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Matrix of Key Authors in ELT

Authors Books/Articles Contributions/Statements

Krashen (1983) Second Language Acquisition and Second Learners are not expected
Language Learning to use the target language
too early until the learners’
oral competence is
facilitated with sufficient
input and without relying
on their native language to
form systems (reducing

Monitor Model suggests

that when L2 learners,
adult or children, acquire a
L2 unconsciously, there will
be no evidence of native
language transfer; it is only
when they consciously
learn a second language
that transfer effects
Swain (1985) Communicative competence: Some The Comprehensible
roles of comprehensible input and Output hypothesis predicts
comprehensible output in its that we acquire language
development when there is a
communicative breakdown
and we are "pushed to use
alternative means to get
across .. the message ...
precisely, coherently, and
VanPatten and Benati (2010) “Although learning may
happen through
interaction….language ends
up in the mind/brain of the
Atkinson (2002) “lonely cactus”-describing
the way
explains SLA.
Schmidt (1980) The role of consciousness in second Noticing is necessary for
language learning input to become intake,
that is, necessary for L2
Shintani and Ellis (2010) The Incidental Acquisition of Plural-S by The teacher can provide
Japanese Children in Comprehension-Based unobtrusive intervention by
Lessons: A Process-Product Study means of negotiating meaning
with the students.
M.A.K. Halliday Systemic-Functional
Linguistics (SFL)- Language
cannot be disassociated and
disconnected fro meaning;
communicative functions and
semantics are basis of human
language and communication
Ellis (1988) The Role of Practice in Classroom Consciousness-raising
Language Learning Instruction to refer to
instruction designed to help
learners learn explicit rules of
Ellis (2005) At the interface: dynamic interactions of “collaborative mind” whereby
explicit and implicit knowledge. the implicit and explicit
processing systems are
“dynamically involved
together in every cognitive
task and in every learning

Ellis (2005) Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: Focus must be devoted to
An SLA Perspective teaching grammatical
structures that are problematic
to students.
Grammar is best taught to
learners who have already
acquired some ability to use
the language.
An incidental focus-on-form
approach is of special value
because it affords an
opportunity for extensive
treatment of grammatical

Ellis (1984) Delaying teaching of grammar

because early interlanguage is
typically agrammatical.
Lightbrown and Spada (2006) Sociocultural theory (SCT)-
“all learning is first social then
Lantolf (1994; 2000) Extend SCT to SLA.
Larsen-Freeman (1997) “Complexity Theory” term
development is preferred to
acquisition. Learning neither
in the brain nor social
environment but in their
Celce-Murcia (2002) “contextual analysis”- teaching
grammar through extensive
grammar instruction possible
for incidental error correction
and feedback
Loewen and Sato (2017) Instructed Second Language Acquisition Learning a language is a
gradual process that takes
time. Although instruction is
important for raising learners’
attention to form, the key to
the development of implicit
knowledge is continual
exposure to meaningful input
and practice. Therefore,
provide opportunities for
repeated use if the target
grammatical forms in
meaningful contexts.
Bachman and Palmer (2010) Language Assessment in Practice When the learners (and
sometimes even the
teacher!) are not aware of
assessment, implicit
assessment is taking place.
Fulcher and Davidson (2007) Language testing and assessment: an Teachers should
advanced resource book. continuously assess their
students in order to help
teaching and learning
Brown (2004) Language assessment: principles and Testing is a way of
classroom practices conducting assessment
which is technically
associated with definite
timing and settled
Students should receive
feedback, analyze it, and
have the chance to test
their hypotheses based on
the feedback received.
Formal (test) vs Informal
(feedback) Assessment
Alderson and Wall (1993) Does Washback Exist? Applied Washback refers to the
Linguistics Journal impact of testing to
teaching and learning.
Hughes, 1989 (backwash)
Hymes (1972) On Communicative Competence The Father of
Competence (clearly, fully
and explicitly explained CC)

competence not only as an
inherent grammatical
competence but also as the
ability to use grammatical
competence in a variety of
communicative situations,
thus bringing the
sociolinguistic perspective
into Chomsky’s linguistic
view of competence.
Canale and Swain (1980; 1981) Theoretical bases of communicative Grammatical Competence
approaches to second language Chomsky (linguistic
teaching and testing competence)
A Theoretical Framework for
Communicative Competence
Chomsky (1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax competence (the
monolingual speaker-
listener’s knowledge of
language) and performance
(the actual use of language
in real situations)

Lado (1957) Linguistics Across Cultures Contrastive analysis helps

us identify the areas of
difficulty a particular
foreign language will
present for native speakers
of another language by
systematically comparing
the two languages and
Selinker (1972) Interlanguage Fossilization is a linguistic
phenomenon in its own
right and manifested as
deviant forms from TL
covering all layers from
phonological to pragmatic.

Interlanguage refers to
language learners’ linguistic
ability which did not match
that of native speakers.
Interlanguage is neither the
system of the native
language nor that of the
target language, but
instead falls between the
two. It is a system based on
the best attempt of
learners to provide order
and structure to the
linguistic stimuli
surrounding them

Language Transfer
Corder (1967) The significance of learners’ errors Learner is engaged in a
process of discovering the
language (making errors is

Native language often

serves as a positive
resource for second-
language acquisition,
facilitating the learning of
TL features that resemble
features of the NL

Transitional competence
means interlanguage

‘built-in syllabus’ (mental

grammar different from
both L2 and L1)

“idiosyncratic dialect”-
learner’s language is unique
to a particular individual,
and that the rules of the
learner’s language are
peculiar to the language of
that individual alone.

VanPatten, Williams and Rott Establishing connections

(2004) between form and meaning
is a fundamental aspect of
language acquisition.
Brooks (1960) “error like sin needs to be
avoided at all costs” –owing
a behaviorist perspective
Genesee (1987) Immersion programmes-
students acquire high
language proficiency even
without explicit instruction
of grammatical structures
McDonough and Shaw (2003) Materials and methods in ELT External and Internal
The process is not static, as
the success or failure of
that match cannot be
determined until after the
book has been
Ferdinand de Saussure Founder of structuralism
Leonard Bloomfield Inventor of Immediate
Constitute Analysis (IC)-
dissecting a sentence into
smaller parts

Lightbrown and Spada