Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8
Member of the GENTEC GROUP HOME ABOUT US PRODUCTS KNOWLEDGE DOWNLOAD CONTACT Knowledge > Valves
Member of the GENTEC GROUP HOME ABOUT US PRODUCTS KNOWLEDGE DOWNLOAD CONTACT Knowledge > Valves

Member of the GENTEC GROUP

GROUP HOME ABOUT US PRODUCTS KNOWLEDGE DOWNLOAD CONTACT Knowledge > Valves > Valve Types and Application

Knowledge>Valves>Valve Types and Application

 

THE VALVES

Valve Types and Application

and Application   THE VALVES Valve Types and Application Figure VTA-1 Knife Gate Valve By definition,

Figure VTA-1 Knife Gate Valve

Valve Types and Application Figure VTA-1 Knife Gate Valve By definition, a valve is a device

By definition, a valve is a device that controls the flow of a fluid. Modern valves can control not only the flow but also the rate, the volume, the pressure or the direction of liquids, gases, slurries or dry materials through a pipeline, chute or similar passageway. They can turn on and turn off, regulate, modulate or isolate the flow. They can range in size from a fraction of an inch to as large as 30 feet in diameter and can vary in complexity from a simple brass water valve to a precision-designed, highly sophisticated coolant system control valve made of an exotic metal alloy.

Figure VTA-2 A 3-way Gate Valve

COMMON TYPES OF POSITIONERS

PneumaticFigure VTA-2 A 3-way Gate Valve COMMON TYPES OF POSITIONERS Digital Electronic Electro-pneumatic   Valves can

DigitalA 3-way Gate Valve COMMON TYPES OF POSITIONERS Pneumatic Electronic Electro-pneumatic   Valves can control flow

Electronic

Electro-pneumatic

 

Valves can control flow of all types, from the thinnest gas to highly

corrosive chemicals, superheated steam, abrasive slurries, toxic gases and

radio active materials. They can handle temperatures from cryogenic region to molten metal, and pressures from high vacuum to thousands of pounds per square inch.

The valve is one of the most basic and indispensable components of our modern technological society. It is essential to virtually all manufacturing processes and every energy production and supply system. Yet it is one of the oldest products known to man, with a history of thousands of years.

COMMON TYPES OF VALVES

Multi-turn Valves, or Linear Motion, Valveswith a history of thousands of years. COMMON TYPES OF VALVES Quarter Turn, or Rotary, Valves

Quarter Turn, or Rotary, ValvesTYPES OF VALVES Multi-turn Valves, or Linear Motion, Valves Self-Actuated Valves Control Valves Specialty Valves

Self-Actuated Valvesor Linear Motion, Valves Quarter Turn, or Rotary, Valves Control Valves Specialty Valves MULTI-TURN VALVES OR

Control ValvesValves Quarter Turn, or Rotary, Valves Self-Actuated Valves Specialty Valves MULTI-TURN VALVES OR LINEAR MOTION VALVES

Specialty ValvesTurn, or Rotary, Valves Self-Actuated Valves Control Valves MULTI-TURN VALVES OR LINEAR MOTION VALVES The Gate

MULTI-TURN VALVES OR LINEAR MOTION VALVES

The Gate ValveSpecialty Valves MULTI-TURN VALVES OR LINEAR MOTION VALVES   The gate valve is a general service

 

The gate valve is a general service valve used primarily for on/off, non-throttling service. The valve is closed by a flat face, vertical disc, or gate that slides down through the valve to block the flow.

Advantages:

1. Virtually no pressure loss across the valve face

2. Can be used when the fluid contains suspended solids

Disadvantage:

1. Poor to fair sealing characteristics

Recommendation:

1. Not for frequent valve opening/ closing service

2. Not for when precise throttling control is required

COMMON TYPES OF ACTUATORS

Manual Actuatorsthrottling control is required COMMON TYPES OF ACTUATORS Hydraulic and Pneumatic Actuators Electric Actuators  

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Actuatorsis required COMMON TYPES OF ACTUATORS Manual Actuators Electric Actuators   KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec

Electric ActuatorsACTUATORS Manual Actuators Hydraulic and Pneumatic Actuators   KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All

 

KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.

 

2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.   The Globe Valve   The globe valve

The Globe Valve

 

The globe valve effects closure by a plug with a flat or convex bottom lowered onto a matching horizontal seat located in the center of the valve. Raising the plug opens the valve, allowing fluid flow. The direction of fluid flow through the valve changes several times, which increases the pressure drop across the valve.

 

  Figure VTA-3 Globe Valve: (1) Stem, (2) Packing, (3) Disc, (4) Body, (5) Bonnet, (6)

Figure VTA-3 Globe Valve: (1) Stem, (2) Packing, (3) Disc, (4) Body, (5) Bonnet, (6) Flow Path, and (7) Seat

 

Disc, (4) Body, (5) Bonnet, (6) Flow Path, and (7) Seat   Figure VTA-4 A Pinch

Figure VTA-4 A Pinch Valve

The

globe

valve

applications.

Advantages:

is

used

for

on/off

service

and

throttling

1. Good sealing characteristics

2. Can be used in frequent open/ closing service face

3. Quick change of trim without removing valve from line

4. High capacity

5. God rangeability

6. Low-noise trim available

7. Smooth control

Disadvantage:

1. High-pressure losses due to contorted path through the valve

2. Low-noise trim reduces capacity

Recommendation:

1. For flow regulation

2. When tight shut-off is required

1. For flow regulation 2. When tight shut-off is required The Pinch Valve The pinch valve

The Pinch Valve

The pinch valve is particularly suited for applications of slurries or liquids with large amounts of suspended solids. It seals by means of one or more flexible elements, such as a rubber tube, that can be pinched to shut off flow.

Advantages:

1. Effectively control the flow of both abrasives and corrosives

2. No contact between metal parts and the transport media

Disadvantage:

1. Limited operating pressure

2. Limited temperature Range

3. High wear and tear

Recommendation:

1. For situations where product purity is a high priority

2. For medical applications, pharmaceutical processes, and handling of wastewater , slurries, pulp, powder and pellets

3. Contraindicated for services that require high-pressure and/or high-temperature flow, and for use with gases

KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.

 

·

The Diaphragm Valve

 

The diaphragm valve closes by means of a flexible diaphragm attached to a compressor. When the compressor is lowered by the valve stem onto a weir, the diaphragm seals and cuts off flow. The diaphragm valve handles corrosive, erosive and dirty services.

Advantages:

1. Almost no leakage

2. Process fluid is isolated from valve stem

3. Self-cleaning

Disadvantage:

1. Limited operating pressure

2. Limited temperature range

3. High wear and tear

 

  Figure VTA-5 Typical Diaphragm Valves (Gentec DV84, and DV86 Ultra High Purity Gas Valve) Figure

Figure VTA-5

Typical Diaphragm Valves (Gentec DV84, and DV86 Ultra High Purity Gas Valve)

Valves (Gentec DV84, and DV86 Ultra High Purity Gas Valve) Figure VTA-6 Needle Valve (Closed and

Figure VTA-6 Needle Valve (Closed and Opened)

Gas Valve) Figure VTA-6 Needle Valve (Closed and Opened) Figure VTA-7 A Small In-line Plug Valve

Figure VTA-7 A Small In-line Plug Valve

4. Poor control over 50%-opening in general

Recommendation:

1. Water-treatment service

2. Chemical and abrasive service

The Needle ValveWater-treatment service 2. Chemical and abrasive service The needles valve is a volume-control valve that restricts

The needles valve is a volume-control valve that restricts flow in small lines. The fluid going through the valve passes through an orifice that is the seat for a rod with a cone-shaped tip. The Size of the orifice is changes by positioning the cone in relation to the seat.

Advantages:

1. Precise resistance to flow resulting in accurate control of flow

2. Tight shut-off

3. Small and compact

Disadvantage:

1. Smaller flow capacity

2. Small rangeability

3. Large pressure drop

Recommendation:

1. Excellent for control and metering applications

2. Not for applications where the media is viscous (sticky)

3. Not for dispensation of slurries

QUARTER TURN, OR ROTARY, VALVES

The Plug Valvefor dispensation of slurries QUARTER TURN, OR ROTARY, VALVES The plug valve is used primarily for

The plug valve is used primarily for on/off service and some throttling services. It controls flow by means of a cylindrical or tapered plug with a hole in the center that lines up with the flow path of the valve to permit flow. A quarter turn in either direction blocks the flow path.

Advantages:

1. Virtually no pressure loss across the valve face

2. Can be used when the fluid contains suspended solids

3. Lightweight, compact design

4. High capacity

5. Good rangeability

6. Tight shut-off

Disadvantage:

1. Poor sealing characteristics, sealability poor with metal seats

used at high temperatures

2. Limited-temperature range with resilient seats

3. Choke flow problems

4. Cavitation problems

5. Requires removal for maintenance

Recommendation:

1. Not for service with highly corrosive fluids

2. Most suitable VPH-for handling slurries

 

Figure VTA-8 An In-Line Ball Valve   KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All

Figure VTA-8 An In-Line Ball Valve

 

KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.

 

2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.   Figure VTA-9 Typical Ball Valves for High

Figure VTA-9 Typical Ball Valves for High Purity Application

  Figure VTA-10 Inside a Ball Valve   Figure VTA-11 Schematic of a Rotary Motion
 
Figure VTA-10 Inside a Ball Valve
 
Figure VTA-11 Schematic of a Rotary Motion Disk Closure
Member inside a Butterfly Valve (Opened and Closed)
 
 
inside a Butterfly Valve (Opened and Closed)     The Ball Valve The ball valve is

The Ball Valve

The ball valve is similar in concept to the plug valve but uses a rotating ball with a hole through it that allows straight-through flow in the open position and shuts off flow when the ball is rotated 90 degrees to block the flow passage. It is used for both on/off and throttling services, especially in situations where tight shut-off is required

Advantages:

1. Ease of operation

2. Can regulate high volume, high pressure and high temperature

flow

3. Rugged construction providing for a long service life at low cost

4. Ease of maintenance

The Butterfly Valvefor a long service life at low cost 4. Ease of maintenance The butterfly valve controls

The butterfly valve controls flow by using a circular disc or vane with its pivot axis at right angles to the direction of flow in the pipe. The butterfly valve is used both for on/off and throttling services.

Advantages:

1. Lightweight compact design

2. Minimal pressure loss across valve

3. Low cost

4. High throughput capacity

5. Smaller shaft and actuator

Disadvantage:

1. Poor sealing characteristics

2. Tight shut-off requires special lining: plus over-sized shaft and

actuators

3. Lining imposes temperature limitations

Recommendation:

1. Low-pressure applications

SELF-ACTUATED VALVES

1. Low-pressure applications SELF-ACTUATED VALVES The Check Valve The check valve is designed to prevent

The Check Valve

The check valve is designed to prevent backflow. Fluid flow in the desired direction opens the valve, while backflow forces the valve closed.

Most check valves contain a ball that sits freely above the seat, which has only one through-hole. The ball has a slightly larger diameter than that of the through-hole. When the pressure behind

 

 

  Figure VTA-12 A In-line Ball Check Valve the seat exceeds that above the ball, fluid

Figure VTA-12 A In-line Ball Check Valve

the seat exceeds that above the ball, fluid is allowed to flow through the valve; however, once the pressure above the ball exceeds the pressure below the seat, the ball returns to rest in the seat, forming a seal that prevents backflow (see Figure VTA-12).

 

KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.

 

2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.   Figure VTA-13 Dual Plate (Swing) Check Valve

Figure VTA-13 Dual Plate (Swing) Check Valve

Reserved.   Figure VTA-13 Dual Plate (Swing) Check Valve Figure VTA-14 A Spring Loaded Ball Check

Figure VTA-14 A Spring Loaded Ball Check Valve

Single-disc swing valves are designed with the closure element attached to the top of the cap. Double-disc or wafer check-valves consist of two half-circle disks hinged together that fold together upon positive flow and retract to a full-circle to close against reverse flow (see Figure VTA-13).

 

A lift-check valve is a check valve in which the disc (lift) can be

lifted up off its seat by higher pressure of inlet or upstream fluid to allow flow to the outlet or downstream side. A stop-check valve is a check valve with override control to stop flow regardless of flow direction or pressure. When the valve is open, it acts as a check valve, but the valve can be deliberately shut to stop flow.

Spring-loaded devices can be mounted vertically or horizontally (see Figure VTA-14).

The Pressure Relief Valvebe mounted vertically or horizontally (see Figure VTA-14). The pressure relief valve is designed to provide

The pressure relief valve is designed to provide protection from over-pressure in steam, gas, air and liquid lines. The valve lets off some fluid when safe pressures are exceeded, and then closed again when pressure drops to a preset level.

Gas Pressure Regulatorand then closed again when pressure drops to a preset level. Gas Pressure Regulators can also

Gas Pressure Regulators can also be considered as a special type of self-actuated valves. They are used to control the downstream line pressure. They remove fluctuations in the supply and the set points are adjustable.

CONTROL VALVES

The control valve is designed to ensure accurate proportioning control of flow. It automatically varies the rate of flow based signals it receives from sensing devices in a continuous process. Some valves are designed specifically as control valves. However, most types of valves can be used as control valves, both linear and rotary motion, by the addition of power actuators, positioners and other accessories.

SPECIALTY VALVES

In addition to standard valve products, many valve manufacturers

produce custom-designed valves and actuators for specific applications. Valves are available in a broad spectrum of sizes and materials. Each design has its own advantages, and selection of the proper valve for particular application is critical. The factors generally considered in the selection of a valve include:

The substance to be handles and the required flow rate.generally considered in the selection of a valve include: The requirement that the valve control and/or

The requirement that the valve control and/or shut off the flow in the manner demanded by the service conditions.The substance to be handles and the required flow rate. The ability of the valve to

The ability of the valve to withstand the maximum working pressure and temperature.rate. The requirement that the valve control and/or shut off the flow in the manner demanded

Figure VTA-15 Inside a Typical Pressure Regulator   The ability of the valve to resist

Figure VTA-15 Inside a Typical Pressure Regulator

 

The ability of the valve to resist attack by corrosion or erosion.Figure VTA-15 Inside a Typical Pressure Regulator   Actuator requirements, if any. Maintenance and repair requirements.

Actuator requirements, if any.of the valve to resist attack by corrosion or erosion. Maintenance and repair requirements.   KSY2007

Maintenance and repair requirements.by corrosion or erosion. Actuator requirements, if any.   KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co.,

 

KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.

 

 

2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.     Figure VTA-16 Seat, (2) body, (3)

Figure VTA-16

Seat, (2) body, (3) pneumatic actuator, (4) spring, (5) bonnet, (6) stem, (7) cage, (8) plug, (9) diaphragm, and (10) stem motion

Components of a Typical Liquid Control Valve: (1)

ACTUATORS

Manual ActuatorsComponents of a Typical Liquid Control Valve: (1) ACTUATORS   A manual actuator employs levers, gears

 

A manual actuator employs levers, gears or wheels to facilitate movement; while an automatic actuator has an external power source to provide the force and motion to operate a valve remotely or automatically. Power actuators are a necessity on valves in pipelines located in remote areas: they are also used on valves that are frequently operated or throttled. Valves that are particularly large may be impossible or impractical to operate manually simply by the sheer horsepower requirements.

Some valves may be located in extremely hostile or toxic environments, which preclude manual operation. Additionally, as a safety feature, certain types of power actuators may be required to operate quickly, shutting down a valve in case of emergency.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Actuatorsoperate quickly, shutting down a valve in case of emergency. The hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are

The hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are often simple devices with a minimum of mechanical parts, used on linear or quarter-turn valves. Sufficient air or fluid pressure acts on a piston to provide thrust in a linear motion for gate or globe valves. Alternatively, the thrust may be mechanically converted to rotary motion to operate a quarter-turn valve. Most types of fluid power actuators can be supplied with fail-safe features to close or open a valve under emergency circumstances.

Electric Actuatorsto close or open a valve under emergency circumstances. The electric actuator has a motor drive

The electric actuator has a motor drive that provides torque to operate a valve. Electric actuators are frequently used on multi-turn valves such as gate or globe valves. With the addition of a quarter- turn gearbox, they can be utilized on ball, plug, or other quarter-turn valves.

POSITIONERS

Valve positioners compare a control signal to a valve actuator’s position and move the actuator accordingly. They are used with both linear valves and rotary valves. When a control signal differs from the valve actuator’s position, the valve positioner sends the necessary power to move the actuator until the correct position is reached.

There are four basic types of valve positioners: pneumatic, electric, electro-pneumatic, and digital:

PneumaticPneumatic devices send and receive pneumatic signals. Single- acting or three-way pneumatic positioners send air

Pneumatic devices send and receive pneumatic signals. Single- acting or three-way pneumatic positioners send air to and exhaust air from only one side of a single-acting valve actuator that is opposed by a range spring. Double-acting or four-way pneumatic positioners send and exhaust air from both sides of the actuator.

Electricsend and exhaust air from both sides of the actuator. Electric valve positioners send and receive

Electric valve positioners send and receive electrical signals. There are three electric actuation types: single-phase and three- phase alternating current (AC), and direct current (DC) voltage.

 

KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.

Electro-pneumaticCopyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved. Electro-pneumatic valve positioners convert current control

Electro-pneumatic valve positioners convert current control signals to equivalent pneumatic signals (or I/P operation).

Digitalsignals to equivalent pneumatic signals (or I/P operation). Digital or “smart” devices use a microprocessor to

Digital or “smart” devices use a microprocessor to position the valve actuator and monitor and record data.

Performance specifications for valve positioners vary by device type and include pneumatic input signal range, maximum supply pressure, milliampere input signal range, split range, operating temperature, and output action. Common split ranges include 4-10 mA and 12-20 mA. Two- way, three-way, and four-way splits are available.

There are three types of output actions: direct, reversible, and field reversible. Direct action devices increase the output signal as the input signal increases. Conversely, reversible action devices decrease the output signal as the input signal increases. With field reversible products, devices can be switched between direct and reversible action.

Valve positioners differ in terms of applications, features and approvals. Some products are designed for automotive, aerospace, marine, medical or military applications. Other products are suitable for food processing or pharmaceutical applications. General-purpose devices are commonly available. Intrinsically safe (IS) valve positioners do not produce sparks or other thermal effects that would ignite a specified gas mixture. Devices that are made from stainless steel are used in corrosive or high temperature environments. Common approvals for valve positioners include marks from the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), an independent testing organization.

 

Table VTA-1 Typical Flow Coefficient, C v , for Ball Valves (Full Bore)

 
 

VALVE SIZE

 
 

Inches

 

1/2

3/4

1

1 1/2

 

2

2 1/2

3

 

4

 

6

8

10

12

 

14

 

16

18

 

mm

 

12

19

25

37.5

 

50

62.5

75

 

100

150

200

250

 

300

 

350

 

400

450

 

Flow

                               

Coefficient

26

50

94

260

480

750

1300

 

2300

5400

10000

16000

 

24000

31400

 

43000

57000

 

C

v

     
 

Table VTA-2 Typical Flow Coefficient, C v , for Ball Valves (Reduced Bore)

 
   

VALVE SIZE

   
 

Inches

 

3

 

4

 

6

8

 

10

 

12

 

14

 

16

 

18

20

 

mm

 

75

100

   

150

200

 

250

300

 

350

 

400

 

450

500

 

Flow Coefficient C v

 

420

770

   

1800

2500

 

4500

8000

 

12000

 

14000

 

18000

22000

 

KSY2007 Copyright 2006-8 by Gentec Systems Co., All Rights Reserved.

 
 

Table VTA-3 Typical Flow Coefficient, C v , for Butterfly Valves

 
   

FLOW COEFFICIENT — C v

   
 

Size

   

Disc Angle - Openness

   

Maximum flow velocity (ft/sec)

 

inches

     

90 deg (wide

 

70 deg

 

50 deg

 

30 deg

   

ANSI 150

 

ANSI 300

 

mm

 

open)

 

2

 

50

 

85

 

65

 

35

 

15

 

90

 

90

 

2

 

65

 

160

 

120

 

65

 

29

 

80

 

90

 

3

 

80

 

260

 

195

 

104

 

47

 

80

 

80

 

4

 

100

 

475

 

356

 

190

 

86

 

80

 

80

 

5

 

125

 

770

 

577

 

308

 

139

 

80

 

80

 

6

 

150

 

1125

 

844

 

450

 

203

 

75

 

80

 

8

 

200

 

2110

 

1583

 

844

 

380

 

70

 

75

 

10

 

250

 

3350

 

2513

 

1340

 

603

 

60

 

70

 

12

 

300

 

4800

 

3600

 

1920

 

864

 

50

 

60

 

14

 

350

 

6900

 

5175

 

2760

 

1224

 

50

 
 

16

 

400

 

9000

 

6750

 

3600

 

1620

 

50

 
 

18

 

450

 

11800

   

8850

 

4720

 

2124

 

50

 
 

20

 

500

 

14300

   

10725

 

5720

 

2574

 

50

 

 

Table VTA-4 Typical Flow Coefficients and Flow Factors for Straight-through Diaphragm Valves

 

FLOW COEFFICIENT AND FLOW FACTOR — C v and K v

 

Valve Size

 

Unlined

   

Rubber Lined

   

Glass/Plastic Lined

 

DN

Inch

C

v

K

v

C

v

K

v

C

v

K

v

15

 

9

7

   

9

8

25

1

38

33

31

26

39

34

32

1

56

48

46

39

58

50

40

1

75

65

66

57

79

68

50

2

128

110

107

92

138

119

65

2

238

205

195

168

254

219

80

3

330

284

264

228

342

295

100

4

588

507

480

414

618

533

125

5

924

797

720

621

960

828

150

6

1680

1448

1260

1086

1800

1552

200

8

2580

2224

2196

1893

2724

2348

250

10

4020

3466

3420

2948

4296

3703

300

12

6060

5224

4884

4210

   

350

14

10300

8879

9950

8578

   

Table VTA-5 Typical Flow Coefficients and Flow Factors of Weir Diaphragm Valves

 

FLOW COEFFICIENT AND FLOW FACTOR — C v and K v

 

Valve Size

 

Unlined

   

Rubber Lined

 

Glass/Plastic Lined

 

Plastic Lined

 

DN

Inch

C

v

K

v

C

v

K

v

C

v

K

v

C

v

K

v

15

 

6

5

   

6

5

   

20

 

12

10

9

8

12

10

7

6

25

1

18

15

14

12

18

16

11

10

32

1

28

24

22

19

28

24

17

14

40

1

43

37

35

30

45

39

31

27

50

2

80

69

64

55

88

76

59

51

65

2

127

109

102

88

132

114

83

72

80

3

185

159

148

128

186

160

148

128

100

4

315

272

252

217

336

290

270

233

125

5

420

362

363

313

440

379

   

150

6

605

522

484

417

630

543

505

435

200

8

1300

1121

1309

1128

1320

1138

   

225

9

1630

1405

1320

1138

1680

1448

   

250

10

1980

1707

2000

1724

2 100

1 810

   

300

12

2550

2198

2600

2241

2700

2328

   

350

14

3700

3190

3750

3233

3880

3345

   

[Contact Us] [Site Map] Copyright(C) 2008 [Gentec Systems Corporation]. All rights reserved. Last Updated2008-12-18