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Inductive Power Transfer (IPT)

Powering our future

Grant Covic

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
What is Inductive Power
Transfer?

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
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Ampere and Faraday:


Founders of Electrical Engineering

• Michael Faraday:
– Discovered electricity could be
generated by mechanical machines.

• Andre-Marie Ampere:
– Proposed that magnetic fields and
electric currents must exist together.

• Electricity: the underpinning technology of our


society.

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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The Concept of IPT

I Ampère’s Law

Faraday’s Law
H

 It is a poor transformer
 But allows movement and tolerant of misalignment

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Light Bulb Demonstration

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Motivation – wires are messy

Wireless Power
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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Motivation – wires are not secure

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Motivation – power to moving vehicles

• Galvanic isolation
• Unaffected by dirt, water, chemicals
• Particularly clean – producing no residues
• No trailing wires
• No sliding brushes
• Maintenance free

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Concept Design of an IPT System


Power Electronics
Modern Ferrites

Switched
Pick-up DC
Mode
Compensation Power
Controller
Litz Wire

3 Pick-up
Input Inductance
Power Supply
+ Output track conductor inductance
Compensation
I

Modern Microprocessor Controllers

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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1990: Our first IPT System


Brushless DC Driving Motor
2mm Operating air-gap

 Alignment non critical


 No power regulation
 Maximum 1 trolley/track
 Large pick-up coil
 Low efficiency
But it worked!!!

100 pair telephone cables

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Prototype Comparison
Original System Daifuku Prototype

Power rating 1W 400 W


Efficiency <10% 85%
# of Carriers 1 3
Load 75 kg 250 kg
Speed 0.1 m/s 1 m/s
Track current 80A 80A
Track length 3m 25 m
Air-gap 2 mm 4 mm

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Our Situation:
• 15 month old toy system
• No appreciation of the inherent difficulties in
the task
• No idea about controllers or decoupling
• Had to produce a 3-trolley system in 4
months!

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Conceptual System Structure:

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Daifuku:
excellent partner eg monorail section

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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1-metre length

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Pick-up development:
Wood and ferrite rods

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Cut toroidal cores

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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ETD-49 System: Stage 1

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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ETD-49 System: Stage 2

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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ETD-49 System: Stage 3

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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ETD-49 System: Completed

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Custom Ferrite Solution

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Custom Ferrite System Assembled

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Pick-up Mounted on Monorail

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Complete Pick-up System

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Complete Ramrun System

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Prototype Operation
Aluminum Monorail

Pick-up Coil

Ferrite E
Core

Track Wires

– Allows movement
– Tolerant of misalignment.
– Unaffected by the environment
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Fundamentals of IPT

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
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Fundamentals of IPT

• There are two observables in an IPT System

• The Open Circuit voltage: VOC  jMI1

• The Short Circuit Current: I SC  I1M L2

• They cannot be observed at the same time.

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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The Basic IPT Power Equation

2
M M 2
Su  jMI1  I1  j I1
L2 L2

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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The Need for a Tuned Load

• To increase the power


• Tune at the track frequency
0  1 L2C  

I2 C I2

L2 L2
C V2 RL V2 RL
jωMI1 jωMI1

Parallel Tuned Series Tuned


Acts like a current source Acts like a voltage source

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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The Effect of Tuning

• Tuning Boosts power by Q:


P  SuQ

• But Secondary VA:


VA  PQ
• But decreases bandwidth by Q:
BW   Q
• Reflected impedance onto the track is:
• Load dependant
• Tuning dependant
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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The Effect of Tuning:


Power boost & Bandwidth
Parallel tuned example V2
I2 I2 Vmax

Vmax 2

L2 BW
C V2 RL Isc L2 C V2 RL
jωMI1
0.00
0 log()
1000
Z
Maximum power point
1
Isc s
C2
V2  Isc Z  V2 s  
Isc Q
 Isc 0 L 2Q  QVoc
1 1
s2  s 0
C0
R LC L2C
1 L
Q  0 2
c.f. with second order band-pass filter 0CR L RL

H0 0 s
H s  
Q

s 2  0 s  0 2
BW   Q
Q
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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Power Fundamentals

• Tuned power is dependent on:


– Frequency
– Track current
– Magnetic Coupling
– Secondary Tuning Factor

2
M
P  SuQ  I
2
1 Q
L2

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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For increased Power:

• Operate at a higher frequency


– 60Hz to 30kHz gives 500 x more power
– IPT is impractical at utility frequencies!

• Increase the coupling


– Elegant solution. Creative!

• Increase Q
– Q > 5 is difficult to maintain

• Increase I1
– Use a larger hammer! More cost, less efficient.

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Our first Practical IPT System

• Developed for Daifuku


• Agreed minimum specification
• Huge control problem unknown at the start
• Became the cornerstone of their business.
• Technology called RAMRUN-HID

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Early supplies & instabilities

• Early power supplies


had a significant
control problem

• The supply frequency


varies with changes in
– Track L1
– Tuning capacitor C1.

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Bifurcation:
With variable frequency supplies

• For stability:
total load power x Q < the track VA.

Light Load Heavy Load


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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The Effect of Tuning:


Reflected impedance

Series tuned C I2 Load Impedance based on tuning

 R eq series tuned
L2 
V2 RL Z L   R eq  L2
 Q2  1  j parallel tuned
jωMI1
 Q 1
2

Reflected impedance to track


Parallel tuned
I2

L2
C V2 RL
jωMI1
Parallel tuned reflected impedance at resonance

M2
Z ro  Z r (  o )  2  R  jo L2 
L2
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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A Decoupling Controller

• Controls and helps prevents bifurcation

 8RL
  2 (1  D)
2
inductive filter
R eq  2
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz  R 2
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Research Goals
 Eliminate Wires
 Make IPT systems
universally available
– Lower cost
– Higher power
– More versatile
 Develop the science of IPT
– Reduce to engineering practice
– Develop standards
 Increase the applications
– Home use M 2

– Medical P  SuQ  I12 Q


L2
– Disability aids

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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The Power Supply

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Power Supplies today:


Single phase
Single phase IPT dynamic controller
105 106 107 109

Ø
Fuse
[H]
108
N 103
102 104

E 101
Line filter
50Hz envelope

Track current
110

20kHz IPT power signal

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Power Supplies today:


3-phase

Three phase IPT dynamic controller


505 506 507 509

R
Y [H]
508

B 503
502 504
pick-up coil
E 501
Frequency
switching
511
601
3 phase line filter
Frequency 510
Measurement

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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The Pick-up Regulator

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Other Decoupling Controllers

• Series tuned

• Unity Power Factor (LCL)

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Control Characteristics
Basic Equations

Power in terms of Q
M2
P  I1
2
Q
L2
Power in terms of D
M 
P  I1  Vo (1  D)
2 2 L2
What is the best controller switching frequency?

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Effect of Switching Frequency

100Hz Switching 15kHz Switching

70 70

60 60

Output Power (W)


Output Power (W)

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Duty Cycle (%) Duty Cycle (%)

50kHz Switching 100kHz Switching

70 70

60 60

Output Power (W)


Output Power (W)

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Duty Cycle (%) Duty Cycle (%)

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Transient Response at 30 kHz


Controller Switching Frequency:

Step response (D =0.50)

 The damping factor is very low


 Avoid resonating LDC with AC tuning C2
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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The Magnetics

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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System Coupling

• Closely coupled
– Transformer
– Induction Motor
• System Coupling Factor
M
k
L1 L2
k typically > 0.98

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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IPT Systems

• Loosely coupled: k  0.05


– Supply Current sourced
• Independent secondaries
• Efficiency high under load (0 at no load)
– Often no primary core
– Secondary can move
Tuned Switched-
Pickup Mode
Controller
DC
power
3 Pickup
L2 Inductance
Input
Power
Supply track conductor inductance = L1
I1

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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System Coupling
Individual k very low < 0.05

k typically < 0.5

Primary recessed in floor: flat pick-ups


Individual k < 0.1

k n  nk
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Rail mounted systems: E-core
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Understanding Coupling
M
k
• k is a system co-efficient L1 L2
• doesn’t fairly represent how good the pick-up is
• Kappa looks at coupling without leakage

Secondary Secondary
Compen- Power Load
sation Control

leakage leakage
L2
VLF Primary
Utility M
Power Compen-
Supply
Supply sation
Elongated Track L1

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Improving the Magnetic Design


ФB-A

ФL2-A
ФL2-A ФL2-B

ФlA ФlA ФlB

Track Track Track Track


Conductor A Conductor B Conductor A Conductor B
(excited) (not excited) (excited) (excited)

 c{ A}   L 2 A   c{B A}   c{lA}
 c{ B  A}
ICCF 
 c{ A}

Problem: Flux Cancellation in E-Pick-up


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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Pickup design: E to S Core

Solution: remove the Flux Cancellation Path

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Pickup design: S Core


no cancelation path but more difficult to use

Solution: remove the Flux Cancellation Path

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Pick-up Design: FEM Analysis

S-pickup on ICPT track


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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Pick-up Design: FEM Analysis

Coils added to ferrites


I=80A
f=10kHz

Coil current densities (short circuit)


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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Pick-up Design: FEM Analysis

Uncompensated power – comparison


VOC( rms)  N  Bave.( rms)  AB   
S-Pickup E-Pickup
J ave.( rms)  AI 
I SC ( rms) 
N Voc (rms) 35.7 V 20.1 V
Isc (rms) 4.4 A 4.0 A
Su  VOC( rms)  I SC ( rms)
Su 158.5 VA 80.8 VA

S-pickup is composed of the same amount of ferrite

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


IPT Track Applications

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
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State of the Art Examples


Selected Commercial Licensees of Auckland Uniservices

• Daifuku Factory automation (AFA)


• Daifuku Clean room (eFA)
• Conductix-Wampfler floor systems
• 3I Innovations - Traffic systems

These applications would not exist without the research


done at The University of Auckland

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Factory Automation

•100m Sections
•10 trolleys @ 750W

• AGV 3kW
• Batteries
• V 30mm
• L +/- 30mm

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz Daifuku: HID Automotive & AGVs


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Factory Automation:
Skillets Hoists and AGVs

Daifuku HID

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Electronic Factory Automation

Daifuku: Clean Room Systems


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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Materials Handling: Floor Conveying System


Engine Assembly Lines

AUDI and BMW


Germany

• 58 vehicles
• Track length ~ 2 x 180m
•1.5 kW per vehicle for
drive lift & swivel motors • 35 vehicles
• Track length ~ 150 m
Conductix-Wampfler: IPT Track
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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Materials Handling: Floor Conveying System


BMW, Germany

• 15 vehicles
• 6.6 kW each
• Track length ~75 m

Conductix-Wampfler: IPT Track


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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Roadway Lighting

Tunnel (Sydney Australia)

Tunnel (Wellington NZ)

3I Innovations Roadway Systems Double left turn (Illinois USA)


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
IPT Roadway Applications

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
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The Arguments …

are not simply stationary or moving

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Real and Perceived Problems

The need to plug-in represents one of the greatest


challenges to creating a SAFE, convenient and cost
effective EV infrastructure...

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Core Advantages

SAFETY EASE OF USE


• Wireless transfer is safe • No plugging or unplugging
• Does not harm humans or animals (meets cert.) • Cannot get dirty from cord
• Removes electrocution danger • Select charging & data options without leaving car
• Cannot corrode/short circuit • Don’t need to brave weather to activate charging
• No tripping hazard • Auto charging (can’t forget to plug in)
• High Power Transfer (10kW) • Fast & slow charging with one system
• Double Isolated

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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Core Advantages

DURABILITY AESTHETICS
• No moving parts • Doesn’t damage historic city aesthetics
• Extremely rugged and tough • Avoids unnecessary street clutter
• Waterproof, weatherproof • Maintains precious footpath area
• Impervious to chemicals, debris • Eyesore of overhead cables is removed
• Low profile, crash-safe • Provides a subtle branding option for networks
• Vandal-proof, theft-proof
• No cord to steal or unplug

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Overview of a Stationary
Charging System

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland
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How it Works with Electric Vehicles

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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How it Works with Electric Vehicles


• Power supply
• Transmitter

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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How it Works with Electric Vehicles


• Power supply
• Transmitter
• Magnetic field
• Receiver
• Data Transmission

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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How it Works with Electric Vehicles


• Power supply
• Transmitter
• Magnetic field
• Receiver
• Data Transmission
• Controller
• Battery

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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How it Works with Electric Vehicles


• Power supply
• Transmitter
• Magnetic field
• Receiver
• Data Transmission
• Controller
• Battery
• User Interface

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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How it Works with Electric Vehicles


• Power supply
• Transmitter
• Magnetic field
• Receiver
• Data Transmission
• Controller
• Battery
• User Interface
• Multiple transmitters

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Development of Stationary
Applications

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
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Commercial
Inductive Chargers

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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EV1 Battery Charger:


Charging Paddle system

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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200W Shopping Basket Chargers

Charging Station

Power pad sited under trolley

Charging Mat in Walmart USA


IPT powered shopping baskets

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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200W Shopping Basket Chargers

Charging Station

Power pad sited under trolley

Charging Mat in Walmart USA


IPT powered shopping baskets

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


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20kW Bus Charge Whakarewarewa


Rotorua Charging Bay
• Series resonant supply
• Charging bays
– Rapid charging
– Computer controlled
– 20kW charge 7min/20min
• 3kW pick-ups
– 10 per vehicle
– 5 vehicles

Conductix- Wampfler: operated 1997-2007


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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State of the Art


• Primary side control and Hydraulic levitation
– Communications system required
– Only application for 1 to 1 application

Conductix-Wampfler: Charging- discontinuous power transfer


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
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State of the Art

30kW Pickup

3kW Pickup

• 20% Duty Cycle


• 300/600V Output
• Nom. Distance to Ground: 30mm
• Tolerances: H/L +/-50mm; V +/-10mm
• IP 67 -20°C / +50°C
• 70 kg, 1025 x 875 x 61mm
Conductix- Wampfler: Charging Pick-ups
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

30-60kW Bus Charging Genoa, Porto Antico

• 3 buses each with 56 x 6V Batteries


• Charging 60kW for 10 minutes/hour

Conductix-Wampfler: released 2000


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

State of the Art Weil-am-Rhein

Pickups

Primary Coils

Energy Supply (Current)

Cooling System (Water)

Conductix-Wampfler: 60kw Charging station


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

60kW Bus Charge Genoa, Porto Antico

Lowering Mechanism for


Pickup (customer)
Supporting Frame
for Pickup M

30 mm (max)

Conductix-Wampfler: released 2000


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
A working EV Charger using
Inductive Pads

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Power Pad - Development

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Power Pad - Requirements

• Robust
• Thin and Light
• Cost effective & efficient
• Excellent coupling with low leakage
– meets human exposure limits to magnetic fields
• Scalable for cars, trucks or buses
– Ground clearance is vehicle dependent and varies
over time (suspension, loading etc.)
– Horizontal tolerance – allows unassisted parking

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Early 1kW UPF Charger


1kW (PF=0.998)

Vac Mains

Iac Mains

VO Load

IO Load
Battery Charger Pick-up
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Power Pad - Construction

420mm Diameter Power Pad


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

2kW IPT Charger at EVS24

Vehicle
controller

Pick-up: 2-5kW Power Pad

Charger: 2kW single phase supply 220mm airgap


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Improving the Magnetic Design

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

A New 3.5kW IPT Charger


Vehicle
controller

400mm
air-gap

Controlled Charging: 2kW from single phase supply


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

2kW Charging

Vehicle
controller

400mm airgap

Pick-up: 2-5kW Power Pad

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Exploring the freedom of
roadway power

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Brief Overview of Roadway IPT

• 1894 (Fr) – Hutin & Le Blanc (proposed power to rail conductors)


• 1974 (NZ) – Otto (series resonant system for buses)
• 1975 (US) – Bolger (Inductive roadway switched loops)
• 1982-1992 (US) – Santa Barbara project (Guided roadway)
1991 Lechner et.al. add improved magnetic design
• 1989-92 (US) – Mushachio (proposes contact roadway)
• 1992 (US) – Klontz (mining vehicles with coaxial clamp)
• 1994 (NZ) – Boys and Green (bipolar track & multiple receivers)
• 1995 (JP) – Sato (Meander tracks)
• 1997 (DE) – Meins (early multiphase tracks)
• 2003 (NZ) – Covic & Boys
(multiphase track & receivers - unguided roadway)

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

1982 – Santa Barbara Project

• Pick-up 1m wide, 4.3m long (750Kg pickup & controller),


lowered to 3 inches height (7.5cm)
• Capacitive compensation switched to regulate power and
variable tuning

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

1992 - Klontz

• Coaxial coupling for railed vehicles and EV’s


• 2kHz, 500A track
• Ideally 100kW transfer possible

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

1994 – Boys and Green

• Disney project
• Bipolar track
• Multiple Pickups
• Good tolerance

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

1996 - Sato

• Multiple primary coils or


meander configuration
• Selectively excited
• improved tolerance

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Options for Single Phase
Tracks

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Single Phase Vehicle: Flat pick-ups

Traditional Single phase Flat Pick-ups

10 10
Uncompensated Power [Su]

Uncompensated Power [Su]


8 8

6 6

4 4

2 2

0 0
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150
Distance fromTrack Centre (mm) Distance from Track Centre (mm)

Flat-E Simple Flat


Su  Voc I sc
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Commercial Flat-E Pick-ups

F-Abnehmer
Pickups
*

Speiseleiter
(Hin- und Rüc kleitung)

*
Üblicher Wert für Einbaumittellage, Um die Energieübertragung möglichst
bitte spezifische Toleranzbereiche effizient zu gestalten, d.h. arm an Um-
der Abnehmer beachten ! gebungsverlusten, empfehlen wir den
eingezeichneten Raum frei von ferro-
magnetischen Werkstoffen zu halten.

Continuous Power transfer Pickup Regulators

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Existing AGV’s and Robots

5
Uncompensated Power [Su]

0
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150
Distance fromTrack Centre (mm)

Precision alignment required for power transfer


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Improving Lateral
Tolerance

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Quadrature Pick-ups

Uncompensated Power for Horizontal Coil Uncompensated Power for Vertical Coil
140 140
120
Power (W)

120

Power (W)
100 100
80 80
60 60
40 40
20 20
0 0
-150 -120 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -150 -130 -110 -90 -70 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150

Pickup Displacement (mm) Pickup Displacement (mm)

VERTICAL FLUX
HORIZONTAL FLUX VERTICAL FLUX

Multiphase (Quadrature) Pick-ups


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Quadrature Pick-ups

900
800
PICKUP
Power (W)

700
600 Specified Power Vertical +
Vertical Coil
500 Horizontal
400
300 Horizontal Coil
200
100 Specified Range
0
-150 -120 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150

Pickup Displacement (mm)


CONTROLLER

Adds significant lateral tolerance


(125A, 20kHz)

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Improved Quadrature Pick-ups:


Change Magnetic Shape

Ferrite removed to accommodate the horizontal coil


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Improved Quadrature pick-ups:


Added series compensation

LDC

RL
L2V C2V S CDC
C2SH

L2H C2PH

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Options with Multiphase Tracks

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Three Phase Control

A+
LCL Network
C-
3-phase B+
DC Input inverter LCL Network A-
C+
LCL Network B-

Control 3-phase 3-phase Isolating


DC Input Transformer & LCL Track
Circuit inverter
Network

Open-
Circuit
Protection

Control
Circuit

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Example toy systems

Multiphase tracks allow the freedom of a road lane


Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

3-phase tracks vs. Meander


Identical number track wires and current

• 80mm (3 phase) vs. 100mm separation meander


• Both have 40A/phase
• Three phase more than 3-4 times better (at centre)
• Similar lateral tolerance
Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Two Phase Tracks with Quadratrure

125A/phase, 20kHz

Power profiles using quadrature pickups

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Multiphase Tracks with Ferrite

9.5
9.0
8.5
8.0
7.5

Psu (kVA)
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
2850 3350 3850 4350
Offset along track (mm)
0mm 100mm 200mm 300mm 400mm

240A/phase, 20kHz, 20cm height

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


A Possible Future

Professors Grant Covic and John Boys


Power Electronics Research Group
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

The Vision

Vehicle lane Vehicle lane

Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad Pad

IPT Track IPT Track IPT Track IPT Track

Power Power
Power Power Supply Supply
Supply Supply cabinet cabinet
cabinet cabinet

100m
200m

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

The Vision

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

The Future

IPT applications are


limited only by our thinking

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz


Copyright Auckland Uniservices Ltd. 2010
All Rights Reserved

Questions?

Contacts: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz or ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz