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00-Al68 899 A SEMI-EMPIRICAL LON-LATXTUOE IONOSPHERIC NOOELMU RIO V/2

FRCE GEOPHYSICS LAB HANSCON RFD NA


D N ANDERSON ET AL. il OCT 85 AFOL-TR-85-0254
UNCLASSIFIED F/O 4/1i
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AFGL-TR-85-0254
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PAPERS, NO. 933

AD-A 168 899

A Semi-Empirical, Low-Latitude lonospheriZ Model

DAVID N. ANDERSON
MICHAEL MENDILLOE
DT.
BRUCE HERNITER
E C
JUN 23 IM8

10 October 1985

,..

Approved for public release; distribution unlimmited.

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16 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION

I 1)part77E'7t It A.,trwiom17v, B1o.stonl Iniversitv, Boston, 'MA 02215

17 COSAT CODES 18 SUBIE CT TERMS -I .,1


IIII.H5 ," dnd ld~nnlt', b tl-n>B onbel

0
FELD ROp SUB 3R I.:h trm
70771175it V 771 l Is A itcLiow%
1I17111511l71'I lheocetilal moIde'l

19 ABSTRACT .n'. a-,.64,I'fbS 66


h,6.6.
bl- -- .

sinit
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-;A,% 771' 5tY71Ih 77.114S1II777 Si ;IIt
s.7i )eLt and t177al elect'0l7 content
(IHf.(,. a settil '77Tliii 1). 1"m7 -1I l?'l I,,, 1,)!l.7)It 'l J(Sl
be was- developed which
ti lt 7771'IllyCAltL, B' i-l >I7:tt~lvFs.Il, 7-Jc177Idvtsity ncl))iles
f 1101 to 11100 kill) at-( lh-wI1'tl ill. a~l 21 , 1 !lit!, fi'll )! l:77777117 (te v ' between
24 ari07 1 24 'S dipn lititu7 I,, ii It I I 41 Ii I'l li, I i
117 'l 21 17m - ]' I'I) hv solv irg
77 itt:( 'Iop171. 171 11 7, 71 771 .1 74l7 \>s' 11L H (Chap1ulatl lsik :7Iw hie. set-, of

00 art-, 177 71770 jil,>I I


17 -, II I. Il !' r 7 1c7the hzs 1' 7~1 ) 1 !'l pIe t a 1I

7. t7I~liII.',1,1l77 711't ' I 7' I..,.7 k*-.I.. t, 7.F'717.71 tplit Ill

S-lSP 7:7K1717777 ,1 Ih-ili,- I75. t U I95 ', '> II1 77 .1

it,-. N , II ' w 1-:7 ; ) 1 630 A

2. ME I I

- ~~ ~ ~ D FORM..-. 1473,8 *lI


APR*~ I *. .. -...
NO~ T- "AI~
Unclassified
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

19. (Contd)
airgiow intensities are listed in tabular form for three seasons (Equinox, June solstice,
and December sol.,-tice) and two solar cycle periods (solar maximum and solar minimumn).

Unclass~-ified

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MtT4LrS~rWVW IMOIPM W39q%" Wff%

Preface

%%p would like to thank Jeffrey Forbes, Bela Fejer, Leo McNamara,
John Kiobuchar and Jeffrey Baumgardner for numerous discussions and their
helpful sug'gestion--;. We also wish to thank Celeste Gannon and Patricia Falcione
for their holp in manuscript typing and preparation. This research was supported
in part Iby Al-'GI. Contract Fl(9628-81-K-0051 with Boston University. Michael Hicks
nroducel the g.raphs usini~y the RS/ 1 package on the Boston University Department
ff Astrononiv VAN-I1 1/750. Thanks also to the staff of the AFGL- Computer Center
for their help.

PV i

Urc TAB

By
/I D i fiot . ......
AIC -y -Ai.cjiiaL hty Codes
DII A,,a j, O
L Dit
Contents

1. INTRODUCTION 1
1. 1 Background 1
1. 2 Model Calculations 3

2. THE SEMI-EMPIRICAL APPROACH 11


2. 1 The SLIM Database 11
2. 2 Production Details 13

3. COMPARISON WITH EMIPIRICAL MODELS 15

4. CONCLUSIONS 20

R EFER E NCES 101

Illustrations

1. A (.n mpa rison Beotween Observed,. ProW cted, andI heoreti call v
C'alculatedI 'I a)ta I Elect ron Content (1E I\aluem; at \IalnilIa as
a Functio)n )f 1,-wal Tim(, for January 1982 2) %

2. Ion - Neut ral andIiI t ron -Neuitral '1cm pe ratn re Ratios as a


Intion or Altitude
3a. Vorlical T., X T l'lasnla lirilt aa a F'Intwtiou )1, I. jal I 104 Puil-'u
Solar (vI \0Iaxilum l MdNinimumn I'eriod I orvjic ('onlitions, Ii
3 h. \ rtical TE i, I'! Pruilt as aI lunmtion o)t l~oa l 'Iine1.' r-
Solar LyleI( \l ixinmuni %inimllm lriolds for tu1ne so'-tj'e
\I
('onditiot,
L

Illustrations
NT

3c. Vertical X 1 Plasma Drift as a Function of Local Time During


Solar Cycle Maximum and Minimum Periods for December
Solstice Conditions 7
4a. Contour Plot of Meridional Neutral Winds as a Function of Latitude
and Local Time for Equinox Periods 10
4b. Contour Plot of Meridional Neutral Winds as a Function of Latitude
and Local Time for June Solstice Periods 11
4c. Contour Plot Time
and Local of Meridional Neutral
for December Winds Periods
Solstice as a Function of Latitude 12

5. A Comparison Between SLIM-generated Electron Density Profiles


(o- o) and the Empirical Models of Chiu (0 ------ U ), and
Bent (xxxx) for Equinox, Solar Cycle Maximum Conditions at
1200 LT 16
6. A Comparison Between SLIM-generated Electron Density Profiles
(o-o) and the Empirical Models of Chiu (E ------- ), and
Bent (xxxx) for Equinox, Solar Cycle Maximum Conditions at
2000 LT 17
7. A Comparison Between SLIM-generated Electron Density Profiles
(o-o) and the Empirical Models of Chiu (E ------- ), and
Bent (xxxx) for Equinox, Solar Cycle Maximum Conditions at
0500 LT 18
8. A tompJarison Between SLIM-generated Electron Density Profiles
(o-o) and Profiles Measured by the Jicamarca Incoherent
Scatter Radar ( * s)) on 5 March 1969 at 1400 LT and 2000 1,T 19

Tables

1. Analytic Wind Equations


2. Electron Density Profiles and Modified Chapman Parameters 21

vi'

2"9

V)

vj . -
A Semi- Empirical, Low--Latitude Ionospheric Model

1. INTRODULCTION

I. Blackground

Current empirical models of the [ow-latitude ionospheric V-region (Llewellyn


1 .2 3
and Bert; Chiu: and Rawer )can severely underestimate the day'time plasma
density scale-height and total electron contont (TEC) when comparedl with actual
observations. As illustrated in Figure 1, the International Reference Ionosphere
(ORD) described 1w Rawer 3 yields daytime TEC values which are 50 percent lower
than observed TEC values at Manila (dip 14. 5' N) in January 1982 (NIcNamara 4 )
Some improvement occurs when the Bent topside model is incorporated with the IRI
bottomnside models, but the predic-ted values are still lower than observed. Substantial
improvement is achieved when theoretically calculated profiles (Anderson'5 are
used to predict 'FEC values. The reason is that vertical plasmia transport by upward
*~ X T1 drift produces both topside and bottom side pro files which are much broader
(thicker) than Chapman -Iike profiles.
'To cal cul ate ele(t ron lens it v profiles whenever theyv are needed, however, is
prohibitively time -cons urninc!-! -ven the fastest comnpute r. A\n alternate solution
to this problem is to theo)rt~ id ieat ilate Plect ron densit v 1 )rfili e4 as~ a function
* Oflatitude and loat tinie il then generate coeffi cients which reproduce these profiles.

(Ree('ived for publicatinni I dir ncr I )


(lufe to the, iirio nntttihr ofrehte .iteli above, they, will nlot he listed here.
See Referentces. paven 101.

4%
1'1W~v~W'Q
'W'vv - -"% 1 -zv,,rvv,

T'he coefficients themselves are easily stored, quickly retrieved and form the basis
for a fast, portable, sem-ii-empirical computer code which will produce realistic
low -latitude I"-region electron densitv profiles. Th'le results of this technique are
valled the Semi -empirical Low-latitude Ionospheric Mlodel (SLIMI).

o--- OBSERVED TEC MANILA, JAN 1982


R=137 DIP= 14 5*N
b- - -b RI EMPIRICAL MODEL, JAN
90 - R =137 TE C
a--a THEORETICAL MODEL vs
R =13 7 DIP -13*N

BO0 A IRI-BENT /c \O LOCAL TIME

600

'I
A

0A

0 0I
40 121IA. 1 0 2 2

oi~v 1.--. A on'Asn ewe bevePeitd

L11i 'Ih rei It C luae 'Io ll -J cr lCo en


(' 1-()\; t sa s a F n to lAma
-c l' m
-J ~mav '8

~ 20
neutral winds and vertical E-X ]drift are included. Because EX drifts play such b

an important role in determining the electron density distribution (Hanson and


6
Moffett and Anderson 5 ) and have a seasonal and solar cycle dependence (Fejer
et a 7), the calculations are carried out for equinox and solstice conditions for both
solar cycle maximum and minimum periods.
Once electron density profiles are obtained, they are normalized to the peak
electron density, N and appropriate coefficients which reproduce the
max
normalized profiles (180-1800 kin) every half-hour local time and every 2' dip
latitude are calculated. To regenerate density profiles simply requires specifying
N max internally (that is,re-use of the8max
theoretical N values) or by externally
using an empirical model such as CCIt-3, or observed foF2 values, and then applying
the calculated coefficients applicable to the specified latitude and local time location.
In the following sections, we describe briefly the various input parameters which
were used in calculating theoretically the electron density profiles from the time-
dependent continuity equation. The last section compares the current (Chiu and Bent
empirical profiles with SLIM -rofiles at specific latitudes and local times for
equinox, solar cycle maximum conditions.

1.2 Model Calculations

The ion (0t) continuity equation is given by

8N(NVye (NiV i ) : 1) - 1.(1."


7F_)

where --
N.(= N e ) is the ion density; Pi, the ion production rate; L.,
ii the ion loss rate;
and V.. the ion transport velocity. In the ionosphere, plasma is transported
along geomagnetic field lines by diffusion and neutral winds and perpendicular to
- - 9
field tines primarily by E X 13 drift (Kendall and Pickering ). Solving Eq. (1) at
low-latitudes is facilitated by transforming the independent coordinates ', 0 and 0
5
to a coordinate system parallel and perpendicular to B (see Anderson I.
Equation (1) can be written

6. Hanson, . 13. , and I\offett, 1. 1. (1966) Ionization trans port effects in the
equatorial ,'-reion, .I.Geophvs. lies. , 7 1:5559.
7. Fe~ier, B.G. , Farle., I). T. , Woodman, 1. 1 . , and (alderon. U. (1979)
lependence of equatorial I' -region vertical drifts on season and solar cvcle
'1. G(eophvs. lRes. , 84:5792.

8. International FUa.lio Consultative Connmittee (((II?) (1978) (('11? atlas of


ionospheric characteristis., R('p. 3-10-3 Ileco lmeri;ations Reprts )f the
ln,
((Il. Vol. 6, lnternational leon nunic'ations Inion, (;eneva.
!1. Kendall, '.( ., MI Pi'i.k-in . V. U. (1967) Ma;tplasn a 1ftusi)n at
1P2 -rEiion Altitu les. Planet. Spa.c, i. 15, 25.

..
aN.

+V VN. = P.- L. - V * (NV.) - N. Ve V. (2)

2
where Vi is given by E X B/B and ViN includes the effects of plasma diffusion and
neutral wind. The right-hand side of the equation involves terms which are second
order in the coordinate parallel to B. The left-hand side of Eq. (2) is the time rate
of change of plasma density in a frame of reference which drifts with the E X B
drift velocity. Equation (2) is solved numerically to give ion densities as a function
10
of altitude, latitude and local time (see Moffett for a review of transformations
and numerical solutions].
The set of coefficients for the ion continuity equation is obtained from models
of the neutral composition, ion and electron temperatures, and production, loss
and diffusion rates as well as E X B drift and neutral wind models. Briefly, the
models are the following;
1 1
(1) The MSIS (Hedin ) neutral atmospheric model is used to calculate
N2 , 0 , and 0 densities and the neutral temperature, T , as a function of altitude,
latitude and local time. An F10. 7 cm flux of 180 units is chosen to represent solar
cycle maximum period, and 70 units for solar minimum conditions. Average
geomagnetic conditions were chosen by setting A = 15 in the MSIS model.
(2) Production and diffusion rates are similar to those used by Anderson.

Y.or the photoionization rate at the top f the atmosphere, P,, a value of
7 -1
5.5 < 10 - sec represents solar cycle maximum conditions, with a value of
-7 -l
2.3 < 10 se- , for solar minimum conditions. The loss rate coefficient are
adopted from Torr and Torr. 12

(3) Plasma temperatures were chosen by adopting T e/T n and Ti/T n ratios as
a function of local time, altitude and season from the IRI model and then applying
ihose ratios to the T results obtained from MSIS. Figure 2 illustrates the ratio
n
behavior for the sunspot maximum Equinox case.

10. Moffett, R. J. (1979) The equatorial anomaly in the electron distribution of


terrestrial F-region, Fund. Cosmis Phys., 4:313.
11. hedin, A. F. (1983) A revised thermospheric model based on mass
spectrometer and incoherent scatter data: NSIS-83. J. Geophvs. Res.
88:10, 170
12. Torr, I. R. , and Torr. I). G. (1979) Chemistrv of the thermosrhere and
ionosphere, .I. Atmos. Terr. Phys. , 41:797.

I.
4t
1000 TEMPERATURE RATIOS

9W0 --- *ELECTRON NEUTRAL TEMPERATURE A


RATIO
800 0-<) ION NEUTRAL TEMPERATURE
RATIO

700

Z600

uj 500-

400 4

300

200 -

100.
00 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
TEMPERATURE RATIO

FiL,'Lre 2. Ion -neut cal and tEr ctron -neutral Ternpe rature Ratios
ats a J"unCt iOn Of Altt ude. 21cc neutral em pcratnre is adopted
from the '.\SIS -nodel atnios phertc (see text for details)

(4) 1the ve rticat E X~ I d ri ft ve Ioci t v obse rv e: )v WoIm an 13is essential in


proiducir.l ant mcainrta ini ng the elect ron dens itv dist ribut ion obse rved near- the ro ag -
netic equator. We adopt six vertical drift nmodels to re pre sent, respect) vel v,
i ree, seasons (equinox. s unmmer and w iter solsti ce s) at solar cycle ni aximurn and
solar c vcle( nini niurn pernods . The di ffe re.nt dinft patterns are based primrari lv on
ire ticanlarca incoherent scatter radar observations reported by Fler et at. e
cUIvO assulnied the( ve(rtic-al drift velocity is independent of altitude. Thlie e-as t -wes t
coripoinrett of 1.; drIi ft reported bev I'ejer et at 14is neglected in the calculations
be cause its effect orr el ct ron lens it r profiles is riligtibte (Anide rsorn 15 L.1iu
re S
- . 3a, :3b and 3c display the diurnal variation in drift for- the Equinox, tune solstice
sri.. I )ecencher solstice cases, for solar niaxirnuni arid riiiniunm, respectiveiv.

1:1. \codlrarc, IR. F. ( 1970) \Vertical drift velocities ariJ east-west electric fields' at
thce ncai.netic equiator. .1. (dcrptcvs. Rtes. , 75:624f4.
14. l'jcr It. . Fa Hre V, It). T. . (;cn vales' C. .A. I ll,Lioc It. F..an I ('a Heron. .

I 1) lr.Lhcrc Et -We St Iri fts at Jliancarca. .1* (leph vs. It-s. , 86:2 15.
5. An IOrson I.) N . ( )I 581)A
t ,lc rIlin
! t IrI, tr1t)i ('nrIt lI w -a;It i tI Ir f, I. r'ir r Io1o s) hrrtl
A I v irw I. ArIcIos . T1c. [tIIeIIvs. , 43 :7 53.
VERTICAL Exg DRIFT
40 -~*-SOLAR CYCLE MAXIMUM
30-0--o SOLAR CYCLE MINIMUM
30-

cr 10 -

-10 rjc

-20

0 4 8 12 16 20 24
LOCAL TIME (hrs)

* 1-Figure 3a. V ertical E X B Plasma IDrift as a Function of Local Trime


* During Solar Cycle Maximum and Minimum Periods for Equinox
Conditions

40 VERTICAL EX-9 DRIFT


&--*SOLAR CYCLE MAXIMUM
30 - -- SOLAR CYCLE MINIMUM
JUNE SOLSTICE
~20O
0-

00

-20
-30
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
LOCAL TIME (hrs)
F igure 3b. Vertical E XKBt Plasm a D ri ft as a Juncotion of Local T ime
During Solar Cycle Maximum and Mlinimum1 Periods for Ju ne Solstice
Conditions

63
a,.

VERTICAL Ex6 DRIFT


DECEMBER SOLSTICE
o-. SOLAR CYCLE MAXIMUM
0o0---v SOLAR CYCLE MINIMUM

S20_
I 0 -.

a.%

10
-10

0 4 8 12 16 20 24
LOCAL TIME (hrs)

Figure 3c. Vertical T X 3 Plasma Drift as a Function of Local Time


I)uring Solar Cycle Maximum and Minimum Periods for December
Sojutice Conditions

(5) The geomagnetic field is represented by a dipole model whose axis is

aligned with the earth's rotational axis. We incorporate E X 13 drift models appro-
priate to the American sector where the dip equator lies 12' south of the geographic
equator. and thus longitude effects are not addressed at this time. Further
development of the model will include a tilted dipole geomagnetic field with declina-
tion spe,-ified over the regions of interest.
(6) A simple analytic formulation for the meridional neutral wind field is
adopted which makes use of observations and theory. It is constructed on the basis
)f observed mean (DC), diurnal (24 -hour), semidiurnal (12 -hour), and terdiurnal
(8-hour) harmonics it Arecibo (180 N), Millstone Hill (42' N) and St. Santin (450),
w-.Aith latitude variations of amplitude and phase obtained from theoretical (numerical)
16'
s-imulations (Forbes 17). The genecal latitudinal pattern assumed is guidted by

16. Forbes, .. M. (1082a) Atmospheric Tides 1. Mot,lel description and results for
for the solar diurnal component, .. (1 eophvs. lies.. 875 .).
17. lorbes, .1. M,. (1982h) Atmospheric Tides 2. The solar i,i lunar semi-diurnal
,Jo.)nents . Geophvs. R/es., 87:52-11.

W",'

a -- . . ..
16,17

the tidal calculations of Forbes 16, 17 and the zonal mean velocities presented by
Roble et al.18 The analytic expressions, valid only for latitudes 01 45% are
given in Table I for Equinox. Dec.'mber solstice and June solstice periods.
For solstice conditions, the diurnal component, V/ 4 ,1 is shifted 10* in latitude
in the direction of the solar bulge (consistent with Forbes 16 The Roble et a18

mean meridional winds. V0 . during solstice are shifted downwards by about


40 m/sec so that the transequatorial amplitudes are of the order 50 in/sec and
the winter hemisphere reversal occurs near Millstone Hill.
The solsticial modifications to the mean and diurnal components adequately
account for the main features of the observed seasonal-latitudinal dependence of the
meridional wind for our purposes. Seasonal variations in the semi-diurnal and
terdiurnal components are neglected. Figures 4a, 4b, and 4c give contour plots of
the overall wind model spanning the simulation region where positive values
represent north-to-south winds. Finally, it should be noted that while EUV varies
markedly over a solar cycle, the associated variations in ion drag suppress solar 5'

cycle variations in the tidal winds, although neutral temperatures vary consider-
ably. Therefore, we have assumed the current wind model parameterization to
be independent of solar activity. %
i*

18. Roble, R.G., Dickinson, R. E.. and Ridley, E. C. (1977) Seasonal and
and solar cycle variations of the zonal mean circulation in the
thermosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 82:5493.

".

,°5'

,°,

,',
8
. .. . ~ .. . . . . . . . .-... .
Table 1. Analytic Wind Equations

Equinox 0 is latitude in degrees

V0 = 8.61 X 10 * e2 6

V24 20 cos (t - 18 - -- )

V6
V1 2 50 in
50 sin
-1j- *10
) cos ---
27,
(t -9-

v8 = 0.38 0 cos 2r, (t -8.2 + 0.0791)

V TT V 0+ V2 V2 + V8"'
VTOT 0o v 2 4 ~- 1 2 -V 8

December Solstice
-4
V0 3. 116 X 10 02 (0 + 45) - 49
I- 6
2j 10,241
V 2 Cos (t - 18- ) where 0 2 4 = 0 + 10
24 24 c 7 24

V = 50 sin ( * 10 -27 (t
1i2 TU -T )cs---( -1-2

2,7
V8 0.380 cos- (t - 8.2 + 0.079 601)

VTOT - 0 +V24 + 12 + V8

June Solstice
4• 2

V = -3. 116X 10 2 (45- 0) + 49


0
22624 2( 10241 whre 0 6a-10
24cos (t - ---- e 24

%12 50 sin ( * 0 ) cos- 1 - (t -9 10

V = 0.38 6 cos -,-(t - 8.2 + 0.079 101)


8 8

I9

L9
"
• 1 ' ' ' " " • " - . . - ,*, ' '' , " € / " " , ' " d e.' '* '. " e ,' - , ' ' %- " ' * ' '
TFable 1. Analytic Wind Equations (Contd)

where

V Tol- V0 + ,24 +V12 8 (mN e

t hours, local time

0 geographic latitude, positive northern hemisphere

EQUINOX MERIDIONAL WINDS (mis)


40, , /

75

0
0-

25

05
50 -75'
-20

-75-
-40 -- 2 0-2' -

0 50 10 152
LOCAL (h TIM

Fiur 4a Cotu lto eiinlNurlWn saFnto

O 5 ~10152
JUNE SOLSTICE MERIDIONAL WINDS (m/s)
40
75.

500
-J 25~
125:
20~ t-10

0s O

0
<I

25 -25
0

LOCA TIME0-_s

Figur 4b otu ito!Mrdo a eta Wn sa F nto

Iataa TIME
2.1LCA SLI

As described in Section 1. 1, the theoretical model is used to produce six pre -

liminary databases. Three of these runs are for sunspot minimum (F 10. 7 -70,
Ap 15) dluring the June solstice, December solstice, and] Equinox seasons. The
remaining three are for sunspot miaximum (f,'10. 7 180, Ap -15) during the same
seasons. Each record of data consists of profile parameters stored for a fixed
geographic (geomagnetic) point and fixed time. Each database covers 25 latitudes
(24' S - 24' N, every 2') and 413 times (0000h - 2:330h, everv :30 min). A subset of 6
the SLINI data set, using a more coarse resolution (N (h) everv 4 'in latitude and
everv hour of local tim- l is presented in tabular format for vasy access aold
reference (Table 2).
DECEMBER SOLSTICE MERIDIONAL WINDS (miS)
40 -

75 .-

5 -100 100
- I / I,75

20 /75, 50

,~0 0

W -25 -

5-5
-j I-- -- 75

0 '-2 S100

a ~ ' S a,125

S ~25 1

0 5 5 ~ 10 15 20!
LOCAL TIME (hrs)

Figure 4c. Contour Plot of Mleridional Neutral Wind as a Function


of Latitude and Local Time for IDecember Solstice Periods.
Positive values represent north -to -sooith winds

The core of the SLAI approach is to identify a relatively sim pie Ne (h) function
thatt will have a smiall number of coefficients and yet provide a good representation
of the profiles calculated from the theoretical model. As gui ding pri nci pies, it was
decided that; ( 1) maximum acc'uracy was required near the F-region pealk (in both
density and height), and (21 while some errors in N could he accepted well below
e
01, ahoye 1 max* the overall profile (as represented by the total electron content
IICIpa ranete r I had to reproduce the theoretical results to within 5 percent or less.
The C hapman profiles developed in the earliest days of ionospheric physics
affer a im pte way to explain the vertical structure of plasma in the upper atmosphere.
'I hey are based on relatively simple physics and thus c'annot be used to represent
he enti re N (h)I pro files that enme rge f-rm the more so phi stIicated simulation tech -

iqPues in use, today. As si mple mathem-atical form ulas, however, they are, well -

sulite, fori representing portions of the ionospheric profile. Specifi cally, while a

'a 12
",p
I-

single Chapman profile cannot fit entire N (h) profile, separate Chapman formulas
e
(an be used to reproduce the topside and bottomside components of the overall
profiles with good results. iL was decided, therefore, to define a 'generalized"
or "modified" Chapman formula with coefficients that vary for each topside and
bottomside component of the N e(h) profile. The function used to fit the theoretically-
:erived profiles was thus chosen to be:

-z
Ne(h) = Nma x exp [c(1 - z - e-)'
(h - hmax (3)':
(hh A

In using Eq. (3), six parameters (or coefficients) are needed to reproduce the
N (h) profile: Na* hm, c , A c A The advantages of this method
e max' max' Up up' to' lo,
are: (1) the fit achieves 100 percent accuracy at N and h since they are
max max
themselves input coefficients; (2) the topside and bottomside Chapman-type

functions guarantee continuity of both density and its first derivative across the
fit boundary; and (3) with a fit technique weighted by density values (see below), S's

the c's and A's chosen emphasize maximum accuracy in regions near the peak.
Included on each record of the database are two other numbers available for
use and/or inspection. These are: (1) the total electron content (TEC) obtained
by integrating the SLIM profile from 180 to 1800 ki; and (2) 6300 A emission
calculated from 0 recombination chemistry only (and therefore, appropriate for
2
post-sunset airglow).

2.2 Production Details

There are four steps and one version of the database is produced after each
step. Initially, the theoretical model LOLAT is used to produce Database I (DBI).
DBI simply contains the electron density and accompanying heights. The model
solves the 0 + continuity equation, fieldline-by-fieldline, starting at the highest
altitude. The order of the density and height arrays are latitude, time, and
fieldline. The computer file is sequential.
Database I is not organized into actual electron density profiles. It is the job
of program SEQDIR to sort the densities by height, time, and latitude. In addition,
SEQDIR creates Database 2 (DB2) as a direct access file. A direct access file is

131

I
S

one in which each record of the file can be individually accessed without reading
any other record. In DB2, each record contains a profile of electron densities
and a height array for a particular time and latitude.
Database 2 has the disadvantage that the electron densities are given at
unevenly spaced height intervals. EVEN is the program used to interpolate between
ihe given values. The resulting profile records contain values at every 20 km from
180 to 1000 km and every 100 km from 1000 to 1800. The interpolation is done with
ihe National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) family of cubic spline inter-
"olation, derivative and integration routines called CURV. The derivative routine
is used to determine the peak electron density by identifying heights where the
derivative change, sign. Arrays of the densities at these heights are scanned for
the maximum value, which is identified as Na. The density profile is stored
max
at predetermined heights so that the height array is no longer needed, making
latabase 3 (1)B3) much smaller than DB2. TEC from 180 to 1800 km is also
Salculated using the CURV routines and included in each DB3 record.
l)atabase 4 is the result of program CHAP fitting the profiles in DB3 to the
generalized Chapman formula [Eq. (3)1. and h N
are known from DB3.
max max
Combinations of values of c and A are tested until the sum of the square of the
di fferences,

(h
CA) N (haPc,
A h) - i

is minimized. The range of values for c and A in the first loop is

c =- 2.0, Ac
c- Au 10.0 - 200.0 kn, AA = 10.0 km.

It' the minimum occurs at the endpoint of either range, the range is extended
and the cycle is repeated with the same Ac and AA. Once an initial c and A are
selected (c', A'), a new cycle is started where

c - 7c' (c' T6 , ,c,

A (' -10.
10 - (A' 4 10. 0). A A . .0

To save space, the C quoted in the SLIM tables is actually

C = 1000 *

14
The final c and A values are added to DB4 and TEC is recalculated.

The end product is the SLIM database (DBSLIM), the ensemble of the l)B4's for
the six conditions of solar cycle and season.

3. COMPARISON WITH EMPIRICAL MODELS

Figure 5 compares the Semi-empirical, Low-latitude, Ionospheric Model (SLIM)


with the Chiu and Bent models for Equinox, solar maximum conditions at 1400 LT.
The daytime upward E X B drift pictured in Figure 3a causes the broad F-region pro-
file. Respective topside scale heights at 700 km are 540 km, 150 km and 115 ki.
Integrating the electron density profiles with altitude give total electron contents (TCC"
of 97, 48, and 61 (X 1012 el/cma2), respectively. The bottom portion of Figure 5

shows the comparison at 16 S dip latitude at the crest of the equatorial anomalv.
Although the SLIM topside scale height is not as large as at the magnetic equator, it
is still larger than those given by Chiu or Bent. In addition, the Nm value of
6 3ma
3. 5 X 10 el/cm is significantly larger than the value at the magnetic equator due to
the combination of upward and poleward E X B drift and downward diffusion. Note
that neither the Chiu or Bent profiles show any significant change with latitude.
The most dramatic differences between SLIM and the empirical models occurs
just after sunset around 2000 LT and pictured in Figure 6. At the magnetic equator
(top portion), the post-sunset enhancement in upward drift lifts the F-layer to 600 km
ompared to hma x values ot 450 km and 350 km for Bent and Chiu models, respectively.
Such differences in h would cause significant differences in the estimated 6300 A
m ax
airglow intensity and the ion-neutral drag coefficient in the neutral momentum equation.
At 16* S (lip latitude (bottom portion of Figure 6) the same upward drift causes an
an6 3
enhancement in Nm. The calculated value ic, 5 X 10 el/cm compared with
6 3 max 5 3
2 X 10 el/cm for Chiu and 8 X 10 el/cm 3 for the Bent model. Respective TEC
values (X 1012 el/cm 2 ) are 139, 48 and 19. Finally, Figure 7 gives a comparison
between SLIM, chiu and Bent at 0500 LT. The calculated profiles at the magnetic
equator and 16' S (lip latitude are much more Chapman -like and in reasonable agree-
ment with the empirical models in both N ma x , hma x and topside scale height. The cal-
max
max12 3
culated value of 'IX'at 16' S dip latitude (bottom portion) is 5 X 10 el/cm which
12 ,12 2
ompares favorably with the Bent value of 3.5 X 10 and a Ciu value of 9X 10 el/cm
.igure 8 compares electron density profiles measured on 5 Ma rch 1969, using .
the licamar,-a incoherent scatter radar facility with calculated density profiles at
1400 l.'l* and 2000 L'I. T1he com pa rison dlemonstrate s that both the large lavtinie
ltasma scale freight and the cal'ulated value of h M a x at 2000 LT are in reasonable
agreement with observed value;. :\Aain, it shoulL be (emphasized thlaR the profiles
are (' nsitive to the vertical IJ., 3 drift velo.itv whose diurnal variation may have
si41nifi'ant lav-t - lav chances. U

15 "

;:-.;-..i. %-i..-...-,-..--..-..-:.........-..............................................................-.-.-.--...-.-..-....-.-.....
0. DIP LATITUDE

Boo CELECTRONDENSITY

60o

400 '
300

200
10. 105 106
900 -__
16- S DIP LATITUDE
1_
0~ - MDEL CALCULATIONS
800 mp--e CHIU
BENT

700

500

400

300

200
10. IDS I06
ELECTRON DENSITY(el/cm3)'

Figure Comparison Between SLIMT-generate d Electron


5. A
E'ensit*y Profiles (o -o) and the Empirical Models of
Chiu (NU------ W, and Bent (xxxx) for Equinox, Solar Cycle
Maximum Conditions at 1400 LT. Profiles at the magnetic
equator (top portion) and at 16S S dip latitude (bottom portion)

16

2 61
900

0' DIP LATITUDE


800 ELECTRON DENSITY

700- 2000 LT

200

200

9 0 0
6 *S DIP LA T ITUDE
800o MODEL CALCULATIONS
W-6U CHILI
BENT
700

~600 'l

*:500

400

3
ELECTRONDENSITYWe/Cfl )

Figure 6. A Comparison Between SLIMI-generated Electron


D~ensity Profiles (o-o) and the Empirical Mlodels of
Chiu (NU------0), and Bent (xxxx) for Equinox, Solar Cycle
Maximum Conditions at 2000 LT. Profiles at the magnetic
equator (top portion) and at 160 S dlip latitude (bottom portion)

17
0* DP 4'IJDE

SO( ELECTRON DENS'Y


PROF' E 5

e'x,

2.5 )

4(X

°
16 S DIP LATITUDE

olO MODEL CAL' )LATIONS

-Y m- CHIU

* x

4. .:

% %

ELEC TPON DEN" Y c

I-iiure 7. A Comparison Between SLIM -generated Electron


l)ensitv Pro tiles (o- o) and the Empiri cal Models of
(Cti (E ------ )., and Blent (xxxx) for Equinox, Solar Cycle
MaximumnoncIitions at 0500 LT. Profiles at the magnetic
(,quator(top portion) and at 16° S dip latitude (bottom portion)

ittt
1 P,
-~DIP A'~uOE
- ELECTRON ENSITY

40r) .T

.66 v4C 5.

4, It---M
~ C~C..A

i 1-00 LT (oni prion :wd 2000 1 1 -gettoneprtionier

Z-..
ft.

4. CONCIUSIONS

A very brief description of the generation of a Semi-empirical, Low-latitude,


Ionospheric Model has been presented in which theoretically calculated electron
density profiles are approximated Iy a Modified Chapman function given by lq?. (4).

N e(h) e= N max exp [c(l- z e-Z)] (4)

where

h - h
z - max

and N and h represent the peak electron density and the altitude of the F2
max max h - h
peak, respectively. Above the peak altitude, z max an
max upu
peak, zm
to A and c= c to' The six coefficients which describe each profile

'. ' ar
are Nma
Nmax'
x hma x , A up'
1max' 2 up' AlIn
A h.,Appropriate coefficients which regenerate
and c o
electron density profiles (180-1800 km), every half-hour local time and every
2' dip latitude between 241 N and 24' dip latitude have been calculated. Six cases
have been generated, both solstice periods and one equinox period for solar cycle
minimum and solar maximum conditions.
A subroutine which is able to quickly generate realistic electron density profiles
has a number of applications. By providing diurnal N e(h) and TEC values at any
specified clip latitude or slant path, SLIM could be used to examine propagation
effects determined by ionospheric structure. SLIM has several possible applica-
tions related to so-called "active experiments" where ambient ionospheric condi-
tions need to be specified for pre-experiment planning and post-event analysis. In
addition, such a model would yield flux-tube integrated Pedersen conductivity and
electron content values which are important in determining and predicting low-
latitude, instability growth rates. Finally, the program would be capable of
supplyin, airglow intensities both in the vertical and at any slant viewing angle
c
dIesired.

20

e, t .elf
-
'nM'

Table 2. Electron Density Profiles and Chapman Parameters

Each page of Table 2 provides the following values for a


specified latitude, season and solar cycle:
3
1. Electron densities (103 /cm ) from 180 to 1800 km.
3 k
2. N (10 3/cm ) and h (km).
max max
3. The four Chapman parameters A (kin). C
up up
Ato (kin) and C 1 o
2 )
4. Total electron content - TEC (1012/cm and
630 nm0 recombination airgLow (Rayleighs).

The above values are listed every hour local time and
cover the latitude range from 24* N dip latitude (+24*) to
240S dip latitude (-24') in 4*-increments. The table is
grouped by solar cycle (maximum and minimum) and within
each solar cycle by season (Equinox. June Solstice and
l)ecember Solstice). Remember that Cup 1000 * c
up up
and C = 1000 C. 0where up and clo are defined by Eq. (3).

2.

• 21
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