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“Modelling and Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Chassis

Frame Made by Using Carbon Fiber and Composite


Material: A Comparative Study.”
Er. Bhimsen Shrestha
Mechanical Engineer,
KL College of Engineering, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, Guntur District, India

Keywords: Chassis Frame, Composite


ABSTRACT Automotive chassis is the Material, Modal Analysis, Harmonic
important component of automobile that Analysis, Strength Comparison.
works as a frame work for holding all the
important part of vehicle like Engine,
Steering Systems, Suspension System etc. It INTRODUCTION:
should be hence stiff and rigid to withstand Chassis is a French term and was
the shock, twist, vibration and strength. The initially used to denote the frame parts or
conventional chassis is very heavy and Basic Structure of the vehicle. It is the back
bulky in nature due to that it contributes in bone of the vehicle. A vehicle without body
higher emission and less efficiency of is called Chassis. It consists of an internal
vehicle. framework that supports a manmade object
In this paper firstly, the chassis frame in its construction and use. It is analogous to
of Eicher truck 11.0 is modeled in Pro-E an animal's skeleton. An example of a
Creo Parametric 3.0 software and the chassis is the under part of a motor vehicle,
further analysis is done in ANSYS 17.2 by consisting of the frame (on which the body
using the composite material like carbon is mounted).
fiber, S- Glass Epoxy and E-Glass Epoxy. The components of the vehicle like
To study the vibration characteristics Power plant, Transmission System, Axles,
of the chassis frame and to know the natural Wheels and Tires, Suspension, Controlling
frequency of the chassis frame, Modal Systems like Braking, steering etc., and also
Analysis is done. Furthermore, Harmonic electrical system parts are mounted on the
analysis is done to know the von misses Chassis frame. It is the main mounting for
stress in the chassis frame at that natural all the components including the body. So, it
frequency which incurs maximum is also called as Carrying Unit.
deformation in chassis frame. Finally, the The following main components of the
results are compared to know which is Chassis are
suitable material for the chassis frame.
1. Frame: it is made up of long two
members called side members riveted
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together with the help of number of components as well as the payload and helps
cross members. to keep the automobile rigid and stiff.
2. Engine or Power plant: It provides Consequently, the chassis is also an
the source of power. important component of the overall safety
3. Clutch: It connects and disconnects system. Furthermore, it ensures low levels of
the power from the engine fly wheel noise, vibrations and harshness throughout
to the transmission system, the automobile. Along the strength, an
4. Gear box. important consideration is chassis design is
The frame is the main part of the to have adequate bending and torsional
chassis on which remaining parts of stiffness for better handling characteristics.
chassis are mounted. The frame should So, strength and stiffness are two important
be extremely rigid and strong so that it criteria for the design of chassis. The load
can withstand shocks, twists, stresses and carrying structure is the chassis, so the
vibrations to which it is subjected while chassis has to be so designed that it has to
vehicle is moving on road. It is also withstand the loads that are coming over it.
called underbody. The frame is supported Composite material like carbon fiber
on the wheels and tire assemblies. The S-glass and E-glass Epoxy fiber recently
frame is narrow in the front for providing gained a wide acceptance in the automobile
short turning radius to front wheels. It industry due to their light weight and high
widens out at the rear side to provide strength as compare to conventional
larger space in the body. automobile frame which is manufactured
LITERATURE REVIEW from steel and its alloy. Increasing demand
of highly efficient and less weight
Automotive chassis is a skeletal automobile’s have made the researcher to do
structure on which various other mechanical brain storming to search new materials and
parts are assembled. In late 1900s, the composite materials gained wide attention to
chassis existed in wooden frame with the be introduced in auto vehicle due to their
metal panel arrangement, then wooden less dense and high strength and stiff in
frame reinforced with steel was introduced nature. Finite element analysis is most
to give the chassis a greater rigidity. Finally, widely used analysis technique due to its
steel ladder frames became common in 1930 ease of use and good comparable results. By
with composite material structures. The providing suitable boundary conditions on
chassis is the most crucial element and can do the analysis like static, modal and
significant component which are basically harmonic analysis. In this paper, Modal
made from steel. Chassis Frame must be analysis is done to determine the natural
stiff enough to withstand all the forces and vibrating frequency and maximum
loads acting on it statically and dynamically deformation of the chassis frame by using
and forces like shock, twist and vibration. stainless steel, carbon fiber, S-glass Epoxy
The chassis provides the strength needed for Fiber and E-glass Epoxy Fiber. After that
supporting the different vehicular
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Harmonic analysis of chassis frame is done
by taking the natural frequency at which
maximum deformation is occurs at chassis
frame as input and corresponding von
misses stress is extract. On the basis of 17.Deflection of Chassis: - = 2.85 mm
modal analysis and harmonic analysis a
comparison is done of all the material’s
which is been used in this comparative
study.
That is within safe limit according
DETAILS OF CHASSIS FRAME deflect ion span ratio.
Model- EICHER 11.10
1. Side bar cross
section=210mm×76mm×6mm
2. Number of side bar= 2
3. Number of cross bar= 6
4. Channel = C- channel
5. Rear overhang= 1620mm
6. Front overhang= 935mm
7. Wheel base= 3800mm
8. Length of Chassis=6350mm
9. Width of Chassis=2150mm
10.Capacity of truck =8 ton
11.Weight of body and engine= 2 ton
12.Load Acting on Chassis Frame =8000
Kg = 78480N
Fig: -Cross Section of main
13.Engine and Body Weight = 2000Kg = frame
19620N
14.Over loaded Truck Capacity =
1.25%×78480=98100N
15.Total Load on Chassis Frame =
19620+98100=117720N
16.Load Acting on single frame = Total
load/2= 58860N

Now we can calculate the maximum


shear stress and maximum deflection
using equation given below
Fig: - Model- EICHER 11.10

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MATERIAL PROPERTIES possible to get the accurate results and at
some points the
Sl. No Properties Units Stainless Steel E-Glass Epoxy S-Glass Epoxy Carbon
Fiber Fiber Fiber

1. Density Kg/m3 7850 2500 2490 1600


2. Young’s Modulus GPa 200 72.5 85 155
3. Poison Ratio - 0.31 0.28 0.22 0.358
4. Tensile Strength GPa 3.2 3.45 4.6 4.1

CAD DESIGN OF CHASIS FRAME


Pro-E Creo Parametric 3.0 is used to
finer meshing is also done to get
model the chassis frame of Eicher11.0.3-D better results.
model of the chassis frame is shown in
Figure below.

Fig: - Meshing of Chassis Frame


Fig: - 3D Model of Chassis frame

MESHING OF CHASSIS FRAME


BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR
The finite element method (FEM) is a MODAL ANALYSIS
numerical technique for finding approximate
solutions to boundary value problems FEM While doing software-based analysis,
subdivides a large problem into smaller, it is necessary to apply boundary conditions.
simpler, parts, called finite elements In Modal analysis, the front two and last two
Meshing of chassis frame is done in Ansys cross member are fixed there is no need to
Workbench 17.2 and method used for apply loading conditions while doing modal
meshing is tetrahedrons surface mesher. The analysis ,natural frequencies of chassis
size of elements is kept as minimum as frame is outcome in modal analysis.
Boundary conditions for modal analysis is
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shown in figure.

Fig: -Boundary conditions for Modal Analysis

MODAL ANALYSIS:
Modal analysis is used to judge the
behavior of a body under vibrational Carbon Fiber
conditions and corresponding natural
frequency is determine. Dynamic analysis
can predict these variables with respect to
time/frequency. To determine natural
frequency of component, it is basic design
property. Natural frequency information is
also helpful for avoiding resonance,
reducing noise. In this paper, the intention of
doing the modal analysis is to determine the
natural frequency of chassis frame at which
maximum deformation occurs so that this
maximum natural frequency is used as input
in harmonic analysis to determine the
corresponding stress acting on chassis of
different material. E-Glass Epoxy Fiber

Stainless Steel

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29.532 1.5873
Stainless 32.254 1.9937
Steel 44.488 2.3171
58.221 2.46
59.786 2.6386
Carbon 46.411 3.7637
Fiber 91.362 3.5175
99.365 4.4146
137.13 5.1319
180.06 5.4527
183.82 5.8466
E-Glass 15.662 2.9713
Epoxy Fiber 30.996 2.7681
S-Glass Epoxy Fiber
33.893 3.4787
46.737 4.0422
61.111 4.2886
62.875 4.6011
S-Glass 17.208 3.0275
Epoxy Fiber 34.127 2.86165
37.43 3.5435
51.564 4.1157
67.283 4.3601
69.345 4.3831

The results obtained from Modal


analysis shows that since composite
materials being light in weight, it can vibrate
at maximum modal or natural frequency
As clearly mentioned, the natural than steel materials and hence it can be
frequencies of the Stainless Steel, Carbon deformed to high range without failure than
fiber, S-Glass Epoxy Fiber and E-Glass steel materials.
Epoxy fiber are obtained from modal
analysis. These frequencies are taken as
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR
input for harmonic analysis. The below table
HARMONIC ANALYSIS:
shows the 6 modes shape’s frequency along
In Harmonic analysis, front two, last
with deformation in the corresponding mode
two cross member is fixed and also loading
shape frequency
condition is applied while doing analysis.
Type Frequency Deformation
(Hz) (mm) Most importantly natural frequency obtained
14.937 1.7022 from modal analysis is taken as input while

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doing analysis so that at particular frequency
particular stress can be noted.

Carbon Fiber
Fig: -Boundary conditions for Harmonic Analysis

HARMONIC ANALYSIS:
Result obtained from Harmonic
analysis is used to verify the Steady State
response of a linear structure, enabling
researches, engineers and chassis designer to
determine whether in which the chassis can
withstand resonance, fatigue or other
structural problems related to vibration
during its operating life. Here in this paper
the natural frequency which has highest
deformation are uses as input and
corresponding stress induced is taken as
output which is used to compare that which
material has highest and lowest von misses
stress induced.

Stainless Steel E-Glass Epoxy Fiber

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chassis frame. It means that composite
materials can bear the more stress than that
of steel. And also, the density of the
composite material is very less which helps
to drop down the weight of chassis frame
and assist in increasing the efficiency of the
automobile.

Natural Deformat Stress


S-Glass Epoxy Fiber Materials Frequency on (MPa)
(Hz) (mm) Harmonic
Analysis

Stainless 58.221 2.46 256.06


Steel
59.786 2.6386 59.786

Carbon 180.06 5.4527 3185.4


Fiber
183.82 5.8466 1251.1

E-Glass 61.111 4.2886 25618


Epoxy
62.875 4.6011 9333.3

S-Glass 67.283 4.3601 168740


Epoxy
69.345 4.3831 17663

From the result obtained, it can be


concluded that Composite material being
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: lighter in weight can vibrate at higher
The results obtained from Modal natural frequency due to which it has the
analysis shows that since composite high capacity to deform to higher range with
materials being light in weight, it can vibrate high stress without failure. Hence,
at maximum modal or natural frequency Composite materials could be the best
than steel materials and hence it can be materials to be used for designing the
deformed to high range without failure than chassis.
steel materials. Since, Composite material is very
From the harmonic analysis, it is costly as compare to other metal used in
found that Composite materials shows more auto vehicle chassis frame which incur some
von misses stress as compare to structural extra cost on the consumer. When cost will
steel at the natural frequency at which not be the factor the best alternative for the
maximum deformation occurs onto the automobile and chassis frame is composite
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materials. The results of the harmonic 8. AutarK. Kaw, "Mechanics of
analysis give a clear indication that the Composite Materials", CRC press,
composite materials can bear high stress 1997.
than that of steel materials without failure.

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