You are on page 1of 27

AUTOMATION AND CIMS

Outline:
 Automation Definition

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 Types of Automation
 Reasons for Automation
 Arguments for and against Automation
 CIMS Definition, Wheel and General Application
 Automation and CIMS

1  CIMS System
 Benefits of CIMS
AUTOMATION

 Automation is a technology concerned with the


application of mechanical, electronic, and computer
based systems to operate and control production.

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 Automation technology includes:
 Automatic machine tool to process parts
 Automatic assembly machines
 Industrial robots
 Automatic material handling and storage systems
 Automatic inspection systems for quality control
 Feedback control and computer process control
 Computer systems for planning, data collection and
decision making to support manufacturing activities
2
TYPES OF AUTOMATION
 Three basic types:

1. Fixed automation

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


2. Programmable automation
3. Flexible automation

3
FIXED AUTOMATION
 Fixed automation is a system in which the sequence
of processing (or assembly) operations is fixed by the
equipment configuration
 The operations in the sequence are usually simple.

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 It is the integration and coordination of many such
operations into one piece of equipment that makes the
system complex
 Features of fixed automation:
 High initial investment for custom-engineered equipment
 High production rate
 Relatively flexible in accommodating product changes

 Examples:
 Mechanized assembly lines
 Machining transfer lines 4
PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION
 In Programmable automation, the production equipment is
designed with the capability to change the sequence of
operations to accommodate different product configurations
The operation sequence is controlled by a program, which is

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar



a set of instruction coded so that the system can read and
interpret them
 New programs can be prepared and entered into the
equipment to produce new products
 Features of programmable automation:
 High investment in general-purpose equipment
 Low production rates relative to fixed automation
 Flexibility to deal with changes in product configuration
 Most suitable for batch production

 Examples:
 Numerically controlled machine tools
 Industrial robots 5
FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION
 Flexible automation is an extension of programmable
automation wherein the system can produce various
combination and schedules of products.
A flexible automated system is one that is capable of

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar



producing variety of products (parts) with virtually no time
lost for changeovers from one product to the next
 There is no production time lost while reprogramming the
system and altering the physical setup (tooling, fixtures,
machine settings)
 Features of flexible automation:
 High investment for a custom-engineered system
 Continuous production of variable mixtures of product
 Medium production rates
 Flexibility to deal with product design variations

 Examples:
 Flexible manufacturing systems for performing machining operations 6
Prof. Nagaraj Raikar
7
Information
Processing
Activities

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


Factory
Physical
Activities

8
REASONS FOR AUTOMATION

1. Increased productivity:
 Automation of manufacturing operations holds the promise of increasing the
productivity of labor

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 This means greater output per hour of labor input
 Higher production rates (output per hour) are achieved with automation than
with the corresponding manual operations

2. High cost of labor:


 The trend in the industrialized societies of the world has been toward ever-
increasing costs
 As a result, higher investment in automated equipment has become
economically justifiable to replace manual operations
 The high costs of labor are forcing business leaders to substitute machines for
human labor.
 Because machines can produce at higher rate of output, the use of automation
results in lower costs per unit of product

3. Labor shortages:
 In many advanced nations there has been a general shortage of labor
 West Germany, for example, has been forced to import labor to augment its
own labor supply
 Labor shortages also stimulate the development of automation as a substitute 9
of labor
4. Trend of labor towards the service sector:
 The proportion of work force in manufacturing stands at about 20%.
 Work force decreases days by day in manufacturing sector
 No to shop floor jobs trend, AC office trend, Govt. jobs etc.

5. Safety:
 By automating the operation and transferring the operator from an
active participation to a supervisory role, work is made safer

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 The safety and physical well-being of the worker has become a national
objective with the enactment of the OSHA (Occupational Safety and
Health Act) of 1970
 It has also provided an thrust for automation

6. High cost of raw materials:


 The high cost of raw materials in manufacturing results in the need for
greater efficiency in using these materials
 The reduction of scrap is one of the benefits in automation

7. Improved product quality:


 Automated operations not only produce parts at faster rates than do their
manual counterparts, but they produce parts with greater consistency
and conformity to quality specifications 10
8. Reduced manufacturing lead time:
 Automation allows manufacturer to reduce the time between the customer
order and product delivery
 This gives the manufacturer a competitive advantage in promoting good
customer service

9. Reduction in process inventory:

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 Holding large inventories of work in process represents a significant cost to
the manufacturer because it ties up capital
 In process inventory is of no value
 It serves none of the purposes of raw materials stock or finished product
inventory
 Automation tends to accomplish this goal by reducing the time a work part
spends in the factory

10. High cost of not automating:


 A significant competitive advantage is gained by automating a
manufacturing plant
 The benefits of automation often show up in intangible ways, such as
improved quality, higher sales, better labor/ employee relations, customer
11
satisfaction and better company’s image in the mind of general public
ARGUMENTS AGAINST AUTOMATION

1. Automation will result in the suppression of


the human being by a machine

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


2. There will be a reduction in labor force
resulting in unemployment

3. Automation will reduce purchasing power

12
ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR OF
AUTOMATION

1. Automation is the key to the shorter workweek


2. Automation brings safer working conditions for

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


workers
3. Automated production results in lower prices
and better products
4. The growth of automation industry will itself
provide employment opportunities
5. Automation is the only means of increasing our
standard of living

13
COMPUTER INTEGRATED
MANUFACTURING (CIMS)

 CIM describes integrated applications of computers in


manufacturing

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 CIM has been coined to denote the pervasive (all-
encompassing/ persistent) use of computers to design the
products, plan the production, control the operations, and
perform the various related functions needed in
manufacturing firm

 Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) definition:


CIM is the integration of the total manufacturing
enterprise through the use of integrated systems and
data communications coupled with new managerial 14
philosophies that improve organizational and
personal efficiency
TYPES OF MANUFACTURING
SYSTEMS

 1. Special Manufacturing System

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 2. Manufacturing Cell

 3.Flexible Manufacturing System

15
APPLICATION GUIDELINES

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


16
Prof. Nagaraj Raikar
17
CIMS WHEEL
 1.CUSTOMER

 2. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 3. SHARED KNOWLEDGE

 4. TOTAL ENTERPRISE

 5. RESOURCES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 6. MANUFACTURING INFRASTRUCTURE
18
BASIC COMPONENTS OF CIMS
 1. Machine tools and related equipment:
[Standard CNC m/c tools, Special purpose m/c tools, Inspection
station…]

2. Materials handling system:

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar



[move parts between m/c’s & orient and locate the work parts for
processing at
the m/c’s]

 3. Computer Control system: It describes how the digital


computer system is used to manage the operation of a complex
manufacturing system.
i) FUNCTION OF COMPUTER IN A CIMS:
a) Machine control:- This is usually accomplished by computer numerical
control (CNC). The advantage of CNC is that it can be conveniently interfaced
with the other elements of the computer control system.
19
b) Direct numerical control (DNC):- Most CIMS operate under DNC. In some of
the simple which are dedicated to a limited part variety, CNC may be a sufficient
control method for the system. The purpose of DNC is to perform the usual DNC
function, including NC part program storage, distribution of programs to the
individual machines in the system, postprocessing, and so on.

c) Production control:- This function includes decision on part mix and rate of
input of the various parts onto the system. These decision are based on data
entered into the computer, such as desired production rate per day for the various
parts, numbers of raw workparts available, and number of available pallets.

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


d) Traffic control:-This term refers to the regulation of the primary workpiece
transport which moves parts between workstations. This control can be
accomplished by dividing the transport system to zones. A zone is the section of
the primary transport system which is individually controlled by the computer.

e) Shuttle control:- This is concerned with the regulation of the secondary part
handling system at each machine tool. Each shuttle system must be coordinated
with the primary handling system, and it must also be synchronized with the
operation of the machine tool it serves. In case where there is only one parts
handling system the function of traffic control and shuttle control may be
combined.

f) Work handling and system monitoring:- The computer must monitor the 20
status of the cart and/or pallet n the primary and secondary handing system as
well as the status of each of the various workpart types in the system.
g) Tool control:- Monitoring and control of cutting tool status is an important
feature of the computer system. There are two aspects to tool control:
The first aspect of tool control involves keeping track of the tools
at each station in the system.
The second aspect of tool control is tool-life monitoring. A tool
life is specified to the computer for each cutting tool in the CIMS. Then the file is
kept on the machining time usage of each tool. When the cumulative machining
time reaches the life for a given tool, the operator is notified that a replacement
is required.

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


h) System performance monitoring and reporting:- The system computer can
be programmed to generate various reports desired by management on system
performance. The type of report are discussed later in this section.

ii) CIMS DATA FILES:


a) Part program file:- The part program for each workpart processed on the
system is maintained in this file. For any given workpart, a separate program is
required for each station that performs operation on the part.

b) Routing file:- This file contains the list of workstations through which each
workpart must be processed. It also contains alternate routings for the parts. If
the machine in the primary routing is down for repairs or there is a large
backlog of work waiting for the machine, the computer will select an alternate 21
routing for the part to follow.
c) Part production file:- A file of production parameters is maintained for
each workpart. It contains data relative to production rates for the various
machines in the routing, allowances for in-process inventory, inspections
required, an so on.

d) Pallet reference file:- A given pallet may be fixtured only for certain parts.
The pallet reference file is used to maintain a record of the parts that each
pallet can accept.

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


e) Station tool file:- A file is kept for each workstation, identifying the coeds
of the cutting tools stored at the station. This file is used for tool control
purposes.

f) Tool-life file:- This data file keeps the tool-life value for each cutting tool in
the system. The cumulative machining time of each tool is compared with its
life value so that a replacement can be made before compete failure occurs.

iii) SYSTEM REPORT:


a) Utilization report:- These are reports that summarize the utilization of
individual workstation as well as overall average utilization for the system.

b) Production reports:- Management is interested in the daily and weekly


quantities of parts produced form the CIMS. This information is provided in 22
the form of production reports which lists the required schedule together
with actual production completions
c) Status reports:- Line supervision can call for a report on the current status
of the system at any time. A status report can be considered an instantaneous
“snapshot” of the present condition of the CIMS. Of interest to supervision
would be status data on workparts, machine utilization, pallets , and other
system operating parameters

d) Tool report:- These reports relate to various aspects of tool control. Reported
data might include a listing of missing tools at each workstation. Also, a tool-
life status report can be prepared at the start of each shift.

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 4. Human labor
[ -System manager,
-electrical/mechanical/hydraulic technician,
-tool setter,
-fixture setup and lead man,
-load/unload man,
-rover operator….]
23
AUTOMATION AND CIMS

Automation CIM
1. Concerned with physical 1. Concerned with the

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


activities in manufacturing information- processing
functions that are required
to support the operations
2. Automated production
systems are designed to 2. It involves use of computer
accomplish the processing, systems to perform the four
assembly, material types of information-
handling, and inspecting processing functions
activities with little or no
human participation

24
BENEFITS OF CIMS

Tangible Benefits Intangible Benefits


 Higher profits  Higher employee morale
 Less direct labour  Safer working environment

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 Increased machine use  Improved customer image
 Reduced scrap and  Greater scheduling flexibility
rework  Greater ease in recruiting new
 Increased factory employees
capacity  Increased job security
 Reduced Inventory  More opportunities for
 Shortened new product upgrading skills
development time
 Fewer missed delivery
dates
 Decreased warranty 25
costs
REFERENCES
 CAD/CAM By P N RAO
 CAD/CAM By GROOVER AND ZIMMERS

Prof. Nagaraj Raikar


 www.google.com

26
Prof. Nagaraj Raikar
27
THANK
YOU