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THE SKELETON SYSTEM STUDY GUIDE B.

PROTECTS SOME INTERNAL ORGANS from mechanical injury; the rib


cage protects the heart and lungs OR SKULL AROUND THE BRAIN, for
SKELETAL SYSTEM examples.

 The adult human body consists of approximately 206 bones, which C. CONTAINS AND PROTECTS THE RED BONE MARROW, Hematopoiesis
are organized into an internal framework called the SKELETON. (Blood-forming) tissues (Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes). Some White
 Because the human skeleton is an internal structure, biologists Blood Cells (Leukocytes) are also produced in Bones.
refer to it as an ENDOSKELETON. The variation in size and shape
among the bones that make up the skeleton reflects their different D. PROVIDES A STORAGE SITE OF INORGANIC SALTS, such as CALCIUM.

roles in the body. Calcium may be removed from bone to maintain a normal blood calcium
level, which is essentially for BLOOD CLOTTING and PROPER
THE SKELETON FUNCTIONING OF THE MUSCLES AND NERVES

1. In order to retain their SHAPE and FORM, living things need some 2. Bones also provide a system of levers (rigid rods that can be moved
type of support. about a fixed point) on which a group of specialized tissues (Muscles)
act to produce motion.
2. In Single-Celled Organisms, this support is provided by the Cell
Membrane. STRUCTURE OF BONES

3. In Multicellular Animals, the support is provided by some form of a 1. Bones are a solid network of MOIST, LIVING CELLS (OSTEOCYTES),
SKELETON. LIVING TISSUE AND FIBERS (COLLAGEN) THAT ARE SUPPORTED BY A
MATRIX (DEPOSITS) OF CALCIUM SALTS
4. TWO TYPES OF ANIMAL SKELETONS:
2. The Calcium Salts give bones the STRENGTH and PROTECTIVE
a. EXOSKELETON - AN OUTSIDE SKELETON, ARTHROPODS functions.
(SPIDERS, CRUSTACEANS, INSECTS, AND CRABS).
b. ENDOSKELETON - AN INSIDE SKELETON, VERTEBRATES. 3. The Function of OSTEOCYTES is to REGULATE the amount of CALCIUM
that is deposited in, or removed from, the Bone Matrix.
5. The Skeleton of Humans is composed of a special CONNECTIVE
TISSUE (TISSUE THAT JOINS OTHER TISSUES TOGETHER) CALLED BONE 4. Each bone is surrounded by a Tough Membrane called the
PERIOSTEUM – a fiberous connective tissue membrane whose collagen
6. BONES AND THEIR ASSOCIATED TISSUES - CARTILAGE, TENDONS, fibers merge with those of the tendons and ligaments that are attached
AND LIGAMENTS - MAKE UP THE SKELETON SYSTEM. to the bone.

7. THE HUMAN SKELETON SYSTEM CONSISTS OF 206 BONES 5. The Periosteum, contains a network of Blood Vessels, which supply
Oxygen, Nerves and Nutrients to the bone.
8. OR THE SKELETON SYSTEM CONSISTS OF BONES AND OTHER
STRUCTURES THAT MAKE UP THE JOINTS OF THE SKELETON. 6. The Jointed Surfaces of Bones are covered with ARTICULAR
CARTILAGE – which provides a smooth surface for movement
9. THE TYPES OF TISSUE PRESENT ARE BONE TISSUE, CARTILAGE, AND
FIBEROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE, WHICH FORMS THE LIGAMENTS THAT 7. Beneath the Periosteum is a thick layer of COMPACT BONE. One of
CONNECT BONE TO BONE. two types of Bone tissues.

FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON SYSTEM 8. COMPACT BONE – is dense and similar in texture to Ivory; it is far
from being SOLID.
1. THE BONES THAT MAKE UP THE SKELETON SYSTEM SERVES FOUR
IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS:  A thick layer of Compact Bone enables the Shaft of Long Bones
called the DIAPHYSIS to endure the large amount of stress it
A. PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK THAT SUPPORTS THE BODY; the receives upon impact with a solid object.
muscles that are attached to the bones move the skeleton.
9. Compact bone is composed of Cylinders or Tubes of Mineral Crystals CLASSIFICATION OF BONES:
and Protein Fibers called LAMELLAE
BONES CANE BE CLASSIFIED AS ONE OF FOUR TYPES BASED ON THEIR
10. In the Center of each Cylinder is a narrow channel called HAVERSIAN SHAPE:
CANALS that contain blood vessels and nerves.
1. LONG BONES - the bones of the arms, legs, hands, and feet (but not
11. Blood Vessels run through interconnected Haversian Canals, creating the wrist or ankles).
a network that carries nourishment to the living bone tissue
 The Shaft of the Long Bones is the DIAPHYSIS
12. The second type of Bone Tissue, SPONGY BONE, it is the Inside Layer
 The Diaphysis is made up of Compact Bone and is Hallow,
of Compact Bone.
forming a canal within the shaft.
 This Marrow Canal contains Yellow Bone Marrow, which is
13. Spongy Bone IS NOT Soft and Spongy. But actually quite strong.
mostly adipose tissue.
near the ends of Bones (EPIPHYSIS) where force is applied, Spongy Bone
 the Ends are called EPIPHYSIS
is organized into structures that resemble the supporting girders of a
bridge.  The Epiphyses are made of Spongy Bone covered by a thin layer of
Compact Bone.
14. THE STRUCTURE OF SPONGY BONE HELPS ADD STRENGTH TO BONE
WITHOUT ADDING MASS. It is arranged along points of Pressure or 2. SHORT BONES - the bones of the wrist and ankles.
Stress, making bones both Light and Strong.
3. FLAT BONES - the ribs, shoulder blades, hipbones, and cranial bones.
15. Embedded in COMPACT and SPONGY Bone are Cells known as
OSTEOCYTES, that can either deposit the calcium salts in bone or absorb 4. IRREGULAR BONES - the vertebrae and facial bones.

them again.
5. Short, flat and irregular bones are all made of spongy bone covered

16. OSTEOCYTES – are responsible for bone growth and changes in the with a thin layer of compact bone. RED BONE MARROW is found within

shape of bones. the spongy bone.

17. The Cavities of Bones contain a Soft Tissue called BONE MARROW. DEVELOPMENT OF BONES

18. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF BONE MARROW FOUND IN MOST 1. Bone growth begins long before birth. The basic Shape of a Long

BONES: Bone, such as an Arm Bone is first formed as CARTILAGE.

A. YELLOW BONE MARROW - found in most bones, but primarily fills 2. Cartilage is a Tough but Flexible CONNECTIVE TISSUE, that unlike

the shafts of long bones and is made up of blood vessels, nerve cells, but bone does not contain blood vessels.

consists mostly of fat cells (adipose tissue). It serves as an energy


3. Cartilage Cells must rely on the DIFFUSION of Nutrients from tiny
reserve. it can also be converted to red bone marrow and produce
Blood Vessels (CAPILLARIES) in surrounding tissue.
blood cells when severe blood loss occurs.

4. The Cells that make up Cartilage are scattered in a Network of Fibers


B. RED BONE MARROW - found in spongy bone, the ends of long
composed of an ELASTIC PROTEIN called COLLAGEN.
bones, ribs, vertebrae, the sternum, and the pelvis - produces red blood
cells and special white blood cells called lymphocytes, and other
5. CARTILAGE – is dense and fiberous, can support weight, but is still
elements of blood (platelets).
extremely flexible.

6. Many bones in a newborn baby are composed almost entirely of


CARTILAGE. "SOFT SPOT" OF A BABIES HEAD!

7. Latter the Cartilage Cells will be replaced by Cells that form the
Bones. The cartilage is replaced during OSSIFICATION – or the process
of bone formation.
8. OSSIFICATION begins to take place up to seven months before birth 2. The skeleton supports the body's weight, enables it to move, and
as mineral (CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS) deposits are laid down near the protects many of its internal organs.
center of the bone (CENTER OF OSSIFICATION) in each bone.
3. THE HUMAN SKELETON HAS TWO DIVISIONS:
9. Bone tissue forms as osteocytes secret mineral deposits that replace
the cartilage. Or a bone matrix gradually replaces the original cartilage. A. THE AXIAL SKELETON - consist of the skull, vertebrate column, and
the rib cage.
10. The Long Bones Develop & Grow THROUGH OUT CHILDHOOD at
centers of Ossification in their EPIPHYSIS (ENDS). B. THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON - consist of the bones of the arms
and legs, shoulder, and the pelvic girdle.
11. Growth occurs in the EPIPHYSEAL DISC or PLATE (GROWTH PLATES)
at the junction of the diaphysis with each epiphysis (AT EACH END OF AXIAL SKELETON BONES

THE BONE)
1. The SKULL consists of 8 CRANIAL BONES and 13 FACIAL BONES. 22

12. An EPIPHYSEAL DISC is still cartilage, and the bone grows in length TOTAL

as more cartilage is produced on the epiphysis side.


2. The EARS consists 6 BONES, & floating in the throat 1 BONE THE

13. on the diaphysis side, OSTEOBLAST (CELLS THAT PRODUCE BONE HYOID. 7 TOTAL

MATRIX
3. The VERTEBRAL COLUMN (SPINAL COLUMN or BACKBONE) consists

A BLAST CELL IS A "PRODUCING" CELL of:

"OSTEO" MEANS BONE TO REPLACE CARTILAGE. 1. 7 CERVICAL (NECK) VERTEBRAE,


2. 12 THORACIC
14. Between the ages of 16 and 25 years, all of the cartilage of the
3. 5 LUMBAR
EPIPHYSEAL DISC is replaced by BONE. This is called closure of the
4. 5 FUSED VERTEBRAE INTO 1 SACRUM
epiphyseal disc, and the bone lengthening process stops.
5. 4 TO 5 SMALL FUSED VERTEBRAE INTO 1 COCCYX (YOUR TAIL
BONE).
15. In ADULTS, CARTILAGE is found in those parts of the body where
FLEXIBILITY IS NEEDED.
26 TOTAL

16. Such places include the:


4. THE RIB CAGE (THORACIC CAGE) CONSISTS OF THE 12 PAIRS OF RIBS-
24 BONES AND THE STERNUM, OR BREASTBONE. 25 TOTAL
1. TIP OF THE NOSE
2. THE EXTERNAL EAR
APPENDICULAR SKELETON BONES
3. THE VOICE BOX (LARYNX)
4. THE ENDS OF BONES WHERE JOINTS ARE FORMED.
1. THE PECTORAL GIRDLE CONSISTS OF 4 BONES, AND UPPER LIMBS
CONSISTS OF 60 BONES. 60 TOTAL
 Cartilage is also found where the ribs are attached to the
BREASTBONE (STERNUM), thus allowing the rib cage to move
A. THE HANDS AND WRIST CONSISTS OF 54 SEPARATE BONES.
during breathing.

2. THE PELVIC GIRDLE CONSISTS OF 2 BONES AND THE LOWER LIMB


17. Cartilage provides an important combination of strength and
CONSISTS OF 60 BONES. 60 TOTAL
flexibility.

A. THE FEET AND ANKLES CONSISTS OF 54 SEPARATE BONES.


SKELETAL ORGANIZATION

FRACTURES AND THEIR REPAIR


1. All the bones in the body makes up the skeleton.

1. A FRACTURE – means that a bone has been cracked or broken. A


 There are 206 total bones in the human body.
Bone Fracture may be a simple crack, or the Bone may actually break
into two or more pieces.
2. THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FRACTURES CLASSIFIED AS TO THE phosphorus, vitamin D and protein, if any of these nutrients is lacking,
EXTENT OF DAMAGE: bone repair will be a slower process).

A. SIMPLE (CLOSED) - The broken parts are still in normal anatomical OSTEOPOROSIS
position; surrounding tissue damage is minimal (skin is not pierced).
1. OSTEOPOROSIS causes bones to become brittle.
B. COMPOUND (OPEN) - The broken end of a bone has been MOVED,
and it Pierces the Skin; there may be extensive damage to surrounding 2. As bones grow longer, they also grow THICKER and DENSER. In young

blood vessels, nerves, and muscles. adults the Density of bone usually remains constant as bone tissue is
broken down and replaced at a steady rate.
C. GREENSTICK - The Bone Splits LONGITUDINALLY (BREAKS ALONG
THE LONG AXIS OF THE BONE). The bones of children contain more 3. During middle age, bone replacement gradually becomes less

collagen than do adults bones and tend to Splinter rather than break efficient, and bones may become LESS DENSE.

completely.
4. The loss of bone density is called OSTEOPOROSIS, and can cause

D. COMMINUTED - Two or more intersecting breaks create several bones to become light, brittle, and easily broken.

bone fragments.
5. Although both men and women lose bone as the age, WOMEN are at

E. IMPACTED - The broken ends of a bone are forced into one a GREATER RISK for Osteoporosis for TWO reasons:

another; many bone fragments may be created.


A. Women's bones are usually smaller and lighter than men's bones.

F. SPONTANEOUS (PATHOLOGIC) - A bone breaks without apparent


B. The production of female sex hormones declines rapidly during
trauma; may accompany bone disorders such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Menopause (Shutdown of menstrual and ovarian cycles). Sex hormones

THE REPAIR PROCESS help to maintain bone density; this decline in hormone production
increases the rate of bone loss.
1. Even simple fracture involves significant bone damage that must be
repaired if the bone is to resume normal function. 6. Bone density can only be increased during your teens and twenties!
Regular exercise and a healthy diet will make you healthier now and will
2. Fragments of dead or damage bone must first be removed. This is also pay off later.
accomplished by OSTEOCLAST (A BONE-DESTROYING CELL; REABSORBS
BONE MATRIX AS PART OF GROWTH OR REPAIR OF BONES), which 7. The stronger your bones are now, the less likely you are to affected

dissolve and reabsorb the calcium salts of bone matrix. by osteoporosis later. In the US, more than 600,000 bone fractures a
year result from Osteoporosis.
3. Imagine a building that has just collapsed; the ruble must be removed
before reconstruction can take place. This is what the Osteoclasts do. JOINTS: WHERE TWO BONES MEET

4. Then NEW BONE must be produced. 1. JOINTS, OR PLACES WHERE TWO BONES COME TOGETHER, PERMIT
THE BONES TO MOVE WITHOUT DAMAGING EACH OTHER.
5. The INNER LAYER of the PERIOSTEUM contains OSTEOBLASTS that
are activated when bone is damaged. The OSTEOBLASTS produce bone 2. Joints are responsible for keeping bones far enough apart so they do

matrix to knit the broken ends of bone together. Holding the broken not rub against each other as they move. At the same time, joints hold

ends close to each other and keeping them completely still speeds the the bones in place.

healing of bones. That is why a bone fracture is often treated by


3. THE CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS IS BASED ON THE AMOUNT OF
encasing the fractured limb in a cast.
MOVEMENT POSSIBLE:

6. Since most bone has a good blood supply, the repair process is usually
A. SYNARTHROSIS IS AN IMMOVABLE JOINT – often called FIXED
relatively rapid, and a simple fracture often heals within 6 weeks.
JOINTS, and allow no movement between bones. These joints are

7. Other factors that influence the repair include the age of the person, interlocked and held together by Connective Tissue, or they are fused

general state of health, and nutrition (a diet with sufficient calcium,


together. The places where the bones of the SKULL meet (SUTURE) TWO FORMS OF ARTHRITIS THAT AFFECT JOINTS:
meet are examples of immovable joints.
A. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - It develops when the Immune System
B. AMPHIARTHROSIS is a SLIGHTLY MOVABLE JOINT. (SEMI begins to attack the body. The joints become inflamed, swollen, stiff,
MOVABLE JOINTS) These joints permit a small amount of movement. and deformed.
These bones are farther apart from each other than immovable joint
bones. The joints between the two bones of the lower leg (TIBIA and B. OSTEOARTHRITIS - Is a Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) in which

FIBULA) and the joints of the vertebrae are examples of slightly movable the cartilage covering the surface of bones becomes thinner and

joints. rougher. As a result, bone surfaces rub against each other, causing
severe discomfort.
C. DIARTHROSIS is a FREELY MOVABLE JOINT.
10. FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS are grouped according to the shapes of
Most of the joints of the body are freely movable joints. surfaces of the adjacent bones

4. In Freely Movable Joints, the ends of the bones are covered with a SIX TYPES OF FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS:
layer of Cartilage that provides a smooth surface at the joint.
A. BALL & SOCKET JOINT - Permits circular movement - the widest
5. The joints are also surrounded by a Fibrous Joint Capsule that helps range of movement. THE SHOULDER Joint, which enables you to move
hold the bones together and at the same time allows for movement. your arm up, down, forward and backward, as well as to rotate it in a
complete circle.
6. THE JOINT CAPSULE CONSISTS OF TWO LAYERS:
B. HINGED JOINT - Permits a back-and-forth motion. The Knee
A. One of the layers of the joint capsule may thicken to form strips of enables your leg to flex and extend. The Elbow, which allows you to
tough Connective Tissue called LIGAMENTS. move your forearm forward and backward.

 LIGAMENTS are attached to the membranes that surround bones C. PIVOT JOINT - Permits rotation of one bone around another. The
and hold bones together and in place. elbow enables your hand to turn over. It also allows you to turn your
head from side to side.
B. The outer layer of the joint capsule produces SYNOVIAL FLUID,
which forms a thin lubricating film over the surface of a joint and D. GLIDING JOINT - Permits a sliding motion of one bone over
protects the ends of bones from friction. another. Found at the ends of the collarbones, between wrist bones,
and between anklebones.
 This lubricating film enables the cartilage found on the ends of the
bones to slip past each other more smoothly as the joint moves. E. SADDLE JOINT - Permits movement in two planes. This type of joint
is found at the base of the thumb.
7. In some freely movable joints, SMALL POCKETS OF SYNOVIAL FLUID
called BURSAE form. F. ELLIPSOID JOINT - Allows for a hinge type movement in two
directions. The joints that connect fingers with the palm and toes with
 BURSAE reduces the friction between the bones of a joint and also the soles of feet are examples.
acts as a tiny shock absorber.

8. If a joint is injured, too much fluid moves into the bursa, causing it to
swell and become painful, a condition called BURSITIS.

9. A more serious disorder that affects the joints is ARTHRITIS or


INFLAMMATION OF THE JOINT.