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26 E Coll (Thermo tolerant or faecal

coliform), F Nil:
MPN/100.rril
27 Total Coliform Mr-
N/100 ml
O(95% sample)
1 2 Objective of the work
The main objective of thisi study is to carry out the detail survey, design and cost estimate of
treatment plant to improve the quality of drinking water in this project
The detailed objectives of the study are the followings.:
• To conduct afield study of the existing water supply system
• Identification of necessary treatment units with clear justification • Prepare detailedl design.
of the recommended treatment units
• Prepare necessary working drawings quantity and cost estimate
1.3 Scope of the study
The broad scope of the study is to design suitable treatment plants to improve the existing
water quality inE the system The following detailed activities have been included in the scope
of work
• Review of reports for the collection of relevant information
• Detailed technical survey of the treatment plant sites andpther sites of structures Detailed
technical assessment of water quality (seasonal ariation scenario) and quality in the existing
system in general.
• Finalization of various components of the water treatment required in terms of the improved
water quality parameter basically, microbial physical and some chemical with respect to
existing National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS) . . ..
... Consideration. of environmental or.ecolog.ical impact of water quality ...
improvement project
• Detailed design cost estimate and report preparation of water treatment units with necessary
detailed working drawings

2. PROJECT BACKGROUND 2.1 Location and. accessibility


The Urlabari water Quality Improvement project is situated at Urlabari Municipality of
Morang, district. The project covers ward no. 1,4,56,7 & 8 of the municipality. The scheme
ha. deep boari'ng as the source with one overhead reservoirs having total capacity of 450 m3
RCC tanks
All the construction materials (like cement ms rod',chicken wire etc) are available at Urlabari
Bazaar. Local construction materials like sand & aggregate should be carried from Wokra
Khola (3 Km), stone from Nunsari 15 K.m far and Filter Media should be carried from
Hetauda.
2.2 Topography and Geology:
• The project area lies on the terai'egi'o'n. The soil. of the project. area is
predominantly loamy and fertile suitable for cultivation. The area is mostly cultivated land.
The climate of the project area is hot, temperature fluctuates between l 59 to +35° C. Annual
rainfall usually exceeds 1200mm.
2.3 Climate and. Vegetation .
The climate in the project area is same as in the other part. of terai area of Nepal. This south
western monsoon rain occurs within the period of June to September. The project area is plane
and fertile mixture Potato paddy, maize, wheat and millet are the main crops grown in the
project area Some seasonal fruits like mango banana etc are found in the project area
2.4 Ethnic composition
As per the report of Urlabar'i Water Supply Project, the local casts of the project..area are Rai
Limbu Dhimal Tharu Newar Bramhin Chettri Chaudhari Dalit and others
2.5 Economic characteristics
The population of Urlabari is mainly engaged in agriculture and livestock rearing and few are
government employee Almost 2 crops are harvested annually. Generally, maize and paddy are
cultivated here Cows buffaloes and goats are reared on the forest pockets. Employment
opportunities are very less Local economic activities are depending upon agricultural sector.
Livelihood is, dependent on adjoining market centres in Urlabari bazar.
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3. TECHNICAL ASPECTS 3.1 Existing water supply and sanitation situation
The Urlabari Water supply scheme was constructed by DWSS. There are three different
sources as deep boaring with depth 135m, 125m and 115m. which is sufficient for the supply.
The system is connected with 2899 private tap
3.2 Water quality
Water quality parameters from the source has been tested and found that all the parameters
except iron and manganese are within the NDWQS limit. The water quality test results are
attached. The iron content and manganese content in the water is beyond limit of NDWQS.
The iron content is 7.3mg and manganese content is 1,24mg which is beyond the limit. So it
must be removed before supplying water hence a pressure filter with Closed Aeration
arrangement is purposed.
3.3 Existing Components of the project
The water supply components of the project are as follows:
Storage tank
The reservoir capacity, number, and type-Tor the project is tabulated
below. -
Table 3
Scheme Name Capacity (m3) No. Total (m3)
1 Urlabari 450 1 450
Total 450
• Tap stand post ,. .. .
There are 2899 private tap. 400 nos. of further demand of private tap is observed.
• Presssure Filter .
There are 2 Horizontal pressure filters existing in the scheme with closed aeration
arrangement with capacity of 25 Lps.
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N 3.4 Sanitation
The overall sanitation situation of the villagers is good. 100 % household in the project area
have latrines and is declared as ODF (Open Defecation Free).
3.5 Environmental. consideration
There would not be any major threat to the forest because of excavation.
N. Efforts has to be made to maintain the yield of the source by taking measures like
protection of source and: catchments areas with plantation of more tree upstream of the
source: and arranging appropriate drainage.
3.6 FinanciaF aspects
3.6.1 General
Unit ratess of various, items of work are prepared on the basis of appred district, rate of
Morang for FY 2074/075 and Nepal Government norms. All the construction materials except
those available locally are to be procured from the' nearest: market.. Rates of locally available
construction materials such. as aggregate, sand have been adopted from.. district-approved
rate. Rates of non-local construction. materials have been adapted from district-approved rate
adding the transpOrtation cost. -
3.6.2 Summary of cost estimates.
The project cost comprises of the cost required for cost of treatment works, cost of pipes,
fittings, cost for compound wall. Retaining structure and adding up 15 % as work staff charge
and contingencies. The individual cost of water supply components are also presented in the
report.
3.6.3 Operation and maintenance costs
The operation and maintenance cost includes the remuneration of VMSW and the
maintenance cost. The remuneration of VMSW is decided by the WUC and maihtenance cost
is taken as 1 % of total investment cost. The operation and maintenance cost is escalated at
the rate of 10% per annum.
N3.6.4 Water tariff
Water tariff should be adequate to . pay the salary to the operation and
maintenance staff, cost for chemicals, cost for small repairs and replacement
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Will 6
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of parts and build reverse fund to finance minor improvements in the system.
Existing Water Tariff adopted by the project per month are as follows: Connection Charge:-
Rs. 18,400.00
Rate for water use-
Upto 10 units NRs 145
111 to 20 units :. NRs. 18 per unit
21 to 30 units. : NRs. 22 per unit
31 to 401 units: NRs. 24 per unit.
Above 40 : NRs. 26 per unit
4. TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN
4.1 Background
Sometime clear water frorrfthe underground water sources like artesian well, spring and
boring, might require no treatment to make it suitable for drinking.. But they may be
contaminated with foreign chemicals and heavy metals like. iron, manganese, arsenic, etc.
Taking into consideration the risk of incidental contamination, simply chlorination as a safety
measure should be provided. whenever possible. Beside this, iron and Manganese i highly
contaminated in ground water found in Terai Region. Whe' lron.ontent is beyond 0.3 mg/l:
and Manganese content is. beyond 0.2 mg/I, it is not recommended for drinking purpose
according to NDWQS. In order to remove this iron and: Manganese content so as to make
water potable some treatment techniques is required before distributing to the consumers.
Aeration followed by Pressure Filter will be the best and easily acceptable option for
developing countries like Nepal due to its simplicity low cost and no chemical demand except
Chlorination. Considering these entire factors and based on water analysis data the principle
components proposed for the treatment plant in this projects are
• Aeration Tower
• Vertical Pressure Filter
• Disinfection. Unit :
4.2 Justification of Treatment Requirements
The water from boring is used which is with good taste and some visible
turbidity. The water analysis data shows that all water quality parameters
except iron and manganese content are within National Drinking Water
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Quality Standard 2062. The iron content is 7.3mg and manganese content is 1 .24mg which is
more than NDWQS. As the Iron content is beyond the limit, it is removed by Aeration
process. Similarly the excess amount, of Manganese is removed by Aeration followed by
Vertical Pressure Filter. In order to remove probable biological contamination, Chlorination is
done before distributing water to the consumers. This is the best and easily acceptable option
for developing countries like Nepal due to its simplicity, low cost and no chemical demand
except Chlorination.
4.3 Aeration' Tower
Aeration tower made of mild steel is proposed to precipitate out dissolved
iron and' manganese. The tower is packed with pall rings. The raw water is applied at the top
of aeration tower flowing dOwnward while air is blown from the bottom of the aeration tower
flowing in upward direction. The intermixing of air and water will increase, the dissolved
oxygen in water required to precipitate, out dissolved iron' and manganese. Air
blower/compressor is proposed to supply the air. The air to water ratio of 10 is to be
maintained for effective precipitation of iron and manganese.. The excessive air is released
through air valves provided at the top of the tower.
4.4 Pressure Filters
Pressure filters made of mild steel is proposed to remove-precipitated iron. and manganese as
well as aluminium. The pressure filters is to be packed with Mn02, sand and gravel as per the
design specifications. The under drainage system and back wash system should also be
installed in the pressure filters. The pressure filter is expected to bring down the turbidity of
water as per the ,NDWQS. Large number of coliforms is also expected to be removed in the
pressure filter-due to biological action. ' '

4.5 Disinfection
Although pressure filter removes coliforms to certain extent, the effluent of the pressure filter
might still contain cohforms which might be harmful to human health These coliforms are
killed by disinfection process and make the water safe..The disinfection is proposed by the
addition of bleaching powder in the reservoir. Bleaching powder is to be dosed from chlorine
dosing tank through a doser. The chlorine dose of 1 mg/I is proposed.
5.. General Specification of Equipment
. . The general specification of the equipment proposed: for the water treatment process is
given below:
s.1. Chemical Doser
The chemical doser should 60. electro-metering type and shall be capable of applying the
specified chemical dose The dose of the chemical shall be fixed by trial at first according to
the inflow water quality and discharge A proper pumping system with all necessary
accessories for chemical dosing shall be provided The pump head should be suitable for the
chemicals to be dosed The capacity of the
chemical doting. . should: be sufficient for 24 hours of normal •operation. The contractor shall
specify the type of model capacity of dosing and pressure of dosing!. The dosing, tank shall
be' 'FRP.. The electronic metering.-pump shall be fitted' on the top of' FRP chemical tank. The
dosing pump system shall be
U. equipped with mechanical mixer driven by electric motor. The chemical tank shall be
equipped with one low level: control which will automatically cut off the metering pump in
case the solution level goes below the warning level.
5.213ressure Filter
The pressure filter shall be vertical type and shall be pressure operated type with Mn02 sand
and gravel layers packed in the steel vertical tank Each filter shall furnish a filtration rate of
54 cubic meters per hour per square meter of filter area or more The vessel shall be fabricated
out of mild steel (MS) plate as per Indian Standards (IS)-.226 The side shell and head shall be
fabricated out of steel of 8mm and 10mm thick plate respectively. The filter shall have
standard dished ends at both the ends Each filter tank shall be tested under hydrostatic
pressure of 50% in excess of the working pressure of 3.5 kg/cm2 The filter shall be equipped
with the necessary flanges and connections for the exterior and interior
in
piping. The manhole shall have an exterior bolt on cover with exterior gaskets easily
removable.
All the pipes including inlet and outlet pipe shall be of diameter as specified All the tank
connections shalf be of heavy steel and they shall be drilled and bolted in position Filter
exterior pipe shall not be welded but joined with the help of flanges Filter exterior shall be
provided with all necessary pipes valves and fittings to make a complete unit The filter shall
be provided with air release valve and pressure gauge. Gauge shall be mounted for easy
reading. All the interconnecting pipe fittings and valves shall be best quality and confirm with
ISI or equivalent. The tank support leg shall be of specified diameter heavy pipe, welded to
the bottom reinforced pad in tank bottom.
The filter medium should have a size and be of such material that it will provide satisfactory
effluent, retain a maximum quantity of solids, and be readily cleaned with minimum of wash
water.
The sand to be used for filters should satisfy the following norms-
1 It should. be of hard and resistant quartz or quartzite and free of clay, fine
particles, soft' grains and dirt.
2. ignition loss should not exceed 07% by weight.
3. It specific gravity should be in the range: of ..55. to 2.65.
4. Its silica content should be not less than 90%. --
5. Its soluble fractioni in hydrochloric acid should not exceed 5% by weight in 24 hours.
6.. Wearing loss should not exceed 3%.
7. Effective size (D1O) shall, be between 0.45mm and 0.70 mm for pressure filters.
8. The uniformity coefficient (D60/D10) should be between 1.3 and 1.7 in
pressure filters; . ............. . ............. ..... .... .......: .. ...... ...j,.. ...
...........................................................
The sand bed is supported on the gravel bed. it supports the sand and. allows filtered water to
move freely towards the under drains It also allows the wash water to move upward uniformly
on the sand The gravel is placed in layers having finest size on the top The gravel in the filters
should be clean hard durable and rounded It should be free from clay, loam shells and other
foreign matters It should not contain flat, thin or long pieces It should have density of about
1600 kg/m3