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Chapter 1.

New World Beginnings

- Iroquois Confederacy was one of the earliest examples of political organization and
sustained a strong military alliance
- Europeans “discover” the Americas and had conflicts with the Natives over land, resources,
and overall customs
- Columbian Exchange heavily boosted globalization
- In 1500’s, the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Americas between Spain and Portugal.
- Colorless colonial administrators replaced conquistadors in 1530’s for Mexico and 1550’s
for Peru.
- In 1519, Cortes sailed to Tenochtitian and fell in love with the beauty of the city.
- Aztecs attack Spanish because they were too greedy for the Aztec treasures.
- Spanish fought back and took over capital on August 13, 1521.
- 1609, the Spanish capture area that is modern New Mexico.

- Portugese set up trading posts on African beaches after the invention of the caravel (ship
that sailed into the wind).
- Portugese enslaved Africans and they worked on sugar plantations in Spain and Portugal.
- Columbus came across America after searching for new trade routes with India.
- 3/5ths of the crops cultivated today are from the Americas.
- Spanish came to America in search of gold and silver.
- Spanish had a lust for the Aztec’s riches.

- Very early Americans (long before the Europeans invaded) developed their own unique
religions early on.
- Religions of the early Americans- such as Aztecs, Mayans, etc.- sometimes had very
extreme rituals, including ritual removal of the heart of a living person as a sacrifice for the
emperors and gods.
- Spanish conquistadors set sail to Americas for “God’s glory.”
- In 1680, the natives attacked the European’s churches and killed their religious leaders in an
attack called “Pope’s Rebellion.”
- In Santa Fe ruins, they rebuilt their own religious centers called kivas.

- Very early inhabitants of the Americas had very little social organization, such as
communities and unified states.
- The Aztecs, Mayans, and other tribes eventually created their own empires and developed
their own social structures.
- Europeans butted heads with the natives when they invaded.
- Europeans had a sense of entitlement when it came to land, whereas the natives believed
that land and nature should never “belong” to anybody.
- Because of this belief, the land in America remained unscathed before the European settlers
- Early people came to the Americas in crudely designed boats.
- The Aztecs and Mayans built amazing pyramids and temples.
- Columbus was trying to discover and map more trading routes with India.
- Portuguese invented the caravel, which is a ship that sails into the wind.
- Portuguese used the same trading ideas as the Arabs and Africans.

- Early people developed their own individual styles of art.
- The Spanish were awestruck by the Aztec’s buildings and art.
- Mestizos (half European, half Natives) made a cultural bridge.

- Europeans all wanted to invade and claim American land.
- Spain came in honor of their religion and their God.
- The “Black Legend” was that the conquerors just tortured the Natives and harmed their
health and took their gold.