRING BASS, LEAD OR
nULL I I
day Thursday) (Half. RHYTHM GUITARS, etc. OUTPUT SOCKET with plug provides 300 v. 30 mA r
and 6.3 r. 1,5 a. for supply of a BADIO FEEDER DNIT. Size approx. IBxSx Tin.
LEICESTER aWST-
(Half-day Thursday)
Por A.C. mainȣ00-2o0 v, 50 c.p.a, Output for Hand 35 olinla fcpeuker. Kit is com-
plete to last. BBti CJiaasia is fully pmwhfld. Full instrucUoas and [joint- to- point wlrliig dl.igmms supplied. 8 Gns.
1 rcq lirs'i:
1"
nu n-i! rtiefa] ca\ rr with aaXtyfX® hQSkd|9l WD > suDplied for i:tH. TERMS ON ASSEMBLED Carr. 10/-.
1 CCnC
flVCEl/J
s "7County (Mecca) Arcade
(No half-day closing) Tel; 28252
I '.-

UNITS. DEPOSIT 25/- ami i) monthly psiymenlfl of 35/-. (Total S12.10.O). 3eud S-A-E. for illustrated Jenllet
I

(Or f^rtory
detagag Ciihlnfiis, Speakers, Microphones, etc., Trtth cash and credit terms. bum sio.i9.ei
LIVERPOOL EffSSSTwi R.S.C. 4/5 WATT A5 HIGH-GAIN AMPLIFIER A hm * —*tm
(No half-day closing) 4 valve quality amplifier for the horns, small club, etc. Only B0 millivolts full Input required for
23B Edgwarc Road output so In suitable for use with Intest Bigh-fidellty ltck-Up heads in addition to all other types of
IrtUnriM
LUnUUri Tel: PADdington 1629 pick-upa itijl j-racliciiJIyall "riu^p^ -
S.-j i;i i.jI^ Has? nut Trctl-; (Jontruls fjrre full loiiR-playhlg re*
.

(Half-day Thursday!
cord emaHaivUou. Hum
level negligible being 71 (IB donn, "13 dB ol nejraUv: EeaOofto: ia used.
H.T. of SW v, y,r niA aud L.T. of fi.Ii v, 1.5 a. is avaifa-olc for the supply of a Radio Feeder Unit, or
i

Tape-Deck preamplifier. For A.C. mains input 20O-'2.irj-2r>^ v. 150 c/e. Output forS-H ohms speaScer,
MANCHESTER Uhsusaid ia not alive. Kit compile III every detail includes fti]ty punchedl chassis (with baseplate)
Willi Gol'l'llailmifr finish and point-to-point wiring diagrainei tuid instructions. Exceptional -value

Large new store now open at 60A-60B L;


^^1 It
«M^i ltf<" (1 r MBaj*3e*l rwrly ionise 25/- extra.
'
: '

Plus 3/6 carr., or deposit 2S/6 and


a monihly payuienta of 2£jQ for assembled unit. [Total £0.16.0),
Oldham Street Tel: CENtral 2778
R.S.C. CORNER CONSOLE CABINETS R.S.C 30-WATT ULTRA LINEAR
MIDDLESBROUGH PortN ^: Poljahed walnut veneer fini sh.
HIGH FIDELITY AMPLIFIER AI0
(Half-day Wednesday) JUKIOR MODEL. Size 20 xll X Sin. for A hlghlv sensitive Pueh-Pull high output, unit with eclf-
Sxljin. or 10 XfllD. speakers, iES.9.9. COiilained Pre-amp, Tone Control Stages. Cenl:ied
STANDARD MODEL. Size 27xlSx perforiiHiuce ilpnies compare e^uaH J wtlh most expen&iVB
SHFFFlFl >
JnCrriCLL/ i-
3
Carrie
E«h»ng C Street,
Market Bldgs, !-2hi. (PI f* «
lino, Kpejikew, £4.11.9. flraplitlers available. Hum
level 70 dB down. FrO'
(Ha|:f-cay Thursday} SENJOR MODEL. Size SfjxSOxljin. queocy response ^3 dB 30-20,000 «j''s. A
speciaUy
Tel: 20716 designed seeti.ana.lly wound ultra linear output trans-
for 12in. Rppaker. Suitable Speaker
EX, GOV. svsteme below. Onlv 7 guS. former is used with. S07 output valves. All components
2 V. ACCUMULATORS. R.S.C. BASS REFLEX CABINETS. are chosen Jor reliability. Siv valves are uEed EFSG.
16 A-ir. StCfl 7 X 4 x Sin. Rrund ACW, JUNIOR MODEL. Sr-cciaUy designed EFSti, ECC83. S07 f 807, OZ3I. Separate Bass and
19 each. Three for 13/6, carr. 5>. Trehle Controla are provided. Minimum iimnt required
for WJ). liriuia Spe;ifcer, but aultable
f«r any ttOOi quality mitt, »p«aker. for full output Is onlv 12 millivolts so that ANY KIND OF
Jason FMT1 V.n.T'.j'F.m, Radio Tuner de-
Acoustically Imed and ported. VoliBhed MICROPHONE OR PIGK-UP IS SUITABLE. The fliilt, Is
eien. Total cost of purta Including valves,
vatautTOOfter Etnish. siac is x 12 x loin. deaisnert tor CLUBS, SCHOOLS, THEATRES t
DANCE
Tuning dial, E&eutchcou, ate., f8.19.ft. HALLS or OUTDOOR FUNCTIONS, etc, For use with
HandBomc appenniawe, Ensure! superb
reproductions only £3.19.8, EBentronlo ORGAN, GUITAR, SPRING BASS, elc. Tor
STANDARD MODEL. Aa above but (or l'JIo. speakers. Stec 20 X standard or iong-plavinir records. OUTPUT SOCKET
FANE HEAVY DUTY HI-FI SPEAKERS 15 x 1 3m, For vertical or horizoutal use £5.19.6. Set of legs ivl th PROVIDES L.T. and H.T. ior RADIO FEEDER UNIT.
12in. 15 okma. Caat chassis. Exception ally bras^ ferrules, 19/6. An eactm input with associated vol. control Is provided
roblist2indiam.Yo!ccCuU Assemblies. so thai two separate inputs, ouch as Gram and "Mike
AUDIOTRINE HI-FI SPEAKER SYSTEMS. ConststiuH «f iu:iieli«l can be mixed. Amplifier operates on 200-250 r, 50 c/a.
122/10 20 watt, 5 gas. 122/1DA 20 \mtt, igas.
122/1220 watt, 7 gUB. 122H2A20 watt, 8 gns. 12iu. 12.000 line. 1 5 ohin hl^ii quality speaker, crossover uait (con- A.C. mains and has output for 3 and 15 ohm speaken.
alstiugof chukc-.eomlenser,etc.)aridTwceler- The smooth response Cotnpleta Kit of parts inth fully punched caaesia and
122/14 22 wait, & tou, 122,'J4A 22 waAt»ia gns. point,- to -point wiring tfiagraini
122/17 25 wfLtt, £11,17 ,B 122/17A 25 vol t, £12.17,6
16in. 15 oluns, Cast chassis, Exceptionally
reoust2in. dia.ni. Voice Coil Assemblies.
and ex1en.ij.cd JrequEiicy range ensure aurprisingly re&lifltic re-
production. Shuniard 10 wall ratline. Carr. 5/-.
Or Senior 15 WnU,».lfl.fl. Carr. 7/lL
JT>J_ -I, CI
Jji 1^. I
Q
U*Q n—WM*
i

Carr. 10/-
UlIC aTld iwttucildns. If required
perforated, cover -with carrying
bandiea can bo supplied for 197Q.
i:'2:J2 20Tratt,lSfirL« 152/ t£A 20 wait, 18s>»- W.B. 'STENTORIAN' HI&H FIDELITY" P.M. SPEAKEKS KF101S The amplifier can be supplied,
1 52/14 27 Tratt, 14 bot. 1 32/14 A 27 Trail, 15 Rub,
10 watts rating. "Where a really Bood, EfasMty speaker at a low price factory built with ELS4 output valves and 12 months/
152, 17 35 watt, 16 gDB. 152/17A 35 watt, 17 RDfi-
* * • indicates dual cone tvpe, is required wo highly recommend this Unit with an amnzlug per- guarantee, for 14 KM. Send S.A.E. for leaflet.
30-17,000 c.p..S- formance. FJease aisle whether ,i olnu
-f^d 19 TERMS DEPOSIT 34,-6 and 9 monthly payments of 33;B.
:

Send S.A.E. for leaflets!. Tonus available. or la ohm required. Only (Total 16 gmj. Suitable mikes ^ spkrj. available.

MULTI-PURPOSE AMPLIFIER 10-WATT HIGH QUALITY LOUDSPEAKER. In


R.S.C. G15 15-WATT R.S.C. BASS/20 12in,
walnut veneered cabinet
Ideally suitable far BASS G U1TAR and p. A. Work (.taussi:;, Declines. Speech
AMPLIFIER Suitable for A highly efficient unit incorporating a miisalve IJJin. high fl;ix loudspeaker coll 3 or 15 olims. Only
LEAD RHYTHM specially constructed to withstand; heaviest load cOurll I.Ilu.1. £4.19.6. Carr, 5/-. Terma:
or GUITAR,
'MIKE,' RADIO, TAPE, Rutins' ^5 watts. Individual bass and treble controls give Jlep. ll/a & mthly.
Btc.
inn] "lNiO^i" and. *\ut". Two high liiincLiancn ja^k pyrnis. ot 11/3. (Total
H!Rh-ff.lclity push'puli output, ii

WATT
1
1

Hepitraie bass and treble "cut" socket Inputs are separately controlled. All controls are SB. 12.8}. lSin.HO
and ''boost" controls. Twin coni-enienily positioned In a recess on top of tie cabinet. HI-FI LOUDSPEAKERS
separately controlled Inputs go Cabinet is of substantial construction and attractively IN CABrHETS.
that tiro instruments or "mike" finished in two contrasting: tones of Serine and Yynalr. Size Size I$xl3xl0in. Only
and pfek-upB ran be osed at the approx. "24x21x13m. Operation from 200-250 v, 00 c.p.s. 7,19,9. Carr. S/6
flame time. Loudspeaker is a A.C. mains. Send 3.A.E. for teallet. Terms: Dep. 17/fl and 9
heavy duty high flux 12in. mthly. pymts. of 17 ,'9.
Or Deposit £3.4.6 ami 13. monthly 99^- Cne Carr.
SO Wa*t model -with cast chassis. payments of 51/B. (Total 32* Gns.) U»S* 17/e. **« SELENIUM JtBCXIFIERS
Cabfncl ia wejl mode and finished
as Junior irodcl. Size approx. R.S.C. GRAM. AMPLIFIER KIT.
P. W. BRIDGE 24 V. Samp. ... J4/&
18xl8>;8ia. „ R.A. 13 id. II H watta output. Negative feedbnek. Controls Vol., 6/12 V. la. . .. 3/1J 2J v. 20 amp. ... o9/9
°^ 19 Gns. ?£- SPEAKERS Tone and Svltoh* Mains operation 200'25O v. A.C. 6/12 v. 2a. . .. 6/11 H.T, TVfjiS H.W.
mi Hi
SendS-A-E-forltaHel. Or DEP. 2 Gns, ft
3 ohm or J 5 ohm 7Q q
Fullclaalated thuiaalB. Ciccnit, etc.,
JJ/J
G/ia v. 3a. . 9/9
G/J2 V. 4a. . .. 12/3
150 V. 40
260 V. 50 mA
...
3/11
Excellent value suppn'ed. CnriiaBe H/9. Only ...
12 mihlyuyiHts oi 33 3. (Total 21 Gns,) 59/6 6/12 V. fla- . .. IS/3 230 V. 60 mA ... 4/11
COMPLETE POWER PACK KIT, 10/11 250 V. SO zuA ... 5/11
Mains Trans., Metal Recti. »/»
6/12 v. 10:1. . .. 26/9
AEMSTHONO. TBUVOX, L1SEAH, HOQEKS. LEAK aid JASON Consisting of 6A2 v. ]5a. .. 35/9 250 v. 250 mA ... 11/9
EQUIPMENT, GOODMANS, W.B., PANE, WHAKFEDALE SPEAKERS, £pr, Double electrolytic, SBiocthinB choke, chassis CONTACT COOI.EP. 250 v. 75 mA, F.W.
0ABKAED and GOI.DRING T/1ABLES. LUSrRAPHONE. ttRAM- and circuit, For tioo-'jso v. A-C. miilnu. Output (Bridge), 10/11. 250 V. 50 JtiA. I\W, (Bridge),
PIAK. EESLO mi SHURE 'MrKES' all br»nc)«a UASH or TERMS. 2f,0 V. CO nlA, 6.3 v., '2 a. g/11. K.W. 360 V. 60 mA, 5/11.

448
Solderless Terminal Fastener

S. H. CoDett Manufacturing Co. Ltd., 347-349, Goswell


Road, E.C.1.
An ingenious tool for wire stripping, cutting and
crimping is available from the above mentioned firm.
Known as the Collett 3-way Crimper, it is handy for
those who experience trouble soldering terminal
PRODUCTS
connectors to wires.
The crimper is priced at 48s.

New High Power Batteries

Ever Ready Co. (Great Britain) Ltd., Hercules Place,


London, N.17.
Our photograph shows the new range of round
cell high power batteries recently announced by
Ever Ready.
The standard "U" type batteries are ideal
where intermittent use, moderate powers and
high voltage are necessary, such as receivers and
torches. But motor-driven, portable equipment
really needs higher capacity batteries capable of
delivering larger currents for longer periods with
less voltage drop.
The new "HP" round cell batteries have been
specially designed to fulfil these needs. They
have a paper separator —much thinner than the
electrolyte wall in the conventional paste version
— and high grade electrolytic manganese dioxide,
which has very fine depolarising properties.
Amplivox Ltd., Beresford Avenue, Wembley, At the higher current levels the HP2 will last
Middlesex. more than six times as long as the U2.
A new moving coil version of the Jetlite
headset has foam air cushions which enable it
to be worn for very long periods in comfort
without contracting headaches due to pressure
on the ears. The cushions also exclude extra-
neous room noises so providing complete aural
privacy and good quality sound reception.
The boom arm is adjustable for length and
320° angle of rotation enables the wearer to
select right- or left-hand usage.
Each earphone is low impedance (200 ohms)
providing an excellent frequency response
throughout the audio range. They can be
supplied wired for either monaural or stereo
operation; the boom arm microphone is
optional.
The price of the complete headset is £12 6s. 8d.
list price. The headphone without boom is
£9 Is. 6d. list price.

449
New Tape Recorder

Debenlmms Electrical & Radio Distribution Co. Ltd.,


Easfbrook Road, Eastern Avenue, Gloucester.

A new tape recorder from Bang & Olufsen (Den-


mark) Ltd, designed for the user who owns a hi-fi
system and desires a good recorder to complete the
set-up is now available from the above firm.
The Beocord 1500 has no mixing facilities or output
replay amplifier but does feature meter recording level
indicators. Provision is also made for any corrections
to be carried out to stereo balance on recording or
F.M.Tuner Construction Units replay. The Beocord 1500 retails at 89 guineas.
Martin Electronics Ltd.,154/155, High Street,
Brentford, Middlesex.
Being more attractive and simple to construct
the "build-it-yourself" kits are now becoming
more popular. Due mainly to the increasing
use of printed circuit and transistor techniques,
one can now build a unit that has a truly pro-
fessional finish.
Our photographs show a new f.m. tuner by
Martin Electronics. The tuner, like all their
kits, comes in unit form and there are three such
units in this set. Powered by 12 volts at 12mA
it has a sensitivity of 2 microvolts for 20dB signal/
noise ratio; 5 microvolts for 40dB signal/noise
ratio. The i.f. rejection is better than 50dB and
image rejection is better than 20dB. Drift is
less than 25kc/s and an automatic frequency
control is incorporated for accurate tuning.
The tuning range is from 88 to 108 Mc/s and
the audio response is flat from 30 to 15,000 c/s
enabling 50 microsecond de-emphasis. Output
voltage is IOOmV into high impedance (100,0000)
on average reception.
The price of the tuner is £12 17s. 6d., or can be
Milliard Digitrons
purchased in separate units as follows, f.m.
head complete with tuning capacitor £5 12s. 6d.;
In last month's article "Electric Clock with Digital
i.f. amplifier strip £5 7s. 6d, and the escutcheon
Display" the digitron type number was incorrectly
;

drive, mounting assembly and controls £1 1 7s. 6d.


These prices include purchase tax.
given as G 530M. This should read Z520M (available
through retailers).

A transformer designed specially for miniature work has


Miniature Mains Transformer
justbeen announced by Belclere. Known as type "ES" it
occupies less than one cubic inch and weighs less than two
ounces.
Ideal for transistor work the transformer is rated at 1 10V or
240V 50c/s primary and 12V at 40mA secondary. The trans-_

former is vacuum impregnated with thermosetting varnish,


epoxy resin, or high melting point wax. Fixing is by pins for,

circuit boards, or wrap-over clamp. Alternatively it can be


The Belclere Co. Ltd.,
supplied in a mumetal screening can liin high x Hin
diameter with fin hollow fixing bush at one end. 385/387, Cowley Road, Oxford.

450
BRAND NEW ADVERTISEMENT
AM/FM THE FUTURE FOR ELECTRONICS
(V.H.F.)
RADIO Most people agree that this is the age of electronics and automation.
Many know that their own job may eventually be replaced by some
GRAM automated machine.
CHASSIS AT Slowly but surely, electronically controlled machines are taking over
£13.13.0 Irom the typesetter, bookkeeper, lathe and drill operator, office eierk
and many other trades that were considered beyond the influence of
(Carriage Paid) electronics less than a few years ago.
Chassis size 15 61- x ajjn. high.
:•; Xeip uumrtaeUtte. mil. 14 i x 4in. ia 2 colours,
predominantly cream. -2U9'S50V, A.C. onh'. In the TJ.S.A. where this science is quite advanced, literally thousands
Pick-up, Est. Speaker, Ae., E„ and Ilipolc Sockets. Five push buttons— of jobs are disappearing every week. In England, thank goodness, the
OFF, I..TV., trend has not been quite so rapid, though of course the same impact
M.W.^F.M, and Oram. Aliened and tested. 0.1'. Transdcrmer. Tone Conltol. 1000-
30(10 51.: tHi'i-arilr 31. cS-fe Mcls. ; Valves KY.vl reel.: ECWsl, EFKi, EAHrai, i;].«4, will eventually be felt.
FCC^a. 3-t,hm speaker required. Speaker K Oiu. and Cabinet to ill chassis (tabic model).: :
*
47/6 (post 5,0, What should the average man do about this situation? Some will do
10 X (iin. EIAJl'TlCAl SPEAKER 25,- to purchasers of this chassis. TEEMS: (Chassis! nothing and wait until they are unemployed, while others will of course
£3.10.0 dawn and a month!, ucir.s ot e^..;,0. Cheap Room Dipole fur V.1I F
:.;. 12-tfi
i

Feeder Si. per yard. AMEBHATIVE DESIQK. I.vr. li.oo-l tain M.; 3.VT. (U-10 Mc/jl- take action before it is too late.
M.W. 1»0-.|,5 H»'T.1JP, 87-100 Mc/a: Clam pusiMnn. Otherwise similar to above
iL 1 "" K TEHMS = £3 1 0.0 "»„-,( mtl 6 monthly payments There is a solution for those who have a need far retraining and the
rt\T±« Total
ofj^.4.0. I-'. ^.,-»-S :V'\
H.P.I'. £10.14. Circuit diagram B/6.
-

desire to take action! In fact the old saying " If you can't beat 'em "
applies to the menace of automation, more than to anything that has
PUSH-PULL O.P. AMPLIFIER threatened the liberty of man since King John signed Magna Charter

£5.5.0 (6/- Can-.) Now, anyone can start to learn electronics easily through the study of
our course of 36 lessons. The lessons are crystal clear, practical, easy
Brand mar 200-240 A.C. mains Bass, treble and to master and use. Early lessons make fundamentals clear even to
vol. controls, with valves EZ8Q, ECCtf3 and the
2-Br.sl jiving lull 8 w. Chassis J 3 x 3J x 3iln.
beginner, while other lessons will give you the practical knowledge of
With o,p, trans for 2-3 ohm speaker. Front panel an expert!
(normally screwed to chassis) may be removed and
used as "Hying panel". This course actually compares favourably with some costing ten times
as much. You save because you receive all the lessons at one time and
LAFAYETTE BRAND TAPE FULL! GUARANTEED AT RECORD are not required lo purchase equipment you may not need.
MYLAR BASE
LOW PRICES
ACETATE BASE This is a real homB study course that has been bound into one giant
Sin. Stand. j>]a.y, l,2(Htit. . , i2,.'S r

Stand, plav, (SuAffr
>iit. 8/- eight by eleven inch, 216 page manual. Each page is divided into two
7in. Long play, ] ,SO0f t. . , , 19/fl Stand. p];ij 1,2(I0ii
7
columns. A wide column features the text, while a narrow column at
.
la. ,,, 11/.
tin, Double play, 1,20071 „ 15;-
,

Sin. I,oDg plav, DODfi 10 -


•&iin. Double play, l^urifi flS/fl the side has the instructor's comments, helpful suggestions and addi-
Vin, Uoible play, %tOOttr
>iia. Lon- play. ..Hfciit 32,6
25 7in. iKjng pJay, ],800it tional pictures to simplify the
more difficult parts.
aha. Triple piaT, 450ft. 15/-
r \ 12,6
Blin. Triple pluy, QuOit.
4in. Triple play, UOOft.
1'lMii 14*.
KESSAGE TAPES Everyone can benefit from this practical course, including those
{ white 22:6
fiSn. Triple play, ]. 80011. boxefl | 43,6
who's main interest may be nothing more than a desire to have a
fiJlD. Triple play, a.-iuuft. ^ J
'<,-. Stand, play, LLHft. ........ 3B clearer appreciation of electronics as
&5>_ r.!n. Long play, 225ft
4 11 it relates to their present
7in. Triple pJuy^eoOf I. (uiiboxrsil 96/- ola. Double play, SOOfl j;6
work or hobby.
Pusliifte 1/- pcTrecl (i ortnore.po5i.frer').
In addition to the course, Sim-Tech offer the opportunity to take an
u ?! examination in radio and electronics to those who have studied the
REALISTIC
Translator Superset, 350 MUJlivall output, 4-ini;h
'SEVEN electronics course and feel that they have attained a sufficiently high
standard of proficiency. There is an additional fee of one guinea for
i"
the examination (which is entirely optional). Further details are
speaker. AU components myuntcd on a single given
printed circuit bciarrJ BizeSi * HbX. in one complete with each course ordered.
aesembly. Plastic cabinet with, carrying handle
Bize T x 10 x 3£lu. Exleniil igefeet for car ncrio!. Sounds good doesn't it, but how can you be sure that you are not
i'eiritc rod aerial, trice, for ilia complete parcel wasting your money? Well, we will send you this course on the under-
including TmutabtUB, Cabinet, Speaker, etc. Itnd full standing that you must be convinced this is the best value you have
CoijsJruttionnniRiSS.lB.S,?, !! i\ J/0. ever seen fa electronic training, otherwise you may return the course
rPt) liatltry 3^9, Data ami iiiatrimiMis separately
2/6. Hefuntfed if you purchnsc tlie parcel.
(or have your money refunded if sent with order) after you have
ADy parts juiiplied separately. examined it in your own home for a full seven days.
The price? Only 39/6d plus postage i/6d. Terms? Why, of course!
4 TO 5 WATT HIGH GAIN AMPLIFIER See coupon.
£"'r ^o-15-Q. (P.
P. 5/-). &
Suitable for record, player, radio, tape afler equalisation,
Jfoubls n-ound mains transformer. Fully built, for A.C. mains
feedback. Controls are volume (on/off), treble and bass. Contact
of 201)1250 v. 14 d.b. nee. Open to all permanent residents of the U.K. excluding Ireland,
cooled metal rectifier
(bridge}; ECO 63 and EL 84 volves. Output fur 3 ohm speaker. »• X
Chassis 3I,» «" SPECIAL! SEND CASH WITH ORDER AND WE WILL INCLUDE FREE
(over spindle], overall heisat, Incl, valvcj, 5j-- Hlcli and la w
Input by rhonu sockets. 70 PAGE BOOK ON TELEVISION OR RADIO FAULT FINDING.AThese
GUITAR AMPLIFIER
Chassis as for our Push-Pull ArnpMer. Valves EZSO, 2 X ELS4, ti BE5.
—8 WATT books are regularly sold at 5/- each and are loaded with useful infor-
mation. By sending cash you reduce bookkeeping and other costs,
and fa ooms. Output for 3 which savings we are able to pass back to youl
Ilass, treble and vol. controls. On-off switch.
Alsc suitable lor ]?k-k-up, etc. Ol'H PftfCE £5,5.0. {61- V. & P.l
toon* 200-dJO T. AC
4-TRANSIST0R MINIATURE PUSH-PULL FREE TRIAL OFFER!
AUDIO AMPLIFIER HIGH IMPEDANCE
FfiltfTED dHCTJIT, 4in. :-:
Si in. liin- over trana- To : Sim-Tech Book Company, Dept.EL6, Caier's Mill, West End,
iorruers. Output for S-ohiu epeaker. EuHnbte for Southampton, Hants.
microphone, record player, guitar and, intercom,
y volt kii.ti..:ry n.'uuLred. I'reitilcncv rangti IfiO cptj, to Please send your ELECTRONICS COURSE for a full seven days'
-];; Kqi=, Pnsh-puJl output nitissj B. In5tnii;tiou sheet
prDvided. Fully wired, ready for use. Two lypes.
trial. If not delighted, I may return the course post paid without further
obligation on my part. Otherwise I will pay cash price, OR 10/9 fort-
200 taw. 35/-; i watt, 41/-. T. i P. 2/6.
nightly until purchase price of 41/- plus 2/- service charge has been
4-SPEED AUTOCHAINGERS 2^-WATT AMPLIFIER
Qirr. -V- ^eh. Tick here
USE-TJ-A14
Our price ONXY
38/6 {post 5/-}; a few- if enclosing lull purchase price.
£5.19 6
QAUEAED .iUTO.^LL.M .. je^O
only; valves EF'Jl and HCL82 witb metal
SiTEHEO £7,5 rectifier; e x 4 x Hia. high <Sl Qj over me FREE. RADIO FAULT FINDING BOOK.
Please send
HIE ATS
,

AUTOSLDI 1*11 £10 19 6 ECLS3J. SLains traaa. and o.p, wlLh voL
STEREO £11.10.0 ^iod tone oontjoh; on-oiil; co-ax. Inpnt. Q OSCILLOSCOPE BOOK.
TAPE RECORDER AMPLIFIER Amount enclosed £ .

*"'" n * "Ln - Chassl3 -'I" 1 Ot X 5 X 4in. Valves EF86, ECC83 and


S">: T'" '"?™£pi
2Er,b4. Contmls (1) MIC. Vol. (a) Ttmer/T.U. Vol. (3) Play back or monitor.
I Jack sockets for Tuner/P.L. and MIC-su'l .-It for superimpose. Bo] (4) Inns, understand that you will refund this money in full if I am not 100%
Beparatc power pack I

satisfied. Overseas customers please send full amount (including


containing tran^f. & rectifier. For Collarc. studii deck only.
Price £8.14.0 (6/- P. & P.}.
Ireland). *

Tir™?^?™*
iJt.tU.Hb £*? FV¥* SUTL7: ""ESS OTHERWISE STATED. TESTED
il£.SPAT€H. Delivery byieturn.
NAME
mS? " *5
3 a a a e CV SCnd 6di (aUmiia wiU d,>> ,or 2 0-page illostratetl cata-
Sg™ co K ---
G
*

ALL ITEMS dUARAHTEED 12 M0BTLTHS. VALVES 3 MONTHS


Regret overs easo rdera cannot b« executed.
ADDKES:

GLADSTONE RADIO
66 ELMS ROAD, ALDERSHOT, Hants. (CLOSED
(2 uiins. from station aud HusesJ, WED.)
Aldershol 22240 City- County

451
TAPE?
m
VALVE MAIL ORDER SERVICE
Vast quantities of modern and obsolete
fullyguaranteed valves available from
stock at very moderate prices. Send
Cordially invite
Practical Electronics
readers to try our
unsurpassed

S.A.E. for Full Callers welcome


i^\M Brenell
lists.

SPECIAL 24 HOUR EXPRESS MAIL ORDER SERVICE

AZ3I I2/6EF98 I0/-IPL82 7/41X79 40/-!6K8GT 9/4


DAF9I 4/4EFI83 9/-PLB3 7/6 IRS S/66L6G 7/4
Ifyou're thinking in terms of tape recording, then DAF96 4<6EF!84 8/.'PL84 7/-IS5 4/4 6Q7G •/-
DF9I 3/- EL33 |7/4!PY32/3 I0/-ITI 3/-6Q7GT 10/-
the Brenell deck and complete recorders should be DF96 EL4I »/-!PY8l 4/-]3T4 5/-6U5G 7/6
DK9I 5/6 EL42 9/-PY82 S/6|3V4 T/-6V6G 4/-
uppermost in your mind. The reliability, the DK92 7/- EL84 5/9PY83 7/65U4G 4/-6V6GT 7/6
DK96 7/4 EL95 9/4'pYBOO 8/6SV4G »/-6X4 4/4
versatility and the quality of manufacture are DL92 5/.EM80 S/-PZ30 I2/4 5Y3G/GT 6X5G St,
DL94 T/.|EM8I 8/-SP6I 3/-: 8/46X5GT 8/«
seldom equalled in other tape recorders (even in DL96 6/6EMB4 I;.iJH 9/-I6A7 I2/66/30L2 12/6
I0/-6A8 8/4 7B6 21/.
those costing much more). EAECBO 5/6 EYS I
7/6;U2S
I0/66AL5 J/67B7 9/6
EAF42 8<«|EY86 7/-IU26
EB9I 3i'4 EZ40
!

7/-UI9I I3/4;*
AM& 4/-7CS ID/4
8/.EZ4I 7/-U30I 8/4**0* 6/47C6 9/6
How many can equal or better
EBC4I
EBF80
8/.EZ8I
5/6UBOI
5/6|UABC80 5/4 6B8G
-'
-
4/67H7
2/67S7
«/-
18/-
6BP83
this specification ? EBF89 7/*'GZ32 12/4y AF 42 n/4* BA * 5/4I7Y4 6/6
«; 6 »E 6 5/6 8D3 4/-
ECCBI • HL4IDD UBC41 ,/;6BJ6 8/- I OF I 10/-
ECC82 5 - 12/4UBF80 *',°6BR7 10/4I2AU7 5/-
ECC83 5/4 KT64 I7/4UBF89 12/4JI2AX7 5/6
4 record/playback speeds 7^ and IS ips • 3 motors ECCB4 6:6 KT8I 10/4 UCH42 S/o,
!6BW6 9/-I2BA6 7/6
I
J, 3J, ECCB5 KTW6I
6,'- 7/-UCH8I /', I6BW7 I2BE6 7.6
{capstan motor-hysteresis synchronous) • low 'wow and ECH35 12.6 MUM 17/*UCU82
9 -

«/*:6C4 3,'6I2K7GT SI-


flutter' content (0.05% at IS ips, 0.1% at 7£ ips, 0.15% at ECH42 . JN78
84 »/-;6CSGT 8/. I2K8GT
ECH8I 7/.|OZ4 S/-UF4I 7/4.6C6 4/6
,

|2Q7GT 4/
3f ips and 0.25% at \ ips) • double-gapped ferrite erase
I

ECH83 5/9PCC84 4/-UFB9 T/-6CD6G 25/- I2SQ7 ni


head to minimise erase noise • narrow-gapped record/play- ECL80 6/4PCCS9 8/»UL4l 7/*:6CH6 10/. 19AQS 8/-
ECL82 8/*PCF80 7/-UL84 6/-6C6 5/625Z4 Trt
back head to give extended frequency response • pause ECL86 8/4PCFB6 9/4.UY4I 7/6 6F6 5/9.35L6GT 8 6
control • superimpose control • 8J-" dia. reels (to take EF4I 7/4PCL82 7/4UYSS 5/4 6H6 2/ 3SW4 6/6
I0|" dia. N.A.B. reels at extra cost) • fast rewind • digital EFS0 5/-'PCL83 9/-VP4B 7/4 :
6J5G/GT 35Z4 6/4
EF85 S/-;PCL84 7/-IVRIS0/30 5/4 50C5 8/4
rev. counter. EFS6 7/-PCL8S 7/4 7/.I6J7G 80 7/6
EF89 8/-PCL86 I0/-IW8IM 4/-f6K7G 2/-90CG 25/-
Mark 5 EF9I 4/-.PL36 II/6X6IM I3/66K7GT 2/699CV 25/-
EF92 4/-|pL8l 7/6X78 24/-I6K8G 4/-I807 9/4
Series 2
Deck
?&
•:\3 OC35 10/.
BRAND NEW TRANSISTORS
OC72 »/ OCSID 5'-
OC42 */- OC74 8/. OC8Im/(ir 12/6
OC44 si- OC75 8/- OC82 a/-
OC4S si- OC77 8/- OC82D */
OC7I si- OC8I SI- OCI7Q t.
SILICON RECTIFIERS
400 volts 350 mA 7/6 each
METAL RECTIFIERS
RMI 7/6 I4A86 23/- 1 6RD 2-2-8-1 12/- (FCI42)
RM2 8/- I4A97 26/- 1 6RE 2-1-8-1 10/- (FCI50)
RM3 10/. I4AI00 28/- I BRA I -1-8-1 5MFCIIB)
RM4 17/6 4RA 1-2-3-2 21 /- (FC30I) I8RA M-I6-I 7/- (FCIIS)
RMS 19/4 4R A I-2-8-3 25/- (FC3 ) 1
IBRD 2-2-8- 16/. (FCI24)
For full details SETS OF VALVES
3V4
IRS. IS5, IT4, 3S4, Set of 4, 17/-
of the specially DAF9I, DF9I, DK9I, DL92, DL94 Set of 4. 17/-
designed amplifier DAF96, DF96, DK96, DL96 Set of 4, 25/-
for use with the above
deck and the range of mono TERMS OF BUSINESS C.W.O. or C.O.O.
and stereo recorders, write or telephone the sole manufacturers: 4/2 PACKING CHARGE ON ALL C.O.D.
ORDERS. POSTAGE 6d. per VALVE

Brenell RST VALVE MAIL ORDER CO.


211a, STREATHAM ROAD, MITCHAM, SURREY
Telephone: MITcham 6202 & 6771
BRENELL ENGINEERING CO. LTD,
Mon. - Sat 9 a. m. - 5.45 p.m. Wednesday- 9 a.m. - p.m.
231-5 LIVERPOOL ROAD, LONDON, N.I . 1

Lunch 1.30 p.m. -1.30 p.m.


Telephone: NORth 8271 (5 lines) GDS«
.

452
: ..

nft
I 1

A SELECTION FROM OUR POSTBAG

that all the vital components are in


Modules ahead exactly the position the designer
Sir —
I would first like to thank intended.
R. V. Walley, of Bristol for his Judging by the orders we have
suggestion concerning the "in- received from amateurs Mr. Brown
betweens". I find Practical is clearly in the minority, and I
Electronics an extremely well- trust that he will soon see the error
informed magazine yet I do not of his ways.
possess the ability to construct G. K. Sutherland,
many of your designs. Llangefni,
In the first edition of your maga- Anglese\\
zine, I found the Transistor Morse
Oscillator which I successfully ;<»/iM»
undertook. Could we please have
some more articles of this nature?
... and against
G. Chisholm (aged
Sir—Re "Down With Printed Cir-
15),
cuits?" (Readout in the February
Rawmarsh,
issue of Practical Electronics)
Yorkshire.
I must heartily agree with J. E.
We're sure this issue will keep you busy Brown. Also from the TV service Guitar for £6
point of view they
for quite a time. engineer's
constitute a load of trouble. Quite
Sir — Please
find enclosed photo-
graph (see picture at top of page)
apart from ordinary component
of an electronic guitar as made to
breakdown, distortion of the
Paxolin board results in fractures of
your specifications in the January
Printed circuits ... for issue.
copper conductor strips, bad plug
Sir— I was horrified and astounded connections arise due to corrosion
My son and I have not yet had
when I read J. E. Brown's letter or folding over of contacts, etc.
time to the controls which are
fit

decrying printed circuits in your outlined in the February issue.


Paul S. Willaret,
February issue. The guitar is a great success, and
Radcliffe,
Whilst I agree with him that few
Lanes.
we have played it through a small
amateurs would care to "mess amplifier direct.
about with chemicals" to produce Needless to say my son is
them, he is quite wrong to say that delighted with it and the total cost
there is a "lack of availability . . . it's all in the mind is as follows
on the market." Sir — would like to take up some
I £ s. d.
My own firm have been pro- of the comments made in Detached Pick-up . 3
ducing "one off" printed circuit Particles, where it is suggested that Strings 1 10 Q
boards for the home constructor a case can be made out for con- String winders 15
for the past year. And adver- ventional current flow direction on Varnish . 6
tisements have appeared in Prac- the basis of hole conduction in Fret wire . 2
tical Electronics from time to semiconductors. Araldite Glue 6
time. I must point out that this is not
I cannot understand why Mr. really so, because the idea of hole Total . . 5 19
Brown printed circuits,
dislikes conduction is merely a useful
for they are by far the best method method of considering a particular The wood was mostly odds and
of constructing transistorised equip- type of electron flow. The hole, ends scrounged here and there.
ment. After all, you must have or apparent positive current carrier, S. W. Burrows,
somewhere to mount your tran- seems to move from positive to Wilmslow,
sistors, and if that is going to be a negative, but the only physical Cheshire,
piece of insulating board, you object which has moved is an
may as well let it carry the wiring electron, in the other direction.
as well. The positive charges are due
Printed circuits also make equip- to the nuclei of the atoms, which Enlarger controller
ment lighter and more compact, are not free to move. Sir— I am an amateur photographer
there is less likelihood of errors H. N. Rutt, and interested in making an auto-
during construction, and greater Hatfield, matic enlarger exposure controller
stability is obtained due to the fact Herts. (not a timer).
453
For a good few years now I have trouble is that it is shaped rather like
happily knocked up speaker an organ pipe, and tend to resonate
will
enclosures without knowing a thing as such. If it is open at one end far
the bass unit, and closed at the other,
about it, and so far as I can tell
it will resonate at about 26cfs. If it is
A SELECTION FROM OUR POSTRAG they have all worked perfectly.
open at both ends, it will resonate at
But now, having progressed too 73c(s. In both cases, there will be
far with a slightly more compli- secondary resonances as the air column
continued cated project to be able to alter it, breaks up into different modes of vib-
I am stopped dead inmy tracks ration, this will give rise to a colouration
by an article on the
subject by of sound which can be very disturbing.
I have found an old American K. F. Russell in your current issue In addition to this, the rather shallow
circuit diagram using valves. Can (see Jan. -Feb.).
dimension of Sin can give rise to severe
this circuit, or a circuit working "honking".
Oh dear! All those graphs and Our recommendation would be as
on the same principle, be con- diagrams and all that stuff about
structed using transistors with follows. The tweeter unit should be
resonance, frequencies, reflex tun- put at one end of the cabinet, in its own
battery power supply?
ing, acoustic resistance and old airtight compartment, about Sin or 6in
I have been given a photocell
uncle Tom Cobleigh and all! long. If a crossover for the middle unit
type OCP71: could this be used Way, way above my poor befuddled is chosen above UOOOcjs, the middle unit
in such a circuit? head! should be placed, again in its own com-
B. J. Solloway, What I am doing is trying to partment, which can be about Sin long
Chasetown, at either end of the remaining length
improve the sound with my TV
Nr. Walsall, of the enclosure. The bass unit should
receiver by providing a separate be placed away from the ends and the
Staffs. source with a Jason JTV2 tuner, middle of the remaining enclosure,
This is one of the few times when the low
Sinclair X10 amplifier, 15 Q
to preferably about a third of the way
3 £1 transformer and three speakers. along.
impedance of the transistor is a dis-
advantage. The OCP7I you mention I have bought inexpensive mass- The whole of this enclosure should be
produced speakers: a 13^in x loosely filled with some light absorbent
could not be used easily, as the current
material such as bonded acetate fibre,
Ihis device would deliver, when illumin- Sin elliptical, a lOin x 6in middle
cotton wool or fibre glass, and a tuning
ated by reflected light from the baseboard range unit and a 2iin tweeter. slot of 9in long by Jin wide should be cut,
of an enlarger, is almost the same as thot These are used in conjunction with the position of this not being critical.
when it is not illuminated at all. a cheap Japanese variable cross- Itwould, however, tend to reduce reson-
The problem of making a timer which
over. ances if the slot were to run parallel to
works as you suggest is one I am at
For these I have built a floor-to- the longer dimension of the enclosure.
present investigating. In the very near
future I hope to be able to provide a ceiling enclosure behind the TV
suitable, proved circuit.— G. J. Flanagan. receiver. The external dimensions
of this are 7ft 9in x liin x 5in.
It is madeof softwood and the
internal capacity is about 1 -Scu ft.
Intercom unit Until I read Mr. Russell's Reversed meter leads
Sir—Last night I had cause to wire
article I was merely going to line it Sir —
-With reference to the High
with carpet underfelt and drill a Impedance Voltmeter described in
up another amplifier for my Two-
couple of holes in it with the vague the January issue.
way Intercom published in the
idea that this was a good idea to I would like to know if any
December 1964 issue. I then dis-
avoid air pressure inside. Now I damage would be done to the
covered an error in the blueprint
realise that this is a most complex transistor the test
if were
leads
circuit.
Please note that R6 procedure. connected round the wrong way,
should be
Please, how do I determine the and this so, would it be
3 -3k a and NOT
3 3k ft as shown
correct reflex opening for the
if is
possible to place a diode in the
on the blueprint. As this will
almost certainly lead to damage speakers and enclosure I have positive test lead.

to the output transistor, I can only


described ? D. J. Binnington,
offer my
apologies to all concerned P. H. Marsh, Saint Osyth,
and hope I have saved some Warrington, Clacton-on-Sea,
readers from disaster. Peterborough. Essex.
K. Berry,
Barton-on-Sea, We should first like to reassure you that There no need to include a diode in
is
one can obtain satisfying sound repro- series with one of the test leads of the
Hants.
duction with quite ordinary speakers in High Impedance Voltmeter as the base-
enclosures built without mathematics. emitter junction of the transistor con-
when we wish to achieve reproduction
It is stitutes such a diode.
which is close to the original sound that If the test leads are connected the
Plight of the we need to start with loudspeakers wrong way round, this "diode" is reversed
capable of a smooth response throughout biased and little current can flow anyway.
"bumble bee" the audible range, and these tend to be However, as you may have observed, a
Sir —I I am rather like
suppose expensive.
The application of elementary scientific
reverse deflection of the meter occurs
when the leads are reversed and this
the bumblebee. Aerodynamic
principles ensures that we do get the may damage the meter.
theory says that with his fat body
best from our speakers, and a cabinet When taking readings, always start
and small wings he can't possibly made in this way costs no more. on a high range and switch down pro-
fly. But he knows nothing about As regards the enclosure described, This will protect the meter

aerodynamics so he just goes on this is a most unusual shape, and we
gressively.
as any errors in connecting the leads
flying. would not recommend it. The main will be obvious. —
R.E.F.S.

454
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