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Sophocles: The Plays and Fragments


Sir Richard Jebb’s seven-volume edition of the works of Sophocles, published
between 1883 and 1896, remains a landmark in Greek scholarship. Jebb
(1841–1905) was the most distinguished classicist of his generation, a
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and University Orator, subsequently
Professor of Greek at Glasgow University and finally Regius Professor of
Greek at Cambridge, and a Member of Parliament for the University. Each
volume of the edition contains an introductory essay, a metrical analysis,
an indication of the sources used to establish the text, and the ancient
summaries (‘arguments’) of the play. The text itself is given with a parallel
English translation, textual collation and explanatory notes, and an appendix
consisting of expanded notes on some of the textual issues. The quality of
Jebb’s work means that his editions are still widely consulted today. This
volume contains Oedipus Tyrannus.
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Sophocles: The Plays
and Fragments
With Critical Notes, Commentary and
Translation in English Prose
Volume 1: The O edipus Tyrannus

E di t e d by R ichard C l averhouse Jebb


S opho cles
C a M b R i D G E U N i V E R Si T y P R E S S

Cambridge, New york, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,


São Paolo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo

Published in the United States of america by Cambridge University Press, New york

www.cambridge.org
information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781108008389

© in this compilation Cambridge University Press 2010

This edition first published 1883


This digitally printed version 2010

iSbN 978-1-108-00838-9 Paperback

This book reproduces the text of the original edition. The content and language reflect
the beliefs, practices and terminology of their time, and have not been updated.

Cambridge University Press wishes to make clear that the book, unless originally published
by Cambridge, is not being republished by, in association or collaboration with, or
with the endorsement or approval of, the original publisher or its successors in title.
SOPHOCLES
THE PLAYS AND FRAGMENTS.

PART I.
THE OEDIPUS TYRANNUS.
Sonbon: c. j . CLAYJ M.A, & SON,
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE,
17, PATERNOSTER ROW.

DEIGHTON, BELL, AND CO.


llip}iB: F. A. BROCKHAUS.
SOPHOCLES
THE PLAYS AND FRAGMENTS

WITH CRITICAL NOTES, COMMENTARY, AND


TRANSLATION IN ENGLISH PROSE,

R. C. JEBB, M.A., LL.D. EDIN.,


PROFESSOR OF GREEK IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW,
FORMERLY FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE AND PUBLIC ORATOR IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

PART I.
THE OEDIPUS TYRANNUS.

EDITED FOR THE SYNDICS OF THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

CAMBRIDGE:
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
1883
©ambritige:
PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND SON,
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
NOTE.

IT is intended that in the present edition of Sophocles each


play should form a separate volume. While the volumes
subsequent to the first will necessarily contain occasional
references to the earlier portion of the work, care will be taken
to render each volume, in all essentials, an independent book,
available for the use of readers who possess no other part of the
•edition.
The Oedipus Colonetis will follow the present volume at as
short an interval as may be found possible. Of the remaining
five plays, the Antigone will be the first. An eighth volume will
contain (i) the Fragments: (2) short Essays on subjects of
general interest in relation to Sophocles: (3) a General Index,
for all the volumes, of 1. Greek, 2. Matters, 3. Authors quoted.

J. S.
PREFACE.

As long ago as 1867, I contributed to the Catena Classi-


corum a commentary on the Electra of Sophocles, followed
in 1868 by one on the Ajax. At that time I already medit-
ated a complete edition of Sophocles on a larger scale,—
a design which I have never abandoned, though various causes
have delayed its execution.
One of these causes may be briefly noticed here. In
the course of preparing the commentaries on the Electra
and the Ajax, I had been led to see more clearly the
intimate relation which in certain respects exists between
Greek tragic dialogue and Greek rhetorical prose, and to
feel the desire of studying more closely the whole process
by which Greek oratory had been developed. The result
of this study was a treatise on the historical development
of Attic prose style, which in 1876 was published under the
title of The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeos. The
reception accorded to it has been most gratifying, and has
more than repaid the labour which it had cost. It was,
however, as a preparation, in one department, for the task
of editing Sophocles that the special studies embodied in the
Attic Orators had originally been undertaken: and, though
they necessarily extended beyond that immediate scope, I do
not regard the time bestowed on them as lost to the pur-
vi PREFACE.

poses of the present work. I may say this here, because,—if


I can at all judge from my own feeling in such a case,—•
it is sometimes of interest for readers to know that works not
obviously related to each other have been connected, in the
writer's own mind, by a definite unity of purpose. However
much he may have failed of his aim in either task or in both,
at any rate the point of view from which he approached
each may thus be more clearly suggested.
In offering to the public the first part of a new edition
of Sophocles, the editor may reasonably be expected to state
the general characteristics which he intends to be distinctive
of it. In this case, they are chiefly two.
I. First, I aim at showing fully and exactly how the
work of Sophocles is understood by me, both in its larger
aspects, and at every particular point. For this purpose, the
first requisite is' a translation, the principle of which shall be
absolute fidelity to the original; not to the letter of the
original at the cost of the spirit, but to the spirit as expressed
in the letter. And, for this end, prose has two advantages
over verse, even though the verse be that of a poet, (i) Metre
will often exact sacrifices precisely at those points which test
the higher fidelity of translation—fidelity to light touches by
which the genius and art of the original are most delicately
marked, (ii) A modern verse translation has necessarily a
more or less modern spirit of its own, due to its very form,
and to the associations with which the form is invested. Thus,
however little he may desire it, the metrical translator is un-
avoidably placed in competition with his original.
The value of verse translations as substantive literary works
is not here in question. Translation is here being considered
solely from the stand-point of the commentator, as an indispen-
sable instrument of lucid interpretation. In supplement to a
prose translation, a commentary has a special part to perform,
PREFACE. vii
though this is only one of several functions which a com-
mentary ought to aim at discharging. There are places where
a translation, although in prose, cannot combine literal with
essential accuracy. A version which subordinates the letter to
the spirit will sometimes involve a mental process of which
the result bears no visible trace. If the version is sound, this
process is not only morally sensitive, but has also a scrupulously
logical march. A version which, while brilliant, is unsound, is
one which seizes on a smooth compromise or a glittering
resemblance, which may imply an unconscious misrepresen-
tation or an undetected fallacy. 'This rendering, I can see,
is not literal'—we may suppose a reader to say. ' In what
sense, then, and why, is it equivalent to the Greek?' Here
—supposing the translation to be sound—is the opportunity
of the commentary. It comes in to show that there is no flaw
in the process by which an advance has been made from a
literal rendering to one which, though less literal, is more
faithful.
This, then, is the first object for which I have striven—the
vivid exposition of my own mind in relation to Sophocles ; so
that, even where my understanding of him is defective or mis-
taken, at least it may seldom be ambiguous. This is an en-
deavour which appeals more directly to classical students : it is
by them, if any of them should use this book in their work, that
the measure of failure or success will be most correctly judged.
2. The second object which has been proposed to this
edition regards educated readers generally, not classical students
alone. It is my hope—whether a vain one or not, I hardly
know—that the English version facing the Greek text may
induce some persons to read a play of Sophocles as they would
read a great poem of a modern poet,—with no such interposing
nightmare of TVTTTCD as at Athens came between Thackeray
and his instinctive sense of what was admirable in the nature
viii PREFACE.

and art around him,—but with free exercise of the mind and
taste, thinking only of the drama itself, and of its qualities as
such. Surely that is, above all things, what is to be desired
by us just now in regard to all the worthiest literature of the
world—that people should know some part of it (the quantity
matters much less) at first hand,—not merely through manuals
of literary history or magazine articles. Summaries, when the
work of scholars, may be valuable as introductions and as
retrospects ; but only the breath of the great literature itself
can make the dry bones live. Any one who had read thoroughly
and intelligently a single play such as the Oedipus Tyrannus
would have derived far more intellectual advantage from
Greek literature, and would comprehend far better what it has
signified in the spiritual history of mankind, than if he had
committed to memory the names, dates, and abridged con-
tents of a hundred Greek books ranging over half-a-dozen
centuries.
' Explanatory notes ought to be written in one's own
'language, critical in the Latin.'...'The traditionary Latin of
' scholars' has ' created in a manner a vocabulary of its own.'
This is the principle laid down by Shilleto in the preface
to his edition of Demosthenes On the Embassy, and it could
not have been better exemplified than by his own practice
in that celebrated book. He felt, as everyone must, the
occasional difficulty of drawing the line between 'critical'
and ' explanatory.' But the fact is that the difficulty becomes
serious only if we try to make the line a hard-and-fast one.
Practically, it can nearly always be solved by a little exercise
of discretion. When both sets of notes are on the same
page, no real inconvenience can arise in cases where either
department slightly overlaps the other.
In a later part of this edition, when dealing in short essays
with other matters of general interest in relation to Sophocles,
PREFACE. ix
I propose to give an outline of Sophoclean bibliography, with
some attempt to estimate the distinctive excellences of the prin-
cipal works. The subject is a large one, as a single fact may
serve to show. In 1874 Dr Hermann Genthe, the reviser of
Ellendt's lexicon, published an index to writings illustrative of
Sophocles which had appeared, chiefly in Germany, since 1836.
The index, a book of 134 pages, does not include editions,
whether of single plays, or of all; yet the author can enume-
rate 801 books, dissertations, or critical articles, all published
between 1836 and 1874, and representing upwards of 430 writers.
Even in 1874 it would have been possible to make numerous
additions to this catalogue from English sources, which Dr
Genthe had left nearly untouched : now, in 1883, the increment
from all sources would be very considerable. Here, I must be
content to mention those editions which, out of a larger
number, have in this play been my more constant companions.
They are those of Hermann, Wunder, Dindorf, Schneidewin
(as revised by Nauck), Blaydes, Campbell, Kennedy. Other
editions, commentaries, and writings of various kinds will be
found cited on particular points in the critical notes, the com-
mentary, or the appendix.
It is a particular pleasure to me here—and all -the greater,
because on a few points I have ventured to differ from its
interpretations—to commend to all students of this play the
edition of Professor Kennedy, in which, as it is unnecessary
for me to say, they will trace the hand of the master.
Nor can I mention the most recent English edition of
Sophocles without saying, how far it is alike from my antici-
pation and from my desire that the present edition should
divert a single reader from the work, in so many senses
admirable, of Professor Campbell. The high place which he
has justly won among the English scholars who have deserved
well of Sophocles is one from which no successor could remove
x PREFACE.

him, and which every worthy successor will most earnestly


desire that he should retain. Students will find in his work
much which the present does not give,—much which it could
not give; they will also recognise the impress of personal
qualities which are not more appreciated by his friends than
they are significant of the best graces which humane studies
can impart to the mind and character.
In the Metrical Analysis I notice my obligations to Dr J. H.
Heinrich Schmidt's Kunstformen, and more especially to the
fourth volume of that work, the Griechische Metrik ; also to the
aids given by the translator of Schmidt's Leitfaden, Dr J. W.
White, Assistant Professor of Greek in Harvard University,
in his able edition of this play.
To the Librarians of the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, the
Biblioteca Mediceo-Lorenziana, Florence, the Biblioteca Mar-
ciana, Venice, and the Bodleian Library, Oxford, I desire to
express my thanks for the courtesy with which every facility
was afforded to me for consulting manuscripts of Sophocles.
The proof-sheets of the commentary and of the appendix
have been read by Mr C. A. M. Fennell, editor of Pindar, and
formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge; whom I have to
thank, not only for the care with which a laborious office was
performed, but also for several valuable suggestions made
during the progress of the work.
I should be very ungrateful if I closed this preface without
recording my sense of the combined rapidity and precision
which, in printing a volume of somewhat complex form, have
sustained the well-known repute of the Cambridge University
Press.
THE COLLEGE, GLASGOW.
November, 1883.
CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . page xiii—Hi


§ i. General characteristics of the play and of the fable. § 2.
References in the Homeric Poems. § 3. Other epic versions. § 4.
Pindar. § 5. The logographers. § 6. The dramatists.—Aeschylus.
§ 7. Sophocles. Original features of his plot. § 8. Imagined
antecedents. § 9. Analysis. § 10. Aristotle's criticisms. The
element of improbability. § 1 1 . The characters. § 12. Oedipus.
§ 13. Iocasta. § 14. Teiresias. Creon. § 15. Supposed allusions
to contemporary events. Alleged defeat of the play. § 16. The
actor Polus. Significance of a story concerning him.
§ 17. Other plays on the subject. § 18. The Oedipus of
Seneca. § 19. His relation to Sophocles. § 20. The Oedipe of
Corneille. § 21. The Oedipus of Dryden. § 22. The Oedipe of
Voltaire. § 23. His criticisms. § 24. Essential difference between
Sophocles and the moderns. § 25. Their references to a pro-
phetic instinct in Oedipus and Iocasta. § 26. The improbable
element—how managed by the moderns.
§ 27. Recent revivals of Greek plays. § 28. The Oedipus
Tyrannus—a crucial experiment. § 29. The result at Harvard.
§ 30. Oedipe Roi at the Theatre Frangais.—Conclusion.

T H E TEXT liii—Ixiii
§ 1. MSS. used. § 2. Deviations from L. § 3. Scope of the
critical annotation. § 4. The use of conjecture. § 5. Our text—
how transmitted. Its general condition. § 6. Textual criticism
should have no bias. § 7. Conjectures of former critics, adopted
in this edition. § 8. Conjectures by the editor. § 9. Notation.
METRICAL ANALYSIS lxiv—xcviii
Preliminary remarks on metre and rhythm . . . lxv—lxviii
The lyrics of the Oedipus Tyrannus . . . . lxix—xcvi
Relations of lyric form and matter . . . . xcvi—xcviii
xii CONTENTS.

ANCIENT ARGUMENTS TO THE PLAY; DRAMATIS PERSONAE;


STRUCTURE pp. 3—9
TEXT 10
APPENDIX 279—310
Note I. The Oedipus Tyrannus at Harvard.—Note II. V. 2.
On the meaning of 6oaC$re—Note III. Vv. 44 f.—Note IV. Vv.
198 f.—Note V. Vv. 219—221.—Note VI. Vv. 227 f.— Note VII.
The proposed transposition of vv. 246—251.—Note VIII. V. 305.
el Kai and Kol «'.—Note IX. Vv. 628 f.—Note X. V. 361. The
forms yvaiTos and yvaaros.—Note XI. V. 478. The reading of
the first hand in the Laurentian MS., mrpdios 6 ravpos.—Note
XII. V. 508. The Sphinx— Note XIII. Vv. 622—626.—Note
XIV. V. 762. an-oTiTof.—Note XV. V. 1137. The significance of
Arctutus in the popular Greek calendar.— Note XVI. V. 1505. irepi
before a vowel in composition.—Note XVII. V. 1526.
INDICES 311—327

CORRIGENDA.

PAGE 8, lines 5, 6. For 463—511, read 463—512 (as also in p. 97, I. 3 from
bottom, and p. 98, 1. 14 from bottom): and for 512—862 read 513—
862 (as also on p. 106, 1. 11 from bottom).
,, .82, critical note, 1. 2. For 7^ fwv read 7' e/jo0.
„ 102, line 6 of Greek text. Transfer the Second i) to the beginning of the next
line.
,, 115, bottom line. After 'cp.', insert 133.
,, 164, crit. note, 1. 1, first word. For OTTOT^OC read &T6TO/WI>.
,, 169, crit. note, 1. 1, for 0et# read Ov/iy.
,, 176, crit. note, 1. 1, insert ifou after r(0priKe.
„ 203, crit. note, 1. r, for de monstrare read demonstrare.
,, 225, bottom line, for vepu7Ti\of read *epUrtv\6i>.
INTRODUCTION.

§ i. T H E Oedipus Tyrannus is in one sense the masterpiece


of Attic Tragedy. No other shows an equal degree of art in
the development of the plot; and this excellence depends on the
powerful and subtle drawing of the characters. Modern drama,
where minor parts can be multiplied and scene changed at will,
can more easily divorce the two kinds of merit. Some of
Voltaire's plays, for instance, not first-rate in other ways, are
models of ingenious construction. The conditions of the Greek
stage left less room for such a result. In the Oedipus Tyrannus
the highest constructive skill is seen to be intimately and
necessarily allied with the vivid delineation of a few persons.
Here it is peculiarly interesting to recover, so far as we
can, the form in which the story of Oedipus came to Sopho-
cles; to remark what he has altered or added; and to see how
the same subject has been handled by other dramatists.
The essence of the myth is the son slaying his unknown
father, and thereby fulfilling a decree of fate. The subsequent
marriage, if not an original part of the story, seems to have
been an early addition. The central ideas are, (i) the irresis-
tible power of destiny, and (2) the sacredness of the primary
natural ties, as measured by the horror of an unconscious sin
against it. The direct and simple form in which these ideas
are embodied gives the legend an impress of high antiquity.
This might be illustrated by a comparison with the story of
Sohrab and Rustum as told in Mr Matthew Arnold's beautiful
poem. The slaying of the unknown son by the father is there
surrounded with a pathos and a chivalrous tenderness which
xiv INTRODUCTION.

have no counterpart in the grim simplicity of the Oedipus myth,


as it appears in its earliest known shape.
Homeric § 2. The Iliad, which knows the war of Polyneices and his
oems. a i i ; e s against Thebes (4. 378), once glances at the tale of
Oedipus—where Mecisteus, father of Euryalus, is said to have
visited Thebes in order to attend the funeral games which were
celebrated after the death of Oedipus (23. 679 f.) :—
o? 7TOT6 ®rf/3aaB' r\XQe BeSovTroros OLBnroBao
e? rdcjiov,-—-
—' who came to Thebes of yore, when Oedipus had fallen, to his
burying.'
The word BeBovTroTos plainly refers to a violent death in
fight, or at the hand of an assassin ; it would not be in accord
with the tone of epic language to understand it as a figurative
phrase for a sudden fall from greatness. But more than this the
Iliad does not tell. The poet of the 23rd book imagines
Oedipus as having died by violence, and received burial at
Thebes, in the generation before the Trojan war.
The Nekyia in the Odyssey gives the earliest sketch of an
integral story (11. 271 ff.):—•
Mrjrepa T ' OlBnroBao IBov, icaXrjv ^Tri/cdcrTrjv,
fj /j,eya epyov epegev diBpelycn vooio
ryrjfia/jievr] m vlel' o B' ov Trarep' i%evaptf;a<i
r/fj/j,ev' a(j)ap S' dva-rrvara 6eol Oeaav dvdpcoiroiaiv.
' 0 /J,ev iv ©rfftrj -7ro\v7)pa.T<p dX<yea 7ra<7%&w
rjvaaae 6ewv 6\oas Bid /3ouXa9"
rj S' e{3r) et? 'Ai'Sao irvXaprao Kparepoio,
dtya/Aevr] ^po^ov alirvv dp' vtyrjXolo fieXadpov,
& a%et <T%0fJ,ev7)' T&5 8' a\r/ea KOKKIIT oirlaaco
iroWa fidX', oaaa re firjTpo<; 'Epivves eKTeXeovcnv.
' And I saw the mother of Oedipodes, fair Epicaste, who wrought a
dread deed with unwitting mind, in that she wedded her son; but he
had slain his father ere he wedded her; and presently the gods made
these things known among men. Yet he still ruled over the Cadmeans
in lovely Thebes, suffering anguish by the dire counsels of the gods;
but she went to the house of Hades, the strong warder, when she had
fastened a noose on high from the roof-beam, possessed by her pain;
INTRODUCTION. xv
and to him she bequeathed sorrows full many, even all that a mother's
Avengers bring to pass.'
With regard to this outline in the Odyssey, it is to be noted
that it ignores (a) the deliverance of Thebes from the Sphinx—
though this may be implied in the marriage with Epicaste: (b)
the self-blinding of Oedipus : (c) the expulsion of Oedipus from
Thebes—herein agreeing with the indication in the Iliad. It
further seems to exclude the notion of Epicaste having borne
children to Oedipus, since the discovery followed 'presently'
on the union,—unless, indeed, by d<fiap the poet merely meant
' suddenly.'
§ 3. Lost poems of Hesiod may have touched on the story Other
of Oedipus; but in his extant work there is only a passing
reference to the war at Thebes (between Polyneices and
Eteocles), in which heroes fell, 'fighting for the flocks of
Oedipus.' Hesiod knows the Sphinx as the daughter of
Echidna and as the pest of Thebes1.
But the story of Oedipus was fully treated in some of those
lost epics which dealt with the Theban cycle of myths. One of
these was the ' Oedipodeia,' OlSnrobeia (eTrrj). According to this,
the four children of Oedipus were not borne by Iocasta, but by
a second wife, Euryganeia. Pausanias, who follows this account,
does not know the author of the poem2. It will be observed
that this epic agrees with the Odyssey in not making Iocasta
bear issue to Oedipus. It is by Attic writers, so far as we know,
that she was first described as doing so. Poets or logographers
who desired to preserve the favour of Dorians had a reason for
avoiding that version. There were houses which traced their
line from the children of Oedipus,—as Theron, tyrant of Acragas,

1
Hes. Op. 162: war slew the heroes, rois fi£i> £<p iirTairiXtf
Hr/Xap (VCK' OiSi7ro5ao. The Sphinx : Theog. 326, i) 6' (Echidna) a'pa $LK' oXor/v r^Ke,
Kadfidounv 6\e8poi>. The hill near Thebes on which the Sphinx sat was called ffeioi'
6pos. References in lost Hesiodic poems: schol. on //. 23. 680.
2
He speaks merely of 0 rh liri) Trocqaas a OlSiiroSeia ovo/iafovai (9. 5. 11). But the
inscription known as the 'marmor Borgianum' refers it to Cinaethon, a Lacedae-
monian poet who treated epically the Dorian family legends, and who is said to have
flourished about 775 B.C. Pausanias, however, who quotes Cinaethon on several
points of genealogy, certainly did not regard the Oedipodeia as his work.
xvi INTRODUCTION.

claimed descent from Thersandros, son of Polyneices 1 . To


represent these children as the offspring of an incestuous union
would have been to declare the stream polluted at its source.
We learn from Proclus that in the epic called the Cyprian
Lays (Kinrpia), which included the preparations for the Trojan
war, Nestor related ' the story of Oedipus' (ra Trepl OlSlirovv)
in the course of a digression (eV •n-a/>e«:/3oo-et) which comprised
also the madness of Heracles, as well as the story of Theseus
and Ariadne. This was probably one of the sources used by
the Attic dramatists. Another source, doubtless more fertile in
detail, was the epic entitled the Thebaid (@i?/3ai!^), and now
usually designated as the ' Cyclic Thebaid,' to distinguish it from
a later epic of the same name by Antimachus of Colophon, the
contemporary of Euripides. Only about 20 verses remain from
it2. The chief fragment relates to the curse pronounced by
Oedipus on his sons. They had broken his strict command by
setting on his table the wine-cups {e.Kirwfid'vd) used by Lafus;
and he invoked a curse upon them:—
ai/tya Se traialv iolcn fier afi(f>oTepoicnv eTrapcu;
dpyaXeas rjpaTO' $ecv 8 ov \dv6av 'Epivvv'
col ov oi irarpcoi' iw)eirj <fri\oTT)TO<i
ScuuraivT, dfjuporepoifn S" eoi irokep&i re paxal Te-
'And straightway, while his two sons were by, he uttered dire
curses,—and the Avenging goddess failed not to hear them,—that they
should divide their heritage in no kindly spirit, but that war and strife
should be ever between them.'
This Thebaid—tracing the operation of a curse through the
whole history of the house—must have had an important share
in moulding the conception of the Aeschylean trilogy.
Pindar. § 4 - Pindar touches on the story of Oedipus in 01. 2. 35 ff.
Destiny has often brought evil fortune after good,—
ef ovirep e/ereive Aaov fiopi/j.o'}
crvvavTofievo1;, iv Bk TlvOdovi
riXevcreu.
1
Pind. 01. 2. 35.
2
See the Didot ed. of the Cyclic fragments, p. 587.
INTRODUCTION. xvii

ihdicra S' o£et' 'Eptwu?


eTre(f>ve ol avv aWaXotyoviq fyevo? aprjiov—
' — from the day when his doomed son met Lai'us and killed him, and
accomplished the word given aforetime at Pytho. But the swift Erinnys
beheld it, and slew his warlike sons, each by the other's sword.'
Here the Fury is represented as destroying the sons in direct
retribution for the parricide, not in answer to the imprecation of
Oedipus. A fragment of Pindar alludes to the riddle of the
Sphinx, and he uses ' the wisdom of Oedipus' to denote counsel
wrapped in dark sayings,—since the skill which solves riddling
speech can weave it1.
§ 5. The logographers could not omit the story of Oedipus The logo-
in a systematic treatment of the Theban myths. Hellanicus of SraPhers-
Mitylene (circ. 450 B.C.) is mentioned by the scholiast on the
Phoenissae (61) as agreeing with Euripides in regard to the self-
blinding of Oedipus'2. The contemporary Pherecydes of Leros
(usually called ' Athenian' since Athens was his home) treated
the legends of Thebes in the fifth of ten books forming a com-
prehensive survey of Greek tradition3. According to him, Iocasta
bore two sons to Oedipus, who were slain by the Minyae: but,
as in the Oedipodeia, his second wife Euryganeia bore Eteocles
and Polyneices, Antigone and Ismene. This seems to be the
earliest known version which ascribes issue to the marriage
of Iocasta with Oedipus.

§ 6. However incomplete this sketch may be relatively to The dram-


the materials which existed in the early part of the fifth century atlsts-
B.C., it may at least serve to suggest the general conditions under
which Tragedy entered on the treatment of the subject. The
story of Oedipus, defined in its main features by a tradition older
than the Odyssey, had been elaborated in the epics of later poets
1
Pind. fr. 62 a'iviyixa vapBivov \ ef aypiav yvadw. Pyth. 4. 263 rhi Oi5iw6Sa
aotptav. Pindar's elder contemporary Corinna had sung of Oedipus as delivering
Thebes not only from the Sphinx but also from TTJK Tevfiij^a-lau aXiiireKa—a fox from
the Boeotian village of Teumessus : but we hear no more of this less formidable
pest. (Bergk, Poet. Lyr. p. 949.)
2
MUller, Frag. Histor. 1. 85.
3
MUller, ib. 1. 48.
xviii INTRODUCTION.

and the prose of chroniclers. There were versions differing in


detail, and allowing scope for selection. While the great outlines
were constant, minor circumstances might be adapted to the
dramatist's chosen view.
Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides agree in a trait which
does not belong to any extant version before theirs. Iocasta, not
Euryganeia, is the mother of Eteocles and Polyneices, Antigone
and Ismene. They agree also in connecting the doom of the
two brothers with a curse pronounced by Oedipus. Neither
the scanty fragments1 which alone represent the Oedipus of
Euripides, nor the hints in the Phoenissae, enable us to de-
termine the distinctive features of his treatment. With regard
to Aeschylus, though our knowledge is very meagre, it suffices
at least to show the broad difference between his plan and that
of Sophocles.
Aeschylus. Aeschylus treated the story of Oedipus as he treated the story
of Agamemnon. Oedipus became the foremost figure of a
trilogy which traced the action of an inherited curse in the house
of Labdacus, even as the Oresteia traced the action of such a
curse in the house of Pelops. That trilogy consisted of the
1
Nauck Eur. Fragm. 544—561, to which Unger adds Soph. fr. incert. 663,
Meineke adespota 107, 309, others adesp. 6. Almost all the verses are commonplaces.
From fr. 546, 547 I should conjecture that the Creon of Eur. defended himself
against a charge of treason in a passage parallel with Soph. O. T. 583—615. One
fragment of two lines is curious (545): Wei's 5e Mokbftov iraTS' ipeiaavres irtSy \ eiiofifi-
arovfiev KOX SwWv/iev Kopas. Quoting these, the schol. on Eur. Ph. 61 says: iv ik
T<p OlSiiroSi. ol Aaiov Bepdirovres irvrfkoxjav avrbv. This would seem to mean that,
after the discovery, the old retainers of Laius blinded Oedipus—for the schol. is
commenting on the verse which says that he was blinded by himself. But the tragic
force of the incident depends wholly on its being the king's own frantic act. I incline
to suspect some error on the scholiast's part, which a knowledge of the context might
possibly have disclosed.
From the prologue of the Phoenissae it appears that Eur. imagined Oedipus to have
been found on Cithaeron by the linrofiouKoXoi of Polybus, and taken by them to the
latter's wife. The Iocasta of Eur. herself relates in that play how, when the sons of
Oed. grew up, they held him a prisoner in the palace at Thebes—that the disgrace
might be hidden from men's eyes. It was then that he pronounced a curse upon
them. When they have fallen, fighting for the throne, Iocasta kills herself over their
bodies, and Creon then expels Oedipus from Thebes. The mutilated vxiOecns to
the Phoenissae does not warrant us in supposing that the Oenomaus and Chrysippus
of Eur.,—the latter containing the curse of Pelops on Laius—formed a trilogy with
his Oedipus.
INTRODUCTION. xix
Laius, the Oedipus, and the extant Seven against Thebes; the
satyric drama being the Sphinx. From the Laius only a few
words remain; from the Oedipus, three verses; but some general
idea of the Oedipus may be gathered from a passage in the
Seven against Thebes (772—791). Oedipus had been pictured
by Aeschylus, as he is pictured by Sophocles, at the height of
fame and power. He who had delivered Thebes from 'the
devouring pest' (TUV upira^avhpav tcfjpa) was admired by all
Thebans as the first of men. ' But when, hapless one, he came
to knowledge of his ill-starred marriage, impatient of his pain,
with frenzied heart he wrought a twofold ill': he blinded
himself, and called down on his sons this curse, that one day
they should divide their heritage with the sword. ' And now I
tremble lest the swift Erinnys bring it to pass.'
Hence we see that the Oedipus of Aeschylus included the
imprecation of Oedipus upon his sons. This was essential to
the poet's main purpose, which was to exhibit the continuous
action of the Erinnys in the house.. Similarly the Lams doubtless
included the curse called down on Laius by Pelops, when bereft
by him of his son Chrysippus. The true climax of the Aeschylean
Oedipus would thus have consisted, not in the discovery alone,
but in the discovery followed by the curse. And we may safely
infer that the process of discovery indicated in the Seven against
Thebes by the words eVet S' dprl^pcov \ iyivero.. .yaficov (778) was
not comparable with that in the play of Sophocles. It was
probably much more abrupt, and due to some of those more
mechanical devices which were ordinarily employed to bring
about a ' recognition' on the stage. The Oedipus of Aeschylus,
however brilliant, was only a link in a chain which derived its
essential unity from ' the mindful Erinnys.'

§ 7. The Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles was not part of a Sophocles.


trilogy, but a work complete in itself. The proper climax of such
a work was the discovery, considered in its immediate effects, not
in its ulterior consequences. Here the constructive art of the
dramatist would be successful in proportion as the discovery was
naturally prepared, approached by a process of rising interest,
and attended in the moment of fulfilment with the most
J. s. c
xx INTRODUCTION.

astounding reversal of a previous situation. In regard to the


Original structure of the plot, this is what Sophocles has achieved. Before
r
features of . . .
his plot, giving an analysis of his plot, we must notice two features of it
which are due to his own invention.
(1) According to previous accounts, the infant Oedipus,
when exposed on Mount Cithaeron, had been found by herds-
men, and reared either in Southern Boeotia, or at Sicyon, a place
associated with the worship of the Eumenides. Sophocles
makes the Theban herd of La'ius give the babe to the herd
of Polybus, king of Corinth, who rears it as his own. Thus are
prepared the two convergent threads of evidence which meet in
the final discovery. And thus, too, the belief of Oedipus con-
cerning his own parentage becomes to him a source, first of
anxiety, then of dread, then of hope—in contrast, at successive
moments, with that reality which the spectators know.
(2) The only verses remaining from the Oedipus of Aeschylus
show that in that drama Oedipus encountered and slew Lai'us at
a meeting of three roads near Potniae, a place in Boeotia, on the
road leading from Thebes to Plataea. At the ruins of this place
Pausanias saw 'a grove of Demeter and Persephone". It ap-
pears to have been sacred also to those other and more terrible
goddesses who shared with these the epithet of irorviai,-—the
Eumenides iirorviaZ^ Oeal, Eur. Or. 318). For the purpose of
Aeschylus, no choice of a scene could have been more fitting.
The father and son, doomed by the curse in their house, are
brought together at a spot sacred to the Erinnyes:—

KekevOov Tplohov, evda


rpiwv Ke\ev0cov TloTVuahcov
'We were coming in our journey to the spot from which three high-
roads part, where we must pass by the junction of triple ways at Potniae.'
But for Sophocles this local fitness did not exist. For him,
the supernatural agency which dominates the drama is not that
of the Furies, but of Apollo. He transfers the scene of the
encounter from the 'three roads' at Potniae to the ' three roads'
1
a\<ro? Arj/jL^rpos /cat KopT??, 9. 8. I .
2
Aesch. fr. 167 (Nauck).
INTRODUCTION. xxi
near Daulia1 in Phocis. The ' branching ways' of Potniae can no
longer be traced. But in the Phocian pass a visitor can still feel
how the aspect of nature is in unison with the deed of which
Sophocles has made it the theatre2. This change of locality has
something more than the significance of a detail. It symbolises
the removal of the action from the control of the dark Avenging
Powers to a region within the influence of that Delphian god who
is able to disclose and to punish impurity, but who will also give
final rest to the wanderer, final absolution to the weary mourner
of unconscious sin.
§ 8. The events which had preceded the action of the Oedipus Supposed
Tyrannus are not set forth, after the fashion of Euripides, in a eJ^fj^1"
formal prologue. They have to be gathered from incidental hints the plot.
in the play itself. It is an indispensable aid to the full compre-
hension of the drama that we should first connect these hints into
a brief narrative of its antecedents as imagined by Sophocles.
La'fus, king of Thebes, being childless, asked the oracle of
Apollo at Delphi whether it was fated that a son should be born
to him. The answer was,' I will give thee a son, but it is doomed
that thou leave the sunlight by the hands of thy child : for thus
hath spoken Zeus, son of Cronus, moved by the dread curse of
Pelops, whose own son (Chrysippus) thou didst snatch from him;
and he prayed all this for thee.' When a son was indeed born
to La'ius of Iocasta his wife, three days after the birth he caused
it to be exposed in the wilds of Mount Cithaeron. An iron pin
was driven through the feet of the babe, fastening them together,
—that, if perchance it should live to be found by a stranger, he
might have the less mind to rear a child so maimed; from which
maiming the child was afterwards called Oedipus3.
The man chosen to expose the babe received it from the
hands of the mother, Iocasta herself, with the charge to destroy
it. This man was a slave born in the house of La'fus, and so be-
longing to the class of slaves whom their masters usually treated
1
Danlis was the Homeric form of the name, Daulia the post-homeric (Strabo 9. 423).
2
See the note on verse 733.
s
The incident of the pierced feet was evidently invented to explain the name
OiSlrovs (' Swellfoot,' as Shelley renders it). In v. 397 i foiSiv elSbs OlSlirovs suggests
a play on oXSa.
C2
xxii INTRODUCTION.

with most confidence. He was employed in tending the flocks


of Laius on Mount Cithaeron, where they were pastured during
the half-year from March to September.
In the glens of Cithaeron he had consorted with another
herdsman, servant to Polybus, king of Corinth. Seized with
pity for the babe, the Theban gave it to this herdsman of Polybus,
who took it to Corinth. Polybus and his wife Merope were
childless. They reared the child as their own ; the Corinthians
regarded him as heir to the throne; and he grew to man's estate
without doubting that he was the true son of the Corinthian
king and queen.
But one day it chanced that at a feast a man heated with
wine threw out a word which sank into the young prince's mind ;
he questioned 4he king and queen, whose resentment of the
taunt comforted him; yet he felt that a whisper was creeping
abroad ; and he resolved to ask the truth from Apollo himself at
Delphi. Apollo gave him no answer to the question touching
his parentage, but told him these things—that he was doomed to
slay his father, and to defile his mother's bed.
He turned away from Delphi with the resolve never again to
see his home in Corinth ; and took the road which leads east-
ward through Phocis to Boeotia.
At that moment Laius was on his way from Thebes to
Delphi, where he wished to consult the oracle. He was not
escorted by the usual armed following of a king, but only by
four attendants. The party of five met Oedipus at a narrow
place near the ' Branching Roads' in Phocis ; a quarrel occurred;
and Oedipus slew La'ius, with three of his four attendants. The
fourth escaped, and fled to Thebes with the tale that a band of
robbers had fallen upon their company. This sole survivor was
the very man who, long years before, had been charged by Laius
and Iocasta to expose their infant son on Cithaeron.
The Thebans vainly endeavoured to find some clue to the
murder of Laius. But, soon after his death, their attention was
distracted by a new trouble. The goddess Hera—hostile to
Thebes as the city of her rival Semele—sent the Sphinx to
afflict it,—a monster with the face of a maiden and the body of a
winged lion; who sat on a hill near Thebes (the <£>ticeiov
INTRODUCTION. xxiii

and chanted a riddle. ' What is the creature which is two-footed,


three-footed, and four-footed; and weakest when it has most
feet ?' Every failure to find the answer cost the Thebans a life.
Hope was deserting them; even the seer Teiresias had no help
to give; when the wandering stranger, Oedipus, arrived. He
solved the enigma by the word man: the* Sphinx hurled herself
from a rock; and the grateful Thebans gave the vacant throne
to their deliverer as a free gift. At the same time he married
Iocasta, the widow of Lai'us, and sister of Creon son of Menoeceus.
The sole survivor from the slaughter of La'ius and his com-
pany was at Thebes when the young stranger Oedipus ascended
the throne. The man presently sought an audience of the queen
Iocasta, knelt to her, and, touching her hand in earnest supplica-
tion, entreated that he might be sent to his old occupation of
tending flocks in far-off pastures. It seemed a small thing for so
old and faithful a servant to ask ; and it was readily granted.
An interval of about sixteen years may be assumed between
these events and the moment at which the Oedipus Tyrannus
opens. Iocasta has borne four children to Oedipus: Eteocles,
Polyneices, Antigone, Ismene. Touches in the closing scene of
the play forbid us to suppose that the poet imagines the daugh-
ters as much above the age of thirteen and twelve respectively.
Oedipus has become thoroughly established as the great king, the
first of men, to whose wisdom Thebans turn in every trouble.
And now a great calamity has visited them. A blight is
upon the fruits of the earth; cattle are perishing in the pastures;
the increase of the womb is denied; and a fiery pestilence is
ravaging the town. While the fumes of incense are rising to
the gods from every altar, and cries of anguish fill the air, a body
of suppliants—aged priests, youths, and children— present them-
selves before the wise king. He, if any mortal, can help them.
It is here that the action opens.
§ 9. The drama falls into six main divisions or chapters. Analysis
The following analysis exhibits in outline the mechanism of the ^
plot, which deserves study.
I. Prologue: 1—150. Oedipus appears as the great.prince
whom the Thebans rank second only to the gods. He pledges
xxiv INTRODUCTION.

himself to relieve his afflicted people by seeking the murderer of


La'fus.
Parodos: 151—215. The Chorus bewail the pestilence and
invoke the gods.
II. First Episode: 216—462. Oedipus publicly invokes a
solemn curse upon the unknown murderer of La'fus. At Creon's
suggestion he sends for the seer Teiresias, who refuses to speak,
but finally, stung by taunts, denounces Oedipus himself as the
slayer.
First Stasimon: 463—512. The Chorus forebode that the
unknown murderer is doomed; they refuse to believe the
unproved charge brought by the seer.
III. Second Episode: 513—862. Creon protests against the
suspicion that he has suborned Teiresias to accuse Oedipus.
Oedipus is unconvinced. Iocasta stops the quarrel, and Creon
departs. Oedipus then tells her that he has been charged with
the murder of La'fus. She replies that' he need feel no dis-
quietude. Lai'us, according to an oracle, was to have been slain
by his own son; but the babe was exposed on the hills; and
La'fus was actually slain by robbers, at the meeting of three roads.
This mention of three roads (v. 716) strikes the first note of
alarm in the mind of Oedipus.
He questions her as to (1) the place, (2) the time, (3) the per-
son and the company of Laltus. All confirm his fear that lie
has unwittingly done the deed.
He tells her his whole story—the taunt at Corinth—the visit
to Delphi—the encounter in Phocis. But he has still one hope.
The attendant of La'fus who escaped spoke of robbers, not of one
robber.
Let this survivor—now a herdsman—be summoned and
questioned.
Second Stasimon: 863—910. The Chorus utter a prayer
against arrogance—such as the king's towards Creon; and
impiety—such as they find in Iocasta's mistrust of oracles.
IV. Third Episode: 911—1085. A messenger from Corinth
announces that Polybus is dead, and that Oedipus is now king
INTR OD UCTION. xxv
designate. Iocasta and Oedipus exult in the refutation of the
oracle which had destined Oedipus to slay his sire.
But Oedipus still dreads the other predicted horror—union
with his mother.
The messenger, on learning this, discloses that Polybus and
Merope were not the parents of Oedipus. The messenger
himself, when a herdsman in the service of Polybus, had found
the infant Oedipus on Cithaeron, and had brought him to
Corinth. Yet no—not found him; had received him from another
herdsman (v. 1040).
Who was this other herdsman ? The Corinthian replies:—
He was said to be one of the people of Laius.
Iocasta implores Oedipus to search no further. He answers
that he cares not how lowly his birth may prove to be—he will
search to the end. With a cry of despair, Iocasta rushes away.
Third Stasimon: 1086—1109. The Chorus joyously fore-
tell that Oedipus will prove to be a native of the land—perchance
of seed divine.
V. Fourth Episode: mo—1185. The Theban herdsman
is brought in1.
' There,' says the Corinthian, ' is the man who gave me the
child.' Bit by bit, the whole truth is wrung from the Theban.
' The babe was the son of Laius; the wife of Laius gave her to
me.' Oedipus knows all, and with a shriek of misery he rushes
away.
Fourth Stasimon: 1186—1222. The Chorus bewail the
great king's fall.
VI. Exodus: 1223—1530. A messenger from the house
announces that Iocasta has hanged herself, and that Oedipus
has put out his eyes. Presently Oedipus is led forth. With
passionate lamentation he beseeches the Chorus of Theban
Elders to banish or slay him.
Creon comes to lead him into the house. Oedipus obtains
1
The original object of sending for him had been to ask,—' Was it the deed of
several men, or of one?'—a last refuge. But he is not interrogated on that point.
Voltaire criticised this as inconsistent. It is better than consistent; it is natural. A
more urgent question has thrust the other out of sight.
xxvi INTR OD UCTION.

from him a promise of care for his young daughters; they are
presently brought to their father, who takes what he intends to
be a last farewell. For he craves to be sent out of the land ;
but Creon replies that Apollo must pronounce.
As Creon leads Oedipus within, the Chorus speak the closing
words: No mortal must be called happy on this side death.

The With reference to the general structure of the plot, the first
discovery, point to observe is the skill with which Sophocles has managed
those two threads of proof which he created by his invention of
the second herdsman.
We have :—•
(1) The thread of evidence from the reported statement
of the Theban herdsman as to the place of the murder, in con-
nection with Iocasta's statement as to the time, the person of
Lams, and the retinue. This tends to show that Oedipus has
slain Lai'us—being presumably in no wise his kinsman. The
proof of Oedipus having slain Lai'us is so far completed at
754 (alai, -raS' rl&r/ Siacpavrj) as to leave no longer any moral
doubt on the mind of Oedipus himself.
(2) The thread of evidence from the Corinthian, showing,
in the first instance, that Oedipus is not the son of Polybus and
Merope, and so relieving him from the fear of parricide and
incest. Hence the confident tone of Oedipus (1076 ff.), which so
powerfully contrasts with the despair of Iocasta : she has known
the worst from v. 1044.
(3) The convergence of these two threads, when the Theban
herdsman is confronted with the Corinthian. This immediately
follows the moment of relief just noticed. It now appears that
the slayer of Lai'us has also committed parricide and incest.

Aristotle's § io. The frequent references of Aristotle to the Oedipus


criticisms. Tyrannus indicate its value for him as a typical masterpiece,
though the points for which he commends it concern general
analysis of form, not the essence of its distinctive excellence.
The points are these:—
1. The'recognition' (avayvwpi,cn<i) is contrived in the best
way; i.e., it is coincident with a reversal of fortunes (Trepnrereia).
INTRODUCTION. xxvii

2. This reversal is peculiarly impressive, because the


Corinthian messenger had come to bring tidings of the honour
in store for Oedipus.
3. Oedipus is the most effective kind of subject for such a
reversal, because he had been (a) great and glorious, (b) not
preeminently virtuous or just, (c) and, again, one whose reverses
are not due to crime, but only to unconscious error.
4. The story is told in such a manner as to excite pity and
terror by hearing without seeing (as in regard to the exposure of
the child, the killing of Lafus, the death of Iocasta).
5. If there is any improbability in the story, this is not in
the plot itself (iv Tot? -rrpajfiaaiv), but in the supposed antece-
dents (e'fo) rfj<; rpaya>Sla<;).
In this last comment, Aristotle indicates a trait which Improbab-
is certainly open to criticism — the ignorance of Oedipus JjJ^ante-
as to the story of Lafus. He knows, indeed, the name of his cedents.
predecessor—though Creon does not think it unnecessary to
remind him of the name (103). He also knows that Laifus had
met a violent death: but he does not know whether this had
befallen at Thebes, or in its neighbourhood, or abroad (109—113).
Nor does he know that Lafus was reported to have been slain by
robbers, and that only one of his followers had escaped (116—
123): and he asks if no search had been made at the time
(128, 566). Iocasta, who has now been his wife for many years,
tells him, as if for the first time, the story of the oracle given to
Lalus, and he tells her the story of his own early fortunes—
though here we need not press the fact that he even names to
her his Corinthian parents : that may be regarded as merely
a formal preface to a connected narrative. It may be conceded
that the matters of which Oedipus is'supposed ignorant were
themes of which Iocasta, and all the persons about the new king,
might well have been reluctant to speak. Still it is evident that
the measure of past reticence imagined, both on their part and
on his, exceeds the limit of verisimilitude. The true defence of
this improbability consists in frankly recognising it. Exquisite
as was the dramatic art exercised within the scope of the action
(eV Tots irpdy/iaa-i), this art was still so far nafve as to feel no
offence at some degree of freedom in the treatment of that
xxxviii INTRODUCTION.

thus a negative witness to the mastery shown by the artist who


could construct such a drama as the Oedipus Tyrannus with
such materials. The modern dramatists, as we shall see, teach
the same lesson in a more positive form. Walter Scott's estimate
of Seneca's Oedipus needs modification, but is just in the main.
'Though devoid of fancy and of genius,' he says, it 'displays the
masculine eloquence and high moral sentiment of its author;
and if it does not interest us in the scene of fiction, it often
compels us to turn our thoughts inward, and to study our own
hearts.' Seneca's fault, however, so far as the plot is concerned,
seems less that he fails to interest, than that, by introducing the
necromantic machinery, and by obliterating the finer moral traits
of his Greek original, he has rendered the interest rather ' sensa-
tional' than properly dramatic 1 .
The § 20. The Oedipe of Corneille was produced at Paris in 1657.
CorneiUe. After an interval which followed the unfavourable reception of his
Pertharite in 1653, it was with the Oedipe that Corneille returned
to the theatre, at the instance of his patron, Nicolas Fouquet, to
whom it is dedicated. I t is immaterial for our purpose that this
play is far from exhibiting Corneille at his best; nor need we
here inquire what precise rank is to be assigned to it among his
less successful works. For the student of Sophocles, it has the
permanent interest of showing how the subject of the Oedipus
Tyrannus was adapted to the modern stage by a typical artist of
the French classical school. The severely simple theme of Sopho-
cles, with its natural elements of pity and terror, is found too
meagre by the modern dramatist. H e cannot trust to that
alone; he feels that he needs some further source of variety and
relief. T o supply this, he interweaves an underplot of secondary
persons—' the happy episode of the loves of Theseus and Dirce.'
Theseus is the king of Athens; Dirce is a daughter of the
deceased Lalus.
The drama opens with a love-scene, in which Theseus is
1
A small trait may be noticed as amusingly characteristic of the Roman poet of
the Empire. The Laius of Sophocles goes to Delphi /Jcuos—with only four at-
tendants (752). Seneca makes Lams set out with the proper retinue of a king ;—but
most of them lose their Way. Plures fefellit error ancipitis viae: Paucos fidelis
curribus iunxit labor.
INTR OD UCTION. xxix

so heavily upon both. Sophocles had found in human nature


itself the sanction of 'the unwritten laws,' and the seal of faith
in a beneficence immortal and eternal; but his personal attitude
towards the ' sceptical' currents of thought in his age was never,
so far as we can judge, that of admonitory protest or dogmatic
reproof. It was his temperament to look around him for
elements of conciliation, to evoke gentle and mediating influ-
ences, rather than to make war on the forces which he regarded
as sinister:—it might be said of him, as of a person in one of
his own plays, ovroi crvve^deiv aXka ovfx,<fri\elv e<f>v. But is
there any reason to think that the Oedipus Tyrannus marks
a moment when this mind—'which saw life steadily, and saw
it whole'—was partly shaken in its self-centred calm by the
consciousness of a spiritual anarchy around it which seemed
fraught with ultimate danger to the cohesion of society, and
that a note of solemn warning, addressed to Athens and to Greece,
is meant to be heard throughout the drama ? Our answer must
depend upon the sense in which we conceive that he places
Oedipus or Iocasta at issue with religion.

§ 12. As regards Oedipus, it might be said that, in this par- Oedipus,


ticular aspect, he is a modern character, and more especially,
perhaps, a character of the nineteenth century. The instinct of
reverence for the gods was originally fundamental in his nature:
it appears in the first act of his manhood—the journey to
Delphi. Nor did he for a moment mistrust the gods because the
doom assigned to him was bitter. Then he achieved a great in-
tellectual success, reached the most brilliant prosperity, and was
ranked by his fellow-men as second to the gods alone. He is
not spoiled by his good fortune. We find him, at the opening
of the play, neither arrogant nor irreverent; full, rather, of
tenderness for his people, full of reverence for the word of
Apollo. Suddenly, however, the prophet of Apollo denounces,
him. Instantly his appeal is to the intellect. If it comes to
that, what claim has any other human mind to interpose between
his mind and Heaven ? Is he not Oedipus, who silenced the
Sphinx ? Yes, but presently, gradually, his own mind begins to
argue on the other side. No one is so acute as he, and of course
xxx INTRODUCTION.

he must be the first to see any facts which tell against himself.
And now, when he is face to face with the gods, and no prophet
stands between, the instinct of reverence, inborn in his noble
nature finds voice in the prayer, 'Forbid, forbid, ye pure and
awful gods, that I should see that day !' After varying hopes
and fears, his own mind is convinced of the worst. Reason, which
had been the arbiter of faith, now becomes the inexorable judge
of sin, the most instant and most rigorous claimant for his
absolute abasement before the gods.

Iocasta. § 13. Plainly, it would be a mis-reading to construe the fate


of Oedipus as a dramatic nemesis of impiety; but the case of
Iocasta is at first sight less clear. She, at least, is one who
openly avows scorn for oracles, and urges her lord to share it.
I t may often be noticed—where the dramatist has known how to
draw from life—that the true key-note of a dominant mood is
struck by a short utterance on which no special emphasis is
thrown, just as, in life itself, the sayings most truly significant of
character are not always long or marked. For Iqcasta, such a
key-note is given in the passage where she is telling Oedipus
that a response from the Delphian temple had warned LaYus
that he was destined to be slain by the child whom she bore to
him. ' A n oracle came to La'fus once—/ will not say from
Phoebus himself, but from his ministers' (v. 712). Iocasta
thoroughly believes in the power of the gods to effect their
will (724),—to punish or to save (921). But she does not be-
lieve that any mortal— be he priest or prophet—is permitted by
them to read the future. Had not the Delphian priests doomed
her to sacrifice her first-born child,—and this, without saving
the life of her husband, Lalus ? The iron which years ago had
entered into the soul of the wife and mother has wrought in
her a result similar to that which pride of intellect has produced
in Oedipus. Like Oedipus, she still believes in the wise omni-
potence of the gods; like him also, she is no longer prepared to
accept any mortal interpreter of their decrees. Thus are the
two foremost persons of this tragedy separated from the offices
of human intercession, and directly confronted in spirit—one by
his self-reliance, the other by her remembered anguish—with
INTRODUCTION. xxxi

the inscrutable powers which control their fate. It is as a study


of the human heart, true for every age, not as a protest against
tendencies of the poet's own, that the Oedipus Tyramms illustrates
the relation of faith to reason.
§ 14. The central figure of the drama is brought into clearer Teiresias.
relief by the characters of Teiresias and Creon. Teiresias exists reon"
only for the god whom he serves. Through him Apollo speaks.
As opposed to Oedipus, he is the divine knowledge of Apollo,
opposed to human ignorance and blindness. While ' the servant
of Loxias' thus stands above the king of Thebes, Creon stands
below him, on the humbler but safer ground of ordinary
humanity. Creon is shrewd, cautious, practical, not sentimental
or demonstrative, yet of a fervid self-respect, and with a strong
and manly kindliness which comes out in the hour of need1. It
might be said that the Creon of the Oedipus Tyrannus embodies
a good type of Scottish character, as the Creon of the Antigone
—an earlier sketch—is rather of the Prussian type, as it is
popularly idealised by some of its neighbours. Teiresias is the
gauge of human insight matched against divine; Creon, of
fortune's heights and depths, compared with the less brilliant
but more stable lot of commoner men. 'Crave not to be master
in all things; for the mastery which thou didst win hath not
followed thee through life'—are his words to Oedipus at the
end ; and his own position at the moment exemplifies the
sense in which 'the god ever gives the mastery to the middle
state' 2 .
§ 15. There is no external evidence for the time at which Supposed
the Oedipus Tyrannus was first acted. Internal evidence warr-
ants the belief that it was composed after the A ntigone, and before temporary
the Oedipus Coloneics. The probable limits thus indicated might
be roughly given as about 439—412 B.C. More than this we
cannot say. Modern ingenuity has recognised Pericles in
1
Lest it should be thought that in the note on p. 106 the harsher aspect
of Creon's character is unduly prominent, I may observe that this note relates
to vv. 5 n—862, and deals with Creon only as he appears there. The scene which
begins at v. 1422—and more especially vv. 1476 f.—must of course be taken into
account when we offer, as here, a more general estimate of the character.
TO Kpdrot ffeos unrcurtv, Aesch. Eum. 528.
xxxii INTRODUCTION.

Oedipus,—the stain of Alcmaeonid lineage in his guilt as the


slayer of Lalus,—the 'Dorian war, and a pestilence therewith'
in the afflictions of Thebes. This allegorical hypothesis need
not detain us. But it may be well briefly to remark the differ-
ence, for drama, between association of ideas and direct allusion.
If Sophocles had set himself to describe the plague at Athens as
he had known it, it might have been held that, in an artistic
sense, his fault was graver than that of Phrynichus, when, by
representing the capture of Miletus, he ' reminded the Athenians
of their own misfortunes.' If, however, writing at a time sub-
sequent to the pestilence which he had survived, he wished to
give an ideal picture of a plague-stricken town, it would have
been natural and fitting that he should borrow some touches
from his own experience. But the sketch in the play is far too
slight to warrant us in saying that he even did this; perhaps
the reference to the victims of pestilence tainting the air (Oavar-
aifiopa v. 180) is the only trait that might suggest it. Thucydides
(II. 50), in describing the plague of 429 B.C., notices the number
of the unburied dead. The remarks just made apply equally to
the supposed allusion in vv. 883 ff. to the mutilation of the
Hermae (see the note on 886).
Alleged A tradition, dating at least from the 2nd century B.C.1,
thVpiay. affirmed that, when Sophocles produced the Oedipus Tyrannus,
he was defeated for the first prize by Philocles,—a poet of
whose work we know nothing. Philocles was a nephew of
Aeschylus, and, as Aristeides observes 2 , achieved an honour which
had been denied to his uncle. The surprise which has been
expressed by some modern writers appears unnecessary; the
composition of Philocles was probably good, and it has never
been held that the judges of such prizes were infallible.
1
The Words in the prose iir6$e<ri.s (given on p. 4) are simply, i j m ^ c T a iwb
$CKOK\4OVS, UJ (f>r)<n Aucalapxos. The Dicaearchus who wrote vroBiaat TUV Wipirldov
mi SO0OK\&US p.i$wi> has been generally identified with Dicaearchus of Messana, the
Peripatetic, a pupil of Aristotle and a friend of Theophrastus. We might place
his 'floruit,' then, somewhere about 310 B.C. ; there are indications that he survived
296 B. c. If, on the other hand, the iiroSiaeis were ascribed to the grammarian
Dicaearchus of Lacedaemon, a pupil of Aristarchus, this would bring us to about
140 B. c.
2
ir. 256.
INTRODUCTION. xxxiii

§ 16. The name of an actor, once famous in the chief part of The actor
this play, is of interest also on more general grounds. Polus, a
native of Aegina, is said to have been the pupil of another tragic
actor, Archias of Thurii,—the man who in 322 B.C. was sent to
arrest Demosthenes and the other orators whose surrender was
demanded of Athens by Antipater1. It would seem, then, that
Polus nourished in the middle or latter part of the 4th century B.C.
—only some 50 or 60 years after the death of Sophocles. Physic-
ally well-gifted, and of versatile grace, he was equally successful
as Oedipus the King, and in the very different but not less difficult
part of Oedipus at Colonus2. Like the poet whose masterpieces
he interpreted, he enjoyed a vigorous old age; and it is recorded
that, at seventy, he acted ' eight tragedies in four days'3. It will
be remembered that, in the Electra of Sophocles, an urn, supposed
to contain the ashes of Orestes, is placed in the hands of his
sister, who makes a lament over it. Polus once acted Electra
not long after the death of his son. An urn, containing the
youth's ashes, was brought from the tomb; the actor, in the
mourning garb of Electra, received it, and, on the scene, suffered
a natural grief to have vehement course4.
1
Plut. Dem. 28 TOVTOV di [Archias] Qoipiov &VTO. T$ yhei X670S ?x el
vT0Kpive<r9ai TTOTC, ml rbv Aiyiv!\TT)V ILUXOV, TOP iiir eppa\6vTa Trj TixvV
irai/ras, cKtlvov yeviadai. lAaBr/TTjv i<TTopovciv.
2
Stobaeus Floril. p. 522 (xcvn. 28), in an extract from the vpoTpeim.Ka.1
O/MXICU of A r r i a n : rj oi% bpys 6'ri OI5K eiQavdrepov oiS£ riSiov 0 IIuXos rbv rupavvov
Oldliroda vireKplvero 17 rbv iirl KoXwzxp d\riT7jv Kal TTTOJX6I» ; (ou5£ rj^iov is Gaisford's
emendation of ovStv SC &v.)
3
Plut. Mor. 785 C IIIDXOP 5£ rhv TpayifSbv 'BpaTO<r^6'7;s KOX $I\6XO/)OS XaTopovaiv
^pSo/iT/KOj'ra try\ "yeycv^^vov 6KTU> rpaycpdias kv r^Trap<nv T]fj.4pats diayoifl<ra
ev TTJS TeKcvrrfs.
4
Aulus Gellius 7. 5 Histrio in terra Graecia fuit fama celebri qui gestus et
vocis claritudine ceteris antestabat....Polus lugubri habitu Electrae indutus ossa
atque urnam a sepulcro tulit filii, et quasi Orestis amplexus opplevit omnia non
simulacris neque imitamentis sed luctu atque lamentis veris et spirantibus.
Lucian lupp. Tragoed. § 3 oi5% 6pfi...e0' ST(J> IIUXOS 57 'Aptcrddrinos dvrl Aibs
•qiuv ava.T4<j)7)vas. Id. Menippus § 16 (on the contrast between the life of actors
on and off the stage) ijSri §t Trepas lxOVT°s To" Spa/iaroi, airoSva&ixevos (KaaTos avTuv
rr\v xPrja^ilraffT01' ^KelvTjv iaOijra Kal rb TrpoawTreiov atrodtfxevos KOX Karafias dirb
TUIV lixfiaTCbv iriv-qs KOX Tcnreivbs irep^pxerai, O{IK4T' 'Ayaixi/iviav 0 "Arpeas ovdt
Kpiuv 6 MecoiK^ws, dXXci IIwXos XapifcX^ous Xovvieis dvofn.a.^6 fievos rj
2irv/x>s Beoyelrovos Mapad&vios. ['Polus, son of Charicles, of Suniiim,' is not
inconsistent with rbv Alyiv/jTr/v in Plut. Dem. 28, for the great actor may have
been a native of Aegina who was afterwards enrolled in the Attic deme of Sunium.]
XXXIV INTRODUCTION.
Signific- Little as such an incident may accord with modern feeling or
ance of
the story. taste, it is at least of very clear significance in relation to the
tone of the Attic stage as it existed for a generation whose
grandfathers were contemporary with Sophocles. Whether the
story was true or not, it must have been conceived as possible.
And, this being so, nothing could better show the error of sup-
posing that the old Greek acting of tragedy was statuesque in
a cold or rigid sense,— in a sense excluding declamation and
movement suitable to the passions which the words expressed.
Play of feature, indeed, was excluded by the use of masks; but
this very fact would have increased the need for appropriate
gesture. The simple grouping—as recent revivals have helped
us to feel—must have constantly had a plastic beauty rarely
seen on our more crowded stage1; but it is inconceivable, and
the story just noticed affords some direct ground for denying,
that this result was obtained at any sacrifice of life and truth in
the portrayal of emotion. Demosthenes tells us that some of
the inferior tragedians of his time were called 'ranter's'9. It
might be said, of course, that this indicates a popular preference
for an undemonstrative style. But it might with more force be
replied that • ranting' is not a fault which a coldly ' statuesque'
tradition would have generated.
Other § 17. The story of Oedipus was one of a few subjects which
plays on
the the Greek dramatists never tired of handling. Some eight or
subject. nine tragedies, entitled Oedipus, are known by the names of
their authors, and by nothing else3. Plato, the poet of the Old
I d . De mercede conduct. § 5 roh rpayiKois iwoicpiTaU...ot iwl fiiv TTJS aKr)vr\s 'Aya-
idixvum IKCUTTOS airou fj Kp4*r 7} avrbs 'Hpa/cXijs el/riv, ?{ai Si PIuXos ij 'AptarSSimos,
i.TroBiiievoi. T 4 Tpoaonreia, ylyvovrai.
The Aristodemus coupled by Lucian with Pnlus is the actor mentioned by
Aeschines and Demosthenes ; the latter specially notices that he and Theodorus had
both often acted the Antigone of Sophocles (or. 19. § 246) > Satyrus is the comic actor
mentioned by the same orators (Aeschin. 2. § 156, Dem. or. 19. § 193). Thus we
see how, in later Greek literature, Polus had become one of a small group of names
typical of the best histrionic art of the classical age.
1
On the sense in which a 'plastic' character is common to Greek Sculpture,
Tragedy, and Oratory, cp. my Attic Orators, vol. 1. pp. xcviii—ciii.
2
Dem. or. 18. § 262 /uaddiaas airov rots ^apvarbvois tirucahoviMvoit iiceivois
vTroKpiTaXs, Hi/xiXif KOI 'SuKpdrei, irpiTaywyliXTm.
3
An OiSivovs by the Carcinus whom Aristophanes ridicules is quoted by Arist.
Rhet, 5. 16. 11. Xenocles is said to have been victorious, with a series of plays
INTRODUCTION. xxxv

Comedy, wrote a Lams, which was perhaps a parody of the


Aeschylean play; and the Middle Comedy was indebted to
Eubulus for an Oedipus from which a few verses are left—a
travesty of the curse pronounced upon the unknown criminal1.
Julius Caesar, like the younger Pitt, was a precocious dramatist,
and Oedipus was his theme2. The self-blinded Oedipus was a
part which Nero loved to act3, and the last public recitation
which he ever gave, we are told, was in this character. The
Greek verse at which he stopped is on record : whose it was, we
know not4. Of all the Greek versions, not one remains by which
to gauge the excellence of Sophocles. But the literatures of
other languages make some amends.
Nothing can better illustrate the distinctive qualities of the
Sophoclean Oedipus than to compare it with the treatment of
the same theme by Seneca, Corneille, Dryden and Voltaire. So
far as the last three are concerned, the comparison has a larger
value. The differences between the spirit of the best Greek
Tragedy and that of modern drama are not easily expressed in
formulas, but can be made clearer by a particular example.
Perhaps the literature of drama hardly affords any example so
apposite for this purpose as the story of Oedipus.
§ 18. Seneca has followed, and sometimes paraphrased, The
Oedipus
including an OlSlirovs, against Euripides, one of whose pieces on that occasion was °f Seneca,
the Troades, probably in 415 B. c. An OISITTOVS is also ascribed to Achaeus (Nauck
Trag.fr. p. 584), Theodectes (p. 623), and, more doubtfully, to Diogenes of Sinope
(p. 627); also by Suidas to Philocles, and to each of two poets named Nicomachus
(one of Athens, the other of the Troad).
1
Meineke Com. Frag. pp. 231 (Plato), Eubulus (451). Of the latter's five
verses, the last three are—b'tms b"1 iirl Seiirvov TJ cpl\ov riv' fj ££vov | KaXiaas (irura
oviifiokhs {7rpd.iia.T0, I <f>vy&s 7&01T0 firjSiv oixodev Xa/3ciV. I t seems quite possible,
as has been suggested, that Eubulus was parodying verses from the Oedipus of
Euripides.
2
Sueton. Iul. Caes. 56 Feruntur et a puero et ab adolescuntulo quaedam scripta,
ut laudes Herculis, tragoedia Oedipus.
3
Sueton. Nero 21 Tragoedias quoque cantavit personatus. Inter cetera cantavit
Canacen parturientem, Orestem matricidam, Oedipodem excaecatum, Herculem
insanum.
4
ib. 46 Observatum etiam fuerat novissimam fabulam cantasse eum [Neronem]
publice Oedifum exsulem, atque in hoc desisse versu, ohrpus Bavelv fi dvaye
a&yyaiMs irarrip. Dio Cassius (63. 28) also quotes the verse as one on which Nero's
mind d w e l t : TO tiros ^KeiVo a-vvexas iverdei.

J. S. d
xxxvi INTRODUCTION.

Sophocles with sufficient fidelity to heighten the contrast be-


tween the original and the rhetorical transcript. For the com-
parative student of drama, however, the Roman piece is by no
means devoid of instruction or of interest. Seneca's plot diverges
from that of Sophocles in three main points, (i) Teiresias does
not intuitively know the murderer of Lafus. When his aid is
invoked by Oedipus, he has recourse to the arts of divination.
Manto, the daughter of the blind seer, reports the signs to
him, and he declares that neither voice of birds nor inspection of
victims can reveal the name. Lams himself must be called up
from the shades. In a grove near Thebes, Teiresias performs
the awful rites which evoke the dead; the ghastly shape of
Laltus rises—
Stetit per artus sanguine effuso horridus—
and denounces his son. This scene is related to Oedipus by
Creon in a long and highly-wrought speech (530—658). Here,
as in the earlier scene with Manto (303—402), copious use is
made of detail from Roman augural lore, as well as of the
Nekyia in the eleventh book of the Odyssey—suggesting a
contrast with the lightness of touch which marks that passage of
the Sophoclean Antigone ( 9 9 8 — i o n ) where Teiresias describes
the failure of his appeal to augury. There, the technical signs
are briefly but vividly indicated; in Seneca, the erudition is
heavy and obtrusive.
(ii) After the discovery of the parricide and the incest, and
when Oedipus has now blinded himself, Iocasta meets and thus
accosts him:—
Quid te vocem?
Natumne? dubitas? natus es, natum pudet
Invite, loquere, nate: quo avertis caput
Vacuosque vultus?
Oed. Quis frui et tenebris vetat?
Quis reddit oculos? matris, heu, matris sonus.
Perdidimus operam. Congredi fas amplius
Haud est. Nefandos dividat vastum mare...
Iocasta presently kills herself on the stage. Here, at least,
Seneca has the advantage of Euripides, whose Iocasta speaks
INTRODUCTION. xxxvii

the prologue of the Phoenissae, and coldly recites the horrors of


her past life,—adding that Oedipus has been imprisoned by his
sons, 'in order that his fate might be forgotten—for it needs
much art to hide it 7 The Iocasta of Sophocles rushes from the
scene, not to re-appear, at the moment when she finds Oedipus
resolved to unbare that truth of which she herself is already cer-
tain, and leaves the terrible cry thrilling in our ears—
lov, lov, Bvari]ve' TOVTO yap a k^co
fiovov Trpoaenrelv, dWo 8' oviroff varepov.
In the truth and power of this touch, Sophocles is alone.
Neither' Seneca, nor any later dramatist, has managed this
situation so as to express with a similar union of delicacy and
strength the desperate anguish of a woman whom fate has
condemned to unconscious crime.
(iii) Seneca had no 'Oedipus at Colonus' in view. He was
free to disregard that part of the legend according to which
Oedipus was expelled from Thebes by Eteocles and Polyneices,
and can therefore close his play by making Oedipus go forth
into voluntary exile:—
Mortifera mecum vitia terrarum extraho.
Violenta fata et horridus morbi tremor
Maciesque et atra pestis et tabidus dolor
Mecum ite, mecum: ducibus his uti libet.
§ 19. The closeness with which Seneca has studied Sophocles Seneca's
can be judged from several passages2. It is instructive to notice * ela '| on t o
that, while Seneca has invented rhetorical ornament (as in the
opening dialogue, 1—105, and the Nekyia, 530—568), he has not
known how to vary the natural development of the action. He has
compressed the incidents of Sophocles into the smallest compass;
and hence, notwithstanding the rhetorical episodes, the whole
play consists only of 1060 lines, and would not have occupied
more than an hour and a half in representation. Seneca is
1
E u r . Phoen. 64 tv afivrj/xcw TVXQ j yivoiTo, TroWunf
2
Such are, the scene in which Oedipus upbraids Creon (Sen. 678—708, cp. Soph.
532—630); the questioning of Iocasta by Oedipus (Sen* 773—783, cp. Soph. 740—
755); the scene with the messenger from Corinth, and the final discovery (Sen. 783—
881, cp. Soph. 955—1185).
dz
xxxviii INTRODUCTION.

thus a negative witness to the mastery shown by the artist who


could construct such a drama as the Oedipus Tyrannus with
such materials. T h e modern dramatists, as we shall see, teach
the same lesson in a more positive form. Walter Scott's estimate
of Seneca's Oedipus needs modification, but is just in the main.
'Though devoid of fancy and of genius,' he says, it 'displays the
masculine eloquence and high moral sentiment of its author;
and if it does not interest us in the scene of fiction, it often
compels us to turn our thoughts inward, and to study our own
hearts.' Seneca's fault, however, so far as the plot is concerned,
seems less that he fails to interest, than that, by introducing the
necromantic machinery, and by obliterating the finer moral traits
of his Greek original, he has rendered the interest rather 'sensa-
tional' than properly dramatic 1 .
The § 20. The Oedipe of Corneille was produced at Paris in 1657.
CorneiUe. After an interval which followed the unfavourable reception of his
Pertharite in 1653, it was with the Oedipe that Corneille returned
to the theatre, at the instance of his patron, Nicolas Fouquet, to
whom it is dedicated. I t is immaterial for our purpose that this
play is far from exhibiting Corneille at his best; nor need we
here inquire what precise rank is to be assigned to it among his
less successful works. For the student of Sophocles, it has the
permanent interest of showing how the subject of the Oedipus
Tyrannus was adapted to the modern stage by a typical artist of
the French classical school. The severely simple theme of Sopho-
cles, with its natural elements of pity and terror, is found too
meagre by the modern dramatist. H e cannot trust to that
alone; he feels that he needs some further source of variety and
relief. T o supply this, he interweaves an underplot of secondary
persons—' the happy episode of the loves of Theseus and Dirce.'
Theseus is the king of Athens; Dirce is a daughter of the
deceased La'ius.
The drama opens with a love-scene, in which Theseus is
1
A small trait may be noticed as amusingly characteristic of the Roman poet of
the Empire. The Laius of Sophocles goes to Delphi /3a«5s—with only four at-
tendants (752). Seneca makes Laius set out with the proper retinue of a king;—but
most of them lose their way. Plures fefellit error ancipitis viae: Paucos fidelis
curribus iunxit labor.
INTRODUCTION. xxxix

urging Dirce not to banish him from her presence at


Thebes :—
N'ecoutez plus, madame, une pitie cruelle,
Qui d'un fidele amant vous feroit un rebelle...
To the end, the fortunes of this pair divide our attention
with those of Oedipus and Iocasta. Corneille does not bring
Teiresias on the scene; but Nerine, ' lady of honour to Iocasta,'
relates how the seer has called forth the shade of LaYus. The
ghost does not (as with Seneca) denounce Oedipus, but declares
that the woes of Thebes shall cease only ' when the blood of
Lai'us shall have done its duty.' The discovery is brought about
nearly as in Sophocles, though the management of the process is
inferior in a marked degree. The herdsman of Lai'us—whom
Corneille, like Dryden and Voltaire, names Phorbas, after
Seneca's example—kills himself on the stage; Iocasta, snatching
the poniard from him, plunges it in her own breast. Oedipus
blinds himself. No sooner have the gory drops flowed from his
eyes, than the pest which is ravaging Thebes ceases: the mes-
sage of the spirit is fulfilled :—' the blood of LaKus has done its
duty.' Theseus and Dirce, we understand, are made happy.
The chief character, as drawn by Corneille, shows how an
artificial stoicism can destroy tragic pathos. The Oedipus of
Corneille is an idealised French king of the seventeenth century
—one of those monarchs concerning whom Dirce says,
Le peuple est trop heureux quand il meurt pour ses rois;
he learns the worst with a lofty serenity; and his first thought is
to administer a stately rebuke to the persons whose misdirected
forethought had saved him from perishing in infancy :—
Voyez ou m'a plonge votre fausse prudence.
Dirce admires his impassive fortitude :—
La surprenante horreur de cet accablement
Ne coute a sa grande ame aucun egarement.
Contrast with this the life-like and terrible power of the delinea-
tion in Sophocles, from the moment when the cry of despair
bursts from the lips of Oedipus (1182), to the end.
xl INTRODUCTION.

The R 21. Twenty-two years after Corneille, Dryden essayed the


Oedipus of * , TT- • 4.u i. i.- TT i. J t. J
Dryden. same theme. His view was that his rrench predecessor had
failed through not rendering the character of Oedipus more
noble and attractive. On the other hand, he follows Corneille
in the essential point of introducing an underplot. Dryden's
Eurydice answers to Corneille's Dirce, being, like her, the
daughter of Laius. Corneille's Theseus is replaced by Adrastus,
king of Argos,—a personage less likely, in Dryden's opinion, to
eclipse Oedipus. When the play opens, Oedipus is absent from
Thebes, and engaged in war with Argos. Meanwhile plots are
being laid against his throne by Creon—a hunch-backed villain
who makes love to Eurydice, and is rejected by her much as
Shakspeare's Richard, Duke of Gloster—who has obviously
suggested some traits—is repulsed by the Lady Ann. Pre-
sently Oedipus returns, bringing the captive Adrastus, whom
he chivalrously sets free to woo Eurydice. From this point, the
piece follows the general lines of Sophocles, so far as the dis-
covery is concerned. Oedipus is denounced, however, not by
Teiresias, but, as in Seneca, by the ghost,—which Dryden, unlike
Seneca, brings on the stage.
It is singular that Dryden should have committed the same
mistake which he perceived so clearly in Corneille. Eurydice
and Adrastus are less tiresome than Dirce and Theseus, but
their effect is the same. The underplot spoils the main plot.
The tragic climax is the death.of Eurydice, who is stabbed by
Creon. Creon and Adrastus next kill each other; then Iocasta
slays herself and her children; and finally Oedipus throws him-
self from an upper window of the palace. ' Sophocles,' says
Dryden, ' is admirable everywhere; and therefore we have fol-
lowed him as close as we possibly could.' In a limited verbal
sense, this is true. There are several scenes, or parts of scenes, in
which Dryden has almost transcribed Sophocles1. But the dif-
ference of general result is complete. The Oedipus of Sophocles
does perfectly that which Tragedy, according to Aristotle, ought
to do. It effects, by pity and terror, the ' purgation' of such
1
As in the scene with the suppliants (Act I. Sc. i.); that between Oedipus and
Iocasta (Act i n . Sc. i.); and that between Oedipus and Aegeon (the messenger from
Corinth, Act IV. Sc. i.).
INTRODUCTION. xli
feelings ; that is, it separates them from the alloy of mean acci-
dent, and exercises them, in their pure essence, on great objects
—here, on the primary instincts of natural affection. In relation
to pity and terror, Tragedy should be as the purgatorial fire,—
exemit labem, purumque reliquit
Aetherium sensum atque aurai simplicis ignem.
Now, Dryden's play first divides our sympathy between
the fate of Eurydice and that of Oedipus; next, it involves it
with feelings of a different order,—loathing for the villainy of
Creon, and disgust at the wholesale butchery of the end. In-
stead of ' purging' pity and terror, it stupefies them; and the
contrast is the more instructive because the textual debt of
Dryden to Sophocles has been so large.
It is right to add that, while the best parts of the play—the
first and third Acts—are wholly Dryden's, in the rest he was
assisted by an inferior hand1. And, among the places where
Dryden's genius flashes through, it is interesting to remark one
in which he has invented a really Greek touch,—not in the
manner of Sophocles, certainly, yet such as might occur in
Euripides. Oedipus is pronouncing the curse on the unknown
murderer:—
But for the murderer's self, unfound by man,
Find him, ye powers celestial and infernal!
And the same fate, or worse than Lai'us met,
Let be his lot: his children be accurst;
His wife and kindred, all of his, be cursed !
Both Priests. Confirm it, heaven!
Enter JOCASTA, attended by Women.
Joe. At your devotions ? Heaven succeed your wishes ;
And bring the effect of these your pious prayers
On you, and me, and all.
Pr. Avert this omen, heaven!
Oedip. O fatal sound ! unfortunate Jocasta!
1
' What Sophocles could undertake alone, Our poets found a work for more than
one' (Epilogue). Lee must be held accountable for the worst rant of Acts iv. and
v.; but we are not concerned here with the details of execution, either in its merits or
in its defects.
xlii INTRODUCTION.

What hast thou said? an ill hour hast thou chosen


For these foreboding words! why, we were cursing!
Joe, Then may that curse fall only where you laid it.
Oedip. Speak no more !
For all thou say'st is ominous: we were cursing;
And that dire imprecation hast thou fasten'd
On Thebes, and thee, and me, and all of us.
The § 22. More than either Dryden or Corneille, Voltaire has
Voltaire, treated this subject in the spirit of the antique. His Oedipe was
composed when he was only nineteen. It was produced in 1718
(when he was twenty-four), and played forty-six times consecu-
tively—a proof, for those days, of marked success. In 1729, the
piece having kept its place on the stage meanwhile, a new
edition was published. I t is not merely a remarkable work for
so young a m a n ; its intrinsic merit, notwithstanding obvious
defects, is, I venture to think, much greater than has usually
been recognised. The distinctive ' note ' of the modern versions
—the underplot—is there, no doubt; but, unlike Corneille and
Dryden, Voltaire has not allowed it to overshadow the main
action.
The hero Philoctetes revisits Thebes, after a long absence,
to find Oedipus reigning in the seat of La'fus. The Thebans
are vexed by pestilence, and are fain to find a victim for the
angry g o d ; Philoctetes was known to have been the foe of
the late king, and is now accused of his murder. Iocasta had
been betrothed to Philoctetes in youth, and loves him still. She
urges him to fly, but he resolves to remain and confront the false
charge. A t this moment, the seer Teiresias denounces Oedipus
as the criminal. Philoctetes generously protests his belief in the
king's innocence; and from this point (the end of the third Act)
appears no more.
Thenceforth, the plot is mainly that of Sophocles. T h e first
scene of the fourth Act, in which Iocasta and Oedipus inform
each other of the past, is modelled on Oed. Tyr. 698—862, with
some characteristic differences. Thus, in Sophocles, the first
doubt of Oedipus as to his parentage springs from a taunt
uttered at a feast (779). Here is Voltaire's substitute for that
incident (the scene, of course, being Corinth):—
INTRODUCTION. xliii

Un jour, ce jour affreux, present a ma pense"e,


Jette encore la terreur dans mon ame glacee;
Pour la premiere fois, par un don solennel,
Mes mains, jeunes encore, enrichissaient l'autel:
Du temple tout-a-coup les combles s'entr'ouvrirent;
De traits affreux de sang les marbres se couvrirent;
De l'autel, e'branle' par de longs tremblemens,
Une invisible main repoussait mes presens;
Et les vents, au milieu de la foudre eclatante,
Porterent jusqu'a moi cette voix effrayante:
"Ne viens plus des lieux saints fouiller la purete;
"Du nombre des vivans les dieux t'ont rejete;
"Us ne regoivent point tes offrandes impies;
"Va porter tes prdsens aux autels des Furies;
"Conjure leurs serpens prets a te de'chirer;
"Va, ce sont la les dieux que tu dois implorer."
This is powerful in its way. But where Voltaire has introduced
a prodigy—the supernatural voice heard amid lightnings—
Sophocles was content to draw from common life, and to mark
how a random word could sink into the mind with an effect
as terrible as that of any portent. Voltaire has managed the
final situation on Corneille's plan, but with infinitely better
effect. The High Priest announces that Oedipus has blinded
himself, thereby appeasing the gods; and the play closes with
the death of Iocasta :—
IOCASTE.
O mon fils! helas! dirai-je mon e"poux?
O des noms les plus chers assemblage effroyable!
II est done mort?
L E GRAND PR£TRE.
II vit, et le sort qui l'accable
Des morts et des vivans semble le se'parer1;
1
Voltaire borrowed this verse from Corneille,—'parcequ' ayant precisement la
meme chose a dire,...il m'etait impossible de 1'exprimer mieux'; and Corneille was
himself translating Seneca's ' nee vivis mixtus, nee sepultis? Voltaire was perhaps
unconscious that the ground which he assigns here was exactly that on which the
repetition of passages in the Greek orators was defended—viz. that TO KOKUS eiireiv
ojra£ vepiyiyvercu, 51s Si owe ifd^x^ai (Theon, irpoyvnvdu/iaTa I : see my Attic
Orators, vol. I. p. lxxii.).
xliv INTRODUCTION.

II s'est prive du jour avant que d'expirer.


Je l'ai vu dans ses yeux enfoncer cette epe'e,
Qui du sang de son pere avait ete trempee;
II a rempli son sort, et ce moment fatal
Du salut des Thebains est le premier signal.
Tel est l'ordre du ciel, dont la fureur se lasse;
Comme il vent, aux mortels il fait justice ou grace;
Ses traits sont epuises sur ce malheureux fils:
Vivez, il vous pardonne.
IOCASTE.
Et moi je me punis. {Elk sefrafipe.)
Par un pouvoir affreux reservee a Finceste,
La mort est le seul bien, le seul dieu qui me reste.
Lai'us, rec,ois mon sang, je te suis chez les morts:
J'ai vegu vertueuse, et je meurs sans remords.
LE CHOEUR.
O malheureuse reine! 6 destin que j'abhorre!
IOCASTE.
Ne plaignez que mon fils, puisqu'il respire encore.
Pretres, et vous Thebains qui futes mes sujets,
Honorez mon bucher, et songez a jamais
Qu'au milieu des horreurs du destin qui m'opprime
J'ai fait rougir les dieux qui m'ont force'e au crime.
Voltaire's § 23. Voltaire was conscious of the objections to his own
criticisms. e p£ s o c j e o f philoctetes; no one, indeed, could have criticised it
with more wit or force. 'Philoctetes seems to have visited
Thebes only for the purpose of being accused': not a word is
said of him after the third Act, and the catastrophe is absolutely
independent of him. In a letter to the Jesuit Poree, with whom
he had read the classics, Voltaire apologises for Philoctetes by
saying that the Parisian actors would not hear of an Oedipus with
no love in it; ' I spoiled my piece,' he says, ' t o please them.'
But it is certain, from what he says more than once else-
where, that he regarded some underplot as a necessity. His
remarks on this point are worth noting, because they touch an
essential difference between the old Greek view of drama and
that which has prevailed on our stage. ' The subject (Oedipus)
INTRODUCTION. xlv
did not, in itself, furnish me with matter for the first three Acts;
indeed, it scarcely gave me enough for the last two. Those who
know the theatre—that is, who are as much alive to the difficulties
as to the defects of composition—will agree with what I say.'
'In strictness, the play of Oedipus ought to end with the first
Act.' Oedipus is one of those ancient subjects 'which afford
only one scene each, or two at most—not an entire tragedy.'
In short, to demand a modern drama on the simple story of
Oedipus was like setting one to make bricks without straw.
Corneille found himself constrained to add the episode of
Theseus and Dirce; Dryden introduced Adrastus and Eurydice1.
§ 24. Now, why could Sophocles dispense with any such add- Essential
ition, and yet produce a drama incomparably more powerful ? between
The masterly art of Sophocles in the structure and development Sophocles
of the plot has already been examined, and is properly the first modems,
attribute of his work which claims attention. But this is not the
only, or the principal, source to which the Oedipus Tyrannus
owes its greatness; the deeper cause is, that Sophocles, in the
spirit of Greek Tragedy, has known how to make the story of
Oedipus an ideal study of character and passion. Corneille,
Dryden, Voltaire—each in his own way—were thinking, ' How
1
'All we could gather out of Corneille,' says Dryden, 'was that an episode must
be, but not his way.' Dryden seems to have felt, however, that it was demanded
rather by convention than by artistic necessity. The following passage is interest-
ing as an indication that his instinct was better than his practice :—' The Athenian
theatre (whether more perfect than ours, is not now disputed), had a perfection
differing from ours. You see there in every act a single scene, (or two at most),
which manage the business of the play; and after that succeeds the chorus, which
commonly takes up more time in singing, than there has been employed in speaking.
The principal person appears almost constantly through the play; but the inferior
parts seldom above once in the whole tragedy. The conduct of our stage is much
more difficult, where we are obliged never to lose any considerable character, which
we have once presented.' [Voltaire's Philoctetes broke this rule.] ' Custom likewise
has obtained, that we must form an underplot of second persons, which must be
depending- on the first; and their bye-walks must be like those in a labyrinth, which
all of them lead into the great parterre; or like so many several lodging chambers,
which have their outlets into the same gallery. Perhaps, after all, if we could think
so, the ancient method, as it is the easiest, is also the most natural and the best. For
variety, as it is managed, is too often subject to breed distraction; and while we
would please too many ways, for want of art in the conduct, we please in none.'
(.Preface to Oedipus.)
xlvi INTRODUCTION.

am I to keep the audience amused ? Will they not find this


horrible story of Oedipus rather too painful and monotonous?
Will they not desire something lighter and pleasanter—some
love-making, for instance, or some intrigue?' 'What an insipid
part would Iocasta have played,' exclaims Voltaire, ' had she not
retained at least the memory of a lawful attachment, and trembled
for the existence of a man whom she had once loved!' There is
the secret frankly told.
Sophocles, on the other hand, concentrates the attention of the
audience on the destiny of Oedipus and Iocasta. The spectators
are enchained by the feelings which this destiny moves at each
step in its course. They are made to see into the depths of two
human souls. It is no more possible for them to crave minor
distractions than it would be for our eyes or thoughts to wander,
if we were watching, without the power of arresting, a man who
was moving blind-fold towards a precipice. The interest by
which Sophocles holds us is continuous and intense ; but it is
not monotonous, because alternations of fear lead up to the
worst; the exciting causes of pity and terror are not unworthy
or merely repulsive, for the spectacle offered is that of a noble
and innocent nature, a victim to unknown and terrible forces
which must be counted among the permanent conditions of life,
since the best of mankind can never be sure of escaping them.
When the worst has befallen, then Sophocles knows how to
relieve the strain; but it is a relief of another order from that
which Corneille affords by the prospect of Theseus being made
happy with Dirce. It is drawn from the natural sources of the
tragedy itself; the blind king hears the voices of his children.
References § 25. A comparison may fitly close with a glance at two
phetic'0 points in which the modern dramas illustrate Sophocles, and
instinct. w hich have more than the meaning of details. Dryden has
represented Oedipus and Iocasta as haunted, from the first, by
a mysterious instinct of their true relationship. Thus she says
to him :—
When you chid, methought
A mother's love start1 up in your defence,
1
= ' started,' as again in this scene : ' Nature herself start back when them wert
born,'
INTRODUCTION. xlvii

And bade me not be angry. Be not you;


For I love La'ius still, as wives should love,
But you more tenderly, as part of me1.
Voltaire has the same thought (Act II. Sc. ii.), where Iocasta
is speaking of her marriage with Oedipus :
je sentis dans mon ame etonne'e
Des transports inconnus que je ne congus pas:
Avec horreur enfin je me vis dans ses bras.
There is a similar touch in Corneille. Oedipus is watching
Dirce—whom he believes to be his step-daughter, but who is in
fact his sister—with her lover Theseus (Act ill. Sc. iv.):
Je ne sais quelle horreur me trouble a leur aspect;
Ma raison la repousse, et ne m'en peut defendre.
Such blind warnings of nature are indeed fitted to make the
spectator shudder ; but they increase the difficulty of explaining
why the truth was not divined sooner; and they also tend to
lessen the shock of the discovery. In other words, they may be
poetical,—they may be even, in the abstract, tragic,—-but they
are not, for this situation, dramatic; and it is due to the art of
Sophocles to observe that he has nowhere admitted any hint of
this kind.
§ 26. Next, it should be noticed that no one of the later The im-
dramatists has been able to avoid leaving a certain element of im- e[°men|l_
probability in the story. We saw above that Aristotle alludes to how ma-
the presence of such an element, not in the plot itself, but in the bygthe
supposed antecedents. It consists in the presumed ignorance of modems.
Oedipus and Iocasta regarding facts with which they ought to
have been familiar. Sophocles tacitly accepts this condition,
and, by doing so, minimizes its prominence ; so much so, that it
may be doubted whether many readers or spectators of the
Oedipus Tyrannus would think of it, if their attention had not
been drawn to it previously. Seneca has not attempted to im-
prove on that example. But the moderns have sought various
ways of evading a critical censure which they foresaw; and it is
instructive to consider the result. The Oedipus of Corneille
1
Act 1. Sc. i. : cp. what Oedipus says in Act II. Sc. i.
xlviii INTRODUCTION:

knows that Lalus was said to have been killed by robbers; he


also knows the place and the date. Further, he distinctly re-
members that, at the same place and at the same date, he himself
had slain three wayfarers. Strange to say, however, it never
occurs to him that these wayfarers could possibly have been
Lalus and his attendants. He mildly suggests to Iocasta that
they may have been the robbers (Act I. Sc. i.); though, as appears
from the circumstances which he himself afterwards relates
(Act IV. Sc. iv.), he had not the slightest ground for such a sup-
position. This device cannot be deemed an improvement on
Sophocles. Dryden's expedient is simpler :—•
Tell me, Thebans,
How Laius fell; for a confused report
Pass'd through my ears, when first I took the crown ;
But full of hurry, like a morning dream,
It vanish'd in the business of the day.
That only serves to show us that the dramatist has an uneasy
conscience. Voltaire's method is subtler. Oedipus thus excuses
himself for having to question Iocasta concerning the death
of Lalus :—-
Madame, jusqu' ici, respectant vos douleurs,
Je n'ai point rappeld le sujet de vos pleurs;
Et de vos seuls perils chaque jour alarmee
Mon ame a d'autres soins semblait etre ferme'e.
But, as the author admits, the king ought not to have been
so long deterred, by the fear of displeasing his wife, from inform-
ing himself as to the death of his predecessor: ' this is to have
too much discretion and too little curiosity.' Sophocles, accord-
ing to Voltaire, ought to have suggested some explanation of
the circumstance that Oedipus, on hearing how Lalus perished,
does not at once recollect his own adventure in the narrow pass.
The French poet seeks to explain it by hinting at a miraculous
suspension of memory in Oedipus :—
Et je ne concpis pas par quel enchantement
J'oubliais jusqu' ici ce grand evdnement;
La main des dieux sur moi si long-temps suspendue
Semble oter le bandeau qu'ils mettaient sur ma vue.
INTRODUCTION. xlix

But this touch, though bold and not unhappy, must be classed
with the transparent artifices of the stage. The true answer to
the criticisms on this score which Voltaire directs against Sopho-
cles, Corneille, and himself is contained in a remark of his own,
that a certain amount of improbability is inherent in the story
of Oedipus1. If that improbability is excluded at one point,
it will appear at another. This being so, it is not difficult to
choose between the frank treatment of the material by Sophocles,
and the ingenious but ineffectual compromises of later art.

§ 27. The recent revivals of Greek plays have had their great Revivals
reward in proving how powerfully the best Greek Tragedy can [^
appeal to modern audiences. Those who are furthest from being
surprised by the result will be among the first to allow that the
demonstration was needed. The tendency of modern study had
been too much to fix attention on external contrasts between the
old Greek theatre and our own. Nor was an adequate corrective
of this tendency supplied by the manner in which the plays have
usually been studied; a manner more favourable to a minute
appreciation of the text than to apprehension of the play as
a work of art. The form had been understood better than the
spirit. A vague feeling might sometimes be perceived that the
effectiveness of the old Greek dramas, as such, had depended
essentially on the manners and beliefs of the people for whom
they were written, and that a successful Sophocles presupposed a
Periclean Athens. Some wonderment appeared to greet the
discovery that a masterpiece of Aeschylus, when acted, could
move the men and women of to-day. Now that this truth has
been so profoundly impressed on the most cultivated audiences
which England or America could furnish,—in Germany and
France it had been less unfamiliar,—it is not too much to say
that a new life has been breathed into the modern study of the
Greek drama.
§ 28. Recent representations of the Oedipus Tyrannus have The
Oedipus
1
In the fifth letter to M. de Genonville:—' II est vrai qu'il y a des sujets de
tragedie ou Ton est tellement gine par la bizarrerie des evenemens, qu'il est presqu'
impossible de reduire l'exposition de sa piece a ce point de sagesse et de vraisem-
bknce. Je crois, pour mon bonheur, que le sujet d'CEdipe est de ce genre.'
1 INTRODUCTION.
Tyrannus a peculiar significance, which claims notice here. The incestuous
experi"Cia relationship—the entrance of Oedipus with bleeding eyes—these
ment. are incidents than which none could be imagined more fitted to
revolt a modern audience. Neither Corneille nor Voltaire had
the courage to bring the self-blinded king on the stage ; his deed
is related by others. Voltaire, indeed, suggested1 that the spec-
tacle might be rendered supportable by a skilful disposition of
lights,—Oedipus, with his gore-stained face, being kept in the
dim back-ground, and his passion being expressed by action
rather than declamation, while the scene should resound with the
cries of Iocasta and the laments of the Thebans. Dryden dared
what the others declined ; but his play was soon pronounced
impossible for the theatre. Scott quotes a contemporary witness
to the effect that, when Dryden's Oedipus was revived about the
year 1790, 'the audience were unable to support it to an end;
the boxes being all emptied before the third act was concluded.'
The result § 29. In May, 1881, after seven months of preparation, the
Harvard Oedipus Tyrannus was acted in the original Greek by members
of Harvard University. Archaeology, scholarship, and art had
conspired to make the presentation perfect in every detail; and
the admirable record of the performance which has been published
has a permanent value for every student of Sophocles2. Refer-
ences to it will be found in the following commentary. But it is
the impression which the whole work made on the spectators of
which we would speak here. Nothing of the original was altered
or omitted ; and at the last Oedipus was brought on the scene,
'his pale face marred with bloody stains.' The performances
were seen by about six thousand persons,—the Harvard theatre
holding about a thousand at a time. As an English version was
provided for those who needed it, it cannot be said that the lan-
guage veiled what might else have offended. From first to last,
these great audiences, thoroughly representative of the most cul-
1
In one of his notes on Corneille's Preface to the Oedipe (Oeuvres de Corneille,
vol. VII. p. 262, ed. 1817).
2
An Account of the Harvard Greek Play. By Henry Norman. Boston:
James R. Osgood and Co., 1882. The account is illustrated by 15 photographs of
characters and groups, and is dedicated by the Author (who acted the part of Creon)
to Professor J. W. White. See Appendix, Note 1, p. 280.
INTRODUCTION. li

tivated and critical judgment, were held spell-bound. 'The


ethical situation was so overwhelming, that they listened with
bated breath, and separated irr silence.' ' The play is over.
There is a moment's silence, and then the theatre rings with
applause. It seems inappropriate, however, and ceases almost
as suddenly as it began. The play has left such a solemn
impression that the usual customs seem unfitting, and the
audience disperses quietly1.' There is the nineteenth century's
practical interpretation of Aristotle. This is Tragedy, ' effect-
ing, by means of pity and terror, the purgation of such feelings.'
§30. A few months later in the same year (1881), the Oedipe Hoi
Oedipus Tyrannus was revived in a fairly close French transla- Theatre
tion at the Theatre Francais. When the version of Jules Francais.
Lacroix was played there in 1858, the part of Oedipus was
filled by Geoffroy; but on this occasion an artist was available
whose powers were even more congenial. Probably no actor
of modern times has excelled M. Mounet-Sully in the union
of all the qualities required for a living impersonation of the
Sophoclean Oedipus in the entire series of moods and range
of passions which the part comprises; as the great king, at
once mighty and tender; the earnest and zealous champion of
the State in the search for hidden guilt; the proud man startled
by a charge which he indignantly repels, and embittered by the
supposed treason of a friend; tortured by slowly increasing
fears, alternating with moments of reassurance; stung to frenzy
by the proof of his unspeakable wretchedness; subdued to a
calmer despair; finally softened by the meeting with his young
daughters. The scene between Oedipus and Iocasta (vv. 700
—862) should be especially noticed as one in which the
genius of Sophocles received the fullest justice from that of
M. Mounet-Sully. In the words of a critic who has finely
described the performance2:—

' Every trait of the tragedian's countenance is now a witness to the


inward dread, always increasing upon him, as he relates his own adven-
1
Account of the Harvard Greek Play, pp. 36, 103.
2
Saturday Review, Nov. 19, 1881. The article was written by Sir Frederick
Pollock.
J. S. e
lii INTR OD UCTION.
ture, and questions her for more minute details of the death of Laius.
His voice sometimes sinks to a trembling gasp of apprehension, as the
identity of the two events becomes more and more evident. He seems
to be battling with fate.'
With a modern audience, the moment at which the self-
blinded Oedipus comes forth is that which tests the power of the
ancient dramatist; if, at that sight, repugnance overpowers
compassion, the spell has been imperfect; if all other feelings
are absorbed in the profound pathos of the situation, then
Sophocles has triumphed. We have seen the issue of the ordeal
in the case of the representation at Harvard. On the Paris
stage, the traditions of the French classical drama (represented
on this point by Corneille and Voltaire) were apt to make the
test peculiarly severe. It is the more significant that the moment
is thus described in the excellent account which we have cited
above:—
' Oedipus enters, and in the aspect of the man, his whole history is
told. It is not the adjunct of the bleeding eyes which now most deeply
stirs the spectators. It is the intensity of woe which is revealed in every
movement of the altered features and of the tottering figure whose
bearing had been so majestic, and the tone of the voice,—hoarse, yet
articulate. The inward struggle is recognised in its necessary outward
signs. The strain on the audience might now become too great but for
the relief of tenderness which almost immediately succeeds in the part-
ing of Oedipus from his children. Often as pathetic farewells of a
similar kind have been presented on the stage, seldom has any made an
appeal so forcible.'
Conclus- In the presence of such testimonies, it can no longer be-
ion.
deemed that the Tragedy of ancient Greece has lost its virtue
for the modern world. And, speaking merely as a student of
Sophocles, I can bear witness that the representation of the
Ajax at Cambridge (1882) was to me a new revelation of
meaning and power. Of that performance, remarkable in so
many aspects, I hope to say something in a later part of this
edition. Here it must suffice to record a conviction that such
revivals, apart from their literary and artistic interest, have also
an educational value of the very highest order.
THE TEXT.

§ i. The manuscripts of the Oedipus Tyrannus which have been MSS. used,
chiefly used in this edition are the following'
In the Biblioteca Mediceo-Lorenziana, Florence.
L, cod. 32. 9, commonly known as the Laurentian us., n t h cen-
tury.
In the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.
A, cod. 2712, 13th century.
B, cod. 2787, ascribed to the 15th cent. (Catal. 11. 553).
E, cod. 2884, ascribed to the 13th cent. (? ib. 11. 565).
T, cod. 2711, 15th cent.
In the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice.
V, cod. 468, late 13th century or early 14th.
V2, cod. 616, probably of the 14th cent.
V3, cod. 467, 14th cent.
V4, cod. 472, 14th cent.
1
There is no doubt that L is of the nth century, and none (I believe) that A is
of the 13th. These are the two most important dates. In the case of several minor
MSS., the tendency has probably been to regard them as somewhat older than they
really are. The dates indicated above for such MSS. are given on the best authority
that I could find, but I do not pretend to vouch for their precision. This is, in fact,
of comparatively small moment, so long as we know the general limits of age. Ex-
cluding L and A, we may say broadly that almpst all other known MSS. of Sophocles
belong to the period 1300—1600 A.D.
e2
liv THE TEXT.

In the Bodleian Library, Oxford.


Cod. Laud. Misc. 99 (now Auct. F. 3. 25), late 14th century.
Cod. Laud. 54, early 15th cent.
Cod. Barocc. 66, 15th cent.
In the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Cod. R. 3. 31, mainly of the late 14th century, in parts perhaps of
the early 15 th.
These MSS. I have myself collated.
The following are known to me in some cases by slighter personal
inspection, but more largely from previous collations, especially from
those of Prof. L. Campbell (2nd ed., 1879):—Pal. = Palat. 40, Heidel-
berg: Vat. a = cod. 40 in the Vatican, 13th cent, (ascribed by some to
the 12th): Vat. b, cod. Urbin. 141, ib., 14th cent.: Vat. c, cod. Urbin.
140, ib., 14th cent.: M, cod. G. 43 sup., in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana,
Milan, 13th or early 14th cent: M2, cod. L. 39 sup., ib., early 14th
cent: L2, cod. 31. 10 (14th cent.) in the Bibliot. Med.-Lor., Florence;
F, cod. Abbat. 152, late 13th, ib.: A, cod. Abbat 41, 14th cent., ib.:
Rice. cod. 34, in the Biblioteca Riccardiana, Florence, sometimes
ascribed to the 14th cent, but really of the 16th (see F. N. Papa-
georgius, 'cod. Laurent, von Soph.,' etc., p. 406, Leipzig, Teubner, 1883).
In making a first selection of MSS. to be collated, I was guided
chiefly by what I already knew of their character and of their relations
to each other, as these might be inferred from the previous reports;
and this list was afterwards modified by such light as I gradually
gained from my own experience. L and A being placed apart,
several MSS. exist, equal in age and quality to some of those named
above; but, so far as I am able to judge, the list which has been given
may be said to be fairly representative. In the present state of our
knowledge, even after all that has been done in recent years, it would, I
think, be generally allowed that the greatest reserve must still be ex-
ercised in regard to any theory of the connections existing, whether by
descent or by contamination, between our MSS. of Sophocles. We have
not here to do with well-marked families, in the sense in which this can
be said of the manuscript authorities for some other ancient texts; the
data are often exceedingly complex, and such that the facts could be
equally well explained by any one of two, or sometimes more, different
suppositions. This is a subject with which I hope to deal more fully on
a future occasion; even a slight treatment of it would carry me far
beyond the limits which must be kept here. Meanwhile, it may be
THE TEXT. lv

useful to give a few notes regarding some of the MSS. mentioned above,
and to add some general remarks.
Codex A, no. 2712 in the National Library of Paris, is a parchment
of the 13th century1. It is a volume of 324 pages, each about
11 \ inches by 9 in size, and contains (1) Eur. Hec, Or., Phoen.,
Androm., Med., Hipp.: (2) p. 117—214, the seven plays of Soph.:
(3) Ar. Plut, Nub., Ran., Eq., Av., Acharn., Eccl. (imperfect). The
text of each page is in three columns; the writing goes continuously
from left to right along all three, so that, e.g., vv. 1, 2, 3 of a play are
respectively the first lines of columns 1, 2, 3, and v. 4 is the second
line of col. 1. The contractions are naturally very numerous, since the
average breadth of each column (i.e. of each verse) is only about
2 inches; but they are regular, and the MS. is not difficult to read.
Codex B, no. 2787, in the same Library, written on thick paper,
contains (1) Aesch. P. V., Theb., Pers.: (2) Soph. O. T, Track.,
Phil., O. C. Codex E, no. 2884, written on paper, contains (1) the
same three plays of Aesch., (2) Soph. AL, EL, O. T, (3) Thedcr. Idyll.
1—14. Both these MSS. have short interlinear notes and scholia. In E
the writing is not good, and the rather frequent omissions show the scribe
to have been somewhat careless. Though the Catalogue assigns E to
the 13th cent., the highest date due to it seems to be the middle or late
14th. T, no. 2711, on thick paper, a MS. of the 15th cent., exhibits the
seven plays of Sophocles in the recension of Demetrius Triclinius, the
grammarian of the 14th cent. The single-column pages, measuring
about 11 \ by 7J, contain copious marginal scholia, which are mainly
Triclinian. The general features of the Triclinian recension are well-
known. He occasionally gives, or suggests, improved readings, but
his ignorance of classical metre was equalled by his rashness, and
especially in the lyrics he has often made havoc.
Of the Venetian MSS., V, no. 468, a paper folio of the late 13th or
early 14th cent., contains (1) Oppianj (2) Aesch., P. V., Theb., Pers.,
Agam. (imperfect): (3) Soph., the 7 plays (but Track, only to 18, O. C.
only from 1338). Vs, no. 616, a parchment in small folio, probably of
the 14th cent., contains (1) Soph., the 7 plays: (2) Aesch., 5 plays (Cho.
and Suppl. wanting). V3, no. 467, a paper 8vo. of the 14th cent., has
the 7 plays of Sophocles. V4, no. 472, a paper 8vo. of the 14th cent.,
has (1) Ar. Pint, Nub., Ran.; (2) Soph. AL, EL, Ant. (imperfect), O. T,
with marginal scholia.
1
It contains the entry, 'Codex optimae notae. Codex Memmianus. Anno D.
1731 Feb. 16 Die.' In 1740 it had not yet been collated (Catal. n. 542).
lvi THE TEXT.

Of the Bodleian MSS., Laud. Misc. 99 (Auct. F. 3. 25), late 14th


cent., contains Soph. O. T, El, At'.: Laud. 54 (early 15th cent.) the
same three: Barocc. 66, 15th cent., the same three, with Eur. Phoen.
The MS. of Trin. Coll. Camb. (late 14th—early 15th) has EL, AL,
O. T.
Of the Florentine MSS., the famous L, cod. 32. 9 (parchment, n t h
cent), contains, as is well known, besides the 7 plays of Soph., also the
7 plays of Aesch., and the Argonaiitica of Apollonius Rhodius. The
first corrector, sometimes distinguished as the ^opOwrqs, who compared
the first hand with the archetype, is generally believed to have been of
the n t h century. It continued to receive corrections, conjectures,
annotations, from various hands, down at least to the 16th century1. L2,
cod. 31. 10 (14th cent), contains the 7 plays of Soph., while V (cod.
Abbat. 152), of the late 13th cent, has only At., EL, O. T, Phil., and
A (cod. Abbat. 41), of the 14th cent., only AL, EL, 0. T.
As regards the relation of L to our other MSS., while much else is
obscure or disputable, two facts, at least, are clear.
(1) It seems to be established beyond reasonable doubt that L
cannot be regarded as the archetype of all the other MSS. which are
known to exist. Some of these evidently represent a tradition, not only
independent of, but presumably older than, L. Two particular pieces of
evidence to this effect occur in the Oedipus Tyrannies; (i) verse 8oo,
omitted in the text of L, and only inserted in the margin by a hand
certainly later than several of the MSS. which have the verse in the text:
(ii) the words TTOVIW fj roh foots written at v. 896 in the text of L,—these
being corrupted from a gloss Travrjyvpit,€iv TOISfootswhich exists in full in
the Trinity MS. and elsewhere8.
(2) Taken as a whole, L is decidedly superior to any other MS. of
Sophocles which we possess. On the other hand, it often shares
particular errors from which some of the other MSS. are free, and these
errors are sometimes of the grosser sort. It is safe to conclude that
the scribe who wrote the text of Sophocles in L was not of high in-
telligence, being much inferior in this respect, apparently, to the first
corrector, or 'Stopd'amfs': though allowance may also be made for the
1
Under the auspices of the London ' Society for the Promotion of Hellenic
Studies,' it is proposed to publish a photographic facsimile of the text of Sophocles in
this MS., with an Introduction in which its palaeographic character will be described
by Mr E. Maunde Thompson, of the British Museum.
2
A valuable discussion of this point is given by Prof, Campbell, vol. 1. pp.
xxv—xli.
THE TEXT. lvii

supposition that the former took a view of his office which precluded him
from amending even the more palpable mistakes of the archetype which
he transcribed.
§ 2. The subjoined table shows the principal cases in which the Deviations
reading adopted in my text is not that of L, but is found in some other r o m
MS. or MSS. ; or, if not in any MS., in a citation of Sophocles by an
ancient author1. The reading of L is placed first; after it, that of my
text. Note L's faults in vv. 332, 337, 657, 730, 1387, 1474.
43 rovj TTOV. 182 irapa/2co/uov] Trapd. pwfiiov. 221 avro] airos.
229 do-(f>ai\rjs~\ d/3\a/3rjs. 240 )(€pvi(3as] ^ep^i/Jos. 290 rd T ' ] TO. y.
296 oufeA.c'yxMi'] ov£e\ty£<i)V. 315 7rovos] TTOVOIV. 332 iym T'] iy(o OVT'.
337 opfurjv^ opyqv. 347 tlpydaOai 8'] elpyda&ai 0'. 396 TOV\ rov. 466
aeAAo7ro'S<Dv] deWdSuv Hesychius. 528 l£ o/z/xaTtov opBiav Se (re A ) ] ef
ofi/xdrav 8' opdiav re Suidas. 598 aurots airav] avToi<ri Ttdv. 631 Kvpiav]
Kaipiav. 635 cirijpaT] Zirrjpaa6\ 657 Xoyov...t/c/JaAca'] \6y(a...(3a\elv.
713 ^f^t] ^ot. 730 SnrXats] TpivrXais. 749 * 8' av] af 8'. 800 The
verse is wanting in the text of L, having being supplied in the margin
by a late h a n d . 870 KctraKoi/xacrg] KaTaKOifj.d(7€t. 9 0 3 6p66v\ SpO'.
926 KctTOio-#'] KaTio-0'. 957 o-iy/xifvas] (Ti]fid.VTit>p. 967 Krayciy] KTCVCIV.
976 A.e^os] XiKrpov. 1055 TOV 6'] TWS\ 1075 dvapprjgrj sic] dvapprf^ti.
1170 aKou'cof] axovetv Plutarch. I 1 9 7 expan^o-as] iKparrjae (f). 1260
v<j!>' ijyijroS] vff>i]yrjTov. 1264 €//,7T€7rA.r;y/i£vr/v] kjXTmcX^yjxivrjV. 1320
^>op€ii/] <f>ep€iv. 1387 avccr^o^v] uv eaxpfJLYjv. 1474 'yyovoiv]
§ 3. In relation to a text, the report of manuscript readings may be Scope of
valuable in either, or both, of two senses, the palaeographical and the annual;!. a
critical. For example, in O. T. 15 L reads 7rpocn7i//.£0a, and in 17 ion.
OT«WTES. These facts have a palaeographical interest, as indicating
the kind of mistakes that may be expected in MSS. of this age and class.
But they are of no critical interest, since neither Trpoa-gixtOa nor O-TCVOV-
Tes is a possible variant: they in no way affect the certainty that we
must read -n-poatj/xeOa and o-flcVovTes. In a discussion on the character-
istics and tendencies of a particular MS., such facts have a proper (and
it may happen to be, an important) place, as illustrating how, for
instance, 1 may have been wrongly added, or 6 wrongly altered, else-
where. The editor of a text has to consider how far he will report facts
of which the direct interest is palaeographical only.
The rule which I have followed is to report only those readings
of MSS. which have a direct critical interest, that is, which affect the
1
On p. 164, in crit. note line 2, the first word should be read O.TTOTOIJ.QV, not
diroTfiov: v. 877, then, is not an instance in which my text deviates from L.
lviii THE TEXT.

question as to what should be read in that place of the text; except in


the instances, not numerous in this play, where a manuscript error, as
such,, appeared specially significant. Had I endeavoured to exhibit all, or
even a considerable part, of the mere mis-spellings, errors of accentua-
tion, and the like, which I have found in the MSS. which I have collated,
my critical notes must have grown to an enormous bulk, without any
corresponding benefit, unless to the palaeographical student of the
particular codex and its kindred. On the other hand, I have devoted
much time, care, and thought to the endeavour not to omit in my critical
notes any point where the evidence of the MSS. known to me seemed to
have a direct bearing on the text.
The use of § 4. The use of conjecture is a question on which an editor must be
' prepared to meet with large differences of opinion, and must be content
if the credit is conceded to him of having steadily acted to the best of
his judgment. All students of Sophocles would probably agree at least
in this, that his text is one in which conjectural emendation should
be admitted only with the utmost caution. His style is not seldom
analogous to that of Vergil in this respect, that, when his instinct felt a
phrase to be truly and finely expressive, he left the logical analysis of it
to the discretion of grammarians then unborn. I might instance vvv
•n-acn x<upa> (O. T. 596). Such a style may easily provoke the heavy
hand of prosaic correction; and, if it requires sympathy to interpret and
defend it, it also requires, when it has once been marred, a very tender
and very temperate touch in any attempt to restore it. Then in the lyric
parts of his plays Sophocles is characterised by tones of feeling and
passion which change with the most rapid sensibility—by boldness and
sometimes confusion of metaphor—and by occasional indistinctness of
imagery, as if the figurative notion was suddenly crossed in his mind by
the literal.
Our text— § 5. Now consider by what manner of process the seven extant plays
mitited'anS" °^ *k's m o s t bold and subtle artist have come down to us through about
23 centuries. Already within some 70 years after the death of Sophocles,
the Athenian actors had tampered in such wise with the texts of the
three great dramatists that the orator Lycurgus caused a standard copy
to be deposited in the public archives of Athens, and a regulation to be
made that an authorised person should follow in a written text the
performances given on the stage, with a view to controlling unwarranted
change1. Our oldest manuscript dates from 1400 to 1500 years after
the time of Lycurgus. The most ancient sources which existed for the
1
[Plut.] Vit. Lycurg. § 11.
THE TEXT. lix

writers of our MSS. were already, it cannot be doubted, seriously


corrupted. And with regard to these writers themselves, it must not be
forgotten what their ordinary qualifications were. They were usually
men who spoke and wrote the Greek of their age (say from the n t h to
the 16th century) as it was commonly spoken and written by men of
fair education. On the other hand, as we can see, they were usually
very far from being good scholars in old classical Greek; of classical
metres they knew almost nothing; and in respect of literary taste or
poetical feeling they were, as a rule, no less poorly equipped. In the
texts of the dramatists they were constantly meeting with things which
they did not understand, and in such cases they either simply transmitted
a fault of the archetype, or tried to make sense by some expedient of
their own. On the whole, the text of Sophocles has fared better in the Its general
MSS. than that of either Aeschylus or Euripides. This needs no c o n d l t i o n -
explanation in the case of Aeschylus. The style of Euripides, ap-
parently so near to common life, and here analogous to that of Lysias,
is, like the orator's, full of hidden snares and pitfalls for a transcriber:
Xurj fxiv yap iSeiv, as the old epigram says of it, ei 8c TI<S avrrjv I c«r-
fiaivoi, yoXtTrov Tprj^yTtprj (TKOXOTTO'S. Where, however, our MSS. of
Sophocles do fail, the corruption is often serious and universal. His
manuscript text resembles a country with generally good roads, but an
occasional deficiency of bridges.
Is there reason to hope that, in such places, more light will yet be
obtained from the manuscripts or scholia now known to exist? It
appears hardly doubtful that this question must be answered in the
negative. The utmost which it seems prudent to expect is a slightly
increased certitude of minor detail where the text is already, in the
main, uncorrupted. I need scarcely add that the contingency of a new
MS. being discovered does not here come into account.
§ 6. Such, then, are the general conditions under which an editor of Textual
Sophocles is required to consider the treatment of conjectural emendation, should"1
It would seem as if a conservative tendency were sometimes held to be have no
desirable in the editor of a text. When a text has been edited, we las<
might properly speak of the result as 'conservative' or the contrary.
But an editor has no more right to set out with a conservative tendency
than with a tendency of the opposite kind. His task is simply to give,
as nearly as he can ascertain it, what the author wrote. Each particular
point affecting the text must be considered on its own merits. Instances
have not been wanting in which, as I venture to think, editors of Sopho-
cles have inclined too much to the side of unnecessary or even disastrous
Ix THE TEXT.

alteration. On the other hand, it is also a serious fault to place our


manuscripts above the genius of the ancient language and of the author,
and to defend the indefensible by 'construing,' as the phrase is, 'through
thick and thin.' Who, then, shall be the judge of the golden mean?
The general sense, it must be replied, of competent and sympathetic
readers. This is the only tribunal to which in such a case an editor
can go, and in the hands of this court he must be content to leave the
decision.
Con- § 7. The following table exhibits the places where the reading
former*5 ° adopted in my text is found in no MS., but is due to conjecture. The
critics, ^ reading placed first is one in which L agrees with some other MS. or
' ' n MSS-> except where it is differently specified. After each conjecture is
placed the name of the critic who (to the best of my knowledge) first
proposed i t : where the priority is unknown to me, two or more names
are given.
198 reXei] reXelv Hermann. 200 A long syllable wanting. < i a v >
Hermann. 2 — ^ 0 wanting. < (rvfifia^ov > Kennedy. 248 a/xoipov]
dfiopov Porson. 351 TrpocreiTra?] 7rpoetiras Brunck. 360 Xeyeiv] \cyav
Hartung. 376 fie...ye aov] ae...y' i/xov1 Brunck. 478 irerpa<s ws
ravpos (TTCTpatos o Talpos first hand of L)] 7reVpas icroVavpos E. L.
Lushington. 537 Iv e/j,oi] Iv //.oi Reisig. 537 KOVK\ rj OVK A. Spengel
and Blaydes. 538 yvopiVot/^i] yvwpioiyui Elmsley. 657 0-' inserted by
Hermann after Xoyw. 666 KOL TaS'] TO. §' Kennedy (rdS1 Herm.).
672 eAceivoV] IXeivov Porson. 693 el ere VO<T<£I£O//.GU] el <T evo<r<£i£o/£av
Hermann, Hartung, Badham. 696 el Bvvato yevov (Svva first hand in L)]
av yevoio Blaydes. 741 Tiva 8'] TtVos Nauck. 763 6 Si y (o y L)] of
Hermann. 790 irpoi(f>d.vy]] irpov<f>ijvev Hermann. 815 TIS rov&e y
avSpos vvv ear a.6\ut>Tepos (others TIS TOCSC y aySpds ICTTIV a^XwoTcpos)]
Tts TovSe vvv ecrr avSpos a^Atiurcpos. I had supposed this obvious
remedy to be my own, but find that P. N. Papageorgius {Beitrdge p. 26,
1883) ascribes it to Dindorf in the Poet. Seen.: this then must be some
former edit, for it is not in that of 1869 (the 5th), and in the Oxford
ed. of i860 Dind. ejected the verse altogether: see my crit. note on
the place. 817 <S...Tiva] 5V...TIVI Wunder. 825 /M7V (/X-^O-T' first hand
in L)] /JLI]8' Dindorf. 876 aKpoTarav] aKporarov Wunder. 891 e^
(t'lcTat, sic, L ) ] 6t£eT<u Blaydes. 893 Ov/xiSi (others 6v[io"> or ]
6e<Sv Hermann. 906 — w - ^ or u - ^ 3 wanting. TraXatyara Linwood.
943 f. rj TeOvrjKe IIoAvySos ; el 8k fir) \ Xiym y eyw Ta.Xrj6h~\ Triclinius

1
On p. 82, in crit. note, line 2, for 71- /xou read 7 (/wv.
THE TEXT. lxi
conjectured T\ T(.6vr]Ki iron1 IIo'Xi>/3os ylpwv; \ (I /J.rj Xeyta TaXr)0£s, which
Erfurdt improved by substituting IIoA.ii/3o?, d> yipov for TTOV IIO'A.I>/8OS
yepiav. 987 ju.£yas] /liyas y Porson, 993 57 oi 0e/xn-6V] ^ ov^l 0£/UTOV
Brunck. 1002 £yioy' oi3 (lywy' ou^i A)] £yuj ou^i Porson. 1025 TEKUJV]
T « ^ W Bothe, Foertsch. 1062 OVK aV EK rptTrys] ovS' iav Tpirr]<; Hermann.
1099 T(3V] TCLV Nauck. IIOO irpocrirtXacrOiicf^ Trarpos ireXacrBsicr' Lach-
mann. 1109 'EAtKonaSooi'] 'EA.IK<DVIOW Porson. 1137 ^f-ijfovs (tKp-ij-
vovs cod. Trin.)] IK/A^VOVS Porson. 1193 TO O-O'V TOI] TOV crov TOI
Joachim Camerarius. 1196 ovSeVa] cv&ev H e r m a n n . 1205 TIS iv
iro'i/ois, rts arats aypi'ais] ti's arats ayptais, Tts €V W^ois Hermann.
1216 A long syllable wanting. <<3> Erfurdt. 1218 oSvpo^ai] Sv'po-
fiai, Seidler. 1244 Imppij^aa] lTnppd£acr Dobree. 1245 K"A.€i] KaXcT
Erfurdt. 1264 TrXeKTats £(opai? i/ATren-XeyfievrjV (L c/xirEirXijyjiicVrjv)' o Se |
OVMS S' (A omits 8'). TrXtKTawnv aiajpato-iv €f*.TreTr\eyfJ.£vr]v 6 8c | 07ra>s 8'
also Occurs.] TrXcKTaicriv aliapai(nv £/xir£7rXcy/ieviyv. | o 8' cos Campbell.
1279 ai/xaros (others ai/xards T ' ) ] ai/iaToiJs Heath. 1310 8ia7reraTai]
Sia7ra>rttT<H Musgrave, Seidler. 1315 o!8a/xao-Tov] aSa/xarov Hermann.
/A A syllable — wanting. <ov> Hermann. 1341 TOV oXiOpiov piyav
(others fj.tyaj\ TOV ply oXiOpwv Erfurdt. 1348 fM]?>' dvayvtavat TTOT av
(or Trore)] firjBi y av yvuivat Trore Hermann. 135° vo^u,a8os] voyaaS'
Elmsley. 1360 a^Xtos] adeos Erfurdt. 1365 e$u] e n Hermann. 1401
[ie[i.vr]a6' o n ] fi€fj.v7]a-6i n Elmsley. 1495 yoviv(riv\ -yovoicrii/ Nauck.
1505 fir} a(ji€ TraptSrjs] /x»f 0"<^)£ •Jrcpu'Srjs Dawes. I5 X 3 ^ e t ] *? Dindorf.
1517 etjui] ei/tt Brunck. 1521 vvv...vvv] vvv...vw Brunck. 1526
ooTis.../cai Tvp^ais €7n/3Xe7r(i)v] ou Tt's...rais TV^an £ir£/3Xe7r£V Hartung,
partly after Martin and Ellendt.
§ 8. The following emendations, adopted in the text, are due to the Con-
present editor. The grounds on which they rest are in each case stated {^ ^
in the commentary :— editor.
227 vir£$t\(£v I auTos]
624 orav] ok av.
640 8pao"ai...8uoii']
1091 OiSiVov] OlSiirovv.
1218 (us TTfpiaXXa la)(£(i)V (vv. II. 7T£pi'aXa, a^f'wv)] w<nr£p idXefxov
1280 Ka/ca] Kara.
1405 rauroi'] Tavrov.
Two conjectural supplements are also the editor's:
493 <|3ao"avi£<oi'>
877 <aKpov>
1
On p. 176, crit. note, line 2, insert vov after Ti&\rt\Kt.
lxii THE TEXT.

In a few other places, where I believe the text to be corrupt, I have


remedies to suggest. But these are cases in which the degree of proba-
bility for each mind must depend more on an aXoyos ala-Orjcrf;. Here,
then, the principles of editing which I have sought to observe would
not permit me to place the conjectures in the text. In the commentary
they are submitted to the consideration of scholars, with a statement of
their grounds in each case. 1090 OVK lay rciv avptov] rav iiriovaav t<rrj.
1101 rj ere ye Tts Ovydrrjp Ao£tou ;] ») <ri y e<f>v<re iraTrjp | Ao£i'ag;
1031 iv /caipois (others, iv KOCKOIS)] iyKvp&v. 1315 Svaovpurrov 7:]
Sixjovpior' iov. 1350 vo/x.a8] jiioraS'.
Notation. § 9. In my text, a conjecture is denoted by open type, as Tf.\*lv for
Te'Aei in 198: except in those cases where a slight correction, which at
the same time appears certain, has been so generally adopted as to have
become part of the received text; as apopov for a/toipov in 248. In
such cases, however, no less than in others, the fact that the reading is
due to conjecture is stated in the critical note.
The marks f t signify that the word or words between them are
believed by the editor to be unsound, but that no conjecture seemed to
him to possess a probability so strong as to warrant its insertion in the
text.

It was only after my text had been printed that I received, through
the kindness of Mr P. N. Papageorgius, his Beitrdge zur Erkldncng und
Kritik des Sophokles. Pars Prima. Iena, Fromann (H. Pohle) 1883 :
pp. 40. I gladly take this opportunity of mentioning his emendations
of the O. 71, which, had his work reached me earlier, would have been
recorded in my critical notes :—
(i) 329 ra/x' cos civ euro)] Tap es cr' dveiVct). (2) 360 KCU Tovpyov av
CTOV TOVT e(f>rjv uvai jxovov, where etvai, though found in A and others,
has come in L from a later hand. For etcat he proposes eyco. (3) 815
Tis TOXJSE y avSpos vvv tar at9AicoTepos (L)] Tt9 TOVSC y* avSpos vvv os
o
dt5XtcuTepos; (4) 360 77 \iTUpa \iy€iv (L)] ^ Vjreipa Xoyois; I am
glad to find him confirming the remark made in my critical note (p. 80),
o
that the Ae'yeiv of L points to \6ywv, which, as he notices, occurs in
a gloss by a late hand, d [wanting in L] irelpav \6yo>v /«veis.
In 1881 the same author published his Kritische undpalaeographische
Beitrdge zu den alien Sophokles-Scholien, and in supplement to it (1883),
Codex Laur. von Soph, und cine neue Kollation in Scholien-Texte (37 pp.),
THE TEXT. lxiii

giving in many places the true readings of the old scholia in the MS.,
and also some old lemmata and scholia hitherto unpublished1.
1
His transcript of an old schol. on v. 35, p. 20, enables me to supplement my
crit. note on is 7' in 35. An old schol. there in L runs, os re /io\ux> aarv ~Ka.5iJ.aoi>,
tva Kal i] awo H&rjs avrov d'0i£is dij\u$y (the parent, doubtless, of the corrupt BUTE
juoXetc aarv KaSfietoy). The reading os T', then, claims such weight as is due to the
fact that it was recognised by the scholiast : but this circumstance does not affect the
preference which, on other grounds, seems due to os 7'.
METRICAL ANALYSIS.

IN my text, I have exhibited the lyric parts with the received


division of verses, for convenience of reference to other editions, and
have facilitated the metrical comparison of strophe with antistrophe by
prefixing a small numeral to each verse.
Here, in proceeding to analyse the metres systematically, I must
occasionally depart from that received division of verses—namely,
wherever it differs from that which (in my belief) has been proved to be
scientifically correct. These cases are not very numerous, however, and
will in no instance cause difficulty.
The researches of Dr J. H. Heinrich Schmidt into the Rhythmic
and Metric of the classical languages have thrown a new light on the
lyric parts of Greek Tragedy1. A thorough analysis of their structure
shows how inventive and how delicate was the instinct of poetical and
musical fitness which presided over every part of it. For the criticism
of lyric texts, the gain is hardly less important. Conjectural emend-
ation can now in many cases be controlled by more sensitive tests
than were formerly in use. To take one example from this play, we
shall see further on how in v. 1214 the Si/ca^i TOV of the MSS. is cor-
roborated, as against Hermann's plausible conjecture Suca^ei T\ The
work of Dr Schmidt might be thus described in general terms. Setting
out from the results of Rossbach and Westphal, he has verified, cor-
rected, and developed these by an exhaustive study of the Greek
metrical texts themselves. The essential strength of his position con-
1
Dr Schmidt's work, ' Die Kunstformen der Griechischen Poesie und ihre Be-
deutung,' comprises four volumes, viz. (1) ' Die Eurhythmie in den Chorgesangen der
Griechen,' &c. Leipzig, F . C. Vogel, 1868. (2) 'Die antike Compositionslehre,'&c.
ib. 1869. (3) 'Die Monodien und Wechselges'ange der attischen Tragbdie,' &c. ib.
1871. (4) ' Griechische Metrik,' ib. 1872.
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxv

sists in this, that his principles are in the smallest possible measure
hypothetical. They are based primarily on internal evidence afforded
by Pindar, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes. To
Professor J. W. White, Assistant Professor of Greek at Harvard Uni-
versity, is due the credit of having introduced Dr Schmidt's system to
English readers1.
With regard to the lyric parts of this play, were I to give merely
a skeleton scheme of them, the application of it to the Greek text
might prove a little difficult for those who are not already acquainted
with the results indicated above. For the sake, therefore, of greater
clearness, I give the Greek text itself, with the scheme applied to it.
Such notes as appeared requisite are added.
A few explanatory remarks must be premised. Prelimm-
A syllable of speech, like a note of music, has three conditions of remarks,
utterance: (i) length of tone, (2) strength of tone, (3) height of tone.
(1) Length of tone—according as the voice dwells a longer or
shorter time on the syllable—is the affair of Quantity. A 'short'
syllable, as distinguished from a 'long,' is one which is pronounced
in a shorter time. (2) Strength of tone—according to the stronger or
weaker ' beat,' ictus, which the voice gives to the syllable—is the affair
of Rhythm. 'Rhythm' is measured movement. The unity of a
rhythmical sentence depends on the fact that one syllable in it has a
stronger ictus than any other. (3) Height of tone—according as the
voice has a higher or lower pitch—is the affair of Accent.
In modern poetry, Accent is the basis of Rhythm. In old Greek
poetry, Quantity is the basis of Rhythm, and Accent has no influence
which we can perceive. The facts which we have now to notice fall,
then, under two heads: I. Quantity, as expressed in Metre: and II.
Rhythm.
I. Metre. § r. In Greek verse, the short syllable, denoted by ^ , Metre,
is the unit of measure, and is called ' a time' (Lat. mord): a long

1
By bis excellent translation, made conjointly with Prof. Dr Riemenschneider,
and revised by Dr Schmidt, of the ' Leitfaden in der Rhythmik und Metrik der
Classischen Sprachen' (Leipzig, 1869)—an epitome, for schools, of the principles
established in the ' Kunstformen.' The ' Introduction to the Rhythmic and Metric of
the Classical Languages' was published at Boston, by Ginn and Heath, 1878 ; and in
Prof. White's edition of this play (id. 1879) the lyrics are constituted in conformity
with it. Here, I have felt it necessary to assume that few of my English readers
would be familiar with Dr Schmidt's results, and have therefore deemed it expedient
to give fuller explanations than would otherwise have been necessary.
lxvi METRICAL ANALYSIS.

syllable, - , has twice the value of a short; so that - u is a foot of


' three times.' The short syllable has the musical value of a quaver J^
or \ note (i.e. eight of which make 23:). The long syllable has there-
fore the value of I or a J note.
§ 2. As in music J , signifies that the J note has been made one-
half as long again (/. e. \ +§• = §), so in Greek verse the long syllable
could be prolonged by a pause, and made equal to three short syllables.
When it has this value, instead of — we write '—.
§ 3. In a metrical foot, there is always one syllable on which the
chief strength of tone, or ictus, falls. This syllable is called the arsis
of the foot. The rest of the foot is called the t/iesis1. When a long
syllable forms the arsis of a measure, it can have the value of even
more than three short syllables. When it becomes equivalent to four
(= J , a J note), it is written thus, •—'. When to five (= J . J , # note),
thus, LU.
§ 4. When the long syllable (written <—) is made equal to three
short, it can be used, alone, as a metrical substitute for a whole foot of
three short 'times,' viz. for - ^ (trochee), ^ — (iambus), or ^ ^ ^ (tribrach).
So, when (written •—J) it has the value of four short, it can represent a
whole foot in |- (J) measure, viz. —.«^> (dactyl), u u - (anapaest), or
— (spondee). And so LL1 can replace any -| measure, as — « —, - ^ ^ v,
^w — (paeons), ^ — , — ^ (bacchii). This representation of a whole
foot by one prolonged syllable is called syncope, and the foot itself is ' a
syncopated trochee,' &c.
§ 5. When two short syllables are used, by ' resolution,' for a long
one (^^ for J ) this is denoted by —. Conversely the sign w
means that one long syllable is used, by ' contraction,' for two short
ones.
§ 6. An 'irrational syllable' (<rvXka(irj a\oyos) is one which has a
metricalvalue to which its actual time-value does not properly entitle it.
The most frequent case is when a long stands for a short in the thesis of
a foot, which is then ' a n irrational foot.' The irrational syllable is
1
This is the reverse of the old Greek usage, in which 6l<ns meant ' putting down
the foot' (and so the syllable which has the ictus), apais, the ' lifting' of it. Roman
and modern writers applied arsis to ' the raising of the voice' thesis, to the lowering of
it. Dr Schmidt has reverted to the Greek use, which is intrinsically preferable,
since the modern use of the term 'arsis' tends to confuse ictus with accent. But
the modern use has become so general that, in practice, it appears more convenient to
retain it; and I have done so.
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxvii

marked >. Thus in the trochaic verse (0. T. 1524), <o as


the syllable Orj is irrational, and as 6rj/3 is an irrational
trochee. The converse use of an irrational short syllable instead of a
long is much rarer, occurring chiefly where — ^ ^ is replaced by an
apparent w ^ ^ (written ^ ^ >), or by an apparent — ^ (written
— >). In a metrical scheme J means that a long syllable is admitted as
an irrational substitute for a short one.
§ 7. When a dactyl takes the place of a trochee, it is called a
cyclic dactyl, and written -w ^. The true dactyl ( - ^ J) = J J ^ : the
cyclic = J J J : /.«. the long syllable loses \ of its value, and the first
short loses \, so that we have - ^ + TV + i = f • So the cyclic anapaest,
o
^ v—, can replace an iambus.
§ 8. A measure can be introduced by a syllable external to it, and
having no ictus. This syllable is called the anacrusis (dvaKpova-cs,
' upward beat'). It can never be longer than the thesis of the measure,
and is seldom less. Thus, before — >->, the anacrusis would' properly
be ^ (for which an irrational syllable > can stand). Before — v ^, it
would be w or —. The anacrusis is divided from the verse by three
vertical dots •
§ 9. It will be seen that in the Parodos, 2nd strophe, 1st period,
3rd verse, the Greek letter o> is printed over the syllables oroAos which
form the anacrusis. This means that they have not the full value
of u u or two |- notes ( IH), but only of two T \ notes (.^J) 1
§ 10. Pauses. Thefinalmeasure of a series, especially of a verse,
might always be incomplete. Then a pause represented the thesis of
the unfinished foot. Thus the verse vvv 8' e7ri|KeKXo/Aei^|a ^ v^ is in-
complete. The lacking syllables ^ ^ are represented by a pause. The
signs for the pause, according to its length, are as follows :—•
A pause equal to ^ is denoted by A , musically *1 for ^J*
n !> *~ )> >j A ; v ™" J
A

II. Rhythm. § 11. Metre having supplied feet determined by Rhythm,


quantity, Rhythm combines these into groups or 'sentences' determined
by ictus. Thus in verse 151, <3 Aids aSveircs ^an, || TIS TTOTC ras
7roXuxPlj/a'ol'> there are two rhythmical sentences. The first owes its
rhythmical unity to the chief ictus on <3, the second to the chief ictus
J.s. /
Ixviii METRICAL ANALYSIS.

on Tt's. Such a rhythmical KWXOV or sentence almost always consists


of feet equal to each other. The end of a sentence is denoted by the
sign ||.
§ 12. Rhythmical sentences are again combined in the higher unity
of the rhythmical period. Here the test of unity is no longer the
presence of a chief ictus on one syllable, but the accurate correspond-
ence with each other of the sentences which the period comprises. The
period is seen to be such by the fact that it is neither less nor more than
an artistic and symmetrical whole.
§ 13. In the choric type of lyrics, which Tragedy uses, we find, as in
other Greek lyric types, the rhythmical sentence and period. Their
correspondence is subordinate to that of strophe and antistrophe.
Each strophe contains usually (though not necessarily) more than one
rhythmical period. Each period of the strophe has its rhythmical
counterpart in a period of the antistrophe. And, within each period,
the rhythmical ' sentences' (/«3Aa) accurately correspond with each
other.
§ 14. In the choric dance which accompanied the choric song, the
antistrophe brought the dancer back to the position from which, at the
beginning of the strophe, he set out. Hence the necessity for strict
metrical correspondence, i.e. for equal duration in time. When any
part of a choric song is non-antistrophic, this means that, while that part
was being sung, the dancers stood still. A non-antistrophic element
could be admitted in any one of three forms : viz. (1) as a verse
prefixed to the first strophe—a 'proode' ox prelude, TO irpouiSiKov, if
7rpoa)8o's, denoted by vp.: (2) as a verse inserted between strophe and
antistrophe—a 'mesode' or interlude, TO HUO-USIKOV, ij juco-coSo's : (3) as a
verse following the last antistrophe—an ' epode' or postlude, TO CTTUSUCOV,
rj empSoV.
During the pause at the end of a verse in a choric ode of Tragedy,
the dance and song momentarily ceased; but instrumental music pro-
bably filled the brief interval. Such pauses correspond no less exactly
than the other rhythmical divisions.
We will now see how these principles are exemplified in the lyrics
of the Oedipus Tyrannus. Under each line of a strophe I give in
smaller type the corresponding line of the antistrophe, since the
comparison is often instructive, especially with regard to irrational
syllables.
1
Distinguish the masc. 0 exijjSis, a refrain, esp. the epodic distichon as used hy
Archilochus and Horace.
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxix

I. Parodos, vv. 151—215.

FIRST STROPHE.

(I., II., denote the First and Second Rhythmical Periods. The
sign || marks the end of a Rhythmical Sentence; ]] marks that of a
Period.)

I. I. a) Stos cs <f>an || T I S TTOTS | T a s TTO\V | )(pv<rov\\

irpwra ae os Svyar || ep Sios | a/xfipoT a8 | ava ||

2 . 7TV 0covos I ay\a j as e/8 | as A

\-/ v-» — \y w
3. 0?iy8as I tKTera/i | a i <f>o/3tp ||av <j>peva

apre/xiv | a KUKXO | e r r 070/) || as Bpovov \ eixcXea | Oacraei

4. t • 171c
lite I SaXie | 7rat | a v A

ai ; <poi(3ov en | a/3oXoc | 1 | w

I I . 1. a/X(j>i(roi os Tt /xoi [ »; veov || 17 Trepi | TcXXo|iiev | ais cop | ais 7raA.iv ||

rpiaaoi a \ oi.irpo(j>av\ rp-e fioi || enroTe | Ktu vporep | as a r | as vjrep ||

2. \ asTCKVOV eX7riSos I afifipore | <£a/j

opw/iev I as TroXei TOTTI || a c <p\oya Kai i«w>]]

I. /VVJ-/ Period: 4 verses. Metre, dactylic. Verse 1. The


comma after — in the 3rd foot denotes caesura. Verse 2. The
dots ; after irv show that it is the anacrusis: see § 8. The sign
Ixx METRICAL ANALYSIS.

I— means that the long syllable here has the time-value of — ^ or a


§ note, so that 6<ovo<i = a dactyl, — ^ ^ : see § 2. This verse forms a
rhythmical sentence of 3 dactyls, a dactylic tripody. It is known as a
' Doric sentence,' because characteristic of Doric melodies: Pind. 01.
8. 27 Kiova I Saijuovi | av A II '• lb. 40 els 8' taop | ovcre (3o | aVais || .
The sign 7T marks a pause equal to ^ ^ : see § 10. Verse 3.
c^7 shows that as represents, by contraction, w. Verse 4. 7r a 1 has
the time-value of a whole dactyl — ^^, or J note: this is therefore a
case of syncope, see § 4. When syncope occurs thus in the penulti-
mate measure of a rhythmical sentence or of a verse, it imparts to it a
melancholy cadence: and such is called a falling' sentence or verse.
Now count the sentences marked off by j | . In v. 1, we have 2
sentences of 3 feet each; 3, 3. In v. 2 one sentence of 4 feet; 4.
In v. 3, the same as in v. 1. In v. 4, the same as in v. 2. The series
thus is 3 3. 4. 3 3- 4- This determines the form of the entire Rhythmical
Period, which is expressed thus :—
Here the curve on the left means that one whole
group (verses 1, 2) corresponds with the other whole
group (verses 3, 4). The curves on -the right mean
that the 1st sentence of the 1st group corresponds to
the 1st of the 2nd, the 2nd of the 1st to the 2nd of
the 2nd, the 3rd of the 1st to the 3rd of the 2nd.
The vertical dots mean that the figure or figures be-
tween any two of them relate to a single verse.
This is called the palinodic period : meaning that
a group of rhythmical sentences recurs once, in.the
same order.

II. Second Period: 2 verses. Metre, still dactylic. Verse 1. The


last foot, ais 7raA.iv, is a true dactyl (not a ' cyclic,' see § 7); it is not
contracted into ; and it closes a rhythmical sentence. Now, when
this happens, it is a rule that the immediately preceding foot should be
also an uncontracted dactyl. Why do not ais wp, as ar, break this rule ?
Because, in singing, two \ notes, ^ Q , instead of one \ note, I, were
given to the syllable wp, and likewise to ar. This is expressed by

writing wp, and not merely wp.


In v. 1 we have two rhythmical sentences of 4 feet each : 4, 4. In
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxi

v. 2, the same. The series, then, is 4 4. 4 4., and the form of the
Rhythmical Period is again palinodic:—

SECOND STROPHE.

I. I. apiOfM I yap <pep ] ft) A

api9[j.os | oXXv [ rat

2. irr; • /xara vocr ] et 8e | fioi Tfpo | ?ras A II


vq • Xc o 8e | -ye«SXa | 7rpos ?re5 | a
ta —^J KJ —^ v-/ ^— ~
3. O-TO\OS • ouS cvt I <^>povTt8os | e y x I os A 3

davar • a<j>opa \ Keirai av | oi/cr | ws

II. 1. (1) TIS a I Ae^erou | oure yap | £Kyora


] ot 7roXt | atr ext [ /iarepes
!> — w \y — t ^ / v ^ — \^\_/
2. av£erai ODT£ TOK 1 oitrtv ||

Pa/uov I aXX >0ex | ^XXat


LJ
3- <• Kafiar | wv ave) ^ || overt y w aiK £S A
LKT 1 II ' 0revax ovo- 1 '"
4. aXA ov8 av | aXX | w TrpocrtS || ot9 enrep | cu7TTcpov | opviv
r
e | yrjpvs op \ avkos

5. Kpficrcrov a | fi.aijxaKer | ou Trvpos | op/j.evov

o)v virep j w xpv&e a $vyar j ep 5tos

6. OKT av 7rpos ov I ^eou A 3


en « 7ra OKK I ay
lxxii METRICAL ANALYSIS.

I. First Period: 3 verses. The metrical basis of the rhythm is the


choree (or ' trochee,' - S), for which the cyclic dactyl (-^ ^, see § 7) and tri-
brach (^ ^ ^) can be substituted. The rhythm itself is logaoedic1. When
chorees are arranged in ordinary choreic rhythm, the ictus of arsis is to
that of thesis as 3 to 1 (^- o): when in logaoedic, as 3 to 2 (-=-0). The
latter has a lighter and livelier effect. Verse 1. The anacrusis <o is
marked >, since it is an ' irrational' syllable (§ 6),—a long serving for a
short. The anacrusis can here be no more than ^>, since it can never
be longer than the thesis (§ 8), which is here ^, since v^ ^ ^ represents
— ^. Verse 3. u> written over OTOXOS means that the two short syllables
here have only the time-value of •->, or ^ H , not of ^ ^ or ^ ^ : see § 9.
ovSevi and <£/DOVTI8OS are cyclic dactyls (—^ ^, = — J), not true ones (— ^ J),
see § 7. The second syllable of eyx°s i s marked long, because the last
syllable of a verse (syllaba anceps, avWafirj a&a^opos) always can
be so, and here os is the first of a choree, — ^, which the pause A
completes.
Verses 1, 2, 3 contain each one rhythmical sentence of 4 feet; the
series is therefore . 4 . 4 . 4 . , and the form of the period is:—

When two rhythmical sentences of equal length correspond to


each other, they form a ' stichic' period (vTiyos, a line or verse);
when, as here, more than two, they form a repeated stichic
period.

1
The name X07aoi8i/c6s, 'prose-verse,' meant simply that, owing to the apparently
lawless interchange of measures (—w, V*-"J, — > , for — v->) in this rhythm, the old
metrists looked upon it as something intermediate between prose and verse. It should
be borne in mind that the essential difference between choreic and logaoedic rhythm
is that of ictus, as stated above. The admission of the cyclic dactyl is also a specially
logaoedic trait, yet not exclusively such, for it is found occasionally in pure choreics
also. The question, ' Is this rhythm choreic or logaoedic ?' can often be answered
only by appeal to the whole poetical and musical character of the lyric composition,—
the logaoedic ictus being always more vivacious than the choreic. See, on this subject,
Grieck. Metrik% 19. 3. Students will remember that ' logaoedic verse' is 3. generic term.
—\J *~* — \-t
Three kinds of it have special names : (1) the logaoedic dipodia, as Ka.tmvhov \ a/D^aj|,
—*~> vy — *_* _ \j
is a n 'ASiiviov ixirpov : (2) t h e tripodia, fivpuoTov \ ov KVKX \ oifia ||, a QepeKpaTeiov:
— ^ V^ _ \y \s — W

(3) the tetrapodia, which is very common, vvvyapefi | 01 ,ue\ | ei x°P I etmatH, is the
'glyconic,' TXVKUVUOV. (2) and (3) can vary the place of the cyclic dactyl, and can
be catalectic. The logaoedic (5) pentapodia and (6) hexapodia, both of which occur
in tragedy, are not commonly designated by special names.
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxiii

II. Second Period: 6 verses. Metre, dactylic, Verse 2. The


anacrusis K\VT is marked > since it is a really short syllable serving ' irration-
ally ' (§ 6) as a long: for, the measure being — v^ ^, the anacrusis should
properly be ^ ^ or — (as aKT in the antistr. actually is). Verse 3. OIK =
- ^ v^ (§ 4). This syncope (§ 4) in the penult, measure makes a ' falling '
verse : see on Str. 1., Per. 1., v. 4. ~ = a. pause equal to ^ ^ (§ 10).
Verse 1 contains 1 rhythmical sentence of 4 feet: v. 2, the same:
v. 3, two sentences each of 3 feet: v. 4, the same : vv. 5, 6, the same
as 1, 2. Series : . 4 . 4 . 3 3 . 4 . 4 , and the form of period is :—

The curves on the left show the corre-


spondence of whole rhythmical groups;
those on the right, that of rhythmical sen-
tences.
If the second group of • 3 3 • had followed
the second of • 4 • 4 •, this would have been
a simple palinodic period, like the 1st of
Strophe 1. But as the groups are repeated
in reversed order, it is called a palinodic-
antithetic period.

THIRD STROPHE.

I. I. ap • a « j TOV I fj,a\epov | 09 || vvv a | ^aX/cos | acnnS | <av A


\VK • ti <u> \ a£ I r a r e aa | x/"" 7 II ourpocp \ av air \ ayicvk \ av

2. ei fie a£
ca 0 e \ I oifA av | adafiar | evSar \ et<rd J at

3. iraX ov S/aaju, I 77/xa vwTto" I at 7rarp as /\


ap irpoaraQ \ evra \ ras r e | wvpcpop \ ovs
I— — w I— ^ \-» \_/ — <«« '—
4 . €7T ; ovpov t t r I cs /X€y ] av Tptr as A ]

apr at7\ I as £vv \ ats || \VKI op fj


lxxiv METRICAL ANALYSIS.

II. i. UT £S TOV CITT I o£evov op/j, | ov a A


TOV I av re KI \ KXTJO-K \ u \\ raoS eir \ avv/i
>

2. TtA. eiv yap | ei Tt | vvi; a^> | rj \\ TOVT €7r | rjfi,a.p | cpx e T I a t A'
wra j cut ] OP II /xcupaS | wi' o/i I ocroX | ov

3 . TOV a) I rav | irvp<f>op | tov |] afrrpair av Kpar | aiv


trek ] rji> \ ai ay\a \ ov

4- «> VTTO | O-<O <^>^tcr | ov Kep | a w | to A 3

airo \ ri.fi.ov \ ev Be \ 01s | 8eov

I. First Period: 4 verses. The choree - ^ is again the fundamental


measure, as in Str. 11. Per. 1., but the choreic rhythm here expresses
greater excitement. Verse 1. The place of the syncope ('—, § 4) at TOV
and os, each following a tribrach, makes a Wising1 rhythmical sentence,
in contrast with the 'falling' sentence (see Str. 1. Per. 1. v. 4), such as
>
verse 4. This helps to mark the strong agitation. Verse 4. e-n- means
that the proper anacrusis, ^, can be represented by an 'irrational'
syllable (as apr in the antistr.).
Verse 1 has 2 sentences of 4 feet each: 2, 1 of 6 : 3, the same:
4, the same as r. Series : . 4 4 . 6 . 6 . 4 4 . Form of period:—

A palinodic-antithetic period, like the


last.

II. Second Period: 4 verses. Metre, still choreic. Note the weighty
effect given by syncope (!—) in the ' falling' sentences of v. 1, and in
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxv

v. 3. In v. 1, eir is marked > ('irrational'), because the following dactyl


is only cyclic (equal to — J), and the thesis being ^, the anacrusis cannot
be more: cp. v. 4.
Verses i, 2, 3, have each 2 sentences of 4 feet each. Verse 4
forms 1 sentence of 6 feet, to which nothing corresponds : i.e. it is an
epode (§ 14), during the singing of which the dancers stood still. (This
was dramatically suitable, since Oedipus came on the scene as the last
period began, and his address immediately follows its conclusion.)
Series :—4 4 . 4 4 . 4 4 . 6 = onoSi/coV. Form of period :—•

The period is generically palinodic, since a group


recurs, with the sentences in the same order. But
the group recurs more than once. This is therefore
called a repeated palinodic period, with 'epode' or
postlude.
lxxvi METRICAL ANALYSIS.

II. First Stasimon, vv. 463—512.

FIRST STROPHE.

I . I . TIS • OVTLV I a | eta | £i7re | wtrp | a A [|


e • \a(x^e \ yap j rou | aprt | ws <pa.v | et<r j a
— > — — —^
2. appr]T I appyjT | cfioivi | a«rt | \ep<r ] iv A ]
v ev av
I irapvaua \ ov TQV a \ avSpa \ irai/r ix I I

II. I. a vtv a I tAXaS | a>v A


a 7a/) ux I aypi \ av

2. wv aOevap | oirep | ov A
U\ av ara T | avrpa \ K<U

a TroSa I vw/A I av A I

irerp as !<ro I ravp | os


—*•/ w ~ >

I I I . I. evorrX os yap CTT I awov eir | evOpwan \ et A


os /itcXe I ui iroSi \ xWeu I uv

>

Kai (TTepoTr I ats o 81 | os ycver | a s A

| yas airo <T0if | WK


— > — vj

3. 3, ai oo a/xc7r I ovrai ava7rAax | i/r | 01 A

jxavr aet ] fajpra [ Trepiiror ar | at


METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxvii

I. First Period: 2 verses. Rhythm, logaoedic, based on the choree,


— ^ : see Parodos Str. 1. Period 1. Each verse has 2 sentences of 4
feet each. S eries: . 4 4 . 4 4 . Form of period:—

A palinodic period, like the 1st of Parod. Str. 1.

II. Second Period; 3 verses. Rhythm, the same, but in shorter,


more rapid sentences. Each verse has 1 sentence of 3 feet. Series :
• 3 • 3 • 3- Form of period :—

A repeated stichic period: see Parod. Str. 11. Per. 1.

III. Third Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, the same: remark the


weighty hexapody of v. 3, expressing how the hand of the avenging god
will be heavy on the criminal. In v. 2, <o written over yeveT (see § 9) means
that the time-value of the two syllables was here J 5 : *• £• °s yever
was not a true cyclic dactyl, = J ! 3 ^ , but = J J ^ . In the antistr., the
corresponding voa^it, is — > for — ^.
Verses 1 and 2 have each 1 sentence of 4 feet: v. 3 has 1 of 6 feet,
an iirtp&iKov, during which the dance ceased. Series: . 4 . 4 . 6 . = «JT.
Form of period :—

4\
A stichic period (see Parod. Str. 11. Per. 1.), with postlude.

6 = €7T.
lxxviii METRICAL ANALYSIS.

SECOND STROPHE.

I . I . Suva, fueu ovv | Sctva Tapacro" || ei o"o<£os ot [ tavoOeras ||


aXX o nev ovv | feus OT airoW || UK £weroi | Kai Ta pporav

2. ovre SOKOWT | OVT airo^iacrK [| OVT ort \ c | | o) 8 cnropw ]]


eiSores o^Sp | wv S on fiavr \\ is srXeoe ij | yu (pcperou
\J \J — — \s \J - w\; — —
I I . I. 7T€roa • at8 OVT evOaSop \\ wv OVT OTTKT | O> A ||

2. TI yap • rj Xay88aKt8 | ais A ||


Trapa '• fieifeiev av \ rjp

3 . f\ TO)iro\vj31 ov veixos £« | etT OVTC Trap || oiOev irorey | <oy OVTE TO. j nil' TTCO A

aXX OVTOT ey | ioyav lrpiv c5 | ot/i opOov CJT ![ os p.e[/.(po/JLev [ a?;* ay Kara | tpairjv

ov 7rpos OT I ov S?7 y3ao"av ^aaav | to A


<j>avep a 7a/) e7r wrcpo /cop | a

5. ETTt Tav £7rt I Sa/tov A


O4 (TO0OS
^ \J W
6 . <j)a.Tiv • et/x a ais [| /coupos a a)v A
is TW OTT | oviroT o<j>\ av

I. ^i>rf Period; 2 verses. Metre, choriambic (— ^ ^ —). This


measure suits passionate despair or indignation: here it expresses the
feeling with which the Chorus hear the charge against their king.
Choriambics do not admit of anacrusis.
Each verse has 2 sentences of 2 feet each. Series : . 2 2 . 2 2 . Form
of period:—

A palinodic period.
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxix

II. Second Period: 6 verses. Metre, ionic ( — <J J), an animated,


but less excited, measure than the preceding choriambic. Note that
one verse (3) has no anacrusis. Such an ionic verse is most nearly akin
to a choriambic, in which anacrusis is never allowed. Here we see the
consummate skill of Sophocles in harmonising the character of the two
periods. Verse i. V = — (§4): "7T = a pause equal to ^ -^ (§ 10): the
whole is thus ^ ^.
Verse 1 has 2 sentences of 2 feet each : v. 2, 1 of 2 feet: v. 3, 2
of 3 feet: v. 4, same as 1; v. 5, same as 2; v. 6, same as 3. Series :
. 2 2 . 2 . 3 3 . 2 2 . 2 . 3 3 . Form of period:—

A palinodic period.
lxxx METRICAL ANALYSIS.

III. First Kommos, vv. 649—697'.

TTIO • ov 6e\ I rjcr I as <j>pov | 77s || as r a v | a£ | Xitro-o/x | a i A ]


7W • at TI I jueW | eis Kofi | if || etK Sop. \ av \ TOVS €<T | a
[Here follows an iambic dimeter.]

II. irpiv\ vrjiTL I ov \\vuvTtv\ opK || a) //.ey av Kar j aiSeo" | a i A ]


8 OK I a^y (os X07 [ WJ* || 7J\de 15a?rr [[ ct 5e | /cat TO | p.7] VBLK | O^
[Here follows an iambic trimeter.]

- , > \^ v^ — \^ —
III. I. TOV ov u« iroT ev 01 TI | a A
IS fiU' aX | is 7as irpoirovovixev \ as

2 . O~VV Xoy | eotra || IJXOV fiaX | etv A ]]


<paw ^ e | \TJ%€P || afrou jae^ [ etv
[Here follow two iambic trimeters.]

1
The received constitution of this K0ftii6s—which, for convenience of reference to
other editions, I have indicated in my text of the play—is as follows : (i) ist strophe,
649—659, (2) 2nd strophe, 660—668 ; (3) 1st antistr., 678—688, (4) ind antistr.,
689—697. The division exhibited above is, however, in stricter accord with scientific
method. Here, Periods I. I I . I I I . correspond to the ist strophe and 1st antistrophe
of the traditional arrangement: Period IV. corresponds to the 2nd strophe and 2nd
antistrophe. Thus the whole KO/ifids, so far as it is lyric, might be conceived as forming
a single strophe and antistrophe. These terms, however, are not applicable to the
KOHIXOI, nor to the fiovifSlai (lyrics sung by individual actors, fii\ij euro O-KIJP^S), in the
same accurate sense as to the odes sung by the Chorus, since here there was no
regular dance accompanying the song. Consequently there was no need for the same
rigour in the division of the composition. The principles which governed the
structure of the Kopfioi and ixovtpUai. have been fully explained by Dr Schmidt in vol.
III. of his Kunstformen, 'Die Monodien und Wechselgesdnge der Attischen Tragodie.'
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxxi

I V . I . ov I rov | Tiavr \ tov 0* \ wv 0e | ov 7rpofj, | ov A

we • a£ | etir j ou fxzv j ovx & ] ^ ^ f^-o

2. a \ t I ov CTret a<£iAos | oTt TTV/A | a TOV A

airopov j CTTI 0po»* | ijttct

3. oX • oifJLav <f>pov

ire • (pavdat. fx av ei cr evo<x<p

4. aXX a JJLOL flucr ya | <j>6ivovcra


yav \ <pi\av en \ irovoitnv

5- et I if/v\ | av rab KaK |


a\ v | ova | av Kar 50OJ- |

6. 7rpo(r • atj/ I ei I TOIS TraX | a t T O | irpos | (rtfxov A ]]

ra • I'l/i' I ev | ITO/J.TOS j av 7fv Oi | o

I. First Period: i verse, choreic. Two sentences of 4 feet each,


forming :—

4\ A stichic period.
4/

II. Second Period: 1 verse, choreic. The rhythmical sentence of 2


feetTOVT cv op»c || has nothing corresponding with it, but stands between
2 sentences of 4 feet each : i.e. it is a /u-co-wSos or interlude. The form
of the period is thus :—

2 j A mesodic stichic period.


4''

III. Third Period: 2 verses. Rhythm, dochmiac. When an inter-


change of measures occurs in Greek verse, it is nearly always between
measures of equal length: as when the ionic, ^ ^ , in f time, is
interchanged with the dichoree, — ^ — ^, in § time. The peculiarity of
the dochmius (iroCs So'^/xios, ' oblique' foot) is that it is an interchange
lxxxii METRICAL ANALYSIS.

of measures not equal to each other,—viz. the bacchius v/ — or — v^


(with anacrusis), and shortened choree, — A . The fundamental form is
^ ; yj I - A ||. The varieties are due to resolution of long syllables,
or to the use of ' irrational' instead of short syllables. Seidler reckoned
32 forms; but, as Schmidt has shown, only 19 actually occur, and some
of these very rarely. With resolution, the commonest form is that seen
here, ^ ] ^^ — ^ | — A ||. Each verse contains two dochmiac sentences:
i.e. we have

fDoch.
'iDoch.
A palinodic period.
/Doch.
(Doch.

IV. Fourth Period: 6 verses. In 1, 2, 5, 6, the metre is choreic


(— J). In 3, 4, the metrical basis is the paeon, here in its primary form,
the 'amphimacer' or 'cretic/ — ^ - , combined with another measure
of the same time-value (f), the bacchius (y or — J)x.
Verse 1 has 1 sentence of 6 feet; v. 2, the same; v. 3, 1 of 3 feet;
v. 4, the same; vv. 5, 6 the same as 1, 2. Series : . 6 . 6 . 3 . 3 . 6 . 6 . : i.e.

Here we have no repetition of whole groups,


but only of single sentences. The period is not
therefore palinodic. And the single sentences
correspond in an inverted order. This is called
simply an antithetic period.

1
In v. 4, if Dindorf s conjecture (p8was for (j>dlvov<ra is received, we should write:
aWa not. I dvefiopip | 7 a tfidivas ||
offr efj.a.11 yav </>i\av J ev irovois.
The ear will show anyone that this is rhythmically better than what I obtain
with the MS. tpffivovcra and irbvoiuiv, and the conjecture <j>dwas is entitled to all the
additional weight which this consideration affords. On other grounds—those of
language and of diplomatic evidence—no less distinct a preference seems due to
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxxiii

IV. Second Stasimon, vv. 863—910.

FIRST STROPHE.

I. £i ; /Hoi £vv I et I f) <j>ep \ OJTI || fioipa [ Tav ev || trorroi/ \ ayvel \

vfip • ts tpvr I ev I et rup [ avvov [] v[3pis \ "et TTOXX || wy i/7T [ €pTr\i]G& j


^ vy ^
av Xoy I <ov A

_ , _ ,
I I . I. epy • wv T6 I rravTODV | av VO/A | 01 trpo \ KUVT \ ai y\

0 • jui; T( I KOipa | /nijSe | crv/Mpep \ OPT | a


^ wvyv-* — \~f \J —
2. «i/f • nroSes I ovpavi | av /\ ||

ctKp • OTIXTOV I uaava \ pacr

3. 81 • aiOepa. | TCKV(I)6 [ CVTES | WV O | XVJJ/JT | os A II

axp • OP a x o | TOJXOV up J ouffep | eis ap | ayK | OP

I I I . I. ira • T-qpfiovoi I ovSt | vtv 6va | ra <j>van | avep


To Ka
ev8 \ ov iroSt | xpt]Hi \ fua XPV I ™ ^ I u s 5ex

2. € • TiKnv | ovSe | fxav TTOT€ | XaO | a KaTa I KOifn. I acr

7roX • ei 7ra\ | ai<r/j.a | ytt7j jrore | Xuo- ]| a i Seop | aiT | ov


tl) — > —V w — vy I ' —
3. jiieyas • tv TOVT | ois^eos | ovSc | y?/p ] a(TK | et A -H

Oeov ou X?/£ I w 7rore [ irpouTaT \ <xv \ ur)

J- s. S
lxxxiv METRICAL ANALYSIS.

I. First Period: i verse. Rhythm, logaoedic.


Two sentences, of 4 feet each, are separated by a mesode or inter-
lude, consisting of the sentence of 2 feet ixoipa \ rav ev : i. e.

\
2] A stichic mesodic period.
4/

II. Second Period: 3 verses. Rhythm the same1.


Verse 1 has 1 sentence of 6 feet: v. 2 is a mesode of 3 feet: v. 3,
the same as 1 : i.e.

A mesodic stichic period.

III. Third Period: 3 verses. Rhythm the same. For the mark
<o over /Atyas and 6eov in 3, see § 9, and Parod. Str. 11. Per. 1. v. 3.
Verses 1, 3 have each 1 sentence of 6 feet: v. 2, 2 of 4 each : i.e.

An antithetic period. (See First Kommos, Per. iv.)

1
The conjectural reading oipavlq. | aWipi, adopted by Prof. White and (as I
suppose) by Dr Schmidt, would give in v. 3
> \J^J ^ I — ^J — W L-—
ai6 • depi TGKV \ tad j e^res | uv o \ \vfiir \ os f\ \\
In the antistrophe, Prof. White reads simply aKphrwrov daava§S.<r \ airironop
wpovaev els dvdyKav, which similarly would give
air • OTO/J.OV | up \ ovuev \ eis av \ ayK | OK A II
Now, there is no apparent reason for doubting the genuineness of the reading on
which the MSS. agree, ovpavlav \ Si aWipa: while in the antistr. the sense affords the
strongest reason (as it seems to me) for holding, as has so generally been held, that
something has fallen out before Airirofiov. That something I believe to be Hxpov,
which I have conjecturally supplied. Whether, however, TO/JLOV wp can properly be
treated as a cyclic anapaest (v^ v^—,..equal in time-value to - u or a | note) seems
METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxxv

SECOND STROPHE.

I. I. ciSe | Tts VTrep | OTrra | )(ep(nv \\


OVKCT I 1 TOV a I 01KTOI> | Ct/U
— \^ — \j — vj —

2. 17 Xoy I a) irop I ever I a i A ||


70s 67T I OjU0a\ [ op (re/3 | <*>v
w —\j \j — \j ' — —

3. SIK • a s a<£o;8 I JJTOS [ ov | Se A


0118 ; es TOX a^ I o«ri ] m | or

4. Sai/Jiov I cov e8 I 17 ce/J | u v A II


ouSe I rai> 0

5. KCLK • a viv eX I OITO | /noip | a A

et ; (U?; Ta5e j XelP° I SCLKT j a

6. 8lKT7rOTjM, I OV X a P I IV X^- 1 ^ I a s
A

iraaiv \ ap/ioa \ ei fipm \ 01s

II. I. jirj TO | KcpSos I KfpSav | a SIK | ai


1
aXK ciircp OK I OV I f l !
— ^ — > —
2. K0.1 rtav a cr&rrtav epi ai A
travT av \ acirav \ ii.rj\a$ | 01
> — ^i — > \X2 —
a ^ | u>v A 3
ae I rav re \ <rav a ] da.va.Tov \ aiev | apx \ a"

III. I. TIS £Tt TTOT | ev | TOIO-8 a v | ?7p Oe 17 A


OVTO. | 70/) I Xai' 1 ou 7raX | ai^ar | a

2. ev^er I a t xj/v\ I a s aju I vve.iv ||


BtatpOiT I e£aip [ oucti' j Tjdij
- v, - > -w - > - -
3. tt yap I ai rot | at8e | 7rpa^Eis Ti/ii ai A
KovSap. I ou Ti/M I ais a I ffoXXwx | e/upay

4 . Tt
et 8f TO I Seio
a doubtful point. An alternative would perhaps be to write aitpov ; airoTop, \ ov up | ,
treating ov wo as an inverted choree.
lxxxvi METRICAL ANALYSIS.

I. First Period: 6 verses. Rhythm, logaoedic.


Each verse contains i sentence of 4 feet: and the six verses fall into
3 groups: i. e.

[A repeated palinodic period.

II. Second Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, the same. In v. 3 ==^ over


6i£ means that in the antistrophe 6avar represents, by resolution, a long
syllable, see § 5.
Verses 1 and 3 have each one sentence of 6 feet: v. 2 is a mesode
of 4 feet: i. e.

A stichic mesodic period.

III. Third Period: 4 verses. Rhythm, the same. In v. 4, the


last syllable of x°Pevelv IS marked short, because, being the last of a
verse, it can be either long or short; and here it is the second of a
choree, — ^.
Verses 1 and 3 have each 1 sentence of 6 feet: v. 2 is a mesode of
4 feet: v. 4 is an epode of 2 feet. Thus, in this period, the dancers
stood still during the alternate verses, 2 and 4. The form is :—

A stichic mesodic period, with postlude.


METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxxvii

V. Third Stasimon (properly a Hyporcheme1), vv. 1086—1109.

I. 1. enrep ey | <o | /iavTis | ci/tt || Kat KOT | a yvwfn, | av i8p | ts A


TIS <re TeKK | or \ m i r e | racre ]| rue jua/cp | at aw | w ap | a

2. av TOV o I Xv/ijroi' a | ireipwv \ U>KIO | aip \ <ov A II

TTOCOS op I «(T(rij3aT | a ira | T/)OS T e \ | a<r9 \ eur

3. t O"K eo- I ij Tav I atipi I ov f II iravcreX | IJVOI/ | /xijou crc j yc


t 5) ft 7e Tts Bvyarrip f || Xo|i | ou Tij) | 70/3 7rXa/c | es

I I . 1. Kai irarpi \ w Tav \ 0tSi7r | ovv /\ ||

aypovo/J, I 01 Traff | ai 0 i \ | 01

2. Kai Tpo<^> I ov KCU I /xarep | av^eiv ||

| as ai>

' a dance-song,' merely denotes a melody of livelier movement than


the ordinary ordffi/ua of the tragic Chorus, and is here expressive of delight. Thus
Athenaeus says (630 E ) ii 8' iTopxru^aTiKii (6pxo<ns) t% KWIXIKTJ OIKUOVTCU, T)TIS KaXeirai
Kdpda!-- vatyviddas b" el<rii> a/Mporepcu: ' the hyporchematic dance is akin to the comic
dance called 'cordax,' and both are sportive.' Fragments of viropx^^aTa, which
were used from an early age in the worship of Apollo, have been left by several
lyric poets,—among whom are Pratinas (who is said to have first adapted them to
the Dionysiac cult),—Bacchylides, and Pindar.
lxxxviii METRICAL ANALYSIS.

3. K<XI x°P at wpos I 17/tctfv || <os eirt [ ijpo <pep | orra [| Tots e/t [
«0 0 os 0e [ os ecu || CM en* a/cp | uv ope \ wv evp || ij/ua I
_ « L_ _
01s rvp I a w I ots A II
5e£a.T | e/c | TOU
— \j ' — —

4. 1 • 171 c I oi^€ I croi [ Se A !|


viS \ uv | ais

5. TOUT ap I ea-T | « | ij A

I. i^'rj-/ Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, logaoedic. If in the first


sentence of v. 3 we adopt for the antistrophe Arndt's conjecture, rj <ri y
euVaVeipa «s (which is somewhat far from the MSS.), then verses 1 and 3
have each 2 sentences of 4 feet, and verse 2 has 1 of 6 feet; i. e.

A palinodic period, with mesode.

If, on the other hand, we should hold that rj o-eye T« OvyaTijp represents the
true metre (being c o r r u p t e d from rj a-iy <[<f>vo-£ Trarrjp), a n d that OVK eery rav
avpiov should be amended to rdv tTTLowav e<rrj, the rhythmical corre-
spondence of sentences would be different. The rhythmical division of
verses 2 and 3 would then be:—•
— y*i \j —

2. OV TOV 0 \v[nrov a I Trap | wv || <o KL6 | aip OJV

Trai'os op | eacnfiar \ a \ ira \\ rpos 7reX | aa$ \ ei<y \ TJ

3. eirt • ovcrav to~ | 17 | TavcreX | r/vov ju.17 ov o"£ | ye A

ae ye ] <f>vat Tra | TTJP | Xo|i [ as rip \ yap irXa/c | es


METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxxxix

and v. 3 would be an epode, the form being:—

A palinodic period, with postlude.

6 = hr.

II. Second Period: 5 verses. Rhythm, the same. Verses 1, 2, 4, 5


have each one sentence of 4 feet: v. 3 has 3 sentences, the first and
third of 4 feet each, the second of 3 (the words «K «ri rjpa <j>ipovTa).
Series : .4. 4 . 4 3 4 . 4 . 4., i.e.

Here, single sentences correspond in an in-


verted order, while the middle sentence of v. 3
has nothing corresponding to it, but forms a
mesode or interlude. This is therefore a mesodic
period. We need not add ' antithetic,' because,
where more than two single sentences (and not
groups) are arranged about a mesode, their
arrangement is normally inverted.
xc METRICAL ANALYSIS.

VI. Fourth Stasimon, vv. 1186—1222.

F I R S T STROPHE

(forming a single period).

1. 1 I QI yeve | ai /3poT | wv A ||
ocr I TIS KaO vir \ ep |3oX | av

2. <fls U/A I a s io"a I Kai TO | fir] | Sev £a>0" | a s evap | i(fyi | o A


roifeiw I as cKpar | ^<r£ | TOV \ iravr cv \ Saifiovo; | oX|8 | ov

3 . TIS I yapTt^av | r]p 7r\e \ ov A |j


w I fev /cara | fiev (pdur | as

4. r a s cw I 8at/Aovt | a s <j>ep | ct A ||
irapOcv I oi'

5- ^ TOO* I OVTOV 00" I OV So/C | £1^ A [|


^p^(T/t^)5 I oc davar j w^5 e/i I a

6. Kat So£ I avr euro | KXIV | at A ||


YWOCt I ITVpyoS OLV I €(J"T I 0,

7. TOV ; o-ov I Tot 7rapa | Sety/x, €\ \ wv A |[

K
v • L!! i r - 6uj r L." _> __ _ „ _
8. TOV • o"ov I 8ai//,ova | TOV O"OV | <O || Tkafx.ov \ Oi8t7ro8 | a /JpoT | ov A
I WT 6 I Ti^t || a8t]s \rais neya~\\ aicnv \ cv

9. ov I SevjuaKap | i£ | a> A ||
6?; I (Haiatv av | affff | UK

Rhythm, logaoedic. Verse 1 contains 1 sentence of 4 feet: v. 2, 2


of 4 feet each: v. 3, 1 of 4 feet; to which answer respectively vv. 7, 8,
9. Verses 4, 5, 6 also contain each 1 sentence of 4 feet, v. 4 answering
METRICAL ANALYSIS. xci

to v. 6, and v. 5 forming a mesode. The series . 4 . 4 4 . 4 . , 4 . 4 . 4 . ,


4 . 4 4 . 4 . thus forms the period :—

Since the whole group, consisting of


vv. 1, 2, 3, recurs once, the period is
palinodic; since the sentences formed
by vv. 4 and 6 are grouped about the
interlude formed by v. 5, it is also
mesodic.

SECOND STROPHE.
— o ' — \J — ^, — \J —
I. 1. vuv 8 a/c I ov I uv T I S ] a(?A.i | carep | o s A
eupe <r [ 0 I ncocfl 0 | iravB op \ we XP 0 '' I OS

2. TtS aypt ev irov | ots A


of I ei I TOK aya.fi. | oy 7a/* | ov TraX | a4

3. £yv OIKOS aAXa y | a ou A ]]


re/cv I ov/iev | OK

I I . I. 1 I <o I /cXeivoi/ ] oiSi7r I ov /cap | a A


1 I w I Xai.' I eioc | M TCKV \ ov

2. o) / i c y I as A.t/A | TJV A ||
eiSe ff I ei8e \ ae
— \j — \j —

3. avros I ijpK€or I ev A [|
IMTjiroT I eiSo,« | av

4 . iraiSi I KO.L i r a | rpi OaXafu, | rjiroX | &> 7reo" | £tv A


5i/po I ^iai 7ap | w<nnp t | oXe^t | oc x e I " ^
xcii METRICAL ANALYSIS.

III. I. TTCOS TTOTC I 7T(os TTOO | at irarp | co || aiaaXoK | « <pep | eiv ra\ | a s A ||
CK (TTo/j.a.T | av TO S | opdov \ uir || eiv aveirv | ev<ra r \ CK <reO \ ev

2. criy eSuv | a | Orj&av | es TO<T | ov | 8e A ]]


Kai /care [ KOI/U | ijua | TOV/IOV | O/iift | a

I. First Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, choreic. Verses 1 and 2 have


each 1 sentence of 6 feet: v. 3 forms an epode or postlude of 4
feet: i.e.

A stichic period, with postlude.

II.Second Period: 4 verses. Rhythm, the same. In v. 4 tpi


is an apparent tribrach, representing a cyclic dactyl, -w ^, and
having the time-value of J]"jjJ«^ (see § 7). This denoted by writing S ^ ^>
because the 'irrational' character, though in strictness shared by the
first and second short syllables, is more evident in the first.
Verses 1, 4 have each 1 sentence of 6 feet, vv. 2, 3 each 1 of
3: i.e.

3-N
• ) j An antithetic period : see First Kommos, Per. iv.
3-^

III. Third Period: 2 verses. Rhythm, the same. Verse 1 has


2 sentences, each of 4 feet: v. 2 has 1 of 6 feet, and forms an epode or
postlude: i. e.

4\
A A stichic period, with postlude : see Parod.
Str. 11. Per. 1., Stas. 1. Str. 1. Per. m.
6 = iir.
METRICAL ANALYSIS. xciii

VII. Second Kommos', vv. 1297—1368.

(After the anapaests of the Chorus, 1297—1306, and of Oedipus,


1307—1311, followed by one iambic trimeter of the Chorus, 1312, the
strophic system of lyrics begins at 1313.)

FIRST STROPHE

(forming a single period).

I. t • O) (TKOT I OV A ||

1 ) M 0lX I OS

2. ve<j> '• os i[nov airo | rpoirov o r \\ nrXofievov a | <f>a.Tov A ||


<rv • fiev e/ios e m | iroXos er || t /wi/i/tos er | i 7 a p
^f v^ v^ — \y — , v./ ^ — \^ —

3. a • Sa^iarov TC | Kai Svcr || ovpitrrov | ov A 3


vir '• o/xevcii ne \ TOX rv<p\ || oi< Ki) dev \ av

[Here follow four iambic trimeters.]

Rhythm, dochmiac: see First Kommos, Period in. It will be


seen that every dochmiac metre here is a variation of the ground-
form KJ': « | — A ||, by substitution either of ^ ^ for —, or of > (an
irrational syllable, apparently long) for ^ , as in v. 3, KrjSevwv. Verse 1

1
At v. 1336, and in the corresponding 1356, an iambic dimeter is given to the
Chorus (Period i n . , v. 3). With this exception, the Chorus speaks only iambic
trimeters, which follow a lyric strophe or antistrophe assigned to Oedipus. Since,
then, the lyrics belong all but exclusively to Oedipus, the passage might be regarded
as his ixovtgMa, interrupted by occasional utterances, in the tone of dialogue, by the
Chorus. If, however, regard is had to the character and matter of the whole com-
position, it will be felt that it may be properly designated as a KO/J./JI,6S, the essence of
which was the alternate lament. On a similar ground, I should certainly consider it
as beginning at 1297, though the properly lyric form is assumed only at 1313.
XC1V METRICAL ANALYSIS.

is a dochmiac used as a prelude (Trpo<o8iKov), w being prolonged to the


time-value of — . Vv. 2, 3 have each 2 dochmiac sentences : i. e.

Doch. = 7rp.

fDoch.

[Doch. A palinodic period, with prelude.

(•Doch.
IDoch.

SECOND STROPHE.

I. TTOWWV Ta8 I ijv a I] iroWuv <£i\ | 01 A


a
o\ oid O(TTH I rji> os || aypias 7rc5 I as

2. o a r a o €/j.a TTO.0 | t o ^
VOfJ. niroSi I as e || Xwr OTTO re \ tpovov
— \j — \j — ^, — ^ l^—
II. o I avTO ] ^ € i p vw I ovTts (I aAA c y ] OJ I

VTO I /cayeo* | wee ,& | o^Sey [| es xaP 1 '^ I

III. It y a p eS«i /u. op | av A ||

TOT e yap av dap \ w


>
2. OT a) y op I (DVTI I f/.rjSev \ rjv 18 \ ew yX\)K | v A ||

I;K 0 I \ I OKriy I ou5 e/4 | oi TOCT | ocS a x | os

TtxvO OTT I cocnrtp | Kat o~v | cptjs A ||


3- w
0e\ ovn I Ka/j.01 I TOUT ac | r/v
— v/ ^~• — v^ '—, — \j — v/ ^ v^ —
4. Tt 877T £/A I oi I fiXtTTTOv I )? || crrepKTOv I ij wpoo- I 17 y o p | ov A
OVK
ow 7ra I T/)OS 7 | av (pop | ews || vjkdov \ ovde | vv/iipi | os

5- «T • to"T aK I ov I ttv I a8ov | a <£i\ | ot A ]]

• 01s e I K\T]6 I tf> \ uv e \ <pvv aw \ 0


METRICAL ANALYSIS. xcv

IV. i. cur ayer £K TOT | LOV OT || I r a ^ i o r a | /AE A


vw S aScos ^cy | ei/j, av || mnw Se | Trais
u u — *-» —, vy v-» o — ^ —

2. cur ov A ||

op. oyevqs S a0 | av avr \\ off e^w TO\ | as


<*J **S \J <<J W

Ka.Tapa.TO | TaTov £T || I 8e Kai 6e | ots A

Se n irpetrfiv | repoc er || i Kajcou KOK | OX

4 . e^^p • OTaTOi/ /3poT | « i v A ]

TOVT 1 eXa% oiSiir | oys

[Here follow two iambic trimeters.]

I. First Period: 2 verses. Rhythm, dochmiac. In verse 1 (anti-


strophe), we have aypias : observe that if we read air' dyplas the
dochmiac would have one v too much, and see my note onv. 1350. In
v. 2, the MS. reading VO/JUX8O? is impossible, as the metre shows, cpovov,
by resolution for - , as in the strophe, since the last syllable of a verse can
be either long or short : see on Parod. Str. 11. Per. 1. v. 1, and cp.
Xopeviw, Stas. 11. Str. 11. Per. in. v. 4. Metre would admit IXa/Je p or
?A.a/3ev, but not, of course, ikva-i //.' or IXvo-ev.
Each verse has 2 dochmiac sentences, i.e.

poch.
/iDoch.
I . A palinodic period.
\fDoch.
LDoch.

II. Second Period: 1 verse. Rhythm, choreic. Two sentences,


each of 4 feet: i.e.

4\
A stichic period.
4/
XCV1 METRICAL ANALYSIS.

III. Third Period: 5 verses. Rhythm, choreic, except in verse 1,


which is a dochmiac, serving as prelude (TrpoySiKov).
Verse 2 has 1 sentence of 6 feet: v. 3, 1 of 4 feet: v. 4, 2 of 4 feet
each: v. 5, 1 of 6 feet. The first of the 2 sentences in v. 4 forms a
mesode; which can either (as here) begin a verse, or close it, or stand
within it, or, form a separate verse. Series : . 6 . 4 . 4 . 4 . 6 . : form :—

A mesodic period, with prelude. See Stas. in.


Per. in.

IV. Fourth Period; 4 verses. Rhythm, dochmiac. Verses 1, 2, 3


have each two dochmiac sentences : v. 4 has one, which forms an
epode: i.e.

fDoch.'
iDoch.-

jDoch."
iDoch.. A repeated palinodic period, with post-
lude.
fDoch.-
"iDoch.

Doch. = IT
METRICAL ANALYSIS. xcvii

RELATIONS OF LYRIC FORM AND MATTER.

In the lyric parts of Tragedy, the poet was a composer, setting


words to music. Words, music, and dance were together the expression
of the successive feelings which the course of the drama excited in the
Chorus, or typical spectator. It is obvious, then, that the choice of
lyric rhythms necessarily had an ethical meaning, relative to the mood
which in each case sought utterance. It is everywhere characteristic of
Sophocles that he has been finely sensitive to this relation. So much,
at least, moderns can see, however far they may be from adequately
appreciating the more exquisite secrets of his skill. Without attempt-
ing minute detail, we may glance here at some of the chief traits in
which this skill is exemplified by the lyrics of the Oedipus Tyrctnnus.
I. PARODOS. First Strophe. The Theban Elders are reverentially
awaiting the message from Delphi, and solemnly entreating the gods for
deliverance from their woes. With this mood the dactylic rhythm is in
unison. The Greek dactylic measure was slow and solemn, the fitting
utterance of lofty and earnest warning—as when oracles spoke—or, as
here, of exalted faith in Heaven.
Second Strophe. Period i. The chorees, in logaoedic rhythm, express
the lively sense of personal suffering (dvdpiOfia yap <f>epu> \ mf/mTa).
Per. II. Dactyls, somewhat less stately than those of the opening,
again express trust in the gods who will banish the pest.
Third Strophe. Choreic rhythms of the strongest and most excited
kind embody the fervid prayer that the Destroyer may be quelled by
the Powers of light and health.
II. FIRST STASIMON. The doom has gone forth against the unknown
criminal; and the prophet has said that this criminal is Oedipus. First
Strophe. While the rhythm is logaoedic throughout, the fuller measures
of Period i. are suited to the terrible decree of Delphi; those of Per. n.
to the flight of the outlaw; those of in. to the rapid pursuit, and,
finally, to the crushing might, of the Avenger.
Second Strophe. Period i. The choriambic rhythm—the most pas-
sionate of all, adapted to vehement indignation or despair—interprets
the intensity of emotion with which the Theban nobles have heard the
charge against their glorious king. Period n. Passing to their reasons
for discrediting that charge, the Chorus pass at the same time from the
choriambic rhythm to the kindred but less tumultuous ionic, which is
here (as we have seen) most skilfully linked on to the former.
xcviii METRICAL ANALYSIS.

III. The FIRST KOMMOS, in its 3rd and 4th Periods, shows how
dochmiac measures, and paeonic combined with choreic, can suit varying
tones of piteous entreaty or anxious agitation; an effect which, as
regards dochmiacs, the SECOND KOMMOS (VII) also exhibits in a still
more impressive manner.
IV. In the SECOND STASIMON, logaoedics are the vehicle of personal
reflection and devotion; the lively measures of the Hyporcheme which
holds the place of THIRD STASIMON (V) speak for themselves.
VI. In the FOURTH STASIMON we have a highly-wrought example of
lyric art comparable with the First Stasimon, and with the Parodos. The
utter ruin of Oedipus has just been disclosed. First Strophe. It was
a general rule that, when a verse was opened with a syncope, anacrusis
must precede. By the disregard of this rule here, an extraordinary
weight and solemnity are imparted to the first accent of the lament:
1
l
— —^/ w — \j —

t I wj€V€ I at fipoT I (ovAy. (See the musical rendering of this, Appendix,


Note 1, § 10, p. 284.) So, again, in the profoundly sorrowful conclusion
1— —^/ ^, —
drawn from the instance of Oedipus, ov8 | ev fiaKap | i£a> A ||. And, since
his unhappy fate is here contemplated in its entirety, the whole strophe
forms a single rhythmical period.
The Second Strophe—reflecting on particular aspects of the king's
destiny—is appropriately broken up into three short periods; and the
choreic rhythm is here so managed as to present a telling.contrast with
the logaoedic rhythm of the first strophe. The weightiest verses are
those which form the conclusion.
I have but briefly indicated relations of which the reader's own ear
and feeling will give him a far more vivid apprehension. There are no
metrical texts in which it is more essential than in those of ancient
Greece never to consider the measures from a merely mechanical point
of view, but always to remember what the poet is saying. No one who
cultivates this simple habit can fail to attain a quicker perception of the
delicate sympathies which everywhere exist between the matter and the
form of Greek lyrics.
SOcDOKAEOYS

0IAITT0Y5 TYPANN02

J. S.
50<t>0KAE0Y5

OlAinOYS TYPANNOS

i.

API5TO*ANOYS TPAMMATIKOY YHO0E212.

Aurcuy YLopivBov OiSurovs, iraTpos v66<>s


r£v andvTiav XoiSopov/ievos £eVoSt
irv6i(r6ai T1V9IK<OV OtxTTrurpMTiav
eavrov KOX yivovs <f>VTCxrir6pov.
cupcuv S« TA-IJ/JWOI' er (rrevuis dfjua^LToii
eire<f>v€ Aaiov ytwrjropa.

/irjTpos dyvoovp.evri<s
Se ®)7/8as eiA.e (cai voo-os [uucpd.
Kpecov 8« ffe/iM^^eis Ae\<j)iKr)v irpds ccrTtai', 10
irv8rjTai TOV KOIKOV iravvnjpiov,
a)vfjs iw.vTiKrj<i 6eov irdpa,
TOV Aaictof iK&iKijOfjvai <f>6vov.
odev paOiov iavrov OiStVovs raA.as
Sioxras TC \epa\v i^avdXoxrev Kopas, 15

APISTO#ANOTS TIIOeBSIS] 'ApitrTotpdvovs inypajina. tit T6V Ti)pawo><


o/5irow A. Vox iirlypa/jft.a melius de titulo libri quam de argumento dititur.
3 Oeatrur/i&Toiil v6/iuiv 64\(i A, unde patet fuisse qui i\0in> pro ^Xffey legerent.
11 rti0i)Ttii codd., notissima structural nihil causae erat quod Brunck. TVSOITO
scriberet. 15 Surais re -x^P"^ Optimorum codd. lectionem SurcraU TC xeP<r'L''
sic corrigere malo quam Brunckii coniecturam sequi, elegantem illam quidem sed
prorsus ineertam, Tcbpraiai Surahs. 16 avrij Si] Quod Elmsl. coniecit avr-q re
dubito reeipere: poterat enim grammaticus eos tragicorum locos de industria imitari
ubi post re codd. Si exhibent, ut El. 1099, Ai. 836.

I—2
4 IO*OKAEOYS
API2T0$AN0T2 TPAMMATIKOT] The first of the three prosefcroWcreisto
the Antigone is also ascribed in the MSS. to Aristophanes of Byzantium (fior. 200 B.C.).
His name is likewise given in the MSS. to the metrical iiroBiaus prefixed to all the
extant comedies of his namesake except the Thesmophoriazusae. All these ascrip-
tions are now generally held to be false. There is no reason to think that the
fashion of metrical arguments existed in the Alexandrian age; and the language
in every case points more or less clearly to a lower date. The verses above
form no exception to the rule, though they are much more correct than the comic
viroOeaeis. See Nauck's fragments of the Byzantine Aristophanes, p. 156 : Dindorf
agrees with him, Schol. Soph. vol. II. p. xxii.

II.

AIA TI TYPANN02 EIIirErPAIITAI.

O TYPANN02 OIAIIIOYS iirl (Wpurei daripov oriyeypairrcu.


8e T Y P A N N O N arraires avrov iTriypd<j>ovo~iv, cos l^iypvTa. Trdo-qs
SOC^OKXEOVS iroiijtrecos, Kaurep •qTTTjOivra VTTO "SIXOKXEOVS, cos <prjo~i
* fieri 8f <cai ol I I P O T E P O N , ov T Y P A N N O N , airoV tmypd<f>-
5 OVTCS, Sid TOWS ^pdvovs TC3V 8i8ao"KaA.i.cov Kal 8id r d Trpdyfiara' dXijTrjv
yap Kal -n-qpov OtoWoSa rov lirl KoXtovco eis T"ds 'At9i^vas d<f>iKVti<T6ai.
tSiov 8e TI •KeKovQaaw 01 ju.et9* "O/XT/jpov iroiijrai TOVS Tpo TCOV TpcotKtoi/
y3ao"t\£is T Y P A N N O Y S Trpocrayopevovrcs, 01/fe TTOTC rovSe TOV ovofMros
tis TOIIS "EAX^vas SiaSo^cvTos, Kara TOI)S 'Ap^tXo'^ou j^povovs, KaOdirep
IO 'I7r7rtas d cro</>iar?7S tf>rjo-iv. "Ofj.r]pos yovv TOV iravriav Trapavop-unaTov
"E^eTov /3ao"i\ta <f>r}o~l Kal ov rvpavvov

Eis "ExeToi' jScwiXJJa, pporaji> SijX^'/ioca.

irpoo'ayopev6rjvai M cjbacrt TOV Tvpavvov airo TCOV Tvpprjvdiv' xaXeirovs yap


Ttvas 7r«pi XjjoTeiW TOUTOUS ytv4o~8au on 8e veoSrepoj' TO TOS TVpdvvov
15 ovofia S^Xov. OUT£ y a p "Opr/pos ovre 'Ho-toSos oiiTe aXXos ovSels TCOI/
7TaXaic3v Tupavvov ev Tots Troiij/Aacrtv 6vop.d£ei. 6 8e 'Apto-TOTeXi/s ev KD/A-
owov 7roXtTeta TOVS Tupavvous I^IJCTI TO irpoTcpov aio-v/i.v>fTas irpoo-ayop-
et!ecrc9ai. ev<f>rjiwT€pov yap

2 ^jr(7pd(/)owrii'] Sic cum cod. Laurentiano Dindorf.: vulg. iireypaQov.


4 nPOTEPQN, 01J TTPANNON, air6v] L, Dind.: vulg. nPOTEPON i W r , ou
TTPANNON.

2 Tvpavvov ,.tinypd,cpov<nv] The distinguishing title was suggested by v. 514 of the


play, rhv Ttipavvov Oidiirovu, v. 925 Tct rou Tvpdwov...Oldi-Trov. Sophocles doubtless
called it simply OlSlirovs, 9 KOTA Toi>s'Apxi\6xov xP|5I'0US] c i r c - 670 B.C. It is about
679 B.C. that Orthagoras is said to have founded his dynasty at Sicyon, and ' the des^
pots of Sikyon are the earliest of whom we have any distinct mention,' Grote m , 43.
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 5
12 "Exfoi'] Od. 18. 85. 15 offre ya.p "O/iripos] For the writer of this vir!i6c<ns, then
(unless he made an oversight), ' Homer' was not the author of the ' Homeric hymn'
to Ares, 8. 5, AvTiplouri rvparve, SucaurraTWV &yi tpwrwv. The earliest occurrences
of the word rvpavvos which can be approximately dated are (1) Alcaeus fr. 37
Bergk, circ. 606 B.C., referring to Pittacus; see below on 17: (2) Pind. Pyth. 3. 85,
where it is convertible with (iaaCkeis, ib. 70 (Hiero of Syracuse), date perh. 474 B.C.
(see Fennell's introd.): and (3) Aesch. P. V. 736 6 TUP 6eu>v ripavvos (Zeus), date
circ. 472—469 B.C. On the question as to the origin of ripayvos, scholars will read
with interest the opinion of the author of Greek and Latin Etymology. Mr Peile has
kindly communicated to me the following note :—"There seems no reason to doubt
the usual connection of ripavros with \Jtur, a by-form of \ArAR. It does not occur,
I think, in Greek, but it is used in Vedic,—as is also the common epithet tur-a,
' strong,' applied chiefly to Indra, but also to other gods. Rarer cognates are turvan,
= 'victory,' and turvani='victorious,' also of Indra. The primary meaning of the
root was ' to bore'—then ' to get to the end' of a thing—then 'to get the better of it.
There is another family of words, like in form, with the general sense of ' haste';
e.g. turvanya, a verb-stem in Vedic = 'to be eager,' and turanyu an adjective.
These, I think, are distinct in origin. In form they come nearer to ripavvos. But I
think that they are late Vedic forms, and therefore cannot be pressed into the service.
The form in Greek is difficult to explain in either case. If there were an Indo-Eur.
turvan (whence the Sanskrit word), the Greek might have formed a secondary
turan-yo: but one would expect this to have taken the form rvpcuvo. Taking into
account the entire absence of all cognates in Greek, I think that it is probably a
borrowed word, and that from being an adjective (? = 'mighty'), it became with the
Greeks a title." 16 iv Kv/J.alav TroXire/p] Cp. schol. in Eur. Mai. 19 (Dind. voli
IV. p. 8) al<rv/j.p$' 4]yeirai Kal #/>X«' tolas Si 0IJ<RC 'ApurTOTiXrjs inrb \\vp.alwv alvv/ivfyrriv
rbv apxovra \iyeadai. ' aluvnviyrai Si KpiTol ivvia. iracres iviarav' [Od. 8. 258]
rois apxovTas tuc Ayilivav (sc. 6 TTOIIJTTJS X^yet). 17 The alavfivrireta resembled
the Tvpavvls in being absolute, but differed from it in being elective ; hence it is called
by Arist. alperr/ rvpavvis, Pol. 3. 14. Alluding to the choice of Pittacus as aiaviw/irris
by the Mityleneans, Alcaeus said iaTa.aa.vTO rupavvov, ib.: but this was ad invidiam.

III.
AAAOX
'O Tvpavvos OlBiirovs 7rpos avTiSiaoToAi/i/ TOU iv TW KoA<oj>cp e7ri-
yeypaiTTai. TO Ke<f>dXa.iov Si TOV Spa/taros yvcuo-is ru>v tStW K a w OtStVoSo?,
Kal 81 ay^oV^S 6aVaros 'Io/caarij?.
'Haec in fine fabulae habet L, om. A, qui de sequentibus nihil habet praeter
aenigma Sphingis,' Dind. Schol. 11. 13.

XPH2M0S O AO0EIS AAIfit TOt ©HBAIfii.


Aate Aafi8o.Ki8ri, irai'Swi/ yevos oXfiiov afrcts.
TOI <j>ikov vlov' drdp Treirpio/j.ivov eoriv
eov \€ipe<Tcri Anrnj/ <pdo<s. <os yap
6 Z0cJ>0KAEOYZ

Zevs KnoyiSi;?, TliXoTTOs (rrvyepais apa'uri iriO


ov <j>£Xov T^/Mratras vlov' 6 S* rjv^aTO croi TaSe

XPH2M02 0 AO0EI2] Aegre careas articulo, quern L praebet, T


addens : vulg. XP7)1*^ 5o#eis \atif. ? 5i«xrw...effTi*'] Legebatur etiam
fiiv (pl\ov vibv Arap r6de <roi ptopos ?<rr«i- Valckenaer. Eur. Phoen. p. xvi. 3
cov] Vulg. aov iraiSbs. Reposui lectionem multo elegantiorem, quam ex cod. Augus-
tano affert Valck. 1. c. Vix opus est ut moneam iou hoc loco tm significare, non
sui. Pronomen iat (=<rfos, anglice 'own'), pariter ut Sanscr. sva ('self'), trium erat
personarum. P'ortasse reponendum, quod Zenodotus probavit, eo?o, ttti, pro ii\<x in
/ / . I. 393, 15. 138, 24. 422, 550.

TO AINirMA THS S4»irrO2.


*E<rn Siirovv eirl y^s KO.1 TerpaTrov, ov fjiia tfxovrj,
Kal TpLTroV dWdacrei 8c <f>vrjv /xovov ocr<r' «r£ ycuav
O. KivtiTai dvd T afflipa. Kal Kara TTOVTOV.
oiTOTav TrXeidTOKTiv epahojitvov iroa\ fiatvrj,
tv6a r a ^ o s yviouriv d^iavpoTarov iriXti avrow.

1 I$)\ST\V\ tpiHTiv Athen. 456 B, ^017^ L , A . 3 Ktveirai] yiyrfrac L. 4 ipttSo-


fievov Athen. et Euripidis codd. meliores: iirciybiievov L, A, quae lectio, quamvis
primo aspectu placeat, vera non est. Neque enim festinationi tarditas opponitur, sed
numero pedum imbecillitas.

Athenaeus 456 B introduces his quotation of the riddle thus : Kal TO rijs
5£ atvLyfxa 'Atr/cX^irtaSijs £v rots TpayipSovtifrois TOIOVTOV elcat tpTjaii: Asclepiades
of Tragilus in Thrace, a pupil of Isocrates, wrote (circ. 340 B.C.) a work called
Ipay^dovfieva (' Subjects of Tragedy') in six books, dealing with the legendary
material used by the tragic poets, and their methods of treatment. The ktviyixa,
in this form, is thus carried back to at least the earlier part of the fourth century B. C.

TOY AINIPMAT02.
KA{i(?i Kal OVK l64Xovo~a, KaKOTrrepe MotJcra Oavovroiv,
<j>o>vrji r)fj,eT€pr]i aov TeXos afjur\a.Kvr]s.
avOpwirov Kare/U^as, 09 •qviKa yatav i<f>epirei,
TTpCyrov t(pv T£Tparrou9 vqirio% IK Xayovoiv'
•yrjpaXeos 8e TreXtov rpirarov iro'Sa fiaKTpov ep
au^eva <j>opTLL,uiv, yr/pai

5 epelSei] l%el v e ^ ^"'OT" codd.: correxit Gale.

The Awis is not in the MSS. of Sophocles, but is given by the schol. on Eur.
Phoen. 50 [fsifiyfji ifios ircus OISITTOVS 2<piyyos ix.a.6av)...TTiv Si \v<riv rod aivly/tans
oi>™ nvis tpaffW ' KXDfo' K. T. X. Valckenaer, Schol. Phoen. p. 28, gives it as above
from a collation of three MSS,
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI

TA TOT APAMAT02

I0KA5TH.
IEPEY2. AITEAOS.
KPEON. OEPAITON Aaiov.
XOPOS yepovTwv ©-qfiaiw. ESAITEAOS.
TEIPESIAS.

The iKtrai in the opening scene (like the irpcmofviroi at the close of
the Eumenides of Aeschylus) would come under the general designation
of a •Ko.payppfrf'liiua-—which properly meant (not, of course, 'an auxiliary
chorus,' but) anything which the choragus provided in supplement to the
ordinary requirements of a drama, and was specially applied to a fourth
actor, according to Pollux 4. n o irapaxopify>j/Aa d TtTapros vjrojcpmjs TI
ira.pa.<f>8£y£a.iTo. The distribution of the parts among the three actors
would be as follows:—
OEDIPUS, •jrpaJTaywno-njs.

IOCASTA,
PRIEST OF ZEUS,
MESSENGER from the house (efay
SERVANT OF LAIUS,

CREON,
TEIRESIAS,
MESSENGER from Corinth (ayycXos),)
STRUCTURE OF THE PLAY.

1. irpoXo-yos, verses i — 1 5 0 .
2. irapo8os, 1 5 1 — 2 1 5 .

3. eireur6Siov irpuTov, 2 l 6 — 4 6 2 .
4. (rruo-inov trpuTov, 4 6 3 — 5 1 1 .

5. Iir<uro8iov ScvTCpov, 5 1 2 — 8 6 2 , with KOfLfios, 6 4 9 — 6 9 7 .


6. o-rd<ri|j.ov SevTepov, 8 6 3 — 9 1 0 .

7. hratrohiov Tplrov, 9 1 1 — 1 0 8 5 .
8. o-Tdo-ipov TpCi-ov, 1 0 8 6 — 1 1 0 9 .

9. fimo-oSiov T^rapTOV, 1 1 1 0 — 1 1 8 5 .
10. OTCl<n.|Jl.OV T^TOpTOV, I l 8 6 1222.

II. ?£o8os, 1223—1530.

In reference to a Greek tragedy, we cannot properly speak of 'Acts';


but the mxpoSog and the o-Tao-t/ia mark the conclusion of chapters in the
action. The Oedipus Tyrannus falls into six such chapters.
The parts named above are thus defined by Aristotle (Poet. 12):—
1. irpAXo-yos = fiepoi 6Xov TpayaSiai TO irpo x°P°v TapoSou, 'all that
part of a tragedy which precedes the parodos' (or 'entrance' of the
Chorus into the orchestra).
2. mdpoSos = 17' TTpwrr] Xc^is 0X01; x°P°v> < t n e first utterance of the
whole Chorus.'
3. «rei<r68iov =/iepos oXov TpaywStas TO /xeTa^ii oXwv x°PlK'"v p-tk
' all that part of a tragedy which comes between whole choric songs.'
T
4. orao-i|j.ov = /teXos x°P°v ° ovev dvaTrcua-Tov /cai Tpo\aiov, 'a
song of the Chorus without anapaests or trochaics.' a-rdo-ifiov is
^stationary': O-TOO-I/XOV/w'Xos, a song by the Chorus at its station—after
it has taken up its place in the orchestra—as distinguished from the
irdpo&os or entrance-song. [I do not now think that the notion of
'unbroken'—by anapaests or dialogue—can be included in the term.]
Aristotle's definition needs a few words of explanation, (i) The
anapaestic was especially a marching measure. Hence the TrapoSos of the
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 9
older type often began with anapaests {e.g. Aesch. Agam. 40—103,
Eum. 307—320), though, in the extant plays of Soph., this is so with
the Ajax alone (134—171). But a o-Tao-ifxov never begins with anapaests.
Further, the antistrophic arrangement of a aTaa-i/xov is never interrupted
by anapaests. Yet, after an antistrophic O-TOLO-IIXOV, the choral utterance
may end with anapaests: thus the third oTa.<n\>.ov of the Antigone is
antistrophic from 781 to 800, after which come immediately the choral
anapaests 801—805 : and we should naturally speak of 781—805 as
the third stasimon, though, according to Arist, it strictly consists only
of 781—800. (2) By Tpoyaiov Arist. plainly means the trochaic
tetrameter: i. e. a oracri/*ov must not be interrupted by dialogue (such as
that which the Chorus holds in trochaic tetrameters with Aegisthus and
Clytaemnestra, Aesch. Ag. ad Jin.). Measures into which trochaic
rhythms enter are, of course, frequent in o-ra<xi/xa.
5. £go8o$ = jitepos o\ov TpaywSias fieO' o OVK tort xopov /ieXos, 'all that
part of a tragedy after which there is no song of the Chorus.'
Verses 649—697 of the second ZireuroSiov form a short KO^OS. The
Chorus are pleading with Oedipus, lyric measures being mingled with
iambic trimeters. Arist. {Poet. 12) defines the KOHHOS as Opfjvos KOIVOS
Xopov KOU d-Tro o-K-qvfj';, i.e. a lamentation in which the Chorus (in the
orchestra) took part with the actor on the stage. An example of the
on a larger scale is Soph. El. 121—250.
io I0*0KAE0YI

0IAIII0T2.

D, TEKNA, KdBfiov rod TraXcu via rpo<f>ij,


nod' IBpas rdcrSe jiioi dod^ere

8' ofxov fjikv OvfiLajJidrcov ye/xet,


Se iraidvcov r e /cat crrevayfJidTcov'
dyco StKauSv ^rj Trap dyyeXcov,

Scene:—Before the palace of Oedipus at Thebes. In front of the large


central doors (/?a<riAeios Ovpa) there is an altar; a smaller altar stands
also near each of the two side-doors: see verse 16. Suppliants—old
men, youths, and young children—are seated on the steps of the altars.
They are dressed in white tunics and cloaks,—their hair bound with white
fillets. On the altars they have laid down olive-branches wreathed with
fillets of wool. The PRIEST OF ZEUS, a venerable man, is alone standing,
facing the central doors of the palace. These are now thrown open : fol-
lowed by two attendants (irpocnroXoi), who place themselves on either side
of the doors, OEDIPUS enters, in the robes of a king: for a moment he gazes
silently on the groups at the altars, and then speaks. See Appendix, Note 1,

1—77 Oedipus asks why they are suppliants. The Priest of Zeus,
speaking for the rest, prays him to save them, with the gods' help,
from the blight and the plague. Oedipus answers that he has already
sent Creon to consult Apollo at Delphi, and will do whatever the
god shall bid. 1 Wa, last-born (not iyoung] for TLKVO. includes the
old men, v. 17), added for contrast with TOV iraXat,. Oedipus,—who
believes himself a Corinthian (7 74)—marks his respect for the ancient
glories of the Theban house to whose throne he has been called: see esp.
258 f. So the Thebans are orpaTos KaS/xoymfs Aesch. Theb. 303,
KaSfioytvrj'S yivva. Eur. Phoen. 808, or KaSymeioi. Tpo<|>ii =
(abstract for concrete): Eur. Cycl. 189 dpvmv Tpofjxxi = apves
[x.tva.i. Cadmus, as guardian genius of Thebes, is still rpo^ev? of all
who are reared in the <5<3/m KaS/Aeiov (v. 29). Campbell understands, 'my
last-born care derived from ancient Cadmus,'—as though the rpo<f>evs
were Oedipus. But could KdSfiov Tpo<j>ij mean ' [my] nurslings [derived
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI n

OEDIPUS.

My children, latest-born to Cadmus who was of old,


why are ye set before me thus with wreathed branches
of suppliants, while the city reeks with incense, rings
with prayers for health and cries of woe ? I deemed it
unmeet, my children, to hear these things at the mouth

from\ Cadmus'? It is by the word reVva that Oedipus expresses his


own fatherly care. 2 Sipas. The word t8pa = ' posture,' here, as usu.,
sitting: when kneeling is meant, some qualification is added, as Eur.
Ph. 293 yovvireTeis eSpas TrpocnriTva) <r', ' I supplicate thee On my
knees.' The suppliants are sitting on the steps ((idOpa) of the altars, on
which they have laid the /cXaSot: see 142 : cp. 15 TrpocrTJ/nOa, 20 OaKti:
Aesch. Eum. 40 (Orestes a suppliant in the Delphian temple) hf d/*<£aX<3
(on the Omphalos) iSpav e^ovra irpocTTpoirawv • . . eXeuas & vxpuyivvrjTov
KXCLSOV. ioalert prob. = ^acrcrcre, ' sit,' ISpas being cognate acc. I n
Eur. 0oa£u> (8061) always = ' t o hasten' (transitive or intrans.). But
Empedocles and Aesch. clearly use Oodtfa as = Odo-o-w, the sound
and form perh. suggesting the epic dadcra-w, 0oWos. See Appendix,
Note 2. 3 iKTr)p£ois K\d8oi<n.v. The suppliant carried a branch of olive
or laurel (iKtnqpLa), round which were twined festoons of wool (O-TC'^I;,
ore/i/AdTa,—which words can stand for the l/ceT7;pta itself, infra 9 1 3 , / / . ! .
14) : Plut. Thes. 18 yv Se [?; iKeTJjpia] /cXaSo? diro -riji tepas tXaias, ipiia
XevKw KaTeo-Te/i/icVos. He laid his branch on the altar (Eur. Her. 124
/3o)fwv KOiTao-T&ljavTes), and left it there, if unsuccessful in his petition
(Eur. Suppl. 259); if successful, he took it away (ib. 359, infra 143).
IKT. K \ . 4|e<rT€|i.|Uvoi = iKTrjpiovs KXCISOUS l^€(TT^ixp.ivov^ l^ovrcs : Xen.
Anab. 4. 3. 28 Snjy/cuXcojUevovs TOVS dKOVTicrras Kal iTTi/3ef3\r]fi.evov<s
TOVS To£oras, 'the javelin-throwers with javelins grasped by the thong
(ayifuX->7), and the archers with arrows fitted to the string.' So 18 efe<r-
Teju.ju.cvov absol., = provided with O-T«<^TJ (i.e. with iKenqpiai: see last note).
Triclinius supposes that the suppliants, besides carrying boughs, wore
garlands (eore<£avM;u.eVoi), and the priests may have done so: but e£co-re/t/u,
does not refer to this. 4 dpou ^iv... 6|«>v Sk. The verbal contrast is
12 ZO0OKAEOYZ

aXXcov aKoveiv avros <wS' iXrjXvOa,


o TrS.cn KXCLVOS OISITTOU? KaXov/Juevot;.
d\\\ w yepaii, (f>pd(,\ iirel Trpertwv e<£us
7rpo TftJi'Se (fxiiveuv, TLVL rpoira KaBearare, IO
77 crrepfavres; GJS diXovTos aiv
trpocrapKeiv traW SucraXy^ros y a p aV

11 In cod. Laur. 32. 9 (L) pr. manus ffrip^avres scripserat; quod recentior
in cT^avTes mutavit, littera e talem in modum grandiore facta ut vicinam
p obscuraret. In margine schol. a-rip^avref interpretatur per 17877 ire!rov06T(S-

merely between the fumes of incense burnt on the altars as a propi-


tiatory offering (//. 8. 48 re/xevos j8w/x,os TC Qvr)iii), and the sounds—
whether of invocations to the Healer, or of despair. 7 oXX»v. Redun-
dant, but serving to contrast dyyikwv and O-UTOS, as if one said, 'from
messengers,—at second hand.' Blaydes cp. Xen. Cyr. 1. 6. 2 omas prj
Si' ctAAoJv ipfj.7]v£uiv r a s TWV 6CWV o"Ujii/3ovA.i'as o"w€tijs, dW avros...yt
c386 = 8€5po, as in vv. 144, 2 9 8 , a n d often in S o p h . : even with
opav, as in Trach. 402 /?A.€<£' <SSc = /3Xeire Stvpo. 8 6 ird<rt K\«tvos...KaXoti-
p.evos. Tracrt with xXetvos (cp. 4 0 gratri Kparia-Tov), n o t with icaAov/x.£vos:
'called Oedipus famous in the sight of all,' not 'called famous Oed. by all.'
C p . 7ra<rtyv<i)OTOs, 7rao-t'8i;\os, Trao-i/xcAowa, iraiTi<f>i\o<;. T h e t o n e is H o m e r i c
(0*/. 9. 19 tl/x 'OSwevs ..KCU //.eu wXeos ovpavov IKCI, imitated b y Verg.
Aen. 1. 378 sum plus Aeneas...fama super aethera notus): Oedipus is a
type, for the frank heroic age, of Arist.'s yu.eyaAoi/™x°s—o peyaAwu awov
a£«oi', a^tos &v (Eth. N. 4. 3). 9 &f«is, which is more than «, refers,
not to appearance (forf), but to the natural claim (^u'o-ts) of age and
office combined. 10 irpo TUVSC, 'in front of,' and so ' o n behalf of,'
'for' these. Ellendt: ' Non est aim TWVSC, nee virtp raivSe, sed fwXXov s.
juaAiora rwSe, prae ceteris dignus propter auctoritatem et aetatem.'
Rather OVTI TWVS« = ' a s their deputy': virep ^ ^ 8 6 = 'as their champion':
Trpd T<ov8e='as their spokesman.' T£VI Tp^iru with KO8^<TTOT« only:
SeicraVTe<; rj <TTip£avTes = eiT£ i&daari TI, £*T£ Icrrip^art ( n o t Trorepov 8ft-
o-avT£s; ^ o-TEpfavres;), 'in what mood are ye set here, whether it be one of
fear or of desire?' 11 orepfjavTts, 'having formed a desire': the aor. part.,
as At. 212 eVei <7£... I oT£pfas aviyzi ' i s constant to the love which he
hath formed for thee.' El. 1100 KOX TI (3ov\r]6e.ls irdpei; Ai. 1052
£A7ri'(ravT£S...ay£tv. Cp. O. C. 1093 Kat TOV dypevrdv 'ATTOAACO | KOI
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOZ 13

of others, and have come hither myself, I, Oedipus renowned


of all.
Tell me, then, thou venerable man—since it is thy
natural part to speak for these—in what mood are ye
placed here, with what dread or what desire ? Be sure
that I would gladly give all aid; hard of heart were I,
Cod. Paris. 2787 (B) arip^avTes, superscripto iraSovres. Cod. Paris. 2884 (E)
ari^avrei habet in trrip^avres mutatum (non crrfyj-. in GTQ.), cum gloss. iraBbvTes,
VTro/nelvavTet. Biblioth. Bodleianae cod. Laud. 54 ffri^avres cum gl. vwofiei-
vavTes. ffT^avres A: quae 1. librariis procul dubio debetur mirantibus quo pacto

I aripyui 8i7rA.as apcoyds | //.oXelv, ' I desire': where, in such an


invocation (iw...Ze5,...TTOJOOIS, K.T.X.), orepyw surely cannot mean, ' I am
content.' Oed. asks : Does this supplication mean that some new dread
has seized you (SCKTOVTCS)? O r t h a t ye have set your hearts (<TTep£avTe<s) on
some particular boon which I can grant?'—Others render <TTep£avTes
'having acquiesced.' This admits of two views, (i) 'Are ye afraid of
suffering? Or have ye already learned to bear suffering?' To this point
the glosses viro^tivavTe;, Tt-aOovres. But this seems unmeaning. H e
knows that the suffering has come, and he does not suppose that they
are resigned to it (cp. v. 58). (ii) Professor Kennedy connects ^
<TT€p£avTes (us 0«XOVTOS av \ e/xov irpoo-apKvv irdv, i.e. a r e ye c o m e in
vague terror, or in contentment, as believing that I would be willing to
help you? This is ingenious and attractive. But (a) it appears
hardly consonant with the kingly courtesy of this opening speech for
Oedipus to assume that their belief in his good-will would reconcile
them to their present miseries, (b) We seem to require some direct
and express intimation of the king's willingness to help, such as the
words cos 6ikovTo<s...Tra.v give only when referred to <£pa'fe. W The
rhythm seems to favour the question at orep£avTes.—<TT4£OVTE?, explained
as 'having endured,' may be rejected, because (1) the sense is against
it—see on (i) above: (2) ariyeiv in classical Greek = ' to be proof
against,' not ' t o suffer': (3) <Tr£fcu, earEfa are unknown to Attic, which
has only the pres. and the imperf, us 6&OVTOS &V (to be connected
with <j>pa£<i) implies the apodosis of a conditional sentence. Gram-
matically, this might be either (a) et BvvaCp.-qv, OiXoiju dv, or (b) d
•q&wafirjv, rjdtXov av: here, the sense fixes it to (a), us, thus added to
the gen. absol., expresses the supposition on which the agent acts.
JCen. Mem, ?. 6, 32 <us ov TrpotrolcrovTos (i/j.ov) ras ;^erpas,...8tSacrKe: ' a s
14 I04>0KAE0YI
etrjv TOidvSe fxr) ov naToiKTeipcDV eBpav.

IEPETS.
dW, a> KpaTvvcov OlS(,irov<;
6pa<> [jiev i7ju,as 77X1K01
/8&)/Aoicrt r o t s c o t s , oi yaef ovSeVw
TTTecrOcu, (jQivovTQ.%, oi Se a"iV yrfp
te/317?, eyw ^ez/ Zijvos, otSe T ' rjdeav
Xe/crot' TO 8' aAAo (f>v\ov i^crrefjifjiivov
dyopaicrt OaKei, Trpos r e IlaXXaSos StTrXots 20
Traflovres, lyTro/ieivacTes in arip^avres quadrarent. 1 3 /i^ KaroiKretpap Par.
2712 (A), B. 1 8 ifpeis codd.: edd. plerique cum Brunck. ieprjs. Gratior
sane post jSopefs formae Atticae veterioris sonus. Bentleium frustra lepeis scri-
bentem secutus est Nauck., qui iyH> pi? in £71^76 mutavit. 0! 64 r' rjCdtwv,
L, A. In L accessit signum elisionis (') post rasuvam; litterae ir tamen, ex qua

(you may be sure) I will not lay hands on you, teach me.' 13 jiij
oi Ka-roucTcCpov. An infinitive or participle, which for any reason would
regularly take ^17', usually takes ny ov if the principal verb of the
sentence is negative. Here, Suo-aXyijros = OVK evd\yr]To<s: Dem. Fals.
Legat. § 123 (7roXeis) ^aXeirat Xa/?civ...ju->; ov ^povai KCU 7roXtopKi'a (.yf.
Xa/jySavovTi), where ^aXeTrat = ov paStai: ' cities not easy to take, unless
by a protracted siege.' The participial clause, jxrj ov KaToiKrdpwv, is
equivalent to a protasis, tl /«; KaToiKTeipoi/ii. Prof. Kennedy holds that
the protasis is ei /j.rj OeXoi/u understood, and that faj ov KaroiKTeipwv is
epexegetic of it:—' Yes (yap) I should be unfeeling, if I did not wish
(to help y o u ) : that is, if I refused to pity such a supplication as this.'
But the double negative p7 ov could not be explained by a negative in
the protasis («i inrj 6ikoifi.C): it implies a negative in the apodosis (Suo-aX-
yijros o.v &r\v). Since, then, the resolution into OVK tvaXyr/To^ civ enjf is
necessary, nothing seems to be gained by supposing a suppressed
protasis, ei /XT) 6i\oi/u. 16 p«|ioi<ri Tots o-ots. T h e altars of the irpoo-ra-
6eol in front of the palace, including that of Apollo AU'K«OS (919).
v irr&r6ai. So Andromache to her child—vcocnros coo-ei Trripvya'i
€0-7TCTV<I>V €/x.as Eur. Tro. 746. The proper Attic form for the aor. of
srEVo/ttu was CTTO'/M/!', which alone was used in prose and Comedy.
Though forms from hn6.p.-t)v sometimes occur in Tragedy, as in
the Homeric poems, Elms, had no cause to wish for Trrdo-Oai here.
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOS 15

did I not pity such suppliants as these.

PRIEST OF ZEUS.

Nay, Oedipus, ruler of my land, thou seest of what


years we are who beset thy altars,—some, nestlings still
too tender for far flights,—some, bowed with age, priests,
as I of Zeus,—and these, the chosen youth; while the
rest of the folk sit with wreathed branches in the
market-places, and before the two shrines of Pallas,
factum T Duebner. suspicatus est, ne levissimum quidem vestigium depreliendere
potui. Cod. Venet. 472 (V4), quocum consentit B, 01 5' rjXdtuv. Wunder. coni.
01 5' cfir' riBiav, quod recepit Dindorf. (ed. i860), collate Antig. v. 787 itr' ivOpdiruv:
Musgrav. cf. Aristid. Pan. I. 96 /^"H n? TiSXei &rt T£JP 'EWYIVIKWV. Equidem vereor ut
Graece dicatur iw' yS^av \CKTOI hoc sensu, ex omni iuventute delccti ('chosen to repre-

17 <riv YHP?1 Pop«is = ftapeis us y^/xg- erwoires. O. C. 1663 (TVV VOO-OIS j


dXyctvos: At. 1017 iv yrjpa. /3apus. 18 kya plv. The'answering clause, ot
Se aWwv 6ewv, must be supplied mentally: cp. / / . 5. 893 Ttjv /J.€V ly<o
o-irov&rj BdfJLvrja-' hr€€<r<ri (sc. ras Se oXXas pa8i(os). It is slightly different
when /j.iv, used alone, emphasizes the personal pronoun, as in ty<o /ikv
OVK oTSa Xen. Cyr. 1. 4. 12. iJWuv, unmarried youths: / / . 18. 593
TQiOeoi Kal irapBlvoi: Eur. Phoen. 944 Ai/iovos.. .•yaju.oi | o-^ia-yas dirdpyovir''
pv yap icTTtv yjOeos: Plut. Thes. 15 y6iovs inTO. Kal TrapBivov;. 19 l^eoTeji-
l»6vov: see on 3. 20 a^opaio-i, local dative, like OIKELV ovpavu Pind.
Mm. 10. 58. Thebes was divided from N. to S. into two parts by the
torrent called Strophia. The W. part, between the Strophia and the
Dirce, was the upper town or Cadmeia: the E. part, between the
Strophia and the Ismenus, was y KO.T<H TTO'XIS. The name KaS^aa was
given especially to the S. eminence of the upper town, the acropolis.
(1) One of the dyopaL meant here was on a hill to the north of the
acropolis, and was the a'yopa KaS/xeias- See Paus. 9. 12. 3. (2).The
other was in the lower town. Xen. Hellen. 5. 2. 29 refers to this—•>}
fiovXrj CKa$rjTO iv Trj iv dyopa. oroa, Sid TO Tas -ywaiKas iv Trj JS.a8fi.eia
Otafiotjiopid^iv: unless KaS^tia has the narrower sense of 'acropolis.'
Cp. Arist. Pol. 4. (7) 12. 2 on the Thessalian custom of having
two dyopa.1—one, i\ev$epa, from which everything fldvavo-ov was
excluded, irprfs re noU(C8os...vaots. Not 'both at the two temples,'
&c., as if this explained ayopaun, but 'and,1 &c.: for the dyopaC
16 IO*OKAEOYI
vaots, iff' 'Icrfirjuov re juai'Teia
TroXts ya-p, MCfftp KOLVTOS eicropas, dyav
rj8r) craXeuei KavaKovtyicrai Kapa
fivdcav e.T ovx oia re (f>oiv£ov crakov,
KOKV^LV iyKaipffois ^oro'?, 25

sent the youth'). 2X (Mirelf L, ex fiavrdas radendo factum: manet litterae a


pars superior. A /xai/reTa (sic). E

would have their own altars of the ayopaToi 6e.ol, as of Artemis


(161). One of the dnrXol vaoC may be that of IlaXXas "Oyxa, near the
'OyKaLa irvXri on the W. side of Thebes (iro'Xas | "Oyxas 'A^avas Aesch.
Theb. 487, "Oyica IlaXXas ib. 501), whose statue and altar hr viraWpw
Paus. mentions (9. 12. 2). The other temple may be that of Athene
KaS/x.6i'a or of Athene 'lo-firjvia—both mentioned by the schol., but not
by Paus. Athene Zoxmypia, too, had statues at Thebes (Paus. 9. 17. 3).
The schol. mentions also 'AXaX/<o;u,evia, but her shrine was at the village
of Alalcomenae near Haliartus (Paus. 9. 23. 5). It was enough for
Soph, that his Athenian hearers would think of the Erechtheum and the
Parthenon—the shrines of the Polias and the Parthenos—above them
on the acropolis. 21 W 'Io-p. p. <riro8(j>. ' T h e oracular ashes of Ismenus'
= the altar in the temple of Apollo 'Io-yni/i'ios, where divination by burnt
offerings (7; Si' l^irvpiav frnvrda) was practised. So the schol., quoting
Philochorus (in his irtpl /tavTiK^s, circ. 290 B.C.). o-n-oSu : the embers
dying down when the //.avTeiW has now been taken from the burnt offer-
ing: cp. Ant. 1007. Soph, may have thought of 'AiroXXwv STO'&OS,
whose altar (IK ri^pa.% TSSV UpetW) Paus. saw to the left of the Electrae
gates at Thebes: 9. 11. 7. 'IO-|J.T]VOO, because the temple was by the
river Ismenus: Paus. 9. 10. 2 eon Se \n$os lv Se^ia i w TTUXOJV (on the
right of the 'HXcVrpai iruXai on the S. of Thebes, within the walls) Upos
'A7rdXX(ovos * KaXeiTai 8e o re Xo<^os KO.1 O 0eos 'Ioyxi^wos, TrapappeovTO<; TOU
iroTajxov Tavrg rod laix-qvov. Ismenus (which name Curtius, Etym. 617,
connects with rt \%, to wish, as = 'desired') was described in the
Theban myths as the son of Asopus and Metope, or of Amphion and
Niobe. The son of Apollo by Melia (the fountain of the Ismenus) was
called Ismenius. Cp. Her. 8. 134 (the envoy of Mardonius in -the
winter of 4 8 0 — 7 9 ) T$'IayMjyia) 'A7roXX<oi'i l)(pq(ra.TO' cori 8c Ka.rd.Trtp lv
ipciicTi. xpy<n"i]pid&o-6ai: P i n d . Olymp. 8. init. OuXu/wria | ...Iva.
vSpes | e/xirupois T«K/x,aipd/*€vot TrapaireipiSvTai Aids. I n P i n d . Pyth.
OtAITTOYI TYPANNOI 17

and where Ismenus gives answer by fire.


For the city, as thou thyself seest, is now too sorely vexed,
and can no more lift her head from beneath the angry waves
of death; a blight is on her in the fruitful blossoms of the land,

11. 4 the Theban heroines are asked to come n-ap MeXi'av (because she
shared Apollo's temple) ' to the holy treasure-house of golden tripods,
which Loxias hath honoured exceedingly, and hath named it Ismenian,
a truthful seat of oracles' (MSS. /xavruiav, not [lavrimv, Fennell): for
the tripod dedicated by the Sa<£ra<£dpos, or priest of Ismenian Apollo,
see Paus. 9. 10. 4. Her. saw offerings dedicated by Croesus to Am-
phiaraus iv T<3 VIJW TOV 'lo-fiyvLov 'ATTO'AAWVOS ( I . 52), and notices in-
scriptions there (5. 59). T h e 'la^viov, the temple at Abae in
Phocis, and that on the hill UTWOV to the E. of Lake Copais,
were, after Delphi, the chief shrines of Apollo in N. Greece.
24 pu8»v, 'from the depths,' i.e. out of the trough of the waves
which rise around. Cp. Ant. 337 irepi^pv^LOKnv | vtpwv VTT olSfiao-w,
under swelling waves which threaten to engulf him. Arat. 426 viro-
{Spvxa vavrlWovTCLi. fyoivtav here merely poet, for Oavao-inov, as Tr.
770 <f>oivias I ixOpas e'xi&'rjs IO'S. But in At. 351 <f>oivia £aA.i; = the
madness which drove Ajax to bloodshed, ir o«x ola n: for position
of tn, cp. Track. 161 <os ef OVK a!v, Phil. 1217 ef ovZkv elfu. With olos TE
the verb is often omitted, as 1415, O. C. 1136, Tr. 742, Ar. Eq-. 343.
25 <(>0Cvov<ro (Uv K.TA. The anger of heaven is shown (1) by a blight
(<t>6ivovo-a) on the fruits of the ground, on flocks and on child-birth: (2) by
a pestilence (Xoi/xos) which ravages the town. Cp. 171 ff. For the threefold
blight, Her. 6. 139 d.iroKTewa.<ri Se rotcrc TleXacryoiat TOUS o^erepous iraiSas
T£ KaX yvvaiKas ovre yrj KapTroV t<j>epe ovre yvvat/ce's T€ Kai iroi[J.vai oytiotcus
ITLKTOV KCLI irpo TOC : Aeschin. In Ctes. § 111 pyre yrjv KapTrols tfyepeiv
H^re yuvai/cas TIKVO. TIKTCIV yovevcriv eoiKora, dX\a ripara, /AT/TE j3o<TKij[uxTa.
Kara <f>v<riv yovas iroLzurOai. Schneid. and Blaydes cp. Philostratus Vil.
Apoll. 3. 20, p. 51. 21 >J yrj ov ivvex^Pel avrois ivTaaOcu' TTJV re yap <nropav
7Jv « avrrjv ITTOWVVTO, irp\v « KOXUKO. rjKtiv, e<j>6eipe, TOVS r e T<3V yvvaiKwv
TOKOUS dreKtis iiroUt, nal Ta<s ayeAas Trovy]pui<; efiocrKtv. 25 KO\V£IV
The datives mark the points or parts in which the land <j>8Cva.
£yKapiros is the shell or case which encloses immature fruit,—whether
the blossom of fruit-trees, or the ear of wheat or barley: Theophr.
Hist. Plant. 8. 2. 4 (of Kpifhj and irvpos) irp\v av Trpoav£rjOa.<; (o
J. S. 2
18

ivov(Ta 8' dyeXous ySowojuois TOKOUTL re


yvvoLiKutv iv 8' 6 Trvp(f)6po<; Beds
eXavvei, Xotjaos e^^ta-Tos, TTOXII/,
I5<£' ou KCVOVTCU Swyxa KaSjUerov* yueXas 8
(TTevayficns Kal yoois 7rXouTi£eTcu. 3°
jxiv vvv OVK ICTOVJJL^VOV cr eyco
ono otoe Traioes tLpixecrv ecpeo-rioi,
dvhpwv Se irpcorov ev r e crujac^opats /3tou
KpivovT€% ev re SOLIIJLOVWV crvi'aXXayals'
2 9 KaSjUeiW A, et codd. aliquot recentiores. Cf. v. 35.

tv T77 KaXvKt yevr/Tai. 26 dyeXai powdfioi (paroxyt.) = dyeXai


/3o<ov ve/j.ofi.€V(av: b u t aK-rrj j3ovvo/j.o<;, proparoxyt., a shore o n which
oxen are pastured, El. 181. Cp. EL 861 yolapyois Iv ayu,i'XAais =
a/At'XXats dpyoJv ^ijA.<oi': P i n d . Pyth. 5- 28 dpitr6a.pfi.aTov.. .ylpas = yipa<s
dpio-rov ap/xaTo?. The epithet marks that the blight on the flocks
is closely connected with that on the pastures: cp. Dionys. Hal.
1. 23 (describing a similar blight) ovre xo'a KTiqvecnv !<£v£i-o
K17'?. nSicouri, the labours of child-bed: Eur. Med. 1031 oreppas
iv TOKOIS dXyrjSovas". Iph. T. 1466 yvvawcs ev TOKOIS
Dionys. Hal. 1. 23 d8cX<^a 8€ TOVTOIS (/.«. to the blight on fruits
and crops) iylvero irepC re Trpoj3a.Tu>v Kal yvvaiKtSv yoras' ^ yap iifip--
/SXOVTO Ta €fnf3pva, r) Kara TOVS TOKOV9 8te<^)^eipcTO HCTTLV a Kat T a s <^>epoij-
o-as crvvSiaXiy^vayittva. 27 d^vois, abortive, or resulting in a still
birth. 4v 8', adv., ' a n d among our other woes,' 'and withal': so
183, Tr. 206, Ai. 675. Not in 'tmesis' with o-K^as, though Soph, has
such tmesis elsewhere, Ant. 420 kv 8' ifito-TwOr), ib. 1274 ev 8' eaeurev. For
the simple o-Kijil/os, cp. Aesch. Ag. 308 <HT to-Kij<j/ev, 'then it swooped.'
So Pers. 715 Xot/iov Tts ^X^e O-KIJTTTO'S. 6 irup<|>6pos 9«As, the bringer of
the plague which spreads and rages like fire (176 KpCvrvov dfi
irvpos, 191 ^>Xeyei /nc): but also with a reference to fever,
Hippocrates 4. 140 OKO'CTOWI Se T<oe dvOpunrun/ irvp (= Trvperos) c/
^7. 22. 31 Kai Te <^epei (Seirius) TTOXXOV irupcToV SeiXoitri {Jporoun (the
only place where TupeTos occurs in //. or 6V.). In (9. C. 55 ev S' 0
Trvp<j>6pos 0€os I Tirav lTpo/iij^eijs refers to the representation of Prometheus
with the narthex, or a torch, in his right hand (Eur. Phoen. 1121 8e£ta
&e XajjLirdSa | Ttroi' Hpofi.r]6ev<s e^epev 10s). Cp. Aesch. 7%i?5. 432 avSpa
Trvp<f>6pov, I <f>\£yei 8e Xa/in-a?, K.T.X. Here also the Destroyer is
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 19

in the herds among the pastures, in the barren pangs of


women; and withal the flaming god, the malign plague, hath
swooped on us, and ravages the town; by whom the house
of Cadmus is made waste, but dark Hades rich in groans
and tears.
It is not as deeming thee ranked with gods that I
and these children are suppliants at thy hearth, but as
deeming thee first of men, both in life's common chances,
and when mortals have to do with more than man:
31 OVK i<roti/xevoi> L , sed K, u t videtur, ex x ' facto.

imagined as armed with a deadly brand,—against which the Chorus


presently invoke the holy fires of Artemis (206) and the ' blithe torch'
of Dionysus (214). For 6cis said of Xot/xo's, cp. Simonid. Amorg. fr. 7.
101 ou8* altf/a \i/i.ov OLKtr/s ajroicrerat, | lydpov (rvvoiKTjTtjpa, 8u<ryt£vea
6eov. Soph. fr. 837 dXX' y <pp6vrj<ris dyaOrj 6eos /teyas. 29 pAas 8':
elision at end of verse, as 785 o/xus 8", 791 yeVos S', 1184 fvV oli T,
1224 Sow 5': El. 1017 KOAUJS 8': Ant. 1031 TO /xav6dveiv 8': Ar. Av.
1716 &v/ua}ia.Ttov S\ Besides 8' and T', the only certain example is ravr,
332; in O. C. 1164 /XOAOVT* is doubtful. 30 irXovrCJenu with allusion to
nXovrw, as Hades was called by an euphemism (uVoKoptaTi(c<3s, schol.
Ar. Pint. 727), OTI IK riji KarwOtv avicrai o TTXOUTOS (crops and metals), as
Plato says, Craf. 403 A. Cp. Sophocles fr. 252 (from the satyric drama
Inachus) IIXOUTWVOS (="AI8OU) ij8' £7r€«ro8os: Lucian Timon 21 (DAOVTOS
speaks), 6 UXOVTWV (Hades) dirooreWei /ic irap' avrovs aTe irkovroBoTrj^
Koi /ifyaAo'Sco/JOS Kal auTos &V SijXoi your KOL T<3 ovofiart. Schneid. cp.
Statius Theb. 2. 48 pallentes devius umbras Trames agit nigrique
Jovis vacua atria ditat Mortibus. 31 O«K Urovnevov <»•', governed by
KpCvovres in 34. But the poet began the sentence as if he were
going to write, instead of i^c/ieaO' tyiarioi, a verb like i/cereucyiei':
hence hrov^tvov instead of la-ov. It is needless to take l<rovfievov
(1) as accus. absol., or (2) as governed by eto/xeo-O' i(j>ecrTioi in the
sense of «eT£uo/tev,—like <j>Oopa's...\jnj<f>ovi Wivro Aesch. Ag. 814, or
ytVos...veWoi' divov Sufipl. 533. Musgrave conj. ioW/*evot as = 'deem-
ing equal,' but the midd. would mean 'making ourselves equal,' like
avTHTovnivov Thuc. 3. 11. Plato has l<rovfi.evov as passive in Phaedr.
238 E, and lo-ovadai as passive in Parm. 156 B : cp. 581 Icrovpai.
34 8ai|i6v»v <rvvaXXttYots = dealings (of men) with immortals, -- Zrav
avOpunroi crvvaXXda-a-tavTai Bai/xoa-iv, as opposed to the ordinary chances

2—2
20 I04>0KAE0Y2

os y e^e'Xvcras, a a r u KaSpeLou fJioXcov, 35


crK\y]pa<s aotSou Sao-ju.oV ov vapeC)(o[jLev
Kal Tau^ 5 v<f> "qpaiv ovhev efeiS&is irkiov
ouS' e/cSiSa^^eis, aXXd irpocrdrjKrj 0eov
Xeyei vofii£,€L & TJJU.IV opOcjcrat fiCov'
vvv T, (6 KpaTUTTOv iracriv OlhOirov Koipa, 40
LKeTevofiev ere TravTes oiSe TrpocrrpoTroi
dkictjv TLV evpelv runty, ei/re TOV ^eac
<j>TJ[Ar)v aKovcras e i r ' air' dvSyaos otcr^a TTOU"
3 5 os 7' codd. omnes. Elmsl. coni. els T', quasi responderet vvv T' in v. 40: quod
recepit Campb. Vulgatam tueor, neque coniecturae satis opitulari credo qxiod anno-
tavit schol. in cod. Laur. acre /io\tTv S.<JTV Kati/ieiov: qua sententia, parum liquet.

of life (o-v/i^Qpais fiiov). Such owaAAayat were the visit of the Sphinx
(130) and of the irvptfropo's 6eos (27). Cp. 960 voaov vwaWayrj, Trach.
845 oiXiattrt cruvaXA-ayais, 'in fatal converse.' But in Ant. 156 6t<ov <rw-
Tvyj.0.1 = fortunes sent by gods. The common prose sense of uwaXkayyj
is 'reconciliation,' which Soph, has in Ai. 732. 35 os 7'. The yt of the
MSS. suits the immediately preceding verses better than the conjectural
re, since the judgment (/cpiVovres) rests solely on what Oed. has done, not
partly on what he is expected to do. Owing to the length of the first
clause (35—39) T* could easily be added to vvv in 40 as if another re
had preceded. e£&u<ras...8ao-|ju5v. The notion is not, 'paid it in full,'
but ' loosed it,'—the thought of the tribute suggesting that of the riddle
which Oed. solved. Till he came, the Sacr/tos was as a knotted cord in
which Thebes was bound. Cp. Trach. 653 vApijs...€^e'A.vcr' | hr'nrovov
dfnipav, ' has burst the bondage of the troublous day.' Eur. Phoen. 695
7ro8(3v a-mv fioxOov €K\VU irap<i>v, ' his presence dispenses with (solves the
need for) the toil of thy feet.' This is better than (1) 'freed the city
from the songstress, in respect of the tribute,' or (2) ' freed the city from
the tribute (Satr/iof by attraction for Sacr/xoC) to the songstress.' 36 o-K\i]pds,
'hard,' stubborn, relentless. Eur. Andr. 261 O-KXYJPOV 6pa<ro<s. In 391
Kitui' expresses a similar idea. 37 Kal Tav6', ' a n d that t o o ' : Ant. 322
(e7roiij(ras TO ipyov) Kal raCr' eir' dpyvpw ye rijv l/'v^v irpoSovs. ov8^v irXfov>
nothing more than anyone else knew, nothing 'that could advantage
thee.' Plat. Crat. 387 A TT\4OV TI 17/uv ecrrai, we shall gain something.
Sympos. 217 C ovSev yap [Hoi irXe'ov vfv, it did not help me. IgciSu;—IKSI-
Saxfcts: not having heard (incidentally)—much less having been
thoroughly schooled. 38 irpotrityicQfleov,' by the aid of a god.' [Dem.] In
OlAtnOYI TYPANNOZ 21

seeing that thou earnest to the town of Cadmus, and didst quit
us of the tax that we rendered to the hard songstress; and this,
though thou knewest nothing from us that could avail thee, nor
hadst been schooled ; no, by a god's aid, 'tis said and believed,
didst thou uplift our life.
And now, Oedipus, king glorious in all eyes, we beseech thee,
all we suppliants, to find for us some succour, whether by the
whisper of a god thou knowest it, or haply as in the power of man;
KaSpetov L, KaSfielav A. Kadnewv ex KaS/ieiuv factum B : contraria in V 4 ratio.
Ut in v. 29, ita hie quoque genit. pluralem librariis commendavit locutio pedestri
propior. 4O vvv 8' Blaydes. 4 3 irov A, cod. Ven. 468 (V), cum codd.
plerisque. TOV L, superscr. irov a manu admodum recenti: B T 8 in ir8 mutatum
a manu recenti. TOV Schneidewin., Dindor'f., Blaydes.

Aristog. I. § 24 rj evTa£ia Trj TWV VO/XO>V TrpocrOujKy) TU>V alcr)(p<Sv ir


' discipline, with the support of the laws, prevails against villainy.'
Dionys. H a l . 5. 67 TtpottQ-qiayi fioipav iireixpv OVTOI TOIS ev <f>aXayyi
'these served as supports to the main body of the troops.'
nvi, to take his side : Thuc. 6. 80 TOIS dSiKovfu-tvoK...
: so Soph. O. C. 1332 ots av crv Trpo<r6rj. (The noun
does not occur as = ' mandate,' though Her. 3. 62 has TO
TOI Trpo<ri9rjKa irprjy[i.a.) The word is appropriate, since the achieve-
ment of Oed. is viewed as essentially a triumph of human wit: a
divine agency prompted him, but remained in the background.
40 VCVT': it is unnecessary to read vJvS': see on 35. irao-iv, ethical
dat. masc. (cp. 8), 'in the eyes of all men.' Tr. 1071 TroXXoTo-tv
otKTpov. 42 CKTC olaOa d\t<rjv, aKOvaas tfarffji.rjv Oeuiv TOV (by having
heard a voice from some god), #re ola-6a dkKrjv air avSpos irov (help
obtainable from a man, haply). Not, 'knowest from a m a n ' (as
thy informant): this would be Trapa. or irpos avSpos. So in Od. 6. 12 W K
a?ro yuifSea eiS<os = ' with wisdom inspired by gods,' n o t ' having learned
wisdom from (the lips of) gods.' 43 <j»jpiv, any message (as in a dream,
^>^rj oWpou, Her. 1. 43), any rumour, or speech casually heard,
which might be taken as a hint from the god. Od. 20. 98 Zev
Trdrep... | <f>rjfi.r)v Tt's (JLOL <£acr0a>...(Odysseus prays), ' L e t some one, I
pray, show me a word of omen.' Then a woman, grinding corn within,
is heard speaking of the suitors, ' may they now sup their last': •^aipev S«
K\erjS6vi SZos 'OSvo-o-cvs, 'rejoiced in the sign of the voice.' 6p.<jirj
was esp. the voice of an oracle; KA^SWV comprised inarticulate sounds
22 IO*OKAEOYZ

KOU

opa> juaXicrTa. TSSV /3ouXev/Aar&»i\ 45


i#', to fipoTwv aptcrr', avopGaxjov irokiv'
W, evXafiyj 6r)ff'" ws <r 8e ^
croTrjpa icXr^ei TIJS irdpos

es opdov KCLL irecroWes vcrrepov,


T' 50
a\X' acr^>aXeia rrpS' avopdcacrov iroXiv.
48 ircipos L, /»s a manu recentiore, deletis litteris quas Xai fuisse neque negare

( K \ . Svo-KpiTows, Aesch. /*.' ^ 486). 4 4 — 4 5 <5s Tot<ri.v...po«XewpdT«v. I


take these two verses with the whole context from v. 35, and not
merely as a comment on the immediately preceding words «r' aV
avSpos oia-da. TTOV. Oedipus has had practical experience (i[nreipia) of
great troubles; when the Sphinx came, his wisdom stood the trial.
Men who have become thus efnrtipoi are apt to be also (wii) prudent
in regard to the future. Past facts enlighten the counsels which they
offer on things still uncertain; and we observe that the issues of their
counsels are not usually futile or dead, but effectual. Well may we
believe, then, that he who saved us from the Sphinx can tell us how
to escape from the plague. Note these points. (1) The words
^ircCpouri and povX.fup.dTuv imply the antithesis (a) between past and
future, (b) between 2pyo and \6yoi. Cp. Thuc. 1. 22 oaoi Se /JovXiJ-
(TOVTCU T(3v T€ yevofiivoiv TO craves o-Koirfiv nal r<Sv /xeWovnav Trore
av6is Kara, TO dvOpowreiov roiovriav KO.1 irapaTrXrjo-iW icriarQai. (2) r a s
|v|i(j>opds TWV pov\6«|iaT«ov, the events, issues, of their counsels: Thuc.
I. 140 ivhe^erai yap r a s £v/u.^>opas T<BV TT p a y fxar wv ov^ •rjartrov
a/xa6ais \wpyja-ai TJ KOX TO.% Stavoias TOC avOpmirov: the issues of human
affairs can be as incomprehensible in their course as the thoughts
of m a n : ib. irpos TCU |vju.^>o/oas KOX TCIS yviLfia-z TjO£7ro/i«i/ovs, altering
their views according to the events. 3. 87 T^S ivfi<f>opa<; T<3 a?ro/6avTi,
by the issue which has resulted. (3) £<J<ras is not ' successful,' but
' operative,'—effectual for the purpose of the povXevp-ara: as v. 482
£(3vTa is said of the oracles which remain operative against the guilty,
and Ant. 457 £13 mvro of laws which are ever in force. Conversely
Xo'-yot OvTq&KovTPs fidrrfv (Aesch. Cho. 845) are threats which come to
nothing. See Appendix, Note 3. 47 euXapiiOriTi, have a care for thy
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 23

for I see that, when men have been proved in deeds


past, the issues of their counsels, too, most often have
effect.
On, best of mortals, again uplift our State! On, guard thy
fame,—since now this land calls thee saviour for thy former
zeal; and never be it our memory of thy reign that we were
first restored and afterward cast down: nay, lift up this State
in such wise that it fall no more!
potest quisquam neque affirmare; totae evanuerunt. 49 //.e/ju/iiiieSa codd.:
IxtliviflxeBa Eustath., Herm., Erfurdt., Dobraeus: vide annot. 5O ardvret y'
Triclinius, Elms., Blaydes.

repute—as the next clause explains. Oed. is supposed to be above


personal risk; it is only the degree of his future glory (55) which is in
question;—a fine touch, in view of the destined sequel. 48 TTJS iropos
irpo9v|i.Cas, causal genit. : Plat. Crito 43 B iroXXa'/dS fx.lv &j cre...evSa.ijU.oVicra
TOV Tpoirov. 49 |M|iv<a|M6a. This subjunctive occurs also in Od. 14. 168
Trive KCU aAAa Trapl£ fi.efj.v<afj.e6a, P l a t . Politicus 2 8 5 C <f>v\a.TT<i)fiev...KCU...
fj.eixvuifx.eda., Phileb. 3 1 A fJ,ef).V(i>fj.e8a 817 xat ravra vepl dfj.<f>oiv. EuStathlUS
(1303. 46, 1332. 18) cites the word here as |«|iv<£|«9a (optative). We
find, indeed, fiefivZo Xen. Anab. 1. 7. 5 (v. 1. ix.efj.vrjo), fieiivewTo II. 23.
361, fuefLvuTo Xen. Cyr. 1. 6. 3, but these are rare exceptions. On the other
hand, fxefJivyfirjv II. 24. 745, pepvyTO Ar. Plut. 991, Plat. Rep. 518 A. If
Soph, had meant the optative he would have written /ae/AvrjjU.e&x: cp. Philoct.
119 a.v...KiKXrjo. See Curtius Greek Verb 11. 226 (Eng. tr. p. 423). T h e
personal appeal, too, here requires the subjunct, not optat.: cp. O. C.
174 jJL-rj hrJT dSLK7j8S, Track. 8 0 2 yu/^S' CLVTOV 6dv(a. 50 ordvTes T' K.T.X.
F o r partic. with juc/x|"7/'uu C
P- X e n . Cyr. 3. 1. 31 €/U.€JU.V>JTO -yap diriLv.
Pind. Nem. 1 1 . 15 Ovara fj.eij.va.o-6u 7re/xo-TeAA<DV fj.eX.rf. for Te...Kat,
Ant. 1112 OLUTOS r eBr/cra KOU irapdiv lKXvcroixa.i, as I b o u n d , SO will I
loose. 51 d<r<j>a\eCqi, 'in steadfastness': a dative of manner, equivalent
to acr<£aA(3s in the proleptic sense of wore dcrfaXi) dvai. Thuc. 3. 56
01 firj TO. £v/j,<popa irpos Trjv <i<f>o8ov avrols a c r ^ a A e i ' a irpdacrovrK, those
who securely made terms on their own account which were not for the
common good in view of the invasion. 3. 82 dcr(f>aXei^ 8c TO imfiov-
Xeio-ao-Oai. (where acr^xzActa is a false reading), to form designs in security,
opp. to TO ifnrX-qKTux; 6£v, fickle impetuosity. The primary notion of
(' not slipping') is brought out by TreowTes and dvopOiao-ov.
24 I04>0KAE0YZ

opviQi yap KCKL TTJV TOT' alcrito Tvyr\v


Trape<r)(es rffxiv, KOU r a w c icros yevov.
cos etirep apfets ri^crSe 7175, axnrtp
£vv dvSpdcrcv KOXXLOV 17 Ka>T)<; fcpareiv' 55
OJS ovSev icrTLv ovre Trvpyos ovre vavg
epy)[xo<; dvhpoiv fiT) £vvoiKovvTan> ecroj.
OI. w TraiSes olicrpoC, yvcoTa. KOVK dyvaiToi jaoi
irpocrrfKdeff l/JLcCpovTes' ev yap otS' ort
vocrevre iravre?, /cai ^ocrovt'Te?, cus eyw 60
OUK ecrriv v{x.(ov OCTTLS i$ LCTOV vocrel.
TO phs yap vfxcav aXyos cis cv

52 6'pvi0i...alo-f(j>, like secunda alite or fausta avi for fow omine. A


bird of omen was properly otcovos: Od. 15. 531 ov TOI avev Otou
hrraTO Sc^ios opvis' | lyvmv yap p.iv iaavra. iScuv oliavov lovra'. Xen.
Cyr. 3. 3. 22 otaivois xprjtrajiievos aicrtoi?. But cp. Eur. I. A. 6oj
opviOa fi,\v T6V&' aiCTLOV iroiov/iiOa: Her. 73° opviOos OVVCKO. : Ar. Av.
720 ^rjlt,t) y vfilv opvts 1(TTI, irrapfjiov r opviOa. KaXelrt, | £vfj.f3o\ov opviv,
cjxovrjv opviv, OepdirovT opvt.v, ovav opviv. For d a t , Schneid. cp. Hipponax
fr. 63 (Bergk) 8e£iw...i\6a>v pwStu (heron). I n Bergk Poet. Lyr. p. 1049
fr. incerti 27 &e£irj O-ITTT; (woodpecker) is a conject. for §££0; a-LTrrj.
Kal is better taken as = 'also' than as ' b o t h ' (answering to /cat
ravvv in 53). 54 apgas...KpaTtts...KpaT£tv. Kparetv TIVOS, merely to hold
in one's power; ap-^iv implies a constitutional rule. Cp. Plat. Rep.
338 D OVKOVV TOVTO KpaTeZ iv £Ka(TTij TTOA.£I, TO ap^ov % H e r . 2. I aAAov9
re irapaXa/3tov T(3v ^px c K a ' ^ K a ' 'EXXifvcav T<3V eVeicpaTee, /'^. the Asiatics
who were his lawful subjects, and the Greeks over whom he could exert
force. But here the poet intends no stress on a verbal contrast: it is
as if he had written, etirep ap^i?, aWep apx^is. Cp. Track. 457 nd ft.\v
SeSotKas, ov KaXcus Tappets : below 973 wpovXeyov... | r;vSas. 55 |iv dvSptt-
<riv, not 'with the help of men,' but 'with men in the land,'= avSpas
iyovvrft y>Js. Cp. 207 fuv ats = as e^ovua. El. 191 dciKct crui' aroXa.
Ai. 30 <rvv veoppdvTw |t<^>et. Ant. 116 £vv 0' linroKOfiois KopvOcortri.
56 ws ovSiv eo-Tiv ICT.X. Thuc. 7. 77 avSpes yap TOXIS, KOL OV TCI^I? OV8«
aVSpeov Kfvat. Dio Cass. 56. 6 avOpanroi yap TTOV TTOXIS io~Tiv, OVK
K.T.X. Her. 8. 61 (Themistocles, taunted by Adeimantus after
the Persian occupation of Athens in 480 B.C. with being aVoXis, re-
OlAinOYS TYPANNOZ 25

With good omen didst thou give us that past happiness ;


now also show thyself the same. For if thou art to rule this
land, even as thou art now its lord, 'tis better to be lord of men
than of a waste : since neither walled town nor ship is anything,
if it is void and no men dwell with thee therein.
OE. Oh my piteous children, known, well known to me are
the desires wherewith ye have come: well wot I that ye suffer
all; yet, sufferers as ye are, there is not one of you whose
suffering is as mine. Your pain comes on each one of you

torted) iwvTOLcri...cos eir) /cat 7roAis KCU yrj p\,i^iav rjirep Keivouri, t o r ' av
SnjKOcriai vjje's <rcf>i ewcri TreTrXrjpiti/jiivai. iriJp'Yos = t h e city wall with its
towers : the sing, as below, 1378 : Ant. 953 ov irvpyos, ov\ aXUrvTroi | ...
raes: Eur. Hec. 1209 ?r«pi£ Se irvpyoi clx' en 7TTOA.IV. 57 L i t , 'void of
men, when they do not dwell with thee in the city': ov8p<lv depends
on 8pi](i.os, of which ^ £DVOIKOI5VT«>V So-w is epexegetic. Rhythm and
Sophoclean usage make this better than to take dvhpmv fir) £WOIK. I.
as a gen. absol. Cp. Ai. &fi\ yvfivov (faavevra TCOV apwrjtiwv arep :
Phil. 31 Kkwjv ocKYjaiv dvOpiOTruiv 8tx a : Lucret. 5. 841 muta sine ore
etiam, sine voltu caeca. 58 -yvwrd KO«K #yv«Ta. This formula is used
when the speaker feels that he has to contend against an opposite
impression in the mind of the hearer: 'known, and not, {as you perhaps
//link,) unknown.' / / . 3. 59 « r a /nc KCIT' CUO-OLV eraKecras ovS' xnrip dl<j<xv,
duly, and not,—as you perhaps expect me to say,—unduly. Her. 3. 25
efifi.avT]<; re ccuv KCU ov ^pev^pijs—being mad,—for it must be granted
that no man in his right mind would have acted thus. O. C. 397
[Zaiov KOVX} fivpiov xpovov, soon, and not after such delay as thy im-
patience might fear. 60 voo-oivT6s...vo<rei. We expected /ecu voa-ovvTes
ov voo-€tT€, <Js e'yco. But at the words cos cyco the speaker's conscious-
ness of his own exceeding pain turns him abruptly to the strongest
form of expression that he can find—OVK ZO-TIV V/X<SV OO-TIS vocrel, there is
not one of you whose pain is as mine. In Plat. Phileb. 19 B (quoted by
Schneid.) the source of the anacolouthon is the same: n-rj yap Suva-
jxtvoi TOVTO Kara Travros EVOS KO.1 6JJ,OIOV KCU TOLVTOV 8pav /cm TOV ivavTiov, cos
d Tra.pe\0(i>v Xoyos i[iijwcrev, o i S e i s «is ovSev o v S e v o s av •qfj.aiv ovSe-
•n-OTeyivoiTo a^os,—instead of the tamer OVK av ycvoipeBa. 62 clsiva...
liovov Ka9" auTc!v. Kaff avrov, ' by himself (O. C. 966), is strictly only an
emphatic repetition of povov: but the whole phrase ets iva p'vov naff
OVTOV is virtually equivalent to eis tva tKao-rov KaO' avVo'v, each several
26 IO*OKAEOYZ

Ka0y avrov, KOvSev dXXoV r\ 8' i/xr)


1
) TTOXIV re Koifxe KCU cr 6[iov crrevei.
T ovx vvvcp y evoovra, [JL egeyeipere,
d\\' Icrre woXka fiev fie BaKpvcravra. S77,
S' dSous ekdovra, <f>povrC8ot; TTXOVCH?.
S' ei> (TKOTTOJV evpuxKov Tacriv
eirpa^a' TraiSa y a p
Kpeovr', ifiavTov yafifipov, es ra, YIVOLKCL 7°
IVre/i.'/'a <&oi[iov Sw/xa^', OJS TTVOOLO' O TL
Spcov 17 T I <f>ci)VQ}v TtjvSe pvcraifjuqv TTOKIV.
KOX [x ^fJ-O-p rjSy) ^vixfieTpovfievov xpovq)
67 TrXavour L, oi ex ai facto: superscriptum est avrl Tr\di>ais BTJKVVTIKUS. T
alt
habet: ubi schol. in marg. formae masculinae suffragatur, TOI)S tpvya.Si.Kois

one apart from the rest. 64 TTOXIV T« KdjiJ Ka\ <r'. The king's soul grieves
for the whole State,—for himself, charged with the care of it,—and for
each several man (at). As the first contrast is between public and
private care, Ka^e stands between irokw and <ri For the elision of ere,
though accented, cp. 329 TCC/H, WS av tiirw /xrj TO. <J : 404 KOX ra o-*: El.
1499 T"- y°vv <r '• Phil. 339 olfioi jilv apKtiv (TOL ye KOU. rd a : Eur. Hipp.
323 ?a fi d/xapTflv oi yap es <T d/xapTavw. 65 The modal dat. virvw is
more forcible than a cognate accus. v-rrvov, and nearly = ' deeply,'
'soundly.' Cp. Trach. 176 rf>6(3«>, <pi\ai, rapfilovo-av: Eur. Tro. 28
KoiKVToimv... I /3oa: [Eur.] fr. 1117. 40 opyfj ^oXw^eis (where Nauck,
rashly, I think, conjectures epyei). Verg. Aen. 1. 680 sopitum somno. evSetv,
Ka6evSeiv (Xen. An. 1. 3. n ) were familiar in the fig. sense of ' t o be at
ease' (cp. h/ff OVK av /3pi£ovTa "Sois, of Agam., / / . 4. 223): the addition
of vrrvm raises and invigorates a trite metaphor. 67 irXdvois has
excellent manuscript authority h e r e ; and Soph, uses irXavov O. C.
1114, TrXavois Phil. 758, but irXoLvrj nowhere. Aesch. has TrXdvrj
only: Eur. ir\dvo<s only, unless the fragment of the Rhadamanthus be
genuine (660 Nauck, v. 8, OVTUI fiCoroi avdptinrmv irXdvrj). Aristoph. has
once (Vesp. 872), TrXdvrj never. Plato uses both irXavrj and
s, the former oftenest : Isocrates has 7rAavos, not ir\dv>]. 68 cvpi-
O-KOV, 'could find' (impf.). Elmsley r/vpto-Kov. Cuitius (Verb 1. 139, Eng.
tr. 93) justly says that we cannot lay down any definite rules on the
omission of the temporal augment in such forms. While the omission
TYPANNOS 27

for himself alone, and for no other; but my soul mourns at


once for the city, and for myself, and for thee.
So that ye rouse me not, truly, as one sunk in sleep:
no, be sure that I have wept full many tears, gone many ways in
wanderings of thought. And the sole remedy which, well pon-
dering, I could find, this I have put into act. I have sent the son
of Menoeceus, Creon, mine own wife's brother, to the Pythian
house of Phoebus, to learn by what deed or word I might deliver
this town. And already, when the lapse of days is reckoned,
Tr\avovs citans. ir\avois, non ir\cLvcus, indicat script, corapendiaria in B. Multi
tamen codd. recentiorum TXavcus praebent.

of the syllabic augment was an archaic and poetical license, that of the
temporal was 'a sacrifice to convenience of articulation, and was more or
less common to all periods.' Thus iiKatpv could exist in Attic by the
side of rJKa^ov, tvpLo-Kov by the side of rjvpia-Kov. On such a point
our MSS. are rarely safe guides. 69 Ta*n)v &rpaga, a terse equi-
valent for ravTrj epyu? ixpfjo'dfji.rjv. 71 o n 8(XSV...TC ijwovwv. Cp.
Plat. Rep. 4 1 4 D OVK oT8a oiroia. ToX[irj rj TTOIOIS Xoyois xpwjucvos
ipu>. These are exceptions to the rule that, where an interrogative
pronoun (as TIS) and a relative (as ooris) are both used in ari^ in-
direct question, the former stands first: cp. Plat. Crito 48 A OVK
apa...<f>povTi<TT€OV, TI ipovaiv ol TTOXXOI 17/tas, dXX' o TI d lira'tiM,
K.T.X. : Gorg. 4 4 8 E OVSEIS epcora iroia. TIS e«7 17 Yopyiov T€\VT], aXXa
Tts, Kal ovTiva 8eot KaXtiv TOV Topyiav: ib. 500 A eicAe^acrfJai iroTa aya#(i
KCU oiroia /ca/ca : Phileb. 17 B (lO'/xey) irocra T£ ecrrt Kal o i r o i a . 72 Spuv rj
<)>wvwv: there is no definite contrast between doing and bidding others
to do: rather 'deed' and 'word' represent the two chief forms of
agency, the phrase being equivalent to 'in what possible way.'
Cp. Aescb. P. V. 659 OeoTTpo-rrovs "aXXev, «5s fid.601 TL ~xprj | Spajvr' vj
XiyovTa SaLfxaaiv irpdo-aetv <f>iXa. p«<ra£(M]v. T h e direct deliberative
form is irws p m i / i a i ; t h e indirect, ipmrw OTTCOS (or TT<OS) pu'crw^ai,
T/pwrwv. oirws (or 7ro3s) jiv(TaLjxr)V. pvaoifitjv (oblique for pva-0/j.ai) would
imply that he was confident of a successful result, and doubtful only
concerning the means; it is therefore less suitable. 73 KO.£ H' i]|»ap...xp6v(j>.
Lit, 'and already the day, compared with the lapse of time [since his
departure], makes me anxious what he doth': i.e. when I think what
day this is, and how many days ago he started, I feel anxious. T[8T],
showing that to-day is meant, sufficiently defines 17/xap. XP°V1? is not
28 S04>0KAE0YZ

Xvirei TI irpdcrcrei' TOV yap et/coro? nepa


aTrecrri TrXeCo) TOV KOLOT/JKOVTOS -^povov. 75
OTCLV S' IKTJTCU, TrfViKavr" iya KGIKOS
fj,rj Spcov av elrjv rrdvff' ocr av §17X01
J ti. aAA ets KOAOV crv r ei7ras otoe r

"AiroXXov, el yap iv
crcoTrjpL fZalr) XafiTrpos wcrTrep
. aAA. et/cacrai jaev, rjdv;. ov yap av Kapa
TToXvcrTe^s <5S' elpire TrayKapirov Sdcfyv-qs.
OI. ra^' ela-ofieaOa' ^u/i/Aerpos yap ws icXveiv.
7 4 !re/>at L, et placuit quidem Porsono, v. 75 delendum censenti, irepq. legere:
vide tamen annot. 7 8 irpocTdxovTa. codd., sed verbum cum xpis non cum

for T<3 XP<'V¥! the time since he left,—though this is implied,—but is


abstract,—time in its course. £v|i|j.«Tpoii|«vov = cp. Her. 4. 158 o-vfifieTpr)-
cra/xevot rrjv mprjv Trj% ij/j.eprj's, VUJCTOS Traprjyov, ' h a v i n g calculated t h e time,
they led them past the place by night': lit., 'having compared the season
of the day (with the distance to be traversed).' Eur. Or. 1214 KCU S77
7T€'Xas viv Sto/«iT(i)v eivai SOK<3P | TOV yap -^povov TO /xrjKO's avro crvvrpi^u
'for the length of time (since her departure) just tallies (with the time
required for the journey).' 74 Xim-ei rt irpdo-o-ei: At. 794 wore /*' w&iveiv
TI <#nj?. Toi -yip SIKOTOS ir^pa. TO eiKos is « reasonable estimate of the
time required for the journey. Porson conjectured TOV yap EIKOTOS Ttpa,
as ='for he overstays the due limit'—thinking v. 75, aireo-Ti...xpovou, to
be a spurious interpolation. The same idea had occurred to Bentley.
But (1) TrcpSv with the genitive in this sense is strange (in 674 Ovpov
irepav is different), and would not be readily understood as referring to
time; (2) it is Sophoclean to explain and define TOV eiKoros irepa by
7i-/\.£«o TOV KadiJKovTO's ypovov. 78 tis KaXov, to fit p u i p o s e , ' o p p o r t u n e l y ' :
Plat. Symp. 174 E (h KCLXOV rjKws. Ai. 1168 «ai firjv h avTOV Kaipov... |
irdpuo-iv. Cp. Ar. Ach. 686 eis Tax°s = TOX«<OS, Av. 805 ets cuTc'Aeiav
= evTcAws. otSe: some of those suppliants who are nearer to the stage
entrance on the spectators' left—the conventional one for an arrival
from the country—have made signs to the Priest. Creon enters, wear-
ing a wreath of bay leaves bright with berries, in token of a favourable
answer. See Appendix, Note 1, § 2. 80 «v nSxi]...0(1410x1: may his
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOI 29

it troubles me what he doth ; for he tarries strangely, beyond


the fitting space. But when he comes, then shall I be no true
man if I do not all that the god shows.
PR. Nay, in season hast thou spoken; at this moment
these sign to me that Creon draws near.
OE. O king Apollo, may he come to us in the brightness
of saving fortune, even as his face is bright!
PR. Nay, to all seeming, he brings comfort; else would he
not be coming crowned thus thickly with berry-laden bay.
OE. We shall know soon: he is at range to hear.—
irp6 compositum, credo, significantes: ne enim in talibus duplex a scriberetur,
inferiorum temporum Graecis Latina suadere poterant exempla, ut astare, postemplum.

radiant look prove the herald of good news. Xanirpds with h> TVXQ K.T.X.,
—being applicable at once to brilliant fortune and (in the sense of
<£a<,8pds) to a beaming countenance. b> TUXU, nearly =/JLCTO. Tuxq^, 'in-
vested with,' 'attended by': cp. 1112 Zv n yap jxaKpw | yrfpa £wd8ti:
Ai. 488 crOivovros Iv irXovno. TV^T] ownjp (Aesch. Ag. 664), like
TTpaKTUip (ib. H i ) , 6e\KT(op TTUOIO (Aesch. Suppl. 1040), Kapavi<rTrjpts
(Eum. 186). 82 tlKao-ai \Uv, ijSiis (sc. /JaiW). Cp. EL 410
TOV vvKripov, SoKeiv 1/J.oL O. C. 151 hv<raiu>v | //.aKpaCwv T',
•qSus, not 'joyous,' but 'pleasant to us,' 'bringing good news': as 510
?;8v7roXts, pleasant to the city: El. 929 iJSiis ovSe p.rpp\ Sva-^ept]';, a guest
welcome, not grievous, to her. In Track. 869 where aijSrys KO.1 O-W<O-
<}>pv<j>ixivri is said of one who approaches with bad news, aijSifc is not
'unwelcome,' but rather 'sullen,' 'gloomy.' 83 iroXv(rre(})^s...8d<t>vT)s. The
use of the gen. after words denoting fulness is extended to the notions of
encompassing or overshadowing: e.g. TrepLartcprj \ ...dv6ea>v 6-qK^v {El.
895), o-Ttyriv...ys [v. I. rj] Kanjpe^eis So/xot (Eur. Hipp. 468). But the dot.
would also stand: cp. Od. 9. 183 oTrios...ha<\>vy<ri Kan/pc^e's: Hes. Op.
513 Xa^vr; Sep/Aa Karacr/aoi'. iroYKapirov, covered with berries: Plin. 15.
30 maximis bdcris atque e viridi rubentibus (of the Delphic laurel).
Cp. O. C. 676. In Eur. Hipp. 806 Theseus, returning from the oracle
at Delphi to find Phaedra dead, cries TL hrjra TOIO-S' aveo-rc/tjuai «apa |
7rA.eKToicri <^>vX\ois, SutrTv^s Ottapo'; &v; So Fabius Pictor returned from
Delphi to Rome coronaius laurea corona (Liv. 23. 11). 84
•ydp ws KX.V«IV. H e is at a just distance for hearing:
commensurate (in respect of his distance) with the range of our
30 ZO*OKAEOYI

Ki)8evfia, irai Mevoi/cews, 85


TIV rjfilv rjKeLS TOV deov ^jxr^v (ftepcov;
KPEI2N.
icrOXrjv' \kyoi yap KCU TO, hva^top, el TV^OL
KCLT opdov i£e\66vTa, travT av evTV)(elv.
01. e<mv Se iroiov TOUTTOS ; ovTe yap dpaavs
OVT ovv 7rpo8eicra<s elfu TW ye vvv \6yco. 90
KP. ei T<ui>Se ^py^ets TrXrjcna^ovTcdv Kkveiv,
erotjLio? threw, eire /cat crTei^eiv ecra).
OI. es TravTas auSa. rwi'Se ya/3 v\eov <f)epa)
TO TTev9o<s rj Ka\ T ^ S eyn^s \jjir)(r)s nepL.
KP, XeyoLfib av oi rjKOVcra TOV deov ndpa. 95
avmyev rj^as ^oi/Sos eyu.^avws a v a ^
/xiacr/ia ^wpa?, ws reOpa^evov ^Oovl
eu T77S', iXavveiv, JU.^8' av^/cecrTov Tpe<f>ew.
8 8 i^e\B6vra codd. Quod Suidas et Zonaras s.v. Si<ripopa legunt i^iavra, id mera
negligentia factum esse putes.

voices (implied in KAUCIV). 85 KijSevjia, ' kinsman' (by marriage),


here = ya/x/3po's (70). ^4#£ 756 ywaiKos <Sv SovXev^a /UT;
/*£. Eur. C^". 928 rai'Soi' 0'iKovpijfj.aTa = Tas ei/Sov oixovpowas,
87 Xfyw Ydp...«vTvx«iv. Creon, unwilling to speak plainly before the
Chorus, hints to Oedipus that he brings a clue to the means by which
the anger of heaven may be appeased. 88 ^«X6OVT«, of the event, ' having
issued'; cp. 1011 /xr/y«,ot$oi/3os igikOy o-a^'s: so 1182 ef^Koi, Theword
is chosen by Creon with veiled reference to the duty of banishing the
defiling presence (98 eXavvetv). ira'vTa predicative with evrv^iv, 'will
all of them (= altogether)- be well.' Xeyw «iTDx«tv dv = A.ey<o on f VTV-
\oi-q av. 89 Toviros, the actual oracle (rovrros TO OiOTTpoirov, Tr. 822):
\6yc[> (90), Creon's own saying (Xe'yto, 87). irpo8«C<ras, alarmed beforehand.
Cp. Her. 7. 50 Kpi<j(rov Be Travra Baptriovra tffiurv TWV BeiviSv WcrxEtv
/xdWov rj irar XPWa TrpoSeifj-aivovra firjSafjia. /AIJSCV Tra^eii'. No Other
part of TrpoSet'So) occurs : vporapfiuv, irpo^oPua-Oai — ' to fear before-
hand,' but vTrepSeSoiicd crov, I fear for thee, Ant. 82. In compos, with
a verb of caring for, however, irpo sometimes = virep, e.g. irpoxj/So/Mu
Ant. 741. 91 TrXijo-iajo'vTwv here = TTXIJO-LOV OVTWV. usu. the verb = either
(1) to approach, or (2) to consort with (dat), as below, 1136. 92 Art
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 31

Prince, my kinsman, son of Menoeceus, what news hast thou


brought us from the god ?
CREON.
Good news: I tell thee that even troubles hard to bear,—if
haply they find the right issue,—will end in perfect peace.
OE. But what is the oracle ? So far, thy words make me
neither bold nor yet afraid.
CR. If thou wouldest hear while these are nigh, I am ready
to speak; or else to go within.
OE. Speak before all: the sorrow which I bear is for these
more than for mine own life.
CR. With thy leave, I will tell what I heard from the god.
Phoebus our lord bids us plainly to drive out a defiling thing,
which (he saith) hath been harboured in this land, and not to
harbour that which is past cure.
KOI <rreCx«i.v itra (xprj'^cis), (eroi/xo's ei/Ai TOVTO 8pdv). So E u r . Jon 1120
(quoted by Elms., etc.) irerrvo-fxivai. yap, el Bavetv r}fms \peu>v, | rjSiov av
6a.voijj.iv, tiff opav <£dos: i. e. elre opav cjydos (xPv)> (v&lov &v opaJ/tev
avTo). fl...dre, as Aesch. Eum. 468 av 8', el SiKaiw; eire fir], Kplvov
BiK-qv. 93 ts irctvTas. Her. 8. 26 OVTS rjvt(T-)(£TO <ny<2v cure re es iravras
raSe: Thuc. 1. 7 2 « TO vXrjOos elireiv (before the assembly). irXfov
adverbial, as in At. 1103, etc.: schol. irepi TOVTU>V irXiov dymvi^ofiat rj
Trepl T17S epavTOv i/fv^s. TOV8«, object, gen. with TO TrevOos (not with
irepi): cp. EL 1097 m Zr;vos evae/leia,. 94 T) Ka\, 'than even.' This
must not be confounded with the occasional use of rj KO.[ in nega-
tive sentences containing a comparison: e.g. Ai. 1103 OVK ?<T0'
OTTOV <roi TOvSe Koarft.rjaai irXeov dpxfjs CKCITO 8ecrfi6s rj KOI T<38£ (re:
El. 1145 ovre yap TTOTC [ jj.ijTpo's o~v y' r)o~8a /xdA.A.oi' ij Ka.fj.ov <^>i'Xos :
A n t i p h o n de caed. Her. § 23 efijTcu-o ovScV TI fiaWov VTTO TU>V SXKIOV rj
K<U VTT' e/xov (where KO.1 is redundant, = 'on my part'). 95 Xfyoi|j.' &v, a
deferential form, having regard to the permission just given. Cp. Phil.
674 x<i>poi% av eio-to : EL 637 KAVOIS ay rfit]. 97 <5s marks that the partic.
ov expresses the view held by the subject of the leading verb
i.e., 'as having been harboured'='which (he says) has been
harboured.' Cp. Xen. An. 1. 2. 1 IXeye Oappelv «!s KaTao-Tijo-o/iivtov
TovTizv eU TO Se'ov: he said, 'Take courage, in the assurance that' &c.
98 eXaweiv for i£e\avveiv was regular in this context: Thuc. 1. 126 TO
ayos ZXavveiv riys 6eov (i.e. to banish the Alcmaeonidae): and so
1. 127, 128, 135, 2. 13. |iT]8' avrJKco-Tov Tp6J>ei.v. T h e /uaoyx.a was
32 ZO<t>OKAEOYI

OI. TTOLO) Kadapfiai; T I S 6 rpoTros Trjs £v]JL<j>opa<;;


KP. dv8pr)\aT0vvra<;, 77 <f)6v(t) (f>6vov TTOXLV IOO
Xvovras, GJ? T O S ' cu^ia -^eifid^ov TTOXIV.
OI. TTOLOV yap avhpos Tijvhe /xrjvvei, TVX^V ;
KF. T ^ ij/xtv, (wag, Aaxos Trof rjyefx.on'
yrjs TrjcrBe, nplv ere Ttjv8' aTrevOvveiv TTOXLV.
OI. e£oiS' (XKOVCOV' ov yap el<reL86v ye TTCO. 105
KP. TOUTOU OavovTos vvv imcrTeWet cra^ws
TOUS auroeVras X e t /°' l

^Mofo" A, superscripto a m. recentiore ^Tot xe'i""f0I'7'0S TO


simile in Bodl. Laud. 54 schol., xe'/U(>i"OI"'os t "' T l T "'' TapaTTovros. Qui talia
annotaverunt, xeif*6fc" accus. absolutum esse intellexerant. Lectionis xeill^tel'
in paucis sequioris notae codd. inventae, nulla est auctoritas; quanquam L

in the sense that it could not be expiated by anything else than


the death or banishment of the blood-guilty. The version, ' and not
to cherish it till past cure' (i.e. (Sore dv-uJKeo-Tov tlvai), suits the context
less well, since the guilt was incurred long ago, and Thebes has already
suffered. Cp. Antiphon Tetr. T. y. § 7 OIVTI TOU ira66vTo<; (in the cause
of t h e d e a d ) iiricricq'irTOfi.ev vfilv ™ TOVTOV <f>ov(o TO fx,ijvifia Tuiv d
piwv a x e f f a / i e v o v s Tracrav Trjv iroX-iv Ka.60.pav TOV yu.ta<r^aros
'to heal with this man's blood the deed which angers the avenging
spirits, and so to purge the whole city of the defilement.' 99 irofo...
gv|uj>opas. By what purifying rite (does he command us iXavvuv TO
/uiacr/ia)? What is the manner of our misfortune (i.e. our defilement)?
E u r . Phoen. 390 rt's 6 Tpowos airov; TI <j>vyd(TLv TO 8vo-)(£p£s -y ' w h a t is
the manner thereof?' (sc. TOV KOKOU, exile). |v|i.c|>opa$, euphemistic for
guilt, as Plat. Legg. 9 3 4 B Xo)(j)i]o-ai 7roXXa fiepr] rijs ToiavT-qs £vfi<f>opas, to
be healed in great measure of such a malady (viz., of evil-doing): ///.
8 5 4 D iv T<3 irpoo-unria KOI r a w X€Pa>L 7P a< £ £ 'S Trjv ^vfj.4>opdv, with his
misfortune [the crime of sacrilege] branded on his face and hands.'
Her. 1. 35 o-vficfiopy e^o/ievos = £va.yrjs, under a ban. Prof. Kennedy
understands: 'what is the mode of compliance (with the oracle)?' He
compares O. C. 641 rySe yap £vvoio-ofnai ('for with that choice I
will comply'). But elsewhere, at least, o-v^opd does not occur in a
sense parallel with o-u/x^tpeo-Oai, 'to agree with.' 100 d.v8pT)XaTovvTos. As
if, instead of Troiio KaOapfup, the question had been ri TroiovvTas; 101 cJs
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOI 33

OE. By what rite shall we cleanse us ? What is the manner


of the misfortune ?
CR. By banishing a man, or by bloodshed in quittance of
bloodshed, since it is that blood which brings the tempest on
our city.
OE. And who is the man whose fate he thus reveals ?
CR. Lalus, king, was lord of our land before thou wast pilot
of this State.
OE. I know it well—by hearsay, for I saw him never.
CR. He was slain; and the god now bids us plainly to
wreak vengeance on his murderers—whosoever they be.
ec
Xeifia.^ov exhibet, ubi « non a prima manu profectum videtur. Cod. in biblioth. Coll.
SS. Trin. Cant. R. 3. 31, qui xei/mfei habet, ipse se refellit, non suae sed verae lectionis
interpretatione adiecta Ka6a xeijuafoiros. In V 4 autem x«/«afS' factum est ex x«/xafoj'.
1O7 Tivae L sine accentu ; litteram a damnaverat librarius, puncto superposito,

T68' aljitt xe^ojov irdXiv, since it is this blood [ro'Se, viz. that implied
in <£6Vov] which brings the storm on Thebes, yf.in.alpv, ace. absol.
»s presents the fact as the ground of belief on which the Thebans
are commanded to a c t : ' Do thus, assured that it is this blood,' &c.
Xen. Hellen. 2. 4. I 01 8e TpiaKovra, oSs i£ov ^817 avi-ois Tupawilv aSecus,
v, K.T.X. Cp. Eur. Suppl. 268 iroXts 8E irpos TTOXIV I «rr?jfe xeL~
tlo-a, 'city with city seeks shelter, when vexed by storms.' 104
v, to steer in a right course. The infin. is of the imperf., = Trpo-
repov rj dvrjvOvve^, before you were steering (began to steer). Oedipus
took the State out of angry waters into smooth: cp. 696 e/xav -yav
<j)l\av I Iv TTOVOIS aXvovtrav KOLT' 6p6ov ovpi&as : fr. 151 TrX^xTpots a7rev-
Bvvovaiv ovpiav Tpoiriv, 'with t h e helm (TrXiJKTpa, t h e blades of t h e
x-ijSaXia) they steer their bark before the breeze.' 105 oi 7dp elo-et-
86v 7e x«. As Oed. knows that Lai'us is dead, the tone of un-
concern given by this colloquial use of oviru (instead of oxnroTe)
is a skilful touch. Cp. El. 402 XP. av 8' co>x' ir«<m...; EA. ou
8rJT<x.' fi/qtru) vov TOtrdvS' elrjv Ktvq: E u r . Hec. 1278 ^.rjirm fiaveir] T w -
Sapis ToaovSe Trais: II. 12. 270 aXX oviroi TrdvT&s 6/xoloi \ dvipei iv
jroXe/io): c p . o u r (ironical) ' I h a v e yet t o l e a r n . ' 107 TOOSOVTO^VTOS...
nvas. TOVS implies that the death had human authors; rwa.% that they
are unknown. So in O. C. 290 oTay 8' 6 Kvpios \ -n-aprj rts, 'the master—
whoever he be.' Tin«p«iv, 'punish.' T h e act., no less than the midd., is
J. s. 3
34 IO<t>OKAEOYZ

OI. ol S' eicrl TTOV yrj<;; TTOV T O S ' eupedrjcrerai


i ^ o s TraXatas hva-TeK/xaprov a m a s ;
KP. iv rfj8' e<j>a<TKe yfj. TO Se t^Tov^vov 11 o
dXoiTov, e/c^euyei Se TafieXov/Jievov.
01. TTorepa S' eV oi/cois ^ V d y p o i s d Aai'os
17 y ^ s £73"' aXXr/s rwSe O-V^TT'ITTTU <f>6vq);
KP. Oeapos, cos e^aaKev, iicSrjficov TraXiv
•77/3OS OXKOV ovKed' IKZO' , cos <xTreo"raX'>j. 115
01. ouS' ayyeXos T I S ovSe crvyLirpaKToip oSou
/ca/reTS', OTOU T I S eK/xadcav e^pijcraT 5 a y ;
KP. dvtjaKovcri y&p, TTXTJV els T I S , OS <f>o/3a) <f>vya)i>

quod aut ipse aut alius postea delere voluit. In cod. A, qui pariter Tivacr habet,
simile punctum non ad a pertinere existimo, sed spiritum lenem esse litterae t in old.,
quod, Oedipi personam indicans, voci nvaa proximum est. -nvaa sine accentu
praebent etiam Bodl. codd. Laud. 54, Barocc. 66. nvh.a T, E, V, V3, V s , V .
Lectionem TWO. codex quod sciam nullus, sola habet Suidae editio Mediolanensis,

thus used even in prose: Lysias In Agor. § 42 Ti/jLwpeiv Snip avrov tus
<f>ovia ovra, to punish (Agoratus), on his own account, as his murderer.
X«ipl Ti(io)p6tv, here, either 'to slay' or 'to expel by force,' as distinguished
from merely fining or disfranchising: in 140 Toiavry \up\ nixaptlv is
explained by Kravwv in 139. 108 iroii To8'...aWas; ToSe "xyos o m a s =
iX^os rrj(rSe airtas, cp. rovfiov <j)ptv<ov ovapov El. 1390. otrCas, 'crime' :
At. 28 TqvV ovv e/c€tV(i) iras TI<S alriav vt/j.€i. F o r 8v<TT^K|iopT0v, h a r d t o
track, cp. Aesch. Eum. 244 (the Furies hunting Orestes) etev TO'8' eo-u
raVSpos €K<t>avh T€Kfiap. T h e poet hints a reason for what might else
have seemed strange—the previous inaction of Oedipus. Cp. 219.
1 1 0 £<j>atrKe, SC. 6 0€OS {evpiB-qcricrOaL TO I^VOS). TO 8^ JT)TOU(I.6VOV : 8J h a s
a sententious force, = ' now.' T h e yvdfi-r], though uttered in an oracular
tone, is not part of the god's message. Cp. Eur. fr. 435
TI vvv Bpmv €LTa Saijuovas KaXei' | TW yap TTOVOVVTI KO.1 Otas crvXXa/x
113 trvpirlwrn. T h e vivid historic present suits the alertness of a mind
roused to close inquiry: so below, 118, 716, 1025, etc. Cp. Ai. 429
ica/cots Toioio-Se (Tv^TrtTTTiOKOTa. 114 8«up6s: La'ius was going to Delphi
in order to ask Apollo whether the child (Oedipus), formerly exposed
by the god's command, had indeed perished: Eur. Phoen. 36 TOV
7T<uSa fM(TTtv<av [ladtiv I £i JU.IJK£T' ftrj. » s f<()o<rK«v, a s LaiUS t o l d
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOI 35

OE. And where are they upon the earth ? Where shall the
dim track of this old crime be found ?
CR. In this land,—said the god. What is sought for can
be caught; only that which is not watched escapes.
OE. And was it in the house, or in the field, or on strange
soil that Lalus met this bloody end ?
CK. 'Twas on a visit to Delphi, as he said, that he had left
our land; and he came home no more, after he had once set
forth.
OE. And was there none to tell ? Was there no comrade
of his journey who saw the deed, from whom tidings might have
been gained, and used ?
CR. All perished, save one who fled in fear, and

cum ceterae rivis tueantur (s.v. tTurriXKa). Mirum mihi quidem quod nvi. receperunt
Elmsleius, Erfurdt., Dindorf., Blaydes. 1 1 7 OTOV cum ceteri codd. turn etiam L.
Versantur enim in re minime probabili qui primam Laurentiani manum Swov, STOV
nomrisi recentem dedisse affirmant. Factum est sane T post deletam litteram quae JT
esse potuit, tota autem interiit : quam delevisse non recentior mantis videtur, sed vel
prima ipsa vei certe antiqua.

the Thebans at the time when he was leaving Thebes. 4K8I]|I<5V, not
going abroad, but being [= having gone] abroad : cp. Plat. Legg. 864 E
oi/ctiTO) TOV iviavrov *K&r)ixu>v. <Ss = e l m : X e n . Cyr. I. 3 . 2 (os 8e CU^IKCTO
Ta.\i(Tra...rj<nrd£,(.To. Cic. Brut. 5 ut illos libros edidisti, nihil a te postea
accepimus. 116 oiS" a-yYc\os...4xpijo-aT av; T h e sentence begins as if
ayy«Xos TIS were to be followed by rjkBe.: but the second alternative,
(rvfnrpa.KTo>p 68ov, suggests xareiSe [had seen, though he did not speak]:
and this, by a kind of zeugma, stands as verb to ayyeXos also. Cp.
Her. 4- l ° 6 io~6rJTab Se <f>op(ovo~i TTJ 2KD6IKJ5 O/XOITJV, yA<o<r(Tav 8« ISLTJV.
ovS* ayyekos: II. 12. 7 3 OVK.LT eireir oioy oiJS' ayyeXov dirovhaOai. 8TOU,
gen. masc.: from whom having gained knowledge one might have used
it 117 4K|MI8<JV= a protasis, et i^i/xaOev, i^pijaar' av, SC. TOVTOIS a e^ifiaOev.
Plat. Gorg. 4 6 5 E iav piv ovv Kai iyw crov aTTOKpivojx.ivov JJLIJ e^co O Tt
Xprjo-wfjLai, if, when you answer, I also do not know what use to make
[of your answer, sc. TOUTOIS a av airo/cpiVy],—where shortly before we
have ovBe xprj<r6ai rfj diroKpitrti TJV croi aTr(Kpivdfji7]v ovStv otos T* rjaOa.
118 <|)op<p 4>v-yuv, 'having fled in fear': <j!>o'/3o), m o d a l d a t i v e ; c p . T h u c . 4 .
88 Slot T£ TO iTraytayd €iTT€iv TOV Bpao't'Sav Kal irepl TOV Kapirov <j>6fia>

3—2
36 Z04>0KAE0YI

b)v eiSe Trkrjv eu ovSev el^' eiSws


01. TO Troiov ; et> y a p TTOXX.' av i^evpou ixaOelv, 120
o-pXW fipa.\etav el X&fioipev iX
KP. Xijcrras e^acr/ce crwrv^o^Tas ov
pu>fJi~Q KTaveiv viv, aXXa CUP TrXijdev
OI. TTWS ovf o XrjcrTijs, et TL firj £vv apyvpca
£77pacrcrer evueuo , es TOO av TOA/XIJ? e p r j ; 125
1
KP. oo/couvra TauT r)v' Aatou 8' OXWXOTOS
ouSeis apaijos iv Ka^ois kyiyvero.
01. KO.KOV 8e TTOLOV i/xTToScov TvpavvCSos
OVTU> Trecrovcrrjs eipye TOVT" i^etSeuat;
KP. T) 7TOIKIXW8OS *Z<ftiyt; TO vrpos TTOCTI (TKOTV&V 130
T<i(f>avrj wpocnjyeTO.

fyvoxrav. 5. 70 eVroi'OS Kal opyij \<apovvTts. 119 elSws, with sure knowledge
(and not merely from confused recollection, ao-a^ijs So£a): so 1151
A.£y« yap etSios OIJSCV d\X aXA-oos irovEi : ^ / . 41 o:r&>s aM tiScos 17/xii'
dyyuX.rj's (To.<f>rj. Iocasta says (849), in reference to this same point in
the man's testimony, KOVK ICTTIV avrip TOVTO y eK/JaXtiv 7raA.iv. 120 TO
TTOIOV;. Cp. 291 : El. 670 7rpay/xa tropavvuiv /xeya. | KA. TO TTOLOV, (a £ev ;
ihri. Ar. Pax 696 eu'Seujuovcr iracr^ei Sc ^at'/Aaarov. 'EPM. TO T I ;
IfjeiJpoi (ia0€tv. One thing would find out how to learn many things,
i.e. would prove a clue to them. T h e infin. fiaOuv as after a verb
of teaching or devising: Her. 1. 196 aAAo Se n i^ivprjKam. vecDari
ycvtcrflai. Plat. Rep. 519 E Iv oArj TTJ 7ro'X£t TOVTO pr}yavS.Tai eyyc-
vicrOai. 122 ?<J>a(TKs ^<r. o' ^ u y w (118). oiJ |ii^ p<£(J.rj = oi)^ «vos f><»fi.r], in
the strength not of one man. Cp. Her. 1. 174 iroW-rj x«pi ipya.£,o[j.£vwv
T<3V KvtSiojv. Ant. 14 oWAg x«pt = by the hands of twain. So perh. x V '
StSu/ia Pind. Py///. 2. 9. 123 <riv irXijeei: cp. on 55. 124 «\!TI(J.II K.T.X. if
some intrigue, aided by (giv) money, had not been working from Thebes.
TI is subject to ^irpao-<r«To : distinguish the adverbial TI (= 'perchance')
which is often joined to et fiy in diffident expressions, as 969 d TL firj
o I KaT€(j>6ir,'unless/mvjtfwtf': Tr. 586 eiTip} BOK<S \ irpdo-vuv
v, etc. Schneid. cp. Thuc. I. 121 KCLL TI airuS KO.1 lirpaao-ero is Tas
TrdAtts TavTas TrpoSocrias irepi: and 5. 83 virrjpxe Se Tl avrots Kai e/c TOS
"Apyovs avTO^ev Trpaa-a-o/xevov. 125 eirpd<r<reT0...e|3ii: the imperf. refers here
to a continued act in past time, the aor. to an act done at a definite past
moment. Cp. 402 eSd/cets—eyvus: 432 IKO'/TIJI'—exaAeis. 126 SOKOVVTO...
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOI 37

could tell for certain but one thing of all that he saw.
OE. And what was that ? One thing might show the clue
to many, could we get but a small beginning for hope.
CR. He said that robbers met and fell on them, not in one
man's might, but with full many hands.
OE. HOW, then, unless there was some trafficking in bribes
from here, should the robber have dared thus far ?
CR. Such things were surmised; but, Laius once slain,
amid our troubles no avenger arose.
OE. But, when royalty had fallen thus, what trouble in your
path can have hindered a full search ?
CR. The riddling Sphinx had made us let dark things go,
and was inviting us to think of what lay at our doors.

ijv expresses the vivid presence of the 8o'£a more strongly than
«8d/cei would have done: (cp. 274 raS' tar dpio-Kovff): Her. 1. 146 ravra
Se rjv yivo/teva hi MiXifrw. 128 4(iiroS»v sc. ov, with KOKCSV, not with tlpye,
'what trouble (being) in your path.' Cp. 445 vap(ov...ifjiiro8wv | o^Xeis.
TvpawCSos. Soph, conceives the Theban throne as having been vacant
from the death of Laius—who left no heir—till the election of Oed. The
abstract rvpawtSos suits the train of thought on which Oed. has already
entered,—viz. that the crime was the work of a Theban faction (124)
who wished to destroy, not the king merely, but the kingship. Cp.
Aesch. Cho. 973 i8«r$e \u>pa% TVV SITTXJJV rvpawtBa (Clytaemnestra and
Aegisthus). 130 iroiKiXuSis, singing 7roi/aX<x, subtleties, «uvry,u.aTa: cp.
Plat. Symp. 182 A 6 7rcpi TOV cpojra vo/xos iv p.iv rais aXXais 7ro'X€(ri vorj-
cral paSios' aTrAcus yap wpurrai' 6 8' ivOdSe Kal IV AaKcSat/xoj/i TTOIKI'XO?.
Her. 7. 111 irpojaavTis Se -q xpeovaa, Karcwrep iv AeX^oio-i, Kal o^Sci/ TTOIKI-
Xtorepov, 'the chief prophetess is she who gives the oracles, as at Delphi,
and in no wise of darker speech.' 131 The constr. is irpoo-Tj-yero ^S.%,
|K0^VTas rd di|>avtj, o-Koirely TA irpos iroo-f. irpooTJY«TO, was drawing US (by h e r
dread song), said with a certain irony, since irpoad-yeo-Oai with infin.
usually implies a gentle constraint (though, as a milit. term, ara'y/07
ydyovTo, reduced by force, Her. 6. 25): cp. Eur. Ion 659 XP°V<?
Xafil3dv(i>v jrpocrd£ofiLai | 8a/j,apT* lav (re (TKrjirTpa Tap.' e\eiv xOovos. T6
irpos iro<rl (cp. £/x7roS(oi/ 128), the instant, pressing trouble, opp. to ra
dtjiavrj, obscure questions (as to the death of Laius) of no present or
practical interest. Pind. Isthm. 7. 12 8a/xa pXv 7rapoixo/x€voi' ] xap-
repav tiravae /j.ipifj.vaV TO 8e i r p o s TTOSOS dpuov del VKOTTUV j XPVH-a
38 IOcJ>OKAEOYZ

01. dXX' i£ vTrapxfjs av6is aW iyai <f>avco.


eTra^iws yoip t&otySos, a^uws Be cri)
Trpo TOV 0av6vTos Trjvft eOecrd' irncrT
WOT' ivSiKCi)? o\jjecr0e Ka/xe crv/x.ju.a^oi', 135
yfj T^Se Ti[LG)povvTa T<5 6ea> 6" a/xa.
vnep yap ov^i TW^ dircoTepa) (f>t,\cov
dXX' auros aurou TOUT' dirocrKehco [AVO~O<;.
OOTIS y a p 17 P £K€IVOV 6 KTOLVCOV Ta^' at>
KcifJi av ToiavTTj xeiPL Tiju.wpeu' dikoi. 140
KeCvco irpocrapK(M> ovv i/jLavrov (o<f)eXcu.
aXX' C05 r a ^ t o r a , TralSe?, v/Aeis /tet' fidOpcov
laracrOe, rovah' apavres LKTrjpas /cXaSovs,

1 3 4 irpd habent optimi duo codd., L, A : inter reliquos, V3, Bodl. Laud. 54
(cum interpr. virip uterque), Barocc. 66, Misc. 99. vpbs codd. aliquot, inter quos B,
E, T, V, V2, V4: vide annot. rfyS ISeaS' inarpo^v. Variam lect. Tyvde
Oeairl^ei ypatpyv notat schol. in marg. L, quae cum plane supervacua et eadem insulsa

•jrav. Ant. 1327 Tav TTOO-IV xaxa. 132 4g vTropxijs, i.e. taking up anew
the search into the death of Lai'us. Arist. de Anim. 2. 1 -KOXW 8' wmrep
i£ VTrapxqs iTravLu>iJ.tv : SO 7raA.tv ovv otov c^ virap^rjs Rhel. I. I . 14 : [ D e m . ]
or. 40 § 16 7raA.iv i£ vwapxrjs \ayyavova-l, fnoi Sucas. T h e phrase tv
Trj rrjs kni<TTr\\x.rl<i V7rapxfj occurs in the paraphrase by Themistius of
Arist, 7rcpt <t>vo-iK7Js aKpoacrews 8. 3 (Berlin ed. vol. 1. 247 b 29): else-
where the word occurs only in i£ vTrapxrjs. Cp. El. 725 i£ ira-oo-rpo<£??s =
VTrocrTpa<j}€VTei : Her. 5. 116 i< vei;s : Thuc. 3. 92 IK Kaivrj';. avBis, as he
had done in the case of the Sphinx's riddle : aird =TOdfyavrj. 133 4ira|£»s
(which would usually have a genitive) implies the standard—worthily of
his own godhead, or of the occasion—and is slightly stronger than aj£<os.
Cp. Eur. Hec. 168 dirwXe&aT, cuAe'crar': Or. 181 Sioixo';u.e0', olxpfieO':
Ale. 4 0 0 viraKovvov, CLKOVOOV. 134 irpi, on behalf of, c p . Trpo TWVSC
10, O. C. 8 1 1 : Xen. Cyr. 8. 8. 4 et Tis...Staiaj'Sweixme irpo /3ao-iA«us:
1. 6. 42 a£taxroixri cr« 7rpo iaxTusv f$ov\eve<r6ai. Campb. reads 7rpos
rov 6av6vro's, which here could mean only ' at the instance of the dead.'
Trpos never ='on behalf of,' 'for the sake of,' but sometimes 'on the
side of': e.g. H e r . I. 124 ojro<JTa.vT£s COT' CKEIVOU Kal yevofitvoi Trpos <r(o,
' ranged themselves on your side': 1. 75 eAino-as Trpos eoivrov TOV xPVcrlJ^v
i, that the oracle was on his side: below, 1434 Trpos a-ov...^>pa.a-<o, I
OlAinOYl TYPANNOI 39

OE. Nay, I will start afresh, and once more make dark
things plain. Right worthily hath Phoebus, and worthily hast
thou, bestowed this care on the cause of the dead; and so, as
is meet, ye shall find me too leagued with you in seeking
vengeance for this land, and for the god besides. On behalf
of no far-off friend, no, but in mine own cause, shall I dispel
this taint. For whoever was the slayer of Laius might wish to
take vengeance on me also with a hand as fierce. Therefore,
in doing right to Lai'us, I serve myself.
Come, haste ye, my children, rise from the
altar-steps, and lift these suppliant boughs;
sit, docet quanta mutandi licentia grammatici interdum uterentur. 1 3 8 avTOv
recte B, T, alii; eorum in quibus aiirov legitur sunt L et A. 1 3 9 iKeivov L (ex
cr
IKHVOIT factum), A : ineivov B. Pravam 1. ^xeivos deteriorum codd. unus et alter admisit.

will speak on your side,—in your interest: Track. 479 KCU TO Trpos KCIVOV
Xc'yeiv, to state his side of the case also. *m<rrpo<j>ij, a turning round
(O. C. 1045), hence, attention, regard: cTriorpcx^iJv TiOeo-Oai (like
(Ttrov&qv, irpovoiav TLO., Ai. 13, 53^) =CTiorpe<£eo"#ai(TIVOS), Phil. 599-
Dem. In Aristocr. § 136 OVK eVeorpa<j!>»7 'heeded n o t ' = o{i8ev i<j>pov-
ncre ib. § 135. 137 v-a\f -yap oi\\. K.T.X., i.e. not merely in the cause
of Laius, whose widow he has married. The arrangement of the
words is designed to help a second meaning of which the speaker
is unconscious: 'in the cause of a friend who is not far off' (his
own father). The reference to Laius is confirmed by KCIVOI irpoa-apKiav
in 141. 138 OLVTOV = ifiavrov : SO K\a.tb>...avTr} irpos airnfv, El. 285 : rov%
y avros avrov iroXefitovs (OUK i<3 Odirreiv) Ai. 1132. diroo-KeSoi, dispel,
as a taint in t h e a i r : cp. Oil. 8. 149 o-Kc'Saow 8' airo lofSea Ovfuov:
Plat. Phaed. "J"J D [i.rj...o ave/xos avrrjv (rrjv \)/V)(r]v) eKySatVovtrar IK TOV
crw/xaros Sicuftvaa KCI.1 SiacrKtSawvcriv. 139 ^KUVOV i Kravtiv. eKtivov is
thus placed for emphasis: cp. 820. 140 roiairn, referring to Kravwv,
implies <f>ovia: on Ti/xuipw see 107. The spectator thinks of the time
when Oed. shall be blinded by his own hand. 142 iralSes. The
king here, as the priest in 147, addresses all the suppliants. d'XXos
(144) is one of the king's attendants, pddpuv | Wao-Ot K.T.X. Cp. Ant.
417 x^ ov os...aeipas: Phil. 630 vvs>% ayovTa. Prose would require a
compound verb : Xen. Symp. 4. 31 viravia-TavTai...6a.K0iv. dpavrts.
Aesch. Suppl. 481 KXaoovs ye TOVTOVS ax\§ Iv ayKaXats XajSoJi' | /3a>/ioiis
4o Z04>0KAE0YZ

aXXos Se KaS/xou XaoV wS' adpoitjera,


6JS TOW e//,ou Syoacrovros' 17 yd/> evTU^ets 145
cruz^ Tw 0e&j (f)avov[JLeff', rj 7re7rT&)/cores.
IE. c3 7raiSes, ioraj//.ecr#a. rwi^Se y a p
Kal Seup' e/3r)iJ.ev u>v oS' e^ayyeXXerai.
*3?oi/3os 8' o •n'eju.i/'as TacrSe /[/.avretas
8' IKOLTO Kal voaov Travcrr^'/Dto?. 150

X0P02.
(TTp. a'. cS AtOS d8u£7reS ^WXTt, Tt9 7T0T£ TttS TTo\v\pV(TOV
2 nu^awos ayXaa? e/8as

CTT' aA.Xovs Sat/iovcov iy\(i>pL<ov | #cs. 145 irdv...8pao-ovTos, to do every-


thing = to leave nothing untried: for »s cp. 97. Plat. Apol. 39 A
lav TIS ro\jJ.a irav TTOUIV KOX Aeyeiv. Xen. Hellen. 7. 4. 21 iravra
iiroifi OTTWS, £i Suvairo, diraydyoi.riTi>xe!s...'irenT<DK6Tes:'fortunate,' if
they succeed in their search for the murderer, who, as they now
know, is in their land ( n o ) : 'ruined,' if they fail, since they will then
rest under the dvr)K«TTov p.io,<xfi.a (98). The unconscious speaker,
in his last word, strikes the key-note of the destined ^pra-eYeta. 147
JwatSEs: see on 142. 148 KO.1 &evp' i/3-qfj.ev, we e'en came here: i.e. this
was the motive of our coming in the first instance. Phil. 380 eVciS^
Kal Xeyeis OpaavaTOfiuiv: Lys. In Eratosth. § 29 irapa rov irore Kal Xr/-
\j/ea-de Soojvj egaYY&^«T<", proclaims on his own part (midd.), of himself:
i.e. promises unasked, ultro pollicetur. Cp. Ai. 1376 dyytWo/mi...wai
<J>LXOS, ' I offer friendship.' Eur. has thus used i£ayy. even where metre
permitted the more usual cirayyeAAopu: Heracl. 531 Ka^ayyeXXofiai |
6irq(TKuv, I offer to die. 149 a|ia: *. ^. may the god, who has summoned
us to put away our pollution, at the same time come among us as a
healing presence.
151—215 The Chorus consists of Theban elders—men of noble
birth, 'the foremost in honour of the land' (1223)—who represent the
Ka'8/xou Aao's just summoned by Oedipus (144). Oedipus having now
retired into the palace, and the suppliants having left the stage, the
Chorus make their entrance (7rapo8os) into the hitherto vacant opyrjcnpa..
For the metres, see the Analysis which follows the Introduction.
1st strophe (151—158). Is the god's message indeed a harbinger
of health ? Or has Apollo some further pain in store for us ?
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOS 41

and let some other summon hither the folk of Cadmus, warned
that I mean to leave nought untried ; for our health (with the
god's help) shall be made certain—or our ruin.
PR. My children, let us rise; we came at first to seek what
this man promises of himself. And may Phoebus, who sent
these oracles, come to us therewith, our saviour and deliverer
from the pest.
CHORUS.
O sweetly-speaking message of Zeus, in what spirit »st
? ,, -^ , 1 • strophe,
hast thou come from golden Pytho unto glorious

1st antistrophe (159—166). May Athene, Artemis and Apollo


succour us!
•2nd strophe (167—178). The fruits of the earth and the womb perish.
2nd a?itistrophe (179—189). The unburied dead taint the air:
wives and mothers are wailing at the altars.
3rd strophe (190—202). May Ares, the god of death, be driven
hence: may thy lightnings, O Zeus, destroy him.
$rd antistrophe (203—215). May the Lycean Apollo, and Artemis,
and Dionysus fight for us against the evil god.
151 IJMITI, of a god's utterance or oracle (1440), a poet, equivalent
for <j>VM'•CP- 3 I o "•""' °'»>v(3v §wnv. AiAs. because Zeus speaks by the
mouth of his son; Aesch. Enm. 19 Aios wpo^ifTijs §' «rri Ao|iots -n-aTpos.
dSuen-is, merely a general propitiatory epithet: the Chorus have not yet
heard whether the response is comforting or not. It is presently told
to them by Oed. (242). Cp. El. 480 dSv7rvoW...oi'et1oaTa)v, dreams
breathing comfort (from the gods). TCsn-oTc.gpas; What art thou that
hast come ? i. e. in what spirit hast thou come ? bringing us health or
despair? 152 IIu6a>vos, from Pytho (Delphi): for the gen., see on 142
fidOpaiv I lo-Tao-Oe. Tas trdkvxpvo-ov, 'rich in gold,1 with allusion to the
costly dvaQrifixxTo. dedicated at Delphi, and esp. to the treasury of the
temple, in which gold and silver could be deposited, as in a bank,
until required for use. Iliad 9. 404 ovS1 Sa-a Xdlvos ovSos a^Topos t^ros
iepyu I $ot'/3ou 'AiroWwvo's, TivOoZ ivl 7ccrp-qicra~g. T h u c . I . 121 VCLVTLKOV
Te own) TTJS virap^ovcrrji r e ovcri'as i^apTWo/AeOa, Kai CITTO T W iv Ae\<f>oi$
KOLI 'OXv/xTrta -^pr]fid.Toiv. A t h e n . 233 F T<3 ft.lv ovv iv AeX^ois 'ATT6XX<OVI
rov irpoTepov iv -rfj AaKtSatyotovt \pvcrov KOL apyvpov [irporepov = before t h e
time of Lysander] ia-Topovtnv dvarfOrjvac. Eur. Andr. 1093 Qeov
yv'aXa (recesses), drjcravpovs /3poT<3v. Ion 54
42 ZO*OKAEOYZ

3 ©rjySa9 ; e/crerajiiai, <f>o/3epav (frpeva SeCfian ir&Wotv,


4 irjLe. AaXie Ilata^,
5 a,fx<f>\ crol a£oju,evos TI JUOI rj viov 155
617 7re/HTeX\oju,eVais aptus iraXiv i^avvcre.i<; )(peo<;.
7 et7re ju.01, <3 -^pvcr€a<s TIKVOV 'EKTTLSOS, a/xfipoTe <&a//,a.

avr. a'. vp<oTd ere KeKkojxevos, Ovyarep A109, afifipor 'AOdva,


2 yaido^ov T d8ek(f)eav 160
159 KeK\o/j.(voa L (w a manu admodum recenti), A, E : KexXo'/ucos V, V 4 , B, al. :

(the young Ion) Xpvaro<f>v\a.KQ. TOV 6tov, | ra/xiav re TTOLVTWU.


Pind. Pyth. 6. 8 iv TroXv^pwo) *kircXkuiVia....vaira. (i.e. iv Ili)0ot).
153 The bold use of licr^Tonai is interpreted by <f>o|3cpdv <j>pe'va
jrdXXwv, which is to be taken in close connection with it. iKre
is not found elsewhere of mental tension (though Dionys. De Comp. Verb,
C. 15 ad fin. has 17 717s Sictvoias eKraoris KCU TO TOV SufjuxToi a-n-poa--
SOK^TOV) : and Triclinius wrongly explains here, ' I am prostrated by
dread' (cKirejrXrjy^at, Trap ocrov 01 €KirXaycvT£? (.KTCUTIV cco/iaros Kal
d.KiV7]<Tiav Trdcr)(ov(riv : c p . E u r . Afed. 585 ev yap CKT«vei <T' tiros). Cp.
Xen. Cyr. I. 3. I I €<«s Trapareivaifii TOVTOV, axnrep ovros «ju,e irapa-
Tilvn a77o o-ov KwXu'wv,—'rack,' 'torture' him. But iraparelvea-Oai,
when used figuratively, usually meant ' t o be worn out,' 'fatigued
to death' : e.g. Plato Lysis 204 C TraparaO^a-eTai VTTO crov a/coiW Oa/id
X/yovros, enecabitur, he will be tired to death of hearing it. So
Xen. Mem. 3. 13. 6 iraparirafiai fnaKpav 6S6v iroptvOiis. irdXXwv,
transitive, governing <j>p€va, making my heart to shake; not intransi-
tive, for iraXAojUEVos, with <£peVa as accus. of the part affected. An
intransitive use of mxXXco in this figurative sense is not warranted by
such instances as Ar. Lys. 1304 KOV$O, •KOXK.WV, 'lightly leaping in
the dance': Eur. El. 435 ?7raXXe Se\cj>fc (= la-KipTa), 'the dolphin
leaped': ib. 477 ?7nroi liraXXov 'quivered' (in death). Cp. Aesch. P. V.
881 KpaSia <£d/?a> <j>ptva Xaxrifei: so, when the speaker is identified
with the troubled spirit within him, we can say <£peVa 7raXXo),—where
4>plva. has a less distinctly physical sense than in Aesch. I.e., yet has
physical associations which help to make the phrase less harsh. 154 AdXic.
The Delphian Apollo is also Delian—having passed, according to the
Ionic legend, from his native Delos, through Attica, to Delphi (Aesch.
Eum. 9). A Boeotian legend claimed Tegyra as the birthplace of
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOI 43

Thebes ? I am on the rack, terror shakes my soul, O thou


Delian Healer to whom wild cries rise, in holy fear of thee,
what thing thou wilt work for me, perchance unfelt before,
perchance returning in the fulness of the years: tell me, thou
immortal Voice, born of golden Hope !

First call I on thee, daughter of Zeus, divine 1st ami-


Athene, and on thy sister, guardian of our land,
KefcXo^cif) V 3 , Bodl. Barocc. 66 : KexXo/^cw V 2 , Bodl. L a u d . 54 : treTtXojucu, U Blaydes.

A p o l l o : P l u t . Pelop. 16 ivTavBa /ivOoXoyovai TOV 6tov yivicrOai, KCLL TO


JU.£V 7r\rj(TLov opos ArjXos KaXeLTcu. W e c a n scarcely say, however, with
Schneidewin that AaAte here ' bewrays the Athenian,' when we remember
that the Theban Pindar hails the Delphian Apollo as AVKU KO.1 AdXov
dvdo-o-wv $oT/3e (Pyth. 1. 39). lijie (again in 1096), invoked with the cry
Irj : cp. Tr. 221 ico to! Hatav. Soph, has the form TTOHWV, iranjtov as = ' a
healer' (not with ref. to Apollo), Phil. 168, 832. 155 a£6pcvos (rt. ay,
whence ayios) implies a religious fear : cp. Od. 9. 478 O-^LTXC , i-irel (jelvovs
o&x a^€o am Zvl OLKW | ia-9ifjievaL. f\ WovTJ...ird\iv. A r e we t o suffer s o m e
new plague, for some recent impiety ? Or are we to be visited by a
recurrence of plagues suffered in past years, on account of some old
defilement? The second guess is right: it is the old curse in the
house of Labdacus that is at work. 7raA.iv recalls Aesch. Ag. 154
fiijxvu yap <f>of$epd iraXtvoproi | OIKOVO/J.OS SoXia fxydfiuiv (JLrjvtS TCKIWOIVOS.
viov, adjective with x P e 0 S • 1™klv> a d v e r b with e£avv<rei<s. xt poi viov
Xpe'os Z£avv<rei<;; rj r t XP^ 0S TaXiv efaruo-eis; T h e doubling of rj harshly
co-ordinates viov and irdXiv, as if one said rtvas ^ fj.a-^oji.ivovi ij d/ia^el
enKrjo-av, 156 irepiT«XXo(i,. <3pais, a n epic p h r a s e which Ar. Av. 6 9 7 also
has. Od. 14. 2 9 3 aAX' ore 81J pr/vis re Kai rj^cpat c^eTeAewTO aij/ irepi-
reXXofjiivov CTCOS, «al lirqXvOov wpai. 157 xp v<r ^ a s K.T.X. T h e answer
(not yet known to them) sent by Apollo is personified as $a|jia, a divine
Voice,—' the daughter of golden hope,' because—whether favourable or
not—it is the issue of that hope with which they had awaited the god's
response. 159 KCK\6(I«VOS is followed i n 1 6 4 b y irpo(|>ovT]T^ |ioi instead of
ev^o/xai 7rpo<jiavrjvai. C p . Plat. Legg. 686 D dit ofiXl\pas yap 7rpos TOVTOV
TOV O~T6XOV OV Tripi h~iaXey6fji.e6a e$o£i fioi TrdyKaXos.. .tlvai. Antiphon Tetr.
B. /?. § 10 diroXvof/.evos 8k VTTO TE T^S d\r]6uas TWV Trpa^OtvTwv viro r e
TOV v6jx.ov KaO' ov 8to)K£Tai, ouSe T<SV imrrjSevfjMTOiv ctvena S i x a t o i TOI-
OVTUIV KaKuiv d^iovaOai io~fjitv. X e n . Cyr. 8. 8. 10 YJV Se auToig vofLifiov
160 -yaidoxov has this sense only here. I n O. C. 1072
44 IO*OKAEOYZ

3 AprefiLV, d KVKkoevT dyopds Bpovov eu/cXea OdcrcreL,


4 Kal Qoifiov ii<afi6\ov, la
5 rpccrcrol dXe^Cfiopoi, Ttpo^avyyri [ioi,
6 et Trore KCU, irporepas a r a s vnep 6pvv^4va<i TroXet 165
jwcraT eK eKTomav (f>\6ya TTI^XIXTOS, eX^ere Kal vvv.

o-rp. /3'. ai TTOTTOI, dvdpid[ia yap <f)epa>


2 TT^ara 1 I'ocret 8e /^ot irpova^ CTTOXO?, OVS' lift <f>povTi8o<i

S a TIS aXeferai. oure yaya eKyova 171


4 /cXvras ^^ovos au^erat ovre TOKOLCTLV

it is the Homeric epithet of Poseidon, 'girdling the earth,' tov


yaiao^ov. Cp. IIaA.A.tts 7roA.ioi)^os Ar. £ ^ . 581 (7roXtao^os Pind. {?/. 5-
10), TroXuTtjov^oi 6eoi Aesch. Theb. 6g. 161 KVKXOCVT a^opas Opovov =
KVK\O€O-(T7]<; ayopa? Opovov, a throne in the centre of the agora; cp.
Ant. 7 9 3 veixos aVSpcuv £VV<XL{J.OV, Track. 9 9 3 <3 K^vat'a Kptpn.% f3u>jxiov.
K%iK\o£VTa should not be pressed as if asserting a definitely circular
form for the agora; the notion is not so much 'round' as 'sur-
rounding,'—the epithet marking that the sitting statue of Artemis
is the central object. The phrase may have been partly suggested
by the familiarity of the word KVKAOS in connection with the Athenian
agora, of which it perhaps denoted a special part; schol. Ar. Eq.
137 0 Se KVKXOS 'hdrjvqcrCv icrri KaOairep [laKeWos, CK Tijs KaTao-KCvrjs
(form) rijv TTpoo-rjyopiav Xa/3<ov. iv6a hrj irarpao-Kuai ^copis Kpe<uv Ta
aXXa wvia, Kal tfaiperios 81 ot l)(6ves. Cp. Eur. Or. 919 oAtyaias
CLCTTV Kayopas xpaivw KVKXOV, ' the circle of the agora,' i. e. ' its
T(
bounds' : cp. Thuc. 3. 74 ^S oiKias i-as iv KVKXW T^S ayopas, ' a l l
round' the agora. In //. 18. 504, cited by Casaubon on Theophr.
Char. 2. 4, kp<3 lv\ KVKXW refers merely to the yepovi-es in council. I
prefer my version above to (1) 'her round throne, (consisting) of the
agora,'—a strained metaphor, for $povo<s is the chair of the statue:
(2) 'her round seat in the agora'—/cuxXo'evra meaning that the pedestal
of the statue was circular: (3) 'her throne in the agora, round which
ot r a n
KVKXLOI x°P ' ge themselves.' This last is impossible. CVKXIO,, al-
luding to Artemis EwXeia, the virgin goddess of Fair Fame, worshipped
OIAITTOYS TYPANNOZ 45

Artemis, who in the centre of our agora holds her throne of


fame, and on Phoebus the far-darter: O shine forth on me, my
threefold help against death ! If ever aforetime, in arrest of ruin
hurrying on the city, ye drove a fiery pest beyond our borders,
come now also!

Woe is me, countless are the sorrows that I bear; a plague is 2nd
on all our host, and thought can find no weapon for defence. The
fruits of the glorious earth grow not; by no birth of children

esp. by Locrians and Boeotians: Plut. Arist. 20 y3o/ios yap avrrj KOX
dyaXfia Trapd iraaav dyopdv ISpvrai, KO.1 TrpoOvovcriv at r e yajxov)x.ivai Kai
0! ya/iowTes: also at Corinth, Xen. Hellen. 4. 4. 2. Pausanias saw a
temple of "Apre/us Ei>«Xeta, with a statue by Scopas, near the Ilpom'Ses
irvkai on the N. E. side of Thebes. Near it were statues of Apollo
Boedromios and Hermes Agoraios. The latter suggests that the Agora
of the Lower Town (which was deserted when Pausanias visited Thebes)
may have been near. In mentioning the dyopd, Soph, may have been
further influenced by the fact that Artemis was worshipped as 'Ayopaia:
thus in the altis at Olympia there was an 'Apre/u'Sos 'Ayopcuas /?<o/xcs
near that of Zeus 'Ayoptuos (Paus. 5. 15- 4). 165 cn-as imp, 'on account
of ruin' (i.e. 'to avert i t ' ) : cp. Ant. 932 KXavfiaff virdp^u /JpaSu-rijTos
virep. S o Aesch. Theb. I l l ISCTE trapQivum iKetriov Xoypv BovXcxrvvas inrep,
'to avert slavery.' Cp. 187. (Spwpivas iroXei: the dat. (poet.) as after
verbs of attacking, e.g. hnkvai, imriOea-dai. Musgrave's conj. vtrepopw-
IJLivai TTo'Xet (the compound nowhere occurs) has been adopted by some
editors. 166 ^via-ar tKToirCav, made IKTOTTIOV, = e£a)p«raT6, a rare use of
dvvui like Troitiv, Kadiardvat, aVoSei/cvwai: for the ordinary use, cp. 720
IKUVOV yvvaev | <j>ov£a yevi(r8ai, effected that he should become. In
Ant. 1178 TOVTTOS ok ap' 6fiB6v rjvvaa's, the sense is not 'made right,'
b u t ' brought d u l y to pass.' JXBtre KO.1 VBV, a n echo of Trpo<f>di>rp-e p.01,
wpoTtpas having suggested KO.1 VVV : as in 338 aAX' ip.e i^e'yeis repeats
opyrjv e/xi/juj/ia rrjv ip.r)V. 167 <o irdiroi is merely a Cry like Trairat: Trach.
853 Ke^vrai vocros, u> TTOTTOI, OXOV, K-T.X. 170 OTOXOS, like crrparos (Pind.
Pyth. 2. 46, etc.) = Xaps. ^vi = Ivevn, is available. <f>povr£8osfyx°s>not,
a weapon consisting in a device, but a weapon discovered by human
wit, cy^os w TIS dXi^erai being a bold equivalent for prjxavrj dXe^rjrripia.
173 TOKOKTIV, by births: i.e. the mother dies, or the child is still-born:
46 IO4X3KAEOYZ

5 ir/Kov KafnaTOJu dve^ovcri yvvauKes' i 74


6 aWov 8' av aXXw TrpocrtSots drrep evnrepov opviv
7 KpcLcrcrov ajaat//,a/ceVou Trupos op/J-evov
77-pos kcnripov Oeov'

o k /?'. & 7roXts avapiOfAOS OXXVTOU'


2vr)\4a Se yeveOXa npos ireSw 0avaTa<f>6pa

3 eV 8' aXo^ot iroXtai T' eVt


iaKTav irapa fiejfjuov dXXoOev aXXat 182
oXvypayv TTOVCOV licrrpes eTTi(TTevd)(ov(nv. 185
6 iraiav Se Xa/*7rei crroi'oecrcra TC yfjpvs ofiavXo<s'
7 cS^ tnre/3, w ^pvcrea dvyarep At09,
8 eucoTra
18O Veram 1. 6ava.Ta(j>6pa., quam ex cod. Palat. 40 et Laur. 31. 10 (L2) affert
Campb., inveni etiam in V. L Bavararftopia (sic), a m. rec. in -a correctum:

see on 26, and cp. Hes. Op. 244 ou'Se ywaiKcs TIKTOWLV. If TOKOKTLV
= '/« child-bed' (and so the schol., eV rots TOKOIS), the meaning implied
would be that all the women perished in their travail, since ofy avc^ovtrt
could not be explained as merely = ' do not soon or easily surmount.'
175fiXXov8'...oXX<j>, ' one after another.' The dative here seems to depend
mainly on the notion of adding implied by the iteration itself; though
it is probable that the neighbourhood of 71750s in wpoo-t'Sots may have
been felt as softening the boldness. That irpoo-opav could be used as =
' to see in addition' is inconceivable ; nor could such use be justified by
that of ivopav riia as = opdv iv TIVL. And no one, I think, would be
disposed to plead lyric license for aXkw wpds 1801s on the strength of
aKTav irpos eriripau 6eov in 177. Clearly there was a tendency (at least
in poetry) to use the dative thus, though the verb of the context
generally either (a) helps the sense of' adding,' or (b) leaves an alter-
native. Under (a) I should put El. 235 rUrtw arav aT<us: Eur. Helen.
195 oaK/roa SaKpvo-L fioi. rj>ep<i>v. U n d e r (b), E u r . Or. 1257 Tnjfiara
Tnjfiaa-iv i£eipy: JPhoen. 1496 tj>6va> <ftovo<s \ OtoWdSa Sofiov coAecre: where
the datives might be instrumental. On the whole, I forbear to recom-
mend a\\ov 8' av oXXa •n-poo-tSois, though easy and tempting; cp. Thuc.
2. 4 aXXot Se SXXrj Trj<s wo\e<i)S OTropaSijv aVwAXwro, 177 Sp\uvov, SLOT.
TYPANNOZ 47

do women surmount the pangs in which they shriek; and life


on life mayest thou see sped, like bird on nimble wing, aye,
swifter than resistless fire, to the shore of the western god.

By such deaths past numbering, the city perishes: unpitied, 2nd anti-
her children lie on the ground, spreading pestilence, with none
to mourn: and meanwhile young wives, and grey-haired mothers
with them, uplift a wail at the steps of the altars, some here,
some there, entreating for their weary woes. The prayer to
the Healer rings clear, and, blent therewith, the voice of lamen-
tation : for these things, golden daughter of Zeus, send us the
bright face of comfort.
6avaTTj<j>6poi (sic) A. Dativus, voci iriStf debitus, in codd. fere omnes irrepsit.
1 8 2 Trapafiwiuov L, A, plerique. irapafitofuov,B, T, V2, V , al. avSav Tapa.f}ibfuoi>
Hartung., ax^v irapaf3oiiuoi> Nauck. aWai codd.: a\\av Dindoif.

part. (//. 11. 571 Bovpa...opfjieva 7rpo'<rcra>), 'sped, 1 'hurried,' since the life
is quickly gone. Kpti<r<rov...in>pAs, because the irvp<j>6po<} Aoi/uos drives
all before it. 178 aK-rdv irpis for wpos dxrav, cp. 525 : O. C. 126 aXcros
£s TSLVB' dixaifiaKcrav Kopav. «<nr«pou 8«o5 : as the Homeric Erebos is in
the region of sunset and gloom (Od. 12. 81), and Hades is ivw^wv
araf O. C. 1559. 179 <Sv...dvapt6(j.os. u>v, masc, referring to akXov
...a\\ip,—'to such (deaths) knowing no limit': cp. dvdpi.9ij.os Oprjvoyv
El. 232, ix.r\v5>v \ dvripSixos Ai. 602, where the gen. depends on the
substantival notion (dptOixos) in the compound. 180 ^ve8Xa (TTOXCCOS),
'her sons': cp. 1424 ra Ov-qrwv yivedka. the sons of men. VT^O, un-
pitied ; dvodcTOs, without oLcros, lament, made for them: they receive
neither Tacj>rj nor Oprjvos. C p . T h u c . 2. 50 TTOXXWV drdfjxav yvyvofiivtov
(in the plague, 430 B.C.). 181 Iv 8', cp. on 27. iv\ adv.: Her.
7. 65 r d f a Be KaXd/xiva. eTxpv,...€Trl Be, (riB'qpov {v. 1. -os) r/v. But em =
eireo-Ti, II. 1. 515. 182 aKTav iropd paipiov, 'at the steps of the altars':
Aesch. Cho. 722 axT^ ywyMTos, the edge of the mound : Eur. Her. F. 984
d[i<f>lfiui/jLLavI eTTTr]$e KprjTnB', at the base of the altar. 185 iKTfjpts with
Xvypuv irovwv, entreating on account of (for release from) their woes,
causal gen.: cp. dXyelv TUX»?S, Aesch. Ag. 571. 186 Xdpim: 473 tXa/j.-
if/e...<j>dfj.a: A e s c h . Theb. 104 KTVTTOV BeBopKa. 6p.avXos, i.e. heard at
the same time, though not ovfujxovos with it. 188 <5v«irep: see on 165.
189 evwira dXKav: cp. dyavrj (raivcva' | eX^rt's, Aesch. Ag. 101 (where Weil
48 IO*OKAEOYI

arp. •/. *Aped re TOV (jiaXepov, os vvv


2 cj)\eyev fie Tre/K/Soaros dvTidtpv, 191
3 TrakCcrcrvTOV Spdixr}[jia vnrrCcrai i r a r p a s
4 enovpov eiT es fiiyav
5 6dXa[xov 'A[jL,<f)LTpiTa.5 195
6 £LT es TOV dirotjevov opjxov
7 ®pr)Kiov KkvScova'
8reXeu> yap, ei TI vuf a^,
1 9 4 aTovpov L (cum interpr. ixaKpav)'. est tamen a a manu recentiore. Prima
(irovpov scripsit, quod primo loco scholiasta interpretatur; deinde airovpov (airopov
scribens) ita explicat ut significet airo TUIV Spwv T-rjs jrarpas. In V, ut in L, airovpov
factum est ex iirovpov. T (irovpov. A et ceteri airovpov, 1 9 8 rcXeiv, r4\ir) Bodl.

fiaveicr), IXapov <£eyyos Ar. Ran. 455. 190 "Aped T« K.T.X. The ace.
and infin. "Apea...v(OTCo-ai depend on 80s or the like, suggested by the
preceding words. Cp. //. 7. 179 ZeO Trdrcp, rj Aiavra Xa^civ rj TvStos
vlov (grant that). Aesch. Theb. 253 6to\ TroXTrat, \vr\ pe. SovAetas rvyilv.
(j.a\«pov, raging: cp. //.a\epov xvpos II. g. 242: jU.aAepuh'...A.COVTCDJ' Aesch.
^4^. 141. Ares is for Soph, not merely the war-god, but generally /?po-
T-oXoiyo's, //£,? Destroyer: cp. ^4/. 706. Here he is identified with the
fiery plague. axaXitos a<nriSuv (cp. El. 36 a<TK€vov aoTn'Scuv : Eur. Phoen.
324 airerrXos <f>apeu)v): Ares comes not, indeed, as the god of war,
yet shrieks of the dying surround him with a cry (/SOT;) as of battle.
191 irepipo'aros could not mean 'crying loudly': the prose use ('famous '
or 'notorious,' Thuc. 6. 31) confirms the pass, sense here, dvnajwv,
attacking: Her. 4. 80 yvTiao-dv fx.iv (ace.) ol OpifiVes. Aesch. has the
word once only, as = 'to meet' (not in a hostile sense), Ag. 1557 irarep'
avrido-aaa: Eur. always as = ' t o entreat'; and so Soph. El. 1009.
Dindorf reads tf>kiyu pe Trepi(i6a.Tov (the accus. on his own conject.),
dvTidloj (suggested by Herm.), ' I p r a y that' etc. But the received text
gives a more vivid picture. 192 v<oTC<rai, to turn the back in flight
(Eur. Andr. 1141 wpos cpvyrjv evomo-av), a poet, word used by Aesch.
with ace. TTOPTOV, to skim (Ag. 286), by Eur. Ph. 651 (Dionysus) /a<rcros
ov...ivuiTurtv as= 'to cover the back of.' 8pd|iT|(j.a, cognate a c e :
gen. after verb of parting from: see on fiddpwv, 142. 194
= iirovpitpficvov (ironical). Lidd. and Scott 5. v. refer to Clemens
Alexandr. Paed. 130 T<3 T^S aX^^eias Trvet^art hrovpo<; dpOefe, 'lifted
on a prospering gale by the spirit of Truth.' So Track. 815 ovpos
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 49

And grant that the fierce god of death, who now with no 3rd
brazen shields, yet amid cries as of battle, wraps me in the s iop
flame of his onset, may turn his back in speedy flight
from our land, borne by a fair wind to the great deep of
Amphitrite, or to those waters in which none find haven,
even to the Thracian wave; for if night leave aught undone,
Barocc. 66, seu dormitante librario, seu sensum expediri putante si accus. ad d<prj
referretur. el. rjv V 3 .

6<f>0aX/xiuv ifJLaiv | avrrj yivoir awwOtv ipirovarj KaXws : ib. 467 aXXa
Tavra filv | peiVw KO.T ovpov. Active in Track. 9 5 4 Zirovpos EO-TICOTIS
avpa. (schol. avefxoS ovpios i-rrl rrj'i okias), 'wafting.' T h e V. I. aTrovpov
would go with TraTpas, 'away from the borders of my country'—from
Ionic ovpos = opos, like o/*oupos (Her. 1. 57), irpoaovpos (Phil. 691),
£vvovpos (Aesch. Ag. 495), rrjXovpo's. Pollux 6. 198 gives t^opos, e|dptos,
but we nowhere find an Ionic an-ovpos : while for Attic writers afopos
(from opos) would have been awkward, since acpopos ' sterile' was in use.
194 [Uyav I OaXapov 'A|t<f>iTp£Tas, the Atlantic. OdXajios 'A/t^iTpir^s alone
would be merely ' t h e s e a ' (Od. 3. 91 kv n-cAayei /xerd Kv/xacrtv 'A/j.cjuTpiTrjs),
but f-iyav helps t o localise it, since t h e Atlantic (17 ?£«> arriXiwv OdXaa-aa
•q 'ArXavTis KaXtofnivr}, H e r . I. 202) was esp. 7? fieydXr] ddXacro-a. T h u s
Polyb. 3. 37 calls the Mediterranean rrjv KOB' JIMS,—the Atlantic, rrjv
t£o> no! fxeydXrjv vpo<7ayopevo/j.ivriv. In Plat. Phaedo 109 B the limits
of the known habitable world are described by the phrase, TOVS ^XP1- T<"V
'Hpa/cXeiW o-TjjXoii' diro $a<riSos (which flows into the Euxine on the
E.), Eur. Hipp. 3 ocroi re irovrov (the Euxine) Tepfj.6v<ov T 'ArXav-
TLKISV I valovcriv eicro) : Here. F. 234 war' 'ATXavTiKaJi/ iripa | ^xvyav
opcov av. 196 dirojevov. Aesch. has the word as = ' estranged from'
(y>?s, Ag. 1282), cp, a7ro£tvoii<r6(u. Here it means 'away from strangers,'
in the sense of 'keeping them at a distance.' Such compounds are
usu. passive in sense: cp. aWSeurvos (Hesych., = aSeraros), aVdtfeos, dwo-
pwdos, a?rdo-iTOs, aTTOTi/jLOS (215), aTro^prjfiaro';. dirofjsvos opjios, the
Euxine : an oxymoron, = opju.09 avop/tos, as in Phil. 217 \ aos d$tvov
op/xov. Strabo 7. 298 ajrXow yap tlvai Tore rqv OdXarrav TO.VTT]V KO.1
"Afevov 81a TO Sw^eifiepov KO.1 rrjv dypioTYjTa T&V
iOvuiv Ka.lfn.dXi.crTa ™v %KV$LKISV, ^(.VOOVTOVVTWV, K.T.X.
The epithet ©pifxtov here suggests the savage folk to whom Ares is
ayx'TToXis on the W. coast of the Euxine (Ant. 969). Ovid Trist. 4. 4.
55 Frigida me cohibent Euxini litora Ponti: Dictus ab antiquis Axenus
ille/uit. 198 T«\e:v Ydp...*px«Tai. Reading reXetv, as Herm. suggested,

J. S. 4
So SO*OKAEOYZ

9 TOUT sir rjfjLap


IOTOV, CO <TS,V> TTVp(j)6pa)V 2OO
u dcTTpairav Kpart] vificov,
Zev Trarep, viro <rco (j>6Ccrov Ke.pa.vvco.

y. AvueC ava£, T& TC era yjpv<ro<TTp6<$><av air dyKvkav


2y8e'Xea dikoifi ctv dSd/xaT ivhaTeiadcu 205
3dpayya irpooTa.6e.vTa, Tas re nvp<f>6pov<;
SOO rov 5 irvptpopoiv codd. Syllabam longam desiderari docet versus 213 (irekaa-
Brji/ai <j>\4yovTa). tav Si rav Trvp<j>bpuv H e r m a n n . Praebet autem cod. Flor. A b b . 152
(F) rax c3 Tvpipopoiy. In voce irvp<popat> 0 super u scriptum a m. rec. habent L, A, a l . :
Kparei (v. 201) A, al. Hinc confiata est lectio quam E sine ulla varietatis mentione

instead of re'Aei, I construe thus:—el TI vv£ d4>xi> VH-aP «i"«PXeTa'


TOVTO, ' If night omit anything (in the work of destruction), day comes
after it to accomplish this.' i-c-Xeiv is the infin. expressing purpose, as
often after a verb of going or sending, where the fut. participle might
have been used : cp. Her. 7. 208 tir€fnr£...KaTda-Koirov mirea, iSta9aL
[ = Olj/OfJLeVOv] OKOCTOl T€ CtCTl, K.T.X. : T h l l C . 6. $O ScKO. Si TWV V€<Sv TTpOVITefllj/aV
€? TOV /xtyav Xifiiva TrXivcrixi T6 KOX KaTa<TKi\j/acr8ai...Kal K-qpv^ai.
Here the pres. inf. is right, because the act is not single but repeated.
Observe how strongly reXetv is supported by the position of the word
('To accomplish,—-if night omit aught,—day follows'). No version of
T&ei explains this. The most tolerable is :—'In fulness—if night omit
aught—day attacks (htipyerai) this': but I do not think that such a
rendering can stand. See Appendix, Note 4. cl...d^. Cp. 874
£i vTrepirXij&Ofj (lyric): O. C. 1443 ei (TTeprjOw (dialogue): Ant. 710
KU 7-is rj (do:): Iri' using ei with subjunct., the Attic poets were in-
fluenced by the epic usage, on which see Monro, Homeric Grammar
§ 292. The instances in classical prose are usu. doubtful, but in Thuc.
6. i\ £t iva-Tw&ivhas good authority. 199 4ir"...?px€rai: for the adverbial
eVt Separated from tpxerai, cp. O. C. fjyj /-^S' e?ri 7rXeto> Opijvov iytipcre.
This is ' tmesis' in the larger sense : tmesis proper is when the prep, is
essential to the sense of the verb : / / . 8. 108 OVSTOT' air klvilav lX6fx.rjv
= oi5s dtj}€LX6fjLr]v AIVEIW: cp. Monro H. G. § 176. 200 rov = ov, sc
"Aped (190). 203 Awwie, Apollo, properly the god of light (XVK), whose
image, like that of Artemis, was sometimes placed before houses (El.
637 $oi/?e irpocrTaTypie, Aeseh. Theb. 449 Trpoo-Tarrjpt'as | 'Apre/uSos), so
that the face should catch the first rays of the morning sun
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOI 51

day follows to accomplish this. O thou who wieldest the


powers of the fire-fraught lightning, O Zeus our father, slay
him beneath thy thunder-bolt.
Lycean King, fain were I that thy shafts also, from thy bent 3rd anti-
bow's string of woven gold, should go abroad in their might, s rop
our champions in the face of the foe; yea, and the flashing
offert, a irvp<popov aarpairav \ Kpdrei v£i>.uv. 2O5 dSdjUaor' codd.: ada/iar Erfurdt.
2 O 6 Super irptxTTaBivTa. scriptum est et in L et in A irpoiaraneva, unde videas librarios
participium duxisse a verbo 7r/)oiVri7/xt, non a irpouTdvu. Dindorfius irpoaraxB^vTOi
scribere iubet, tanquam coniecturae debitum. Ipsum autem TrpoaraxSivra illud in cod.
Par. B inveni. Verumtamen minor est huius codicis fides quam ut contra ceteros valeat,
praesertim cum lectionis irpoarafihTa. salva sit ratio.

avrq\ioi Again. 519): then, through AVKHOS being explained as \VKO-


KTOVOS (Soph. El. 7), Apollo the Destroyer of foes: Aesch. Theb. 145
Av/cei' ava£, AVKEIOS yevov | CTparoJ Saiui. Cp. below, 919. 204 dyicvXay.
dyKvXri, a cord brought round on itself, a noose or loop, here = the
vevpd of the bent bow. dyKvXwv, the reading of L and A, was taken
by Eustath. 33. 3 of the bow (ay/aAa To£a). 205 4v8aTst<r0ai, pass., to
be distributed, i.e. showered abroad on the hostile forces. The order
of words, and the omission of o-e, are against making eV8ax. midd.,
though elsewhere the pass, occurs only in StoW/mi: Appian, however,
has yyj<; StaSaTovjucvijs 1. 1. It is possible that Soph, may have had
in mind II. 18. 263 iv TreSi'u), o0i irep TpoJes KO\ A^aiot | iv /xidta dju.^>o-
Ttpoi fjLevoi "Aprjos Sareovrat, ' share the rage of war,' give and take
blows. Others understand, ' I would fain celebrate,' a sense of «v8a-
TU<T6<XL derived from that of distributing words (Xo'yous oveiSio-r%)as
eySa-rou/u.ei'os, Eur. Here. F. 218). The bad sense occurs in Track. 791
TO hwirapaivov XiKTpov ivSarov/jievos : the good, only in Aesch. fr. 340
d 8' epSa-ren-cu rds eas euVatSias, 'celebrates his happy race of
children.' 206 irpooraWvTa from 7rpoi<7Trj/xt, not wpoo-reiVo). Cp. Ai.
803 Trp6(TTrjT' avayxatas TI/^?/S. El. 637 $oi/3e TrpocrraTypie. O. ^ 8 8 1
Oeov ov \i]£<ti irpo<nd.Ta.v "cr^ioi'. For 1st aor. pass, part., cp. KaTacrra^ets
Lys. or. 24. 9, crvo-Tafleis Plato Legg. 685 C. The conject. irpoa-TaXivra
(as = ' launched') is improbable (1) because it would mean rather ' having
set out on a journey'; cp. O. C. 20 : (2) on account of the metaphor in
dpoiyd. •xpoaTa.QivTa. from TrpouTtivb) (a verb which does not occur)
would scarcely mean ' directed against the enemy,' but rather ' strained
against the bow-string.' irpoo-TaxOcvTa, found in one MS., would make
4—2
52 20<t>0KAE0YI

4'AprejaiSos aiyXas, £i)V at?


5 AVKL opea Siacrcrei1
6 TOV ~^pvaojxiTpav r e KLKKIJCTKOJ,
7 racrS' eTrcivvfiov yas, 2Io
^ov euiov,
i' O/XOCTTOXOV
<f>\eyovT

12 7T€V/ca *7TI TOV aTTOTljMOI/ O* 0601? #CoV. 2I5


214 dyXau)7ri 7refe(i codd.: vide annot.

dpwya prosaic, while irpoa-radcvra—if not strictly suitable—is at least


poetical: the difference is like that between speaking of ' auxiliary forces'
and of ' champions.' 207 'Apr^uSos al-yXas, the torches with which
Artemis was represented,—holding one in each hand (Ar. Ran. 1362
Siwvpovs dvexpvo-a Xa/ATrdSas, Track. 214 "ApTe/nv a//.<£un;pov),—in her
character of AuXvKrj, trcXao-^wjpos, <£<»<Tc£dpos, dvOrjXws,—names marking
her connection with Selene; cp. Aesch. fr. 164 do-repunrov oju/xa A^Tuas
Kopijs. 208 AvKi'6'p«a8i.ij<r<rei as eAa^jSoA.0?, dyporipa, huntress : Od. 6. 102
01T7 8' "ApTC/xts euri K0.T ovpeos tcr^caipa, | .. .TcpTrofx.evrj Kairpoiai KOX co/c€tr;s
i\a.<t>oi<riv ] rfjBe $' a/ia vi;/u<^>at. AiKia: the Lycian hills are named here
in order to associate Artemis more closely with her brother under his
like-sounding name of AVKEIOS. At Troezen there was even a temple
of "April's AvKua: Paus. says (2. 31. 4) that he could not learn why
she w a s SO called (es 8e Trjv iniKk'quiv ovSev et^ov TrvBidOai Trapd. TQV
i£rjyi)TtSv), and suggests that this may have been her title among the
Amazons—a guess which touches the true point, viz. that the AVKUO.
was a feminine counterpart of the AVK«IOS. 209 TAV xPwrollCTP<"'. p-irpa,
a snood: Eur. Bacch. 831 AI. KO/MJV /A«V hv\ <r<3 Kparl ravaor CKTCI/<3.
I1EN@EY5. TO Scurepov 8« o - ^ / i a TOV KOO-^OV TL [JLOI ; A I . 7re7rXot
errl Kapa 8' eo"Tai p-irpa. 210 rdo-8' 4irww|jiov ^as. A s h e is
so is Thebes called B a ^ e t a (Trach. 510), while he, on the
other hand, was KaSjuei'as vv/u.<£as dyaX/jta (1115). T h e mutual relation
of the names is intended here by hrwwp.ov. T h e word usually means
called after (TITO'S). But apxa>v enwu/xos, ijpiocs CTTOJVV/AOI were those who
gave names to the year, the tribes: and so Soph. Ai. 574 (O-«KOS) iiruivu-
jxov, the shield which gave its name to Eurysaces. Cp. Eur. Ion 1555
where Athene says, £7rioyv//.os Si o-^v d<piK6p.y]v \6ov6<s, giving my name to
OIAIFTOYI T Y P A N N O I S3

fires of Artemis wherewith she glances through the Lycian hills.


And I call him whose locks are bound with gold, who is named
with the name of this land, ruddy Bacchus to whom Bacchants
cry, the comrade of the Maenads, to draw near with the blaze
of his blithe torch, [our ally] against the god unhonoured among
gods.

thy land. 211 oly<5ira.,.«jiov, 'ruddy'—'to whom Bacchants cry evoV


Note how in this passionate ode all bright colours (xpWas, ei;'(o?ra,
Xpv(ro<rTp6<f>wv, aiyXas, -^va-ofJ-LTpav, otvdJira, dyXawiri), a n d glad s o u n d s
(ii/te Haidv, tviov), are contrasted with the baleful fires of pestilence and
the shrieks of the dying. 212 MaivaSw <5|J.OOTO\OV = o-reXXofievov a//.a rats
Maivao-u', setting forth, roaming with the Maenads : Apoll. Rhod. 2. 802
O/JLOO-TOXOS vfuv cTreaOcu. The nymphs attendant on Dionysus, who
nursed the infant god in Nysa, and afterwards escorted him in his
wanderings, are called MaivaSes, ©uiaSes, B a ^ a i . / / . 6. 132 ^aivofxevoio
Aunvviroio Tidijvas [ creve KCLT TqydOtov NtKnyiov* al 8' ayua iratrai | OvcrOXa
[i.e. thyrsi a n d torches) ya.\xjoX Karixevav. Aesch. fr. 397 irdrtp ®€oivc,
MaivaSwv t,evKnjpie, who bringest the Maenads under thy spell. / / . 22.
460 jieydpoio SiccrtruTo, juxuvaSi ten;, | TraWofievrj upahirjv. Catullus 63. 23
capita Maenades vi iaciunt hederigerae: as Pind. fr. 224 puf/avxevi ovv
K/\.OVO>. Lucian may have had our passage in mind, when he mentions
the /xirpa and the Maenads together: Dial. D. 18 BrjXvs ovro>,.. .piTpq. fitv
IJC KOIATJV, TO. 7roXA.a 8e /taivo/^evats Tali ywai£i uvviiv. 214
A cretic has been lost. Prof. Kennedy's <n5(i[M>.xov is simple and
appropriate. Arndt's conjecture, Soua ('destroying, consuming,' prob.
from rt. 8a.F, to kindle, Curt. Etym. § 258) is supported by the possibility
of a corruption AAIAI having been rejected as a gloss on ITCVKO.. Cp. //.
9. 347 fhj'iov irvp, Aesch. Theb. 222 •n-upi Sato). But in connection with
the 'blithe torch' of Dionysus so sinister an epithet seems unsuitable.
215 T6V dir<5Ti|iov. See on a.7r6£evov 196. Ares is 'without honour'
among the gentler gods: cp. //. 5. 31 (Apollo speaks), TApes, "Apes
f3poTo\oiye, /juai<j}6ve, Tiv^a-LirXTJTa: and ib. 890 where Zeus says to
Ares, ?x^'°" r ° s T« /*ot ' c r a '' 6t(3v, K.T.X. SO the Erinyes are o-Tvyq Oe<Hv
(Eum. 644); and the house of Hades is hateful even to the gods (//.
20. 65).
216—462 First eimo-oSioy. Oedipus re-enters from the palace. He
solemnly denounces a curse on the unknown murderer of Laius. The
prophet Teiresias declares that the murderer is Oedipus.
54 I04>0KAE0YI

. airets a o carets, ra^u, eav uekrj<; e


K\VCOV Se^ecrOai Trj VOCTM ff VTrrjpeTeiv,
aXicfjv \ a / 3 o i ? a y K<ivaKov<f)icrLV KOLKWV'
dyw feVos fJ-£v rov Xoyov rovS' i£ep£,
Se Toi) Trpa){6euros' ou ydya a v fjuaKpav 220
auT05, /XT) OUK e^aii' Tt

221 ai!rd L, nullam indicans lectionis varietatem. avrbs A. Cum ceterorum

216 OITCIS: Oedipus had entered in time to hear the closing strains
of the prayer for aid against the pestilence which the Chorus had been
addressing to the gods. & 8" alms. The place of Xipois is against taking
OXKI^V KdvaKov(|>i<rLv KOKUV as in apposition with <£ : rather the construction
changes, and a is left as an accus. of general reference. 217 KXV«V not
strictly = TreiOapx&v, 'obediently' (in which sense KXMIV takes gen., rav iv
Ttku, Ai. 1352), but simply, 'on hearing t h e m ' : Se'xco-Soi, as Phil. 1321
Kovre cru'jii/?oi>A.oi/ Se^ti. rapi' emphatic by place: 'you pray (to the
gods) : hear me and (with their help) you shall have your wish.'
TTJ v&o-a iirt]p«T«tv, = Qe.pa.-Kf.vzw rrjv yocrov, to do that which the disease
requires (for its cure), like vTnqpfToiqv T<3 irapovTi 8a.tfj.ovi El. 1306.
In Eur. fr. 84. 7 oi8' av Tre.vl<r()ai Ka^VTr-qpfTtiv Tv^ais | otot Tf, Nauck
now gives with Athenaeus 413 c KO! |w>jp£iy<,eu'. Ace. to the commoner
use of the word, the phrase would mean to humour the disease, i.e. obey
morbid impulses: cp. Lysias In Eratoslh. § 23 rr) eavrov irapa.voii.lq. irpo-
6vfius<s i$v7n]peT(Sv, eagerly indulging the excess of his own lawlessness.
218 OXKT{V, as well as dvoKoii+itriv, with KOK«V : Hes. Op. 199 Kanov S' OVK
to-0-f.Tai akKij: Eur. Med. 1322 ipvfia TroXe/xi'as \epo9 : below I2OO Oavarwv
...•n-vpyos. 219—223 d-yw£&osn*v...Td8e. Oedipus has just learned from
Creon that La'ius was believed to have been murdered by robbers on his
way to Delphi, but that, owing to the troubles caused by the Sphinx, no
effective search had been made at the time (114—131). H e has at once
resolved to take up the matter—both because Apollo enjoins it, and as
a duty to the Theban throne (255). But the murder occurred before
he had come to Thebes. H e must therefore appeal for some clue—•
o-vp.poXov—to those who were at Thebes when the rumour was fresh,
ov Y&p dv jiaKpdv | ?xv«w>v OVTOS K.T.X. justifies i£«p<o : ' As one who has no
personal knowledge of the matter, I must make this appeal to you
Thebans for any information that you can give m e ; for I could not
have tracked the matter far alone (avros), |«i OUK t\av n <riy$o\ov, if I had
OlAinOYS TYPANNOI 55

OE. Thou prayest; and in answer to thy prayer,—if thou


wilt give a loyal welcome to my words and minister to thine
own disease,—thou mayest hope to find succour and relief from
woes. These words will I speak publicly, as one who has been
a stranger to this report, a stranger to the deed; for I could not
have tracked it far by myself, if I had not had some clue.
codd. alii hoc alii illud habeant, idcirco praeferendum cst HUTOS quod sententiam
clarius enuntiat: vide annot.

not had some clue : vOv 8', but as it is (having no clue),—iiorepos yap
K.T.X., for it was only subsequently to the date of the crime that I
became a Theban—I address myself to you.' 219 £&os, ' a stranger'
to the affair, is tinged with the notion, ' unconnected with Thebes' :
and this is brought out by do-nSs in 222. 220 oi -yap dv | l'xvevov...(i^ OVK
^X°>v. firj OVK, not /xtf, is used, because the principal verb "xvtvov has ov
before it. Two views of the conditional sentence are admissible. I
prefer (a) to regard the protasis as d ixrj etxov implicit in firj OVK ZX<W-
As ixveuoy av, [irj l ^ w (if I had not), could represent "\vevov av, cl juij
so OVK i^yevov av, fii) OVK ixwv> could r e p r e s e n t OVK "xvtvov ov, £i irf
So in 13 firj ov KaToiKTtCpiav = ci fir} KaroiKTeipoifU. T h e o t h e r
view (b) would regard the protasis as suppressed, and (Lrj OVK I^WV as
exempting a special case from the effect of the negative condition: (ei
yap /H17 e£e«roi) OVK i^evov av, fUTj OVK I^COV K.T.X., 'for (if I h a d not
appealed to you) I could not have tracked the crime far,—unless, indeed,
I had had some due.' But the word ?€vos has already intimated that Oed!
looks to Thebans for the needful o-v/t/JoXov. It seems, therefore, an in-
appropriate refinement to reserve the hypothesis of his being able to
dispense with their aid, because possessed of a <XV/A/3OXOV from some
independent source. For other explanations of the passage, see
Appendix, Note 5. TOO irpaxBevros, the murder. We cannot, I think,
understand 'what was done at the time by way of search': for (a) TO
•n-paxOiv, as opp. to o Xoyos, must surely mean the epyov to which the
Xo'yos is related: (b) Oed. has lately expressed his surprise that nothing
effective was done (128), and could hardly, therefore, refer with such
emphasis to TO irpaxOiv in this sense. 221 OVTOS, 'by myself,' unaided:
cp. //. 13. 729 aXX' ovmus a/xa warra Svvrjo-eai avTOS IXio-Qai: (not, 'even
I myself, with all my insight.') avTo (sc. TO wpaxOiv) would stand: and
OUT-OS is so far tautological that it really implies the protasis. Yet its
emphasis helps to bring out the sense more forcibly: and cumulative
56 IO*OKAEOYI

vvv 8', vcrrepos yap doro? ets dorous


vfiiu Trpo(f>(i)v<5 Tract KaS/u.eioi5 TaSe 1
ocrrts 7ro0' Vfj,ci)v Ad'Cov TOV Aa/SSa/cou
KOLTOLSCV avSpos e/c TWOS SicJXero, 225
TOVTOV Kekevoi Travra a-qfiaivuv
l <f)o/3eLTai, TOVTTUCXT^'
/ca#' avrou* irelcrerai yap aXXo fj.€V
dorepyes ouSeV, 7175 S' dVeio-iv d/SXa/Sifs'
et S' au TIS aXXor oXhev i£ aXXijs ^ o ^ o s 230
TOV avTo^eupa, fjur/ crtco7rdrft)* TO yap
2 2 7 , 2 2 8 vireifeXwp | avros codd. iire^eXeiv praeeuntibus K. Halmio et Blaydesio,
ai)T6>' ex mea coniectura scripsi. 2 2 9 i.a<j>a\rii L (ascripto yp. o^XajSijs a manu
rec), cum paucis codd., quorum est V4. af}\afiii$ A, E (cui d<r0a\i}s errore tribuit

expression is not in such cases foreign to the manner of Soph.


222 vvv 8' reverts to the statement that he is ££vo<; to the matter: 'but
as it is,—as I have no avfi/Sokov,—(and it was impossible that I should
have had one,) for it was only subsequently to the date of the deed and
of the rumour that my first connection with Thebes was formed.'
lio-repos sc. TOV irpa^ivTo^: for the adj. instead of an adv. vorepov, cp.
Ai. 217 vvKrepos...dirzXuifiijSri: II. 1. 424 x#'£os"t$rl'-Xen. An. 1. 4. 12
TOIS 7rpoTcpois (= TTporepov) /X€Ta Kvpov &vo.(iu.<ji. eis do-Tois Ttku inter
cives censeor: a metaphor from being rated (for taxation) in a certain
class: Her. 6. 108 «s Botamws reXeW: Eur. Bacch. 822 es ywaticas
ef ai'fipos TeA.<3. doros ds acrois like Ai. 267 Kotvos ev KOtvoi(rt: ib. 467
iv/jLTrecrwv /xovos jaovots: 7%. 135 cv ^Va £evov: ib. 633 t<ros (3v "trots dvifp.
227 f, Kel fiXv 4>oP«trai TOUTTCKXTIH' vire^Xaiv | avT&s Ka8' avTou is the reading of
all the MSS. : for the virt£e\6u>v of the first hand in one Milan MS. of
the early 14th cent. (Ambros. L 39 sup., Campbell's M2) is a mere
slip. I feel certain that we should read iire|«\eiv | avVov naB' aii-ov,
the change of avriv into a4r<5s having necessarily followed that of
iiregeXi-iv into xme|e\cJv, due to an interpretation which took the latter
with ijwpetTai. I find the key to the true sense in Thuc. 4. 83
(Arrhibaeus, the enemy of Perdiccas, makes overtures to Brasidas, and
the Chalcidians exhort Brasidas to listen): eSioWKov avrdv prj vire£e-
Xelv T<3 HepSiKKa TO. Setva, 'they impressed upon him that he must
not remove the dangers from the path of Perdiccas'—by repulsing the
rival power of Arrhibaeus. iVefcAeir rd Sciva = to take them away (ex)
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 57
But as it is,—since it was only after the time of the deed that I
was numbered a Theban among Thebans,—to you, the Cad-
means all, I do thus proclaim.
Whosoever of you knows by whom Laius son of Labdacus
was slain, I bid him to tell all to me. And if he is afraid,
I bid him to remove the danger of the charge from his own
path; for he shall suffer nothing else unlovely, but only
leave the land, unhurt. Or if anyone knows an alien, from
another land, as the assassin, let him not keep silence ; for
Campb.), et codd. plerique. d(3\a^^s Aid., Brunck., Herm., Linwood., Wunder.,
Blaydes., Kennedius: d<r0a\>js Dindorf. (qui tamen in annot. a/3\a/3?/s, ut aptius,
verum esse suspicatur), Schneidewin., Campbell., J. W. White.

from under (wo) the feet,—from the path immediately before him : T<3
UepSiKKa being a dat. commodi. So here: KCI |i*v <)>o|3«iTai, and if he is
afraid (as knowing himself to be the culprit), then I bid him (K«X«VW con-
tinued from 226) iiregeX«tv T6CT-CKXTHUIto take the peril of the charge out of
his path avTov KOO' avToS (by speaking) himself against himself If the
culprit is denounced by another person, he will be liable to the extreme
penalty. If he denounces himself, he will merely be banished. By
denouncing himself, he forestalls the danger of being denounced by an-
other. Instead of a dat. commodi auV(3 (corresponding to r<3 nepSuucp in
T h u c ) , Soph, has written KO.8' airov, because self-accusation is the mode
of doing the act expressed by viregeXetv, which implies KaT-qyopfjaau. The
pregnant naff avrov is rendered still less harsh by the fact that TOVITC-
KXT)|IO precedes. There is no 'aposiopesis'or 'suppressed clause': we
have simply to carry on K«XCVO>. For other explanations, see Appendix,
Note 6. 229 opXap^s, the reading of A and most MSS., 'without
damage,' dfajfuos, is far more suitable than a<r<£aA.r/s to this context: and
Soph, has the word as a cretic in El. 650 tfiaav djiXaji^l fiuo. Although
in L dfrtfxxXys appears as the older reading, so common a word was
very likely to be intruded; while it would be difficult to explain how
the comparatively rare a^3Xaj8ifs could have supplanted it. A metrical
doubt may have first brought a<r<£aA?;s in. 230fiXXov...4£dXXtjs x^ovos,
'another [i.e. other than one of yourselves, the Thebans] from a strange
land': an alien, whether resident at Thebes, or not: cp. 451 OVTOS ia-riv
iv6a.Se, \ |eVos Xdyo) ^E'TOIKOS. The cases contemplated in the proclamation
(223—235) are (1) a Theban denouncing another Theban, (2) a Theban
denouncing himself, (3) a Theban denouncing an alien. 231 TO
58 ZO*OKAEOYI

yoi> xtf X"/ 315 f/ 3 °0'' c eicrerai.


el 8' av a-iCDirrjcrecrde, /cai rt? 17 (ftCXov
Seicra? dircocreL TOVITOS 17 ~^avTov roSe,
a/c rwi'Se Bpdcra), raura ^p?) xXueir ifiov. 235
Sp' a7rau8w TOVTOV, ocrris iari, yrjs
17s eyci Kpdrrj r e KCU dpovowz vefjca),
yjr iaSe^ecrdac [xrjTe irpocrcJHoveiv riva,
iv $€(H)v ev)(cucrL /XIJTC dvfiacnv
KOIVOV TToieZcrOaL, ^re ^epft/Sos vefiecv' 240
a>0€LV S' a7r' OIKWV Travra?, cus jaiacr/iaros
rovS' TJJUU' WT05, ws TO ITU^IKOV #eo£i
fiavreiov £i;4<f>yjvev aprtws e/ioi.
eyci yu.et' ovt> TOtocrSe TW re Sat/xovt
TW r' dvSpl ra) OavovTi cru//,jU.a^os Tre\(o 245

24O x^Pvt^a<T L (quod tamen a xe'pei/3o<r levi tactu fecit manus antiqua, fortasse
prima), A, reliqui fere omnes. Lectionem certe elegantiorem x^Pvl^os s ° l u s videtur

the (expected) gain, Ta /j-yvvrpa. Track. 191 oVa>s | irpos o-ov n


vat/xt Kat KTW/XY/V X^Piv- ^32 irpoo-KeCireTtti, will be Stored up besides (cp.
Eur. ^4/L'. 1039 aXyos a\y^i.. .Trpo(TKitji.ivov, added). X"P15 KeiTai is perf.
pass, of -^dpiv rWefiai or Ka.TaTi6efx.ai {TLVC or 7rapa nvt),'—a metaphor
from deposits Of money: r a ^prjfiaTa...K€icr6ui Trap' 01$ TIUIV av vfuv
SOKTJ [Plat.] Epist. 346 c. 233 4>&°u» avToii with dirwo-ei only (//. 15. 503
trBai KaKa vrjtov). 2 3 4 Scbras <f>(Xov a s = SetVas virip <j>i)>.ov (like
i, if>povTi£civ) would be too harsh, and lhythm is against it.
TOUITOS...T68€, this command to give up the guilty. 236—240 dirai>8« (d-n--,
because the first clauses are negative), I command, (/AT/) nva -yijs "rijo-Se
that no one belonging to this land («JT' co-S^eo-floi \n\-re irpoo-^uvttv shall
either entertain or accost TOV divSpa TOJTOV, 8<TTIS i<rrl. For the gen. 7ijs,
cp. Plat. Prof. 316 B 'lTnroKpdrqs oSe eorl fxlv T&V hviywpiuiv, 'ATTOXXO-
Sdpov vios, oiKias /XEyaA/>7s Kat ciSai/toi'os. Since |iiiT«...|MJTe in 238
connect 4o-8«x«<r8ai. and 7rpo<nfxi>ve!v, we require either (a) separate verbs
for ««xatcrl a n d 8iina<riv, o r (J>) as Elms, proposed and Blaydes reads, firjBl
instead of /wfre before 8i!(jia<riv. As the text stands, we must suppose a
suppressed before rixauri, the constr. being (ITJTC KOIVOV iroi«ur6ai
ev...tuxof(n p^rt 6u|j.ao-iv. Cp. Aesch. Ag. 532 Ilapis yap OVTC
TYPANNOZ 59

I will pay his guerdon, and my thanks shall rest with him
besides.
But if ye keep silence—if anyone, through fear, shall seek
to screen friend or self from my behest—hear ye what I then
shall do. I charge you that no one of this land, whereof I hold
the empire and the throne, give shelter or speak word unto that
murderer, whosoever he be,—make him partner of his prayer
or sacrifice,—or serve him with the lustral rite ; but that all
ban him their homes, knowing that this is our defiling thing,
as the oracle of the Pythian god hath newly shown me. I
then am on this wise the ally of the god and of the slain.
praebere cod. Laur. 31. 10 (L 2 ): nam in cod. V4, ubi Campb. x^/"/'i3os agnovit,
nisi me oculi mei fefellerunt, legi.

rjs TrdAts: Cho. 294 Se'xccr^ai 8' ovre uvWvav Tiva. 240 KOIVAV
here = Kotvaivov, cp. At. 267 rj KOIVOS ev Koivoiai Xvirwidai £vvwv. Plat.
Legg. 8 6 8 E (the slayer) £w«rTios avrois firjSeTrore yiyvecr9u> jx-qhi Koivtovoi
Upuv. x^PvlP°s (partitive gen.) is more suitable than xepvifias to the idea
of exclusion from all fellowship in ordinary worship: x*PvlPat> vlpuv would
rather suggest a special xa^apo-is of the homicide. When sacrifice was
offered by the members of a household (KOIMVOV wai xepvi/W.. .KTIJO-UW
JSU/AOU m-'Aas Aesch. Ag. 1037) or of a clan (x«pWr ^parcpw Eum. 656),
a brand taken from the altar was dipped in water, and with the water
thus consecrated (x^pv^) t n e company and the altar were sprinkled:
then holy silence was enjoined (eu'^ryjuta ZG-TW) : and the rite began by
the strewing of barley meal (OVAOXVTCU) on altar and victim. (Athenaeus
409: Eur. H. F. 922 ff.) Ace. to Dem. Adv. Lept. § 158 a law of
Draco prescribed xe'pvi/3os [so the best MSS. : r. I. \ePv^wl'] elpyeaOai
TOV o.v8pocj>6vov, OTTOVSIOV, KpaT7]p<nv, lep<m', ayopas. This was a sentence
of excommunication (1) from the life of the family and the clan, (2) from
the worship common to all Hellenes, who, as opposed to (idpfiapoi, are
(Ar. Lys. II29) ot /Aias IK \ipvijio<i | ySo)/x.ovis TrcpippaiVovres, <u(T7rep
fvyyEj/ei?, | 'OXvpTriaaiv, iv IluXais, IIv^oi. T h e mere presence of the
guilty could render sacrifice inauspicious: Antiph. De Caed. Her. § 82
JtpcHs irapaoravres TTOAAOI SJ} Ka.Ta<f)a.V£is iyivovro ou^ ocrwi ovres Kai 01a-
Kd)\vovT£S Ta Upa /i.rj yLyveo-Qau (bene succedere) r a vofu^o/xevci. 241 ditiv SI,

sc. avSaJ, understood from the negative airavSw: cp. Her. 7. 104 O&K
iwv <pevyuv...d\\oi ciriKpareav. 246—251 These six verses are placed
by some editors between 272 and 273. See Appendix, Note 7.
6o I04>0KAE0YZ
«:arevx°i Ltat ^e T°v SeS/aoucoT1', etre TIS
efs <uv \e\r)6ev eire irXeiovov //.era,
w dfiopov eKTpixpaL fitov.
S', OIKOMTIV el fweorios
TOIS ejnois yivovr i/xov crweiSoro?, 250
dnep TOUTS' a/DTtws r^pa.<jd[i.r)v.
\>[kxv Se r a O r a TTOLVT eTrtcr/o^Trrw reXeii'
w7re/> T' ifi-avTov TOV deov re TrjcrSe re
yrfi <5S' a/ca/DTrws Koiddcos i<j)9apiJLevr)<;.
ovS' et y a p ^ i ' TO irpayfia firj OerjkaTov, 255
oLKadaprov u/Aas ei/cos 17V OUTWS eaV,
y dpCaTov /SacriXews T ' OXCOXOTOS,

2 4 8 frfioipov A et plerique codd.: Kdfioipov B, et in L erasa est ante a/toipox


littera quae K procul dubio fuerat: PIP aixoipov E, T : w>> a/xopov Porson. 267
j3affi\^«s T'. Sic recte L, A, et codd. meliores aliquot: alii T' omittunt. Fatendum

246 KaT«vx°lJLau Suidas Karev)(eo-6aC TO Karapaa-Qai. OVTU) Il\a.T(i>v.


KCU 72,o<fiOK\rj<;, Karev^ojiiat 8e TOI* SeSpotKoTa rdSe. P h o t . Lex. p . 148.
7 KaTcv^ccr^at Tool' 'Aj^aKoy dvrl TOV Kara Tiov 'A^aiaJi' ev^ccr^at. OVTO)S
2O<^OKXT/S. Here the ref. is to Plato i ? ^ . 393 E TOV 8C (the Homeric
Chryses, priest of Apollo)...KaTeo^aOai TWV 'A^aiuJv 7rpos 6e6v. But
Photius prefixes the words, Ka-Texr^crOaC TO KarapdaOai. OVT<I)S IIXaTWi'.
It is clear, then, that in Photius OUTWS SO^OKAIJS and ourcos HXdrwv have
changed places. The 'Soph. fr. 894/ quoted by Lidd. and Scott under
KaTevxpfiai as = imprecari, thus vanishes (Nauck Fragm. Trag. p. 283). Cp.
Aesch. Theb. 632 TroXei | olas dparai KCU KaTev^erat Tv^a?. But where, as
here, Karrixopcn is used without gen. (or dat.), it is rather /<;pray solemnly:
often, however, in a context which implies imprecation: e.g. Plat. Legg.
935 A KaT£v^eo"^at aXXi^Aois iTrapoifiivovs'. Sep. 3 9 4 A Karev^€TO Ticrai
TOUS 'Axatous TO. a SaKpva. ctre TIS : whether the unknown man (ns) who has
escaped discovery is «ts, alone in the crime, or one of several, TIS, because
the person is indefinite: cp. 107. 248 viv a|u>pov: Porson (praef. Hec.
p. ix) defends the redundant viv by Trach. 287 avTov 8' e/ctivov, tvT av
dyvd OvfiaTO. \ pi£r] irarpwa) Zrjvl T^S dXdaems, \ 4>P°ve<- VLV
<^S rjiovTa. The
form d/topos occurs in Eur. Med. 1395 (where a/xoipo's is a v. I.); a/x/x.opos
in Hec. 421, Soph. Phil. 182. KOKOV KCUOUS : Phil. 1369 la K«KO)S CLVTOVS
KCLKOVS. AT. Pint. 65 dm (T 6\<S KCLK6V KaK<i3j. 249 «ire»xo(i.ai,
TYPANNOZ 61

And I pray solemnly that the slayer, whoso he be, whether his
hidden guilt is lonely or hath partners, evilly, as he is evil, may
wear out his unblest life. And for myself I pray that if, with my
privity, he should become an inmate of my house, I may suffer
the same things which even now I called down upon others.
And on you I lay it to make all these words good, for my sake,
and for the sake of the god, and for our land's, thus blasted
with barrenness by angry heaven.
For even if the matter had not been urged on us by a
god, it was not meet that ye should leave the guilt thus un-
purged, when one so noble, and he your king, had perished ;
est in ipso L r ' non a prima manu scriptum fuisse: accessit tamen a manu, ut
Duebnerus quoque vidit, antiqua. Vide annot.

imprecate on myself: Plato Critias 120 B ravja. «rev)£a'/«vos


avrwv avrio Kal T<3 d<f> avrov yeva. oSKOien,v...£t)W<rTios: not tautologi-
cal, since fweWios is more than IVOIKO?, implying admission to the
family worship at the eori'a and to the <nrov&ai at meals. Plat. Legg.
868 E lepwv [isrj KOtvwveiTco /J.r]?)i...£vve<rTios airrdis futfiiiroTi yiyvt<rdo> [i.r]8e
KOIVWOS lepwv. P l a t . Euthyphro 4 B Kal el fiev ev BiKy [eKreivev], lav,
if he slew the man justly, forbear; el Se firj, hre^ievai (prosecute the
slayer), edvTcep 6 KTfiVas avvicmos croi Kal d/xorpaire^os y. taov yap
TO /xiaor/ia ylyverai, edv i;vvfi<; T<3 TOIOUTO) fvvctSoJs Kal fir) tt^>oo-«ots
ueavTov re Kal IK^IVOV TJJ SIKJJ lire^iwv. 251 TOICTS', the slayer or slayers
(247): see on 246. 254 ax&piras Kd8&os: El. 1181 <3 cra/j,' ari/nws Ka.0eo><s
icpOapfiLtvov: below 661 aOeoi, a^>tX.os, forsaken by gods and men.
256 eUds ^v. The imperfect indie, of a verb denoting obligation (ISet,
)(pyjv, irpoafJKev, CIKOS rjv), when joined without av to an infinitive, often
implies a conditional sentence with imperfect indie, in protasis and
apodosis : e.g. OVK EIKOS r/v lav = OVK S.V ciare (el TO. Seovra oroieiTe), you
would not (now) be neglecting it, (if you did your duty): Xen. Mem.
2. 7. 10 €i /JUV TOLVVV alaxpov TI 1/xeA.Aov epydo-ecrSai [if I were now
intending—as I am not], Odvarov dvr avrov Trpoaiperiov rjv, = Trpor]-
poift.t]V av (el TO, Seovra eiroiovv). T h u c . 6. 78 Kal /xaAiara ei/cos rjv v/^as
...TrpoopaarOai, = irpoewpare av ci r a eiKora eiroietTe. So iftov\6/i.r]v, r/^iovv,
without av, of that which one wishes were true, but which is not so.
257 Ptto-iX^wsT*: TE is to be retained after /WiAecos, because (1) there
is a climax, which is destroyed if /JaarA«os stands merely in apposition
with aVSpos dpicrTov: (2) dvfipos dplorov represents the claim of birth
62 S04>0KAE0YI

dk\' i^epevvav' vvv 8', iirel Kvpai T eyw


i)(O)V [lev ap^as a? e/ceivos et^e irpiv,
€)(0)v Se XeKrpa KCLL ywai^' ofiocnropov, 260
Kowwv r e TTCLLSCOV KOIV av, el Keivo) yivos
r\v av
w o es TO Keivov xpar evqhao rj
avff 3>v eya) rah', (ocnrepel TOV{J.OV
, /cam iravr a^ifcytcu 265
3 5 8 KvpQ> T' codd.: xvpH y' T. F. Benedict. (Observationes in Soph., Lips. 1820),
ap. Blaydes. ad loc.; Campb.

and personal merit,—Pao-ckim, the special claim of a king on his


people. Cp. Phil. 1302 avSpa TroXefUOV | i^Opov re. 258 K«p» T* iyio
= lyu> re Kvpio, answered by KOLVSIV TC, K.T.X. For re so placed cp. El.
249 efppoi r civ aiSius | a.Tra.VTWV T tva£($tia BvarZv. 260 6[idcnropov =
djuowos cnre.ipojj.£vriv, I.e. r/v KCLL CKEIVOS einreipe: b u t i n 4 6 0 TraTpos I
ofioairopos = d/touos (nyv avrryv) o-wupaw. d/noyevr/s in 1361 is not similar.
261 KOIVUV iraCSwv Koivd t^v av kKKt^vKora, common things of (= ties consist-
ing in) kindred children would have been generated : = KOWWV TTCU'SCDV
Kowrj <j>vo-is iyevero av, a brood, common to Lai'us and Oedipus, of
children akin to each other (as having the same mother, Iocasta) would
have issued: ' children born of one mother would have made ties
between him and me.' For av doubled cp. 139, 339. KOIVWV = dStXtjuov,
ofialfuwv (Ant. i o) KOIVOV avTa.&€\<f)ov I<r/j.r]VT)s Kapa). T h e language of
this passage is carefully framed so as to bear a second meaning, of
which the speaker is unconscious, but which the spectators can feel:
Iocasta has actually borne children to her own son Oedipus: thus in
KOIVWV 7ratS(ov Koiva... tKTrecfrvKOTa, t h e obvious sense of Koivd, ' common to
Ldius and Oedipus] has behind it a second sense, in which it hints at a
brood who are brothers and sisters of their own sire: see below 1403 f.
This subtle emphasis—so ghastly, ^wcTottnv—of the iteration in KOIVWV
Koivd must not be obliterated by amending KOLV av into KVfiaT (Nauck)
or <rire.pji.aT (Blaydes). Similarly, ei K«CVU> -yc'vos | i«\ 'Svoruxio-sv, is sus-
ceptible of the sense—' if his son (Oed. himself) had not been ill-fated.'
KUV(O yeVog eSwruxw 6 (hi s hope of issue was disappointed) is here a
bold phrase for KCIVOS ISvarrvxyo-e ra rrepl ylvo<s : for Oed. is not now)
supposed to know the story of the exposed babe (see 717 f.). Cp. Eur.
Andr. 4 1 8 Tram 8' dvOpwiroi'S ap' rjv | t^ruffrj • rtKv ' OOTIS 8' OUT' airtipos u>v
OIAIFTOYS TYPANNOZ 63

rather were ye bound to search it out. And now, since 'tis I who
hold the powers which once he held, who possess his bed and
the wife who bare seed to him; and since, had his hope of issue
not been frustrate, children born of one mother would have
made ties betwixt him and me—but, as it was, fate swooped
upon his head ; by reason of these things will I uphold his cause,
even as the cause of mine own sire, and will leave nought untried

vjlyti, | rj&aov fiiv dXyti, SvcrTv^aJv 8' tvSaifiovcl: ib. 711 y areipos ovo~a
dvi^iTai | TIKTOVTOIS aWovs, OVK clover' aim) TtKva' \ uAA' et TO
8vo"TU)(€i iraiSuiv izipi, K.T.X.: Suppl. 66 eliTCKvia opp. to
263 vvv 8', 'but as it is,' with aor. equivalent to aper/., as
0. C. 84, 371. Cp. below 948 KOX vvv SSe | 7rpos Trjs TV^TJ^ oA.<o\e. So
with historic pres., Lys. In Erat. § 36 EI /xev ovv Iv T<3
iKpivovro, paSitos av l<ju>t,ovro'...vvv 8' els TTJV f$ov\rjv eiuayovcrtv.
i.e. he was cut off by a timeless fate, leaving no issue, cp. 1300 : Ant.
1345 £7T! KpaTL fjioi \ woT/ios...el<Trj\aTO : SO t h e Erinyes say, /taXa yap ovv
aXofieva | avtuaOcv /3a.pvire(rfj | Ka.Ta<\>£ptn TTOSOS a.KjJLav Aesch. Eum. 3 6 9 ,
Ag. 1175 Satjacov vTrepfiaprjs ifnTiTvixiv: Pers. 515 (3 $v<nr6vr)re Sat/xov, <Js
ayav jfiapis | iroSoiv ivrfWov iravrl Uepa-tKtu yeVei. 264 dv0' tuv, therefore.
The protasis eVei Kvpm (258) required an apodosis introduced by ami
rovTuiv: but the parenthesis vvv 8' « TO KCCVOV K.T.X. (263) has led to &v
being irregularly substituted for TOVTW. Cp. 1466 : Antiphon De Caed.
Herod. § I I Scof <r€ SiOjiiocrao"6ai K.T.X....a crv irapeX.6wv, where the length
of the protasis has similarly caused a to be substituted for raui-a. Dis-
tinguish from this the use of dvff wv, by ordinary attraction, for avrl
rovrwv a or on, = because, Ant. 1068. Ta8', cogn. ace. to virep|iax<»'l"u>
as At. 1346 (TV TOOT' OSucraeij TOUS' {nrepfj-a^Zi i/ioi; Cp. II. 5. 185 ov^
o y' avivde 6eov TCISE /AatVeTai. Brunck, Nauck and Blaydes adopt the
conj. TOSS'. But the MSS. agree in the harder and more elegant reading.
265 «ir€pnaxov|i<u only here : in Ant. 194, At. 1346 Soph, uses virtp-
But we need not therefore, with Elms, and Blaydes, read virep
The derivative form virepfnaxtw, to be a champion, implies
as o-v/^/ia^eo) is from o-v/x/xap(os, Trpo/xa^eto from 7rpo'/xa^os: virep-
ln.dxoiJ.aL is a simple compound, like o-v/i^a^op-ai (Plat., Xen.) Trpofidxofiai
{Iliad, Diod., Plut.). Kdirl iravr d<f)C|o(j.ai with JT)TWV, will leave nothing
untried in seeking: a poetical variation of cVl jrav k\Bdv (Xen. Anab. 3.
1. 18 ap OVK av iiri Trai' <£\6oi...<as <f>6fiov Trapatr^ot), as in Eur. Hipp. 284
-T dcjuyfiai, ' I have tried all means.' In prose d<f)iKvti<r6ai <c"s TI
64 IO<t>OKAEOYI

TOV avTo^ecpa TOV cjjoPov Xa/Seiv


T(o Aa/38ciKeL<p irauSl HoXvhc&pov re KCU
TOV TrpoaOe KaSynou TOV irakai r ' '' Ayiqvopos.
/ecu TavTa rots ju.77 SpcoaLV eu^o/xat 0eous
j " apoTov avrots yfjs aviivai Tiva, 2 70
ovv yvvaLK(ov TraiSas, d\A.a r<w
w <f>0epeio-OaL KOLTL TOVS' i)(6iovi'
TW
he rois aXXoitrt KaSyaeiois,
c a r ' dpeo~Kovd', rj r e
73-aKres eu fweiev etcraei ^eoi. 275
X(J. (oo-nep fi apouov ekapes, wo, avag, epco.
27O 77js, quod Vauvillers. coniecit, ne unius quidem codicis fide niti vulgo
traditum est. Ccrte ^r\v habent L, A, reliqui fere omnes. Inveni tamen in cod.
Venet. 468 (V) clare scriptum 71JS, quod nemo dubitabit qui formas litteranim v et <r,

usu. = to be brought to a situation, as Her. 8. n o 1% iraaav


aViKceo/ieVoio-i, though put to any torment; Plat. Euthyd. 292 E tis
Xrjv ye dvopiav d<f>iKeir6e. 267 TU Aap8aKt£o> iraiSl, a dat. following t,ryru>v
K.T.X. as = Tijuwpov/tievos. For Aa^SaKcCu—IIoXvSupou re cp. Eur. Med.
404 TOIS ~S,icrv<f>uoi,<s rots T' 'Iao-ovos yo/xots: for the adj., Crf! 3. 190
^LKOKTIJT7JV TioLavTicv [ = IIotavTOs] ayXaov vlov : Her. 7. 105 rois Mao-xa-
jj.uoi(Ti eKy6voi<n. Her. (5. 59) saw in the temple of the Ismenian Apollo
at Thebes an inscription which he assigns to the age of Laius : ravra
•qXiKL-qv av eir) Kara Kd'iov TOV AafiSaKov TOV TloXvScopov TOV K.d8fiov. Cad-
mus, in the myth, is the son of Agenor king of Phoenicia, whence
Carthage is 'Agenor's city' (Verg. Aen. 1. 338): Polydorus, son of
Cadmus and Harmonia, was king of Thebes. 269 f. construe: KOI
«{fXolJLal T0^S Tailra |»i] SpuScriv \for t h e m , Ph. 1019 /ecu troi iroXXaKis TOS'
rjvidfj.r]v\ 8«ovs dvi^vai avTois |IT(T &porov Tiva y i s , p-iyr' oBv Tvva^^v irotSas.
The acc. 8«ois as subject to dvUvai is better than a dat. Oeols with
cvxo|j.ai would b e : Xen. Anab. 6. ii 26 tv^ofiai hovvai yu.01 TOVS ^COVS
aiTiov TWOS vfiiv dyaOov yivio~8oLi: Ar. Thesm. 3 5 ° Tats 8* aXXatcrti' v[i.7v
TOVS 6eo\)5 I ev^eoSe irao-ais TTOXXO. Sowai KayaOd. 2 7 1 (J.T,T OVV: 'no, nor.'
Aesch. Ag. 474 /-"/T' eoji' TTToXnr6p6r)s, | pr\T ovv auros aXovs, K.T.X. Soph.
Phil. 345 UT dXrjOks UT dp' ovv \xAn\v: cp. above v. 90. But ovv with
the first clause, below, 1049 : El. 199, 560 : see on 25. 272 <j>9«petcr9ai,
a fut. found also in Eur. Andr. 708 (<t>8epei 2 sing.): Thuc. 7. 48
(f>6epeio-6ai: Ionic ^tOapiofnai Her. 9. 42, 8. 108. ((jtOaprjo-o/xai in
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 65

in seeking to find him whose hand shed that blood, for the
honour of the son of Labdacus and of Polydorus and elder
Cadmus and Agenor who was of old.
And for those who obey me not, I pray that the gods send
them neither harvest of the earth nor fruit of the womb, but
that they be wasted by their lot that now is, or by one yet
more dire. But for all you, the loyal folk of Cadmus to
whom these things seem good, may Justice, our ally, and all the
gods be with you graciously for ever.
CH. Asthou hast put me on my oath, on my oath, O king, I will speak.
ut ab illo librario scribuntur, semel contulerit. In cod. Venet. 467 (V3) ambigi sane
potest de extrema vocabuli littera; postquara vero diligenter inspexeram quomodo
utramque eadem manus alibi scribere soleret, satis mihi persuasum habui, non yrji>
sed 777s huic quoque libro iure vindicari.

Hippocr., Arist, Plut). The schol. says, <j>6aprjvaL 8« ypa.<f>ea>, ov


<j>8epeio-8ai, distinguishing eS^opou with fut. infin., ' I vow' (to do), from
eZxppa-t with pres. or aor. infin., ' I pray.' But verbs of wishing or pray-
ing sometimes take a fut. infin. instead of pres. or aor.: Thuc. 6. 57
ifiovXovro...irpOTL(i.<i)ptf<Te(T0a.i; 6. 6 e<£ie/xevoi yii£i'...'rijs iracnjs ap£eiv: I . 27
l$eij6ri(Tav...£vfji,irpoTreii.\{rew. 7. 56 Sievoovvro KXrjaeiv. See Goodwin, Moods
and Tenses § 27. N. 2. a. 273 rots aXXouri. The loyal, as opp. to ol fuj
ravra 8pu>j/T« (269). 274 lor* dpidKovr, cp. 126. rj Tt o-v|i|Laxos A£m],
Justice who ei>er helps the righteous cause ; Blaydes needlessly writes 17
Ai'/oj re o~vfj.fia.xo';. O. C. I O I 2 iXOecv apcoyovis orvfip.d)(ovs T£ (ras 6eas).
275 eS: cp. Track. 229 a\A.' EJ \ikv typeO', ev 8e Trpo<r<fxavovp.t8a.
276 Bo-irep n" apatov K.T.X. As you have brought me into your power
under a curse [if I speak not the truth], so (co8e, i.e. evop/cos) I will
speak. Aeschin. In Ctes. § 90 fxlav eXn-i'Sa Xonnjv Ka-mSe o-a)r>jpias, eVop-
KOV \afitly TOV 'A8T]VO.L<I>V 8rjfiov.../3ori6'ii<reiv, to bind them by an oath
that they would help. Xapelv here has nearly the same force as in
Xafieiv alxfiaXuiTov etc. : Lys. or. 4 § 5 viroxei.pi.ov XafStov TO o-oyta,
having got his person into my power, apatov = rrj dpa evoxov, cp.
op/aos...A.ey<o Ant. 305. The paraphrase of Eustath. 1809. 14 uWcp
fi.e eTAes Bid rrj's apas is substantially right. The use of KaraXafiuv
is not really similar (Her. 9. 106 man re KaTa\a/?6VT£s xai dp/aown,
Thuc. 4. 85 opKOLs...KaraXaj3tovTOreXry), since the Kara in comp.
gives the sense of overtaking, and so of binding. Nor can we com-
pare O. C. 284 wo-irep EACI/JES TW IKC'TIJV ix*yyvov, where the sense is,

J- S. 5
66 S04>0KAE0YZ

OVT f-KTapov yap oure rbv KTavovT


Setfat. TO Se (rfrqfia TOV Tre/t^avTos rjv
Qoifiov TOS' eitreiv, OCTTLS etpyaa-raC Trore.
OI. SIKCU' eXefas' aXX' dvayKcicrai 0eov<; 280
av /XT] pe/uucriv ouo cw ets ovvan avrjp.
XO. r a Sevrep' e/c TWINS' av Xeyoifi? a/Ao! 8o»cei.
OI. et /cat rp'iT Icrii, (JLT) Trapfjs TO fj.rj ov <f>pdo~ai.
X O . dvaKT dvaKTL Tavd' opcovT evricrrajLtai
<I>ot/Jw Teipecrtav, 7rap' ou TIS av 285

OI. aXX ou/c ev apyois ovoe TOVT p f


eTTefixfja yap Kyoeo^Tos CITTOI'TOS 8LTT\OV<;
7roju.irous"
j TraXat Se ^^11^
^ irapcov
p
2 8 1 Codices vel dx sine accentu praebent (ut L et A) vel av: vera lectio av, a
Brunckio restituta, in nullo, quod sciam, extat.

' As thou hast received the (self-surrendered) suppliant under thy pledge.'
277 -ydp after JKTOVOV merely prefaces the statement: Plat. Prot. 320 c
SOKCI Toivvv...ft.v6ov v[uv Xiyetv. v]v yap irore K.T.X. 278 8ti|cu, ' p o i n t
to.' Note the emphatic place of the word: the speaker knows
not that he is face to face with the slayer. T& tfT|Ulia> a c c . of general
reference. The simpler form would have been, r/v TOU
fofrnjiia /cat Xucrai: but, instead of a verb which could govern
T68* tlirciv is substituted, because it conveniently introduces the clause
8<rris etp7aorroi, explaining what the ^TTJ/M. itself was. TO tiJTT)|ia is then
left much as a. ^ITCIS is left in 216 when the insertion of a\iojv K.T.X.
has modified the construction. 281 &v ^fl^Xw<rivK.T.X. Cp. Phil.
1366 KOL/J.' avay/ca'f«s TaSe. av as 580, 7 4 9 : O. C. 13, Ant. 1057,
Phil. 1276, At. 1085. oJS'ovtts: Ant. 884 ovS av cis iravo-atr' ac:
O. C. 1656 ov8' av th I OVTJTWV <j>pa<reu. I n this emphatic form even
a prep, could be inserted (Xen. Hellen. 5. 4. 1 oio" v<f> Ivos, Cyr.
4. 1. 14 juijSe irpos /tiW), and in prose oiSe tts stood without elision:
in Ar. Ran. 927 etc., where the MSS. have ouSe ev (Dind. writes ovScev),
ovS' av h> is a possible p. /. 282 U TwvSe = perd TaSe: Dem.rflsCor.
§ 313 Xoyov e/c Xdyov Xiywv. For BeijTepa, second-^rf, cp. the proverb
Sevrepos irXovs: Plat. £%!£• 943 C rrjv T<5V ap«rT«W Kpttriv...KaL T-qv
TWV SeuTtpwv Kal rpiruiv. ax \^-yoi|ii: see on 95. 283 TO pj ov, not
TO ixrj, because the sentence is negative: below, 1232: Ant. 544 M
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 67

I am not the slayer, nor can I point to him who slew. As for
the question, it was for Phoebus, who sent it, to tell us this
thing—who can have wrought the deed.
OE. Justly said ; but no man on the earth can force the
gods to what they will not.
CH. I would fain say what seems to me next best after this.
OE. If there is yet a third course, spare not to show it.
CH. I know that our lord Teiresias is the seer most like
to our lord Phoebus; from whom, O king, a searcher of these
things might learn them most clearly.
OE. Not even this have I left out of my cares. On the
hint of Creon, I have twice sent a man to bring him; and this
long while I marvel why he is not here.

p aTt/ia'o-gs TO p.i] ou I Qavelv. But even in such a negative sentence


the simple TO p? occurs, below, 1387 : Ant. 443. 284 OVOKT': Od. 11.
151 Teipecaao ava/cros. TO,VT& opcivTa, n o t = TavTa <j>povovvra or yiyvw-
ovcovTa, 'taking the same views,' but seeing in the same mamier, i.e. with
equal clearness : 6puvra absol., as O. C. 74 00-' av \eyoip.i, irdvff opwvra
\e£ofw.L: TouTci adverbial = Kara ravrd: the dat. OVOKTI as Her. 4. 119
TOJUTO Sy Vfuv iirprfo-o-ofiev. 287 OVK iv dpYois TOOTO Ka.TeKi.irov would
have meant, ' I did not leave this among things neglected.' Soph, fuses
the negative form with the positive, and instead of Karekiirov writes
4irpagd|ii)v: ' I saw to this (midd.) in such a manner that it also should
not be among things neglected.' -n-pdao-eo-dai (midd.) elsewhere usu. = 'to
exact' (Thuc. 4. 65 etc.): here = Siairpdcraeo-8ai, effect for oneself. For Iv
cp. OVK iv £Aa<£pa> ZirouvfJLrjv ( H e r . I. 118), iv ev)((pti | 0.6ov (ravra) Phil.
875, ravr ovv iv alo-\pwtfe/ievosEur. Hec. 806. apyots, not things undone,
but things at which the work is sluggish or tardy; O. C. 1605 KOVK rjv IT
ovftiv dpyov top icpUro: Eur. Phoen. 766 iv 8' io-rlv T]p.lv dpyov, £i Tt 6£<T<f>a.-
TOV I oluivo/jLavTis Tetpco-t'as ?x« cj>pdo-ai, i.e. 'in one thing our zeal has
lagged,—the quest whether' & c : Theognis however (583 Bergk 3rd ed.)
h a s rd piv 7rpo/3e'^K£i' dp.T]^av6v io-Ti yevto-Oai | dpyd, = diroirjTa, infeda.
288 SiirXovs I iroiiirovs: he had sent two successive messages—one mes-
senger with each. irop.Tros = one who is sent to escort (Trep-veiv) or fetch
a person (O. C. 70). The words could mean (as Ellendt takes them)
'two sets of messengers': but the other view is simpler, and consists
equally well with oiSe in 297. 289 f.r\ irapciv 8av|iciJ«Tai = 6avp.d£<a el pjij
jrapeari; but with ov, = OavpAljo on ov irapco-rt: differing nearly as ' I
5—2
68 IO*OKAEOYI

XO. KOLI fxrjv TOL y dXka Kcocfra /cat TraXaC ivy). 290
OI. TO, TTota TO.VTO, ) TTOLVTa ydp CTKOITci) \6yOV.
XO. davelv i\e)(6r) Trpos TWCJV ohoi/rropcav.
(Jl. rjKOvcra Kayo)' TOV O LOOVT ovoevs opa..
XO. a\X' ei r t fx.h> 8rj Sei/to/rds y e^et [xepo<s,
rds <ras a.Kovo)v ov fievei roiacrS' dpds. 295
OI. a> JU.-^ V T I BpmvTL Tap/3os, ouS' CTTOS <f>o/3eZ
XO. a\X' ov£e\ey£a)v avrov <Lcmv' oi8e yap
TOZ' OCLOV 7)O7) [LO.VTIV COO ayOVCTLV, (p
29O rd r' aXXa L. ret 7' aXXa A: ubi 7' non corrector dedit, sed manus
prima, quae litteram 5 facere inceperat, hanc autem in 7 mutavit. 2 9 3 TOK
5' ISOVT' codd. omnes. Anonymi coniecturam TOV 5^ SI>I2VT', a Burtono citatam,
receperant Dindorf., Nauck., Blaydes. 2 9 4 SeijxaToir f (sic) L, ubi f non
prima scripsit manus, sed ex 7' fecit corrector, facillima mutatione, cum formam
r haberet: simile exemplum vides in v. 516. Setfiards T' A et ceteri quos quidem
cognoverim omnes: unus cod. Urb. 140 (Vat. c) T' an 7' habeat, in dubio relinquit
Campb. Haesisse tamen in illo T' grammaticos vel inde colligere potes quod in cod.

wonder why' and 'Iwonder that.' Xen. Anab. 4. 4. 15 (he spoke of)
rd py oVra o3s OVK OI/TOL : i. e. et TI pr) -qv, e\tya> on OVK rjv. 290 TO. 7' aXXa
...tTrc\: the rumours which were current—apart from the knowledge
which the seer may have to give us. Not, '•the other rumours.' Cp,
Plat. Phaed. IIO E KOX \L$OLS KOL yfj Kal TOIS aAAois £alois T« Kat (jiVTOi';.
Ktt><(>d: the rumour has died down; it no longer gives a clear sound.
Cp. fr. 604 XTJOTJV TC Tiijv airavT curcorep^yu.eV??!', | Kw<f>rjvt avavSov. Al.
911 o 71-avTa KWC^OS, 0' irdvT aiSpis, reft of all sense a n d wit. 291 TO iroia,
cp. 120. 292 68oiiropci>v: t h e survivor h a d spoken^ of X-ga-rai, 122. T h e
word now used comes nearer to the truth (cp. 801 68ourop<5v); but, as
the next v. shows, Oed. does not regard this rumour as a different one
from that which Creon had mentioned. 293 T4V 8' 186VT' : the surviving
eye-witness: cp. 119 av eT8e, TTXI^V lv K.T.X. Oed. has not yet
learned that this witness could be produced; cp, vv. 754 ff. ISOVTO is
better than the conj. SpaWa (1) as expressing, not merely that the
culprit is unknown, but that no eye-witness of the deed is now at hand:
(2) because, with 6pa, it has a certain ironical point,—expressing the
king's incredulity as to anything being made of this clue. Cp. 105, 108.
294 8e£|ittT6s7'. Set/m, prop, 'an object of fear,' is used by Her. and the
poets as = 8eos: Her. 6. 74 KAeo//,£i'ea...§ei/i.a. ZXafie %TrapTi.r)T(.wv:
Aesch. Suppl. 566 yXwpin 8ei[jLa.Ti 6v/x6v I TrdWovT : E u r . Suppl. 599 <us
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOZ 69

CH. Indeed (his skill apart) the rumours are but faint and
old.
OE. What rumours are they ? I look to every story.
CH. Certain wayfarers were said to have killed him.
OE. I, too, have heard it, but none sees him who saw it.
CH. Nay, if he knows what fear is, he will not stay when
he hears thy curses, so dire as they are.
OE. When a man shrinks not from a deed, neither is he
scared by a word.
CH. But there is one to convict him. For here
they bring at last the godlike prophet, in whom
Paris. T rot superscriptum inveni. Quod et Hartung. et Kennedius coniece-
runt, Seifidrwv 2x« /xtpos, receperunt Ritter., Van Herwerden., Campb. Vide
annot. 2 9 7 ov£e\\4yxa" (sic) L. Alterum \ erasit manus prima: £ super 7
scripsit aut prima (ut Duebnero visum est) aut antiqua. ov^eXiy^av A, E, codd.
Venet. 616, 467 (V2, V3), Bodl. Laud. 54, Misc. 99, alii. ol£e\tyx»»' B, T, V, V4, al.
Codicum igitur auctoritas paullo gravior cum 1. ov^eKiy^av facit. Eodem inclinat
maiore etiam, ut opinor, momento Graeci sermonis usus: vide annot.

ju.01 v<j> ijiraTL Seijua x^-oeP°v Tapwrca: id. El. 767 e/c Sci/iaros, from fear.
Cp. above, 153. The yt gives emphasis: the apai of Oed. were enough
to scare the boldest. Hartung and, independently, Prof. Kennedy
conjecture Seip-droiv c^ei /*«pos- The plur. Setjuara means either
(a) objects of fear, or {b) much more rarely, fears, with reference to
some particular objects already specified: as in El. 636 Seifmrmv a vvv
l^(o, ' the terrors which I now suffer,' alluding to the dreams. Here
we seem to need the sing., 'fear.' 295 TOS <ras...dpas, thy curses:
Toid<r8«, being such as they are. 297 oigeXfygwv. The present oufeXeyx0""
would mean, 'there is one who convicts h i m ' : i.e. the supposed
criminal, whom threats scare not, is already detected; for the pro-
phet has come. Cp. Isocr. or. 8. § 139 SATT OVK a.Troptf(ro[ji,ev fxeff" <Sv
K(oXwo/xev TOVS Ifa/xapTavovTas, aXXa TTOXXOVS Z£ofiev TOVI eroi/xcos KCU
7rpo6vfiu>% <7vvayu>vi£ofi.evov<; TJ/I'IV : where, however, the present
part, a-vvaywvilojxivov; is relative to the future I^o/xtv. To this it
may be objected: (1) the present participle with lorir would not be
suitable unless the conviction were in act of taking place: (2) the fut.
partic. not only suits the context better—'one to convict him' [supposing
he is here]—but also agrees with the regular idiom: e.g. Phil. 1242 TI'S
toTcu / / ovirLK(x>\v(XiOv raSe; El, 119 7 ovS' ovirapij^wv ovB' 6 KioKxxrtav irapa.;
(cp. Ant. 2 6 1 ) : Aesch. P. V. 27 o X<i><£?7<ru>i/ yap o i iri^vKt TTU>: X e n .
70 ZO^OKAEOYI

avQpumoiv \x.6v(a.
OI. w Travra VCOJJLOJV Teipecrta, SiSa/cTa re 300
apprjToi T , ovpdvid re Kal -^Oovocm^rj,
TToXtv fiev, el KOL [JLTJ /3A.eVeis, fypoveLs S'
01a vocrw avvecmv r/s ere
fiovvov
<&o2/3o<; ydp, el Kal ju.17 xXuets TIUI' dyyekoiv, 305

\x.6vr]v o.v iXdelv rovSe rov


el rous KTCLVOVTCLS Adiov \x.aQ6vTe<i ev
3O5 d Kal /tij codd.: d TI ^T) L. Stephanus, Dindorf., Wunder., Hartung.

Anab. 2. 4. 5 6 ijyry<ro/x«vos oiSas torat. 299 i\nrt$vKtv, is implanted,—


with reference to the divine gift of prophecy: Her. 9. 94 (of the seer
E v e n i u s ) KO.1 [i£Ta. r a u r a aun'/ca e/j.(jiVTov fUxvTiKrjv €i\€. dvOpioirwv p-ova>,
above all other men: cp. (9. C. 261 /xovas .. | o-ai^etv oias re K.T.X.,
Athens, above all other cities, can save: Isocr. or. 14. § 57 d^etXere 8e
fj.6vot T W 'EXXrJvoiv TOVTOV TOV Zpavov, unice (though others owe it
also). 300 & irdin-a vupuv: vw/xato (vc/x) means (1) to distribute, (2) to
dispose, and so to wield, ply, (3) figuratively, to ponder, animo
versare: lv\ <f>pecri KepSe evo)/x.as Od. 18. 2 1 6 : iv tacrl v<a/J.<ov Kal <l>pe<Ttv
•n-vpos 8t^a I xpr)<TTT]piovs opviOas d^evSe? TtxyQ A e s c h . Theb. 25 (of
Teiresias): (4) then, absolutely, to observe: Her. 4. 128 vcopoi/TEs
...o-ira avaipto/teVovs, observing the moment when they were cutting
forage. Similarly here,—with the idea of mental grasp unaided by
eyesight. Plato {Crat. 411 D) fancifully connects yvaifn-q with VOJ/XIJCTIS,
—TO yap vu>fx.S.v KOX TO (TKOirelv TOLVTOV. SiSaicrd re | app-qTa T « , c p .
the colloquial p-qTov app-qTov T £7ros (O. C. IOOI dicenda tacendd):
apprjTa = dir6ppr]TaL: Her. 6. 135 apprjTa ipd iKcfrrjvao-av. 301 ovpdvia T«
KOV X9OVO<TTIPT] : not in apposition with app-qra and Si8a«Ta respectively,
but both referring to each, lore that may or that may not be
told, whether of the sky or of the earth. Dindorf cp. Nicephorus
Gregoras Hist. Byz. 695 D O.KTIO-TO. yeveaOai Travra rd T ovpdvia rd re
X&ovoo-Ti/3rj Kal vSpata yivq: where, however, -)(6ovoo-Tif$fj has its literal
sense,—'walking the earth': here it is poet, for iiriyeia, 'the lowly
things of earth.' 302 iroXiv |«'v is answered by <ri 8' in 310: the city's
state you know,—do then your part. The 8* after <f>povcts introduces
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOZ 71

alone of men doth live the truth.


OE. Teiresias, whose soul grasps all things, the lore that may
be told and the unspeakable, the secrets of heaven and the low
things of earth,—thou feelest, though thou canst not see, what a
plague doth haunt our State,—from which, great prophet, we
find in thee our protector and only saviour. Now, Phoebus—if
indeed thou knowest it not from the messengers—sent answer
to our question that the only riddance from this pest which
could come was if we should learn aright the slayers of Lalus,

the apodosis after a concessive protasis, as Her. 8. 22 « <5E ifitv IO


TOVTO //.17 SwaroV 7roirj<rai, fynces Sc (theti) e n Kal vvv IK TOS [iio~ov ijfuv
Z£e(r6e. X e n . Cyr. 5. 5. 21 aXX' t i /xrjSe TOVTO.../3ov\ei diroKpivao-Oai, av
8e TOvvTtWtv Xiye. 303 i]S SC. voaov. irpo<mCTf|V yocrou, a protector from a
plague: strictly, one who stands in front of, shields, the city's distempered
state. Cp. Ai. 803 Trpoo-TrjT avayxaias T V ^ S , shelter my hard fate. In
E u r . Andr. 220 yc.ipov dpcriviov vocrov | Tavrrjv yo(7ov/xev, aAXa 7rpovo-Trjntv
KaX<3s, 'we suffer this distemper more cruelly than men, but ever rule it
well,' the idea is that of administering (not protecting), as in Trpoio-Tao-Oai
T^S ijXtidas, to regulate one's own early years, Isocr. or. 15. § 290. Cp.
882. 304 |iovvov: this Ionic form (like xoupos, Sovpi, ^tcos, yowara) is
used in dialogue by Soph.: Aesch. has not /IOWOS, though in P. V. 804
rov T£ fiowwira 0-Tpa.Tov. In [Eur.] Rhes. 31 /j.6vapxoi is now restored for
fiovvapxou 305 A Kal ^ K\^«IS, implying that he probably has heard it.
Ai. 1127 hnvov y fXTrais, ci KO\ ^rjs 6a.v<6v. Track. 7 1 Trav TOIWV, £i Kal
TOVT 2TX»7) KXVOI TIS av, if indeed. On ei Kai and Kal d see Appendix,
Note 8. Others would render, 'if you have not heard from the
messengers also,' supposing it to be a hyperbaton for « /AI; KXUCIS Kal
TWV dyyiXiov. This is impossible. Prof. Campbell compares Thuc. 5.
45 Kal rjv h TOV $r}fi,ov TavTa Xeycocrti', as if p u t for fjv KOX CS TOV &rjfi.ov :
but there the passage runs thus; (Spartan envoys had been pleading
•with effect before the Athenian BouXi;:)—TOV 'AXKI/3ICI8IJI' i<f>6/3ovv
fx,yj Kal, t]V £S TOV fyfj/jLov Tavra. Xiycocnv, lit ay ay tavTai TO TrXyjOoi
Kal diriMrdfj -q 'ApyetW o-u/a/xa^ia: where the Kai before rjv goes with
eVayaywi'Tai. Dindorf, Nauck and Blaydes are among those who
adopt the conj. el TI p-fj, 'unless perchance': for n so used, see
below 969, 0. C. 1450, Tr. 586, 712: but no change is required.
308 |ia8ovT« eu. ev = 'with care,' 'aright': cp. Ai. 18 eVeyvcos cv: ib.
528 lav TO Ta)(6tv «5 ToXfjiS. TCXUV. Meineke's conj. fj, adopted by
72 IO4>OKAEOY5:

KTetvaifi-ev, 77 yrjs <f>vy<£8a<; iK


1 0
(TV 8' ovv <f>9ovrj<Ta<s ji^T* air olcavwv <f>a.Tiv 3
IX,TJT el TIV dWrjv pavTucrj? e^eis oSoV,
pvcrai creavTov Kal TTOXLV, pvcrai S' e/xe,
pvcrai Se 7rav [xiacrfia TOU TeOvrjKOTos.
ev croc yap ecrfitw avopa o axpekew cup we
r e KOLL hvvauo KaXXtcrros 7rova>v. 315

TEIPE2IA2.
(f>€v <f)€v, <j>povelv w? SCLVOV h>Ba. fir)
\vr) (j>povovvTL. ravra yap /caXws
eiows oiwAecr • ou yo-p OLV oevp L
01. rl S' ecTTLV; OJS
31O Errant, credo, qui lectionem o-i> KCJ', nusquam alibi inventam, cod. Lauren-
tiano imputant. Prima manus, nisi fallor, non ab vvv verum ai ovv (omisso 5')
scripserat, 5' recentior supplevit. ai vvv Blaydes. 31S Mendosa 1. ?x et noa
in A solo occurrit, sed etiam in V3, Bodl. Laud. 54, Barocc. 65; videtur in Misc. 99

Nauck, is weak, and against the rhythm. 310 air otavuv <j>dnv: for
airo, see 4 3 : ^inv, 151. 311 a\Xr)v 6Bov, as divination by fire (see on
21), to which Teiresias resorts (Ant. 1005) when the voice of birds fails
him. 312 pvo-ai <r«a«Tov K.T.X. pvf.cr6al, TI is to draw a thing to oneself, and
so to protect it. pSom piao-|j.a here = literally, 'take the defilement under
thy care'; i.e. 'make it thy care to remove the defilement' Cp. irpoa-rfyr
dvayKaiai T V ^ S (Ai. 803), shelter my hard fate, (instead of, 'shelter me from
it'), irdv |i£ao-(i.a, the whole defilement, as affecting not only human life
but also the herds and flocks and the fruits of the earth: cp. 253. TOO
Ttflvi]KdTos, gen. of the source from which the ^iiatr/ta springs,—more
pathetic than TOV <f>6vov, as reminding the hearer that vengeance is due
for innocent blood. Both irav and the usual sense of (iCao-no forbid us
to understand, 'avenge the uncleanness [i.e. the unpunished murder] of
the dead man.' For pSo-ou. Se Blaydes conj. \vaov 8i, comparing Eur.
Or. 598 /uWyua Xwrai. But the triple pSo-ai is essential to the force.
314 i^ o-ol = penes te: O. C. 248 lv vfuv o5s Oew | KeifitOa rXd/jLovi^ : E u r .
Ale. 278 iv <TO\ 8 la-ftiv Kal £!}v Kal py. avSpa, accus. before, not after,
<O<JK\«IV, as in Ant. 710 d\X' avBpa, KEI TIS rj (ro(j>6^, TO fxa.vQa.vav \ TTOW
alcrxpov ov$£v. In both places avSpa has a certain stress—' for mortal
man.' But in At. 1344 ai'Spa 8' ov SiVaiov, ei Odvoi, fiXdirruv TOV io~&\uv,
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 7%

and slay them, or send them into exile from our land. Do
thou, then, grudge neither voice of birds nor any other way
of seer-lore that thou hast, but rescue thyself and the State,
rescue me, rescue all that is defiled by the dead. For we are
in thy hand ; and man's noblest task is to help others by his
best means and powers.

TEIRESIAS.
Alas, how dreadful to have wisdom where it profits not the
wise! Aye, I knew this well, but let it slip out of mind ; else
would I never have come here.
OE. What now ? How sad thou hast come in !

quoque ?%oi ab (xel ortum esse. irbvoa L, ubi uv antiqui correctoris est: irbvuv A,
Off
4 2
B, V , L . itbvuv (sic, non irbvoa irbvtiiv) E. Itaque lectio ir6vav, quae elegantior
est, etiam librorum auctoritate plus valet quam irdvos. 3 1 7 Xiijt L, Xt/7; (sic) L 2 ,
r , Pal. Contra A et plerique \iu, quod ' ut gravius dictum ' praetulerunt Hermann,
et Erfurdt. Vide tamen annot.

avSpa is the object, agreeing with TOV ZO-6X6V. 315 o<f>' «v fyoi T€ K0*
BvvaiTo, by means of all his resources and faculties. The optat., as Ant.
666 dXX' ov irdAis cmfcTEie, ToCSe xprj nXveiv: Xen. Cyr. I. 6. 19 aXXa TOV
fikv airrov Xiyeiv, a ixrj <ra^)(3s eiSetr;, <f>ei8e<r9ai Se£ The force of the mood
may be seen by putting the sentence in a hypothetical form : et T « w<f>e-
XoCrj a<f> utv ?X ot ' KaXXurra av ttavoii). 317 Xij-g: for subjunct. Without av,
cp. O. C. 395 os veos iria-Q: Ai. 1 0 7 4 \v6a. fir} KaOe<n~^Kr] 8eos: Tr.
1008 o TI KOX fiva-ri. On the other hand, the indie. Xvei would state
the fact: cp. O. C. 839 fiij ViVacro-' a fir) Kparets: ib. 1442 fir) TreW
a fir) 8ci. But L has Xvy and some other MSS. have Xvrf. and it is
much more likely that this should have become Xvei than vice versa.
TA.TJ XIJT| = Xv&iTeXfj, only here : cp. Eur. Ale. 627 <j>rifil TOLOVTOVS ya/tovs I
Xveiv /9poTo~s. ravTa yip (I have to bewail this now), for, though I
once knew it, I had forgotten it. Teiresias, twice summoned (288), had
come reluctantly. Only now, in the presence of Oedipus, does he realise
the full horror of the secret which he holds. 318 8uoW = let slip out
of my memory; perh. a common use, though it occurs only here: cp.
o-aS^eaOai t o remember, Plat. Theaet. 153 B KiaraL re /xa6rjfiaTa KO.1 <7(o£e-
TOU : Rep. 45s B a tfiaOe, <T<O££TCU : and so Soph. El. 993, 1257. So
Terent. Phormio 2. 3. 39 perii hercle: nomen perdidi, 'have forgotten.'
319 TC 8' &rTiv ; El. 920 <j>iv r^s avoids.. .XPYS. rt o" eoriv; and so often in
74 I0<t>0KAE0Y2

T E . dc/>es fi e? owcous' pacrra ydp TO crov re <ri> 320


KOLya> SLOicrco Tovfjuov, rjv. ifJbol Tridrj.
OI. OVT evvofi eiTras ovre Trpoo~fyikrj TroXei
T ^ O , 7) cr evpeye, TTJVO anocrTepoiv <pariv.
liii. opa> yap ovoe CTOL TO crov (fxovrjix IOV
7T/3OS Kaipov a>s ovv /A17S' ey&i r a u r o v nddo). 325
OI. ju.17 7T/3O5 Sewv (f>povSv y
Traires cre irpocKwovfJiev 01S'
T E . Trai/res y a p ou (frpoveLT'. iycu S' ov [i/r\ TTOTC
Ta/x,, 6JS av eiTTw /AI) r a cr', iK^>rjV(a /ca/ca.
OI. Tt ^ 5 j £weil>o!>s ov (j>pdo~eLS, dW ivvoeis 330
TT/aoSoui'at /cat naTatydeipai irokiv;
3 2 2 ofir' evvoix1 (sic) L, in rasura: mox irpovtpiXri, ubi eer corrector addidit. Prima
manus, credo, ^vvo^ov scripserat, ipsa autem in ^vvof^ correxit, dein recte irpo<r<f>i\T)
dedit. Ivvofiov habent pauci codd.; irpo<T$i\is autem A et reliqui fere omnes qui IVVO/J.'
praebent. Ipsum autem irpo<r<pi\H ab ^pvofiov illo fluxit. Sic primo errore sublato

Soph.: Be marking that the attention is turned to a new point, as in


Tt 8'; quid vero 2 (941), or to a new person : Isaeus or. 8. § 24 ov Si rt's
tt; 321 SioCo-w, bear to the end : Eur. Hipp. 1143 8a.Kpv<n Sioi'o-w | TTOT/JLOV
live out joyless days: Thuc. r. 11 el ^vi^ois TOV TroXtfiov
hia(j>£puv could not mean 'to bear apart' (from each other),
though that is implied. 322 OVT' iwo^ K.T.X. OVK evvo/w., not in con-
formity with usage, which entitled the State to benefit by the wisdom of
its /mvTis. The king's first remonstrances are gentle. 323 diro<rrtp<3v
'withholding': Arist. Rhet. 2. 6. 3 diroo-Ttprjo-ai trapaKwraOriK-qv, depositum
non reddere. <j>dTiv, of a divine message, 151. 324 opu-ydp K.T.X. ( / d o
not speak), for I see that neither dost thou speak opportunely: (I am
silent) therefore, lest I too should speak unseasonably. 325 irpAs Kcupdv
= Kaipiws, as with evvirreiv Track. 59. <Ss p]8*ty<"T<i8» is irregular for p-i)
KCU iya> TrdOw, influenced by the form of the preceding clause with ovSe <roL
The sense requires that nt)8«' should be broken up into yJ] not, 81 on the
other hand. The final clause <»s.. .irdflw depends on atytu, or the like, under-
stood. 326 |u} irpis 9«<3v K.T.X. The attribution of these two verses to the
Chorus in some MSS. is probably due to the plur. in 327 having misled
those who did not see that the king speaks for all Thebes. <f>pov<Sv 7',
if thou hast understanding (of this matter): cp. 569 Ifi o!s yap p ;
<j>povw criyav ij>i\<j>: not, ' i f thou art s a n e . ' But in 328 ov <j>poveiTe= ' a r e
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 75

TE. Let me go home ; 'twill be best that thou bear thine


own burden to the end, and I mine—if thou wilt heed me.
OE. Thy words are strange, nor kindly to this State which
nurtured thee, when thou withholdest this response.
TE. Nay, I see that thou, on thy part, openest not thy lips
in season : therefore take I heed lest I, too, have the like hap.
OE. For the love of the gods, turn not away, if thou hast
knowledge : all we suppliants implore thee on our knees.
TE. Aye, for ye are all without knowledge; but never
will I reveal my griefs—that I say not thine.
OE. HOW sayest thou ? Thou knowest the secret, and wilt
not tell it, but art minded to betray us and to destroy the State ?

secundus mansit. 3 2 6 , 3 2 7 Hos versus Oedipo recte tribuit L : quos quod choro
A aliique codd. assignant, versum 327 causae fuisse credo. Parum tempestive se chorus
interponit dum crescente sensim ira rex et vates colloquontur. Cum vehemens oratio
utrimque iam exarsit, turn demum convenienter intercedit chorus (v. 404).

without understanding,' are senseless. 328 iya 8' ot> |«] WOT*
!|i& (<Js dv pi} etiro xd <ra) KOKO: I will never reveal my (not to call them
thy) griefs, rd 4|MX KOXOI, = those secrets touching Oedipus which lie
heavy on the prophet's soul: TO. <ra KOKO, those same secrets in their
import for Oedipus. We might render cos av eurw /JLTJTOa-' either (i) as
above, or (ii) ' in order that I may not utter thy griefs.' But (i) is
preferable for these reasons:—(1) The subjunct. c«r<o with /u.^ was
familiar in such phrases. Plat. Rep. 487 D TCWS filv TTXCICTTOUS KOX
TTOLVV dWoKorovi yvyvojxivov;, Iva pyj •jraju.Trovifpws ciirto/tcv, 'becom-
ing very strange persons,—not to use a more unqualified epithet:'
Rep. 507 D ovh' d W a i s iroXXais, Iva jj.yj £i7ra> o v S c / i t a , TOIOVTOV irpocr-
hei ovSevos, i.e. few,—not to say none: Hippias minor 372 D TOIOVTOS
tlfii otos Trip cf/xi, iva pr/bev i/xavrov /Z6t£oi' eiirto,—to say nothing
more of myself. The substitution of <5s av for the commoner iva in no
way alters the meaning. For »s av |H], cp. Ar. Av. 1508 TOUT!...TO
(TKiaSciov VTrlpiy* | dvco^cv, <us ov fit] fi iSaxriv 01 OtoC. F o r <6s av stira |ii^
instead of ok av fir) etirw, cp. 255, Phil. 66 el 8' ipyda-fi | prj ravra.
(2) The emphatic position of x&y suits this version. (3) fc<|njv<i>
is more forcible than «1W If the meaning were, ' I will not reveal
my griefs, in order that I may not mention (CITTW) thy griefs,' the
clauses would be ill-balanced. See Appendix, Note 9. 330
76 IO*OKAEOYI

TE. iyco OVT i/xavrov ovre cr dXyvvco. TL TCLVT'


aXXft>9 eXey^eis ; ov ydp dv irvdoio JJLOV.
OI. OVK, d> KGLKwv Ka/acrre, Kdl yap av Trerpov
<j>v(TLV crv y opydvELas, e^epeis iroTe, 335
aXX' aiS' areyKTos KareXeur^ros <j>avei;
TE. opyrjv ejne/At/zw TTJV ifJLrjv, rr/v o"fjv S' 6/JLOV
vaiovcrav ov KareiSes, dXX' ifie i/»eyei?.
OI. ris yap TOLavr' av OVK av opyltpvr eirq
KKVCOV, a vvv o~v Trjvh' ari/*a^ets 770X11'; 340
TE. i^fei yap avrd, Kav iyco ayrj crreyo).
3 3 2 ^7ib OVT' cum paucis codd. B et Bodl. Barocc. 66: iydi r' L, A, plerique.
T' illud tanquam pro otire positum explicabaut, ut docent scholiastae verba, a7r6 KOIPOV
•V-,
TO ov. 337 6p/j.riv L. Est 7 ab antiqua manu. Credit Duebnerus ipsum illud

because IK^VW implied that he knew. Cp. 704 m/ros Ivi/aSuk r)


fiaOwv a\Xov irdpa, i.e. of his own knowledge, or on hearsay? Not,
'being an accomplice' (as Ant. 266 fvveiSevai | TO irpayfua /3ov\ev-
travTi): Oed. can still control his rising anger. 332 I71J OUT K.T.X.
The ruggedness of this verse is perh. designed to express agitation.
Cp. 1002 iyw ov)(i: O. C. 939 eyco OVT' avavSpov : ib. 998 iyw ovSe: Ant.
458 ey(O OVK e[ie\\ov. ravr'; see On 29. 334 Trrrpov | fyicriv: Eur. Med.
1279 <s> TaXaiv", us ap yo-Oa Trerpos ^ crtSa'pos. For the periphrasis cp.
Plat. Phaedr. 251 B IJ-TOU irTcpov <f>vais, — TO irrepov, iretf>vKos wcrirtp ire<f>vK€t
being constituted a s it is : Timae. 45 B TT}VTOP'fSkt<f>apa>v <j>v<nv: 74 D
T))V T<3V vevp<ov <j>.: 84 C ?J TOU fiveXov <j>v<ri<s: Legg. 145 D T-fjv vSaTos
<^ijo-tv. A n d so often in A r i s t , e.g. ij TOU Trvev/xaTos <^vo-t5 Meteor. 2. 8 :
ij T<3V vcv'pwv <^uo-is Hist. Anim. 3. 5. 335 irm4, tandem aliquando: Phil.
8 1 6 fJLtdes TTOTI : ib. 1041 Tio-acrO' dXXd T<3 XP"1'? ITOTE. 338 dTeX«iiTT|Tos,
n o t b r o u g h t t o a n e n d : / / . 4. 17 5 dreXev-nJTU) €m lpy<a. P l u t . J/<?r. n 4 F
TO ydp 8?; aTeXcuTrjTov VOIAL£UV TO TTCV^OS avoias eo-Tiv eo-^aT^s. H e r e , a
man 'with whom one cannot make an end,'—who cannot be brought to
the desired issue. In freely rendering, ' Wilt thou never make an end ?'
we remember, of course, that the adj. could not literally mean 'not
finishing.' Possibly it is borrowed from the colloquial vocabulary of the
day: the tone is like that of the Latin odiosus. 337 ^pipi!"*; a or. re-
ferring to the moment just past : SO oft. €7rrjVeo-a, gwrjica., Ijo-Orjv : aire-
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 77

TE. I will pain neither myself nor thee. Why vainly ask
these things ? Thou wilt not learn them from me.
OE. What, basest of the base,—for thou wouldest anger a
very stone,—wilt thou never speak out ? Can nothing touch
thee ? Wilt thou never make an end ?
TE. Thou blamest my temper, but seest not that to which
thou thyself art wedded : no, thou findest fault with me.
OE. And who would not be angry to hear the words with
which thou now dost slight this city ?
TE. The future will come of itself, though I shroud it in
silence.
/J prius 7 fuisse: equidem vero propius duco primam manum calami lapsu opuyv
scripsisse. Nullum alias eiusdem mendi vestigium. rr/i/ a-qv d' L, A, ceteri paene
omnes. Dindorfius 'ex duobus apographis' TT)V aol 5' in textum recepit. Hoc in V4
quidem inveni: alter Dindorfii codex quis sit, nescio. Sed vide annot.

•KTVtra (Eur. Hec. 1276) : eScfa/nijv (Soph. El. 668). o(i,oi> | vaCovo-av, while
(or though) it dwells close to thee,—possesses and sways thee. Cp. O. C.
J07A.IS (1134) and ftXdfir) (El. 785) ^U'VOIKOS: (Tvvva.if.lv wovois (Ph. 892):
<rvvTpo<f>oi<; I dpyaTs (Ai. 639). But (as Eustathius saw, 755. 14) the words
have a second meaning: ' thou seest not that thine own [njv 0-171/, thy
kinswoman, thy mother] is dwelling with thee [as thy wife].' The
ambiguity of TI)V <r\v, the choice of the phrase &\u>v vaCono-av, the choice
of KdTtiSes, leave no doubt of this. Cp. 261. 338 dXX.'ty.ei^-yeis: the
thought of opyrjv c/xe/Ai/fio TYJV Zp-rfv returns upon itself, as if from a sense
that the contrast between ip.ip.\j/w and Kareio'eg would be imperfectly felt
without such an iteration : this is peculiarly Sophoclean; cp. above
166 (ZX&ere KOL VVV): Schneidewin cp. also Ai. 1111 OV...T^S <r^
ovveK... I d\\' ovvcx opKwv... \ <rov 8' ovSeV : and similarly Track. 431.
339 The emphasis on roiaiiTa as well as on OU'K warrants the repeated
civ : Eur. Andr. 934 OVK av iv y 6/u.ois So^ois | /3Xiirovcr' av aiyas Tap.'
iKapirovr' av Xi^i]. 340 a...aTi|i.d£€is xoXiv: a cogn. accus.: Ai. 1107 TO.
aifiv tTrr] I KoAa£' tKetVovs: Ant. 55° Tt' Ta"T* avias p.'; aTifiid^eis, by
rejecting the request that he would speak : Ant. 544. 341 Tjgci ydp avTo.
The subject to TJ|«I is designedly left indeterminate : ' (the things of which
I wot) will come of themselves.' The seer is communing with his own
thought, which dwells darkly on the KO.KO. of v. 329. airi =
II. I1]. 252 apyaXeov Se p.OL eori StacrKO7riuo-^at tKaarov... | dXXd Tts
iTw. Cp. the phrase avTo Sei^ct, res ipsa arguet, the result will show:
78 ZO*OKAEOYZ

OI. OVKOVV a y ij^et /cat ere yj>y\ keyew ifioC.


TE. OVK av irepa <f>pdo~aLfj.i. TT/DOS r a S ' , ei
0VflOV Si' Opyfjs 17TIS dypKOTOLTT].
OI. Kal fjirjv iraprjcroi y ovhiv, a>s opyrjs exco, 345
atrep £VV[T][JL'. Icrdi yap SOKWV ipol
Kal £vjj.<j)VTevcrai rovpyov, elpydcrdai ff, OCTOV
fir) x 6 / 30 "' Kaivoiv el S' iTi/y^aves ySXeVcov,
/ecu Tovpyov dv crov TOVT" ifftrjv elt'at [JLOVOV.
TE. aXyjdes', ivviirm crk raJ Kr/pvyfiaTi 350

vvv npocravSav fnjre rovcrBe


oi'rt yrjs rrjcrB' dvocrio) fiwicrTopi.

3 4 7 elpyd<rOai S' L, quod recepit Hermann., 'perpetrasse autem'' intelligens:


'i.e. perpetrasse autem non ipsum,. sed per alios.' Quo facto perditur sententiae

Soph. fr. 355 layy 8' avro Setfei Tovpyoi'. 342 owKOvvd-/ <[{«. Elmsley,
Nauck and Hartung read OVK OVV .. .e/W; but the positive \p-fj is stronger
without the query. ' Then, seeing that they will come, thou on thy part
(Kal <r\) shouldest tell them to me.' The stress of Kal falls primarily on
T\, but serves at the same time to contrast Xfyeiv with TJ£«I. In & •/ rj|«i
the causal force of the relative is brought out by 76 : quippe quae ventura
sint. 343 OVK dv m=pa <j>pa'crcu|u. The courteous formula (95, 282), just
because it is such, here expresses fixed resolve. 344 TJTIS dypuoTdTi]: / / .
17. 61 ore TI'S re \ku>v...ftovvdpTrdaij 17ns dpLarrj: Plat. Apol. 23 A iroWal
a7T£^£tai...Kai olai ^aXc7r(UTaTat: Dem. Olynth. 2. § 18 ei fiiv yap TIS
dvrjp ICTTIV Iv avrdis o t o s £/xir«ipos TTO\£(JLOV KOU dyooviav [sc. ior£], TOVTOVS,
K.T.X. 345 Kal |ii]v with -ye, 'aye verily': cp. El. 554 where rjv «fc?« hm
is answered (556) by KCU firjv e^Hj/x'. »s opYijs ?xw = «Xon' °pyys <"s Ix0*!
being so wroth as I am. Thuc. 1. 22 <os eKarcpoiv n s eivoias ^ fivijfnjs
*X01 '• Eur. Z^1/. 313 Trdls 8' cvynej/ei'as TOICTI'8' tv Sojaois 'X € " > iraP1l<r<1)"
ovSiv (TO-JTWV) ai«p £uvCr||i,', I will leave unsaid nothing (of those things)
which I comprehend, /. e. I will reveal my whole insight into the plot.
|wCi)|u suits the intellectual pride of Oedipus : he does not say ' think'
or ' s u s p e c t ' : cp. 628. For -yap after to-fli cp. 277. 347 KOI gv|i<f>uT«vo-ai
...«tpYd<r9ai 8'. KOC...« could no more stand for ' and'...' both'' than et...
que could. KaC here (adeo) implies, ' no mere sympathiser, but actually the
OlAinOYI TYPANNOZ yg

OE. Then, seeing that it must come, thou on thy part


should'st tell me thereof.
TE. I will speak no further; rage, then, if thou wilt, with
the fiercest wrath thy heart doth know.
OE. Aye, verily, I will not spare—so wroth I am—to speak
all my thought. Know that thou seemest to me e'en to have
helped in plotting the deed, and to have done it, short of slaying
with thy hands. Hadst thou eye-sight, I would have said that
the doing, also, of this thing was thine alone.
TE. In sooth ?— I charge thee that thou abide by the decree
of thine own mouth, and from this day speak neither to these
nor to me: thou art the accursed defiler of this land.

gradatio sive KKIIXO.^: forti enim dicto non iam fortius sed lenius subicitur. 351
•jrpoaeiTTOLS c o d d . : 7r/>oe?7ras B r u n c k .

plotter.1 5i)|«|)vr€vo-ai: Pind. Isth. S (6) 12 avv re ol Bai/uov <f>vTevei 86£av:


At. 953 IlaXAas (jyvrevti, irfjfia: El. 198 Seirav Seivws irpofpvTtv&avTe1;
I fiop<f>dv (of crime). S<rov (ct^es eipydtrGai) ^ KaCvav, SO far as you
could be the author of the deed without slaying: Thuc. 4. 16
<f>vXd<r<reiv 8e KCU rrjv vr/crov 'A6rjvaiov; /xijSev rjacrov, oaa pr} dwofiaivov-
r a s : I. I l l Trjs yrjs tKpaTOVv o<ra /j.rj irpoiovres TTOXV IK TUIV o^Xcov:
Track. 1214 I oarov y av (sc. hp<a-qv TOVTO) a i r o s firj iroTUJ/avwv
Xfpolv. 349 Kal ToiJp-yov...TOVTO, the doing of this thing also, airrjv
rrjv Trpa^iv, as dist. from the plotting and the direction of the act.
350 dX.tie«s; K.T.X. The same word marks the climax of Creon's anger in
Ant. 758: cp. Ar. Av. 393 ITCOV; etc. Ivvftru o-*...£|i|Wvei.v I command
that thou abide : SO Phil. IOI Aeyto (Te...\a/3eiv. 351 $ir«p irpoctiras (sc.
eju-juevciv), by which thou didst proclaim that (all) should abide: this is
better than taking cpircp as by attraction for o-irep, since irpoii-Kov could take
an ace. of the thing proclaimed (e.g. ieviav, iroXe/jLov, Odvarov), but not of
the edict itself (as Kripvyjia). 353 <JsovTi....|udoTopi, an anacolouthon for
<Js ovra.../judcrropa, as if Ivviiru) <roi had preceded. 4|U just before made
this necessary. In Eur. Med. 57 most MSS. give &><r0' Ifupoi /x' virrj\0e
yrj T£ Kovpavu \ Xefai fi,o\ovcrr) Scvpo 8e(r7rotVi;s TV)(a<s, where Porson,
reading poXovo-av, admits that the dat. stands in Philemon's parody
(Athenaeus 288 D) WS iju.epos p inrijXBt yy re Kovpavio \ Xefai fioXovri
TOVIJJOV tos e<rKcva<Ta. Elms. cp. Eur. / . A, 491 aAAo>s ri /** JXtos T^S
80 IO<t>OKAEOYZ

OI. ourcus dvaiSais i£ei<Ci>r]cra<; TOSC


TO prjfjia; KOX TTOV TOVTO <j>€v^€cr0ai So/ceis ', 355
TE. Tre(f>evy(f TakyjOes yap lo~xyov rpecfxo.
OI. TTJOOS TOV S i S a ^ e i ? ; ov yap e/c ye TIJS Te^v^s.
TE. 7rpos aov' (TI> yap /x dicovTa vpovrpe\poi keyeuv.
OI. TTOIOV \6yov; X4y' avdi?, <ws [JiaXkov fj-dOa).
TE. ov^i izvvrJK.a'i irp6o~6ev; 17 '/CTreipa Xeycov; 360
OI. ou^ wcrre y' etTreiv yi'oxrToi' 1 a \ \ ' au^ts (f>pdcrov.
o
36O •>} inwupai \iyeiv L. Littera o, quae super ^ scripta a manu rec.
iam paene evanuit, coniecturam \6ywr videtur indicare. Lectionis X^yoi nullum
vestigium est. 17 Vxetpa (sic) X^eix A, et ceteri, scripto in quibusdam V
TaXanrwpov Ko'pijs eicr^X^e trvyye'vetai' ivvoov/jLO'to. 354 l£cKCvr]o-as.
is u s e d of starting game, El. 567 i^eKivqa-evTTOSOLV \ ...<l\a.<f>ov. of rousing
one from rest, Trach. 1242, and fig. of exciting pain which had been
lulled, ib. 979. Here the notion is that of a sudden and startling
utterance. But the choice of the word has also been influenced by the
common use of Kiviiv in the sense of mooting subjects which should not
have been touched: Eur. El. 302 hzii 8« /civets /JLVOOV, i.e. since thou
hast broached this theme: cp. O. C. 1526 a S' tfayiara firjhi /avarcu
Xdya). In.Eur. Med. 1317 TI racrSe Ktveis Kava/xoxA.€veis TruXas; Porson,
with the author of the Christus Patiens, reads Aoyous, thinking that
Ar. Nub. 1399 <S KaivuJv e7roi)v | KIV^TO Kal /xo^XevTa alluded to that place.
S o d.KLvr]Ta (CTTIJ) = aTToppr/Ta O. C. 6 2 4 , ^4«A T060 opcrets //.c TaKivrjTa
Sia <f>pevwv 4>pa.a-ai. \ Kiyei, K.T.X. 355 KOI irou K.T.X. A n d on what g r o u n d
dost thou think to escape (punishment for) this thing? For iroS cp.
390: Ai. 1100 irov <rv (rTpanjyeis rovSe; Distinguish Ka£ (1) prefixed to
interrogative particles, when it expresses an objection: Aesch. Ag. 280
Kal Tis TO8' 1£LKOIT av ayyeXcor ra^os; Dem. Fals. Legat. § 257 (with
Shilleto's note), and KOX mSs; passim: (2) suffixed, where, granting a
fact, it asks for further information: Agam. 278 5rotov ^povov Se Kal
ireiropOrjTai iro'Xts; (assuming it to be taken, when was it taken?) Eur.
Ale. 8 3 4 irov KCU <r<j>e Odirrei; TOVTO <)>ei57«iv h e r e = TOVTOV TJJV SLKTJV
tK<}>evyetv: Eur. Med. 795 i r a u W <j>6vov | <f>evyovo-a, fleeing from ( t h e
penalties of) the murder: Cic. Pro Cluent. 59 § 163 calumniam (=crimen
calumniae) non effugiet. But in Lys. In Erat. § 34 TOVTO...OV <t>evyo) = 'I
do not avoid this point.' 356 to-xvov expresses the living strength of the
divine instinct within him: cp. £WT<X 482. rpfya-. see on ifajri<j>vKev
299. 357 T^XTIS, slightly contemptuous; cp. 388, 562, 709. 358 irpo«-
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOS 81

OE. SO brazen with thy blustering taunt ? And wherein


dost thou trust to escape thy due ?
TE. I have escaped : in my truth is my strength.
OE. Who taught thee this ? It was not, at least, thine art.
TE. Thou : for thou didst spur me into speech against
my will.
OE. What speech ? Speak again that I may learn it
better.
TE. Didst thou not take my sense before ? Or art thou
tempting me in talk ?
OE. NO, I took it not so that I can call it known :—speak
again.
reipa (sic). 7; ireipq. \4ywv; Hartung.: rj 'xweipq. \&yt#; Campb.: oixi iwrjicas; irpbs
rl IXOV 'Kireipcj. \tyeip; proposuit Blaydes.

u: the midd., as 1446: but the act., Ant. 270, El. 1193. 360 1?
Xfywv; or (while you do understand my meaning already) are
you merely trying by your talk (teyav) to provoke a still fuller state-
ment of it? Her. 3. 135 Seuras /u.17 ev eKjreipuTo Aapcios, was making
trial of him: Ar. Eq. 1234 KO.1 <rov TotrouTo Trpwrov emmpacro/ifu1
'thus far make trial of thee' (test thee by one question). The notion
of ex in the compound is that of drawing forth something from the
person tested. Xfy»v here implies idle talk, cp. 1151 \£yu yap eiSoSs
ovSev: Phil. 55 Trjv 3>i\oKT>]TOv ere 8ei | ^v^rjv OTTWS Xoyoiariv CKKXCI^CIS
': where, as here, the partic. denotes the process. If we read
v, we must supply ware: 'tempting me so that I should
speak': a weak sense. \6ya> could only mean, 'by thy talk': whereas
it would naturally mean 'in word' (only, and not epy<j>). Musgrave
conj. Xox<3i/ (laying a snare for me); Arndt p IXtlv, (to catch me):
Madvig £K iretpas Xeye6s; But, with Xtywv, all is, I think, sound.
361 oi\ &rre y K.T.X. OV (£vvrji«x) OVTU> y' aKpiyScus wore uireiv. cp. 1131.
•yvwo-Tov: 'known.' So the MSS: but yvami 58, yvanov 396. I n fr.
262 «K Kapra. /3ai<Hv yvatros av yivoiT dvrfp, yvaiTOs — ' well - k n o w n , '
yvdpi/ioi: but Soph, used yvuxrr6<s in the same sense in the Hermione
(Antiatticista 87. 25). It has been held that, where a sigmatic form
of the verbal (as yveooros) existed along with the non-sigmatic (as
yvwroi), Attic usage distinguished yvworos as = 'what can be known'
from yvtoToi as = 'what is known.' But there is no ground for assuming
J. s. 6
82 IO*OKAEOYZ

TE. c/>ove'a ere (f>7]fju rdvBpos ov ^ r e i s Kvpeiv.


OI. dXX' ou Tt -^aCpoiv Sis ye rrrjfjLovds ipecs.
TE. eiiro) r t STJTO. KaXX', if' opyitpQ irkiov;
OI. ocrov ye ^pr^eis* ws indnqv elpyjcrerat. 365
TE. \e\7)9evat, ere c/>i7)u,i cruv TOIS ^>IXTOTOIS
alcrxicrff cyuXoiW, ovS' c5paf u»' et KCLKOV.
OI. 77 Kal yeyr)9a>s TOJVT del Xe'^ew So/cets;
TE. e*7rep TI y ' CCTTI TT}S dXyjOeCas crOevos.
OI. aAA. ecrri, n-A7)i> cror croi oe TOUT OVK ear, enei 370
TUctXoS T<£ T ' COTa TOV TC VOVV TO. T Op\LO.T el.
TE. (jv S' d^Xios ye TauV oveiSi^wi', ct crol
ouoeis os ov)(L Ttovo oueiOLEL
OI. jLiids Tpi(j>ei Trpos VVKTOS, ware
\sjr\T dWov, OCTTIS <f>o)<; opa, /3\d\pai TTOT dv. 375
TE. ov ydp ere ^olpa irp6<; y e/xou Trecreiv, e7rel

376 Sursum deorsum rem versant codd. omnes, fie...ye ffov praebentes, excepto
Flor. Abb. 41 (A), qui ere...ye crov habet: ae.,.yi fiov Brunck.

that such a distinction was observed. See Appendix, Note 10. 362
o5 JT]T€IS K.T.X. ffirjixi <re <frovia. nvpav (OVTO.) rov dvSpd1: ov (TOV cfioviaf
^IJTETS. 363 irrmovds: /. e. such charges are downright irrj/j.ovai, calamities,
infamies. There is something of a colloquial tone in the phrase: cp.
Ai. 6 8 /AIJSC <rvfj.^>opa.v Si^ov | TOV dv8pa: El. 301 o iravr' avaXicis OVTOS, rj
irao-a j3\d(3r]. Cp. 336 aTcXcvT^ros. 364 «Sir«, delib. subjunct.: Eur.
Ion 758 £i7r<o/tev ^ trtyw/iev rj ri Spatrojuev; 366 o-«v TO!« <J>IXTCITOIS
K.T.X. = o-vv T0 <f>i\Ta.Tr) (Iocasta): since 6{u\ovyr implies wedlock, and
not merely the companionship denoted by fw<uv in 4 5 7 : for the
allusive plural, cp. Aesch. Cho. 53 SeoTroTcoi' 0ava.Toi.o-i (Agamemnon's
murder). 367 lv" el KOKOI!: cp. 413, 1442. Track. 375 irpv TTOT et/u
wpay/mTos; 368 ^Kal: ' dost thou indeed?' Aesch. Eum. 402 ^ KO\
TOLavTas T<5S' €7rtppot^eTs cjivyds; 370 wXi}v <rol' trol Si K.T.X. Note in
these two vv. (1) the rhetorical iteration (iira.va<j>opa) of o-ot, as in O. C.
787 OVK « m (TOI TOLVT, dXXa <rot TO,VT car : Phil. 1054 TrXrjv «ts ori' crol 8e:
Isocr. or. 15 § 41 Kiv^vvtvtovTOfttv v<£' vp.aJi' rd 8e p.£^' V/JLWV Ta 8e 81' ijyiias
TO 8' vTrlp VJJ.WV. (2) the ninefold T (irapij^o-ts) in 3 7 1 ; cp. 4 2 5 : Ai.
528 tav TO r a ^ e v tv TOX/X^, TeXsiv: ib. 1112 01 wovov 7roX\ov irXi<a : Eur.
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOS 83

TE. I say that thou art the slayer of the man whose slayer
thou seekest.
OE. NOW thou shalt rue that thou hast twice said words
so dire.
TE. Would'st thou have me say more, that thou mayest be
more wroth ?
OE. What thou wilt; it will be said in vain
TE. I say that thou hast been living in unguessed shame
with thy nearest kin, and seest not to what woe thou hast
come.
OE. Dost thou indeed think that thou shalt always speak
thus without smarting ?
TE. Yes, if there is any strength in truth.
OE. Nay, there is,—for all save thee; for thee that strength
is not, since thou art maimed in ear, and in wit, and in eye.
T E . Aye, and thou art a poor wretch to utter taunts which
every man here will soon hurl at thee.
OE. Night, endless night hath thee in her keeping, so that
thou canst never hurt me, or any man who sees the sun.
TE. NO, thy doom is not to fall by me:

Med. 476 tcrwa-d a-'- <os itracriv 'EXXiyvov ocroi, K.T.\.: Ennius O Tite tute
Tati tibi tanta tyranne tulisti: Cic. Pro Clue'nt. 35 § 96 non fuit igitur
illud indicium iudicii simile, indices. 372 a6\u>$, of wretched folly.
Cp. the use of avoXftos, Ai. n 5 6 , Ant. 1025 (joined with a/3ot>Xos),
fiiX.tO'; {Ai. 621), KaKoSaijuuiv, K.T.X. 373 oti8«W (coriv) 8$ o«x^ = TOS
Tts: [Plat] Ale. I 103 B ovSeis os ovx VTrepP\-q6A<5...Tr£<l>evy€. Ai. 725
rfpa.o-0-ov...ovTLs tvff 0% ov. More properly ovSeis oo-rts ov, declined (by-
attraction) in both parts, as Plat. Phaed. 117 D ouSeva ovnva ov Kari-
jcXawe. 374 |iias -rpfyti irpds VVKTOS, thou art cherished by (thy life is
passed in) one unbroken night: the pass, form of /ua vv£ o-e Tp4<f>u. Cp.
Ai. 859 <o $eyyos, <5 yrjs Ipov ouccias ireSov | ...^aipcT*, <S Tpo<f>rjs e//.oi: fr.
521 Tfpirv<Ss yap del irdvras avoia. r p e ^ s t : i.e. folly ever gives a joyous
life: Eur. Hipp. <3 itovoi rpetjiovTes Ppomvs cares that make up the life of
men. |uot might be simply /AOVIJS, but, in its emphatic place here,
rather = ' unbroken,' unvaried by day : cp. Ar. Rhet. 3. 9 (\4£iv) tlpo-
\t,ivvjv KOX T<3 crvT/8e<r/*([> p[av, forming one continuous chain. T h e
ingenious conj. /xcuas (nurse) seems to me far less forcible. 376 (OVK
6—2
I04>0KAE0YI
'ATTOWOV, <W r a S ' iKirpa
OI. Kpeovros 17 crou Tavra, Ta.^euprjfj.ara;
TE. Kpeav be croi irrjii ovocu, akk auros crv aroi.
OI. <w TrX-ovre /cat r u p a w t /cal re^vq rexy-qs 380
VTrep(f)epov(ra T<S irokvt^\(
ocros Trap' v/xiv o (j)66vo<;
et Trjcroe y apXVS ovvex, i)v €^01 TTOAIS
OVK (xirryvov, elcre^elpKrev,
Kpeav 6 VLCTTOS, ovf a-pXV$
Xddpa p xmekdaiv e/c^SaXeiv iy
v<f>els payov roiovSe fjirj-^avopp
BoXiov a.yvp7r\v, o o r t s ei' TOIS
379 K/^wx S^ codd., recte. Kpiav ye temere dedit Brunck.

Zy<6 (re /3\aij/<ti), ov ^dp p.otpa ere Treareiv K.T.X. 377 eKirpd|ai, ' to ac-
complish' (not to ' e x a c t ' ) ; TOSC has a mysterious vagueness (cp. 341),
but includes TO uweiv ere, as in 1158 TO'S' refers to okicrOai. 379 Kp«o>v
8« = 'iV2zj, Creon'—introducing an objection, as Track. 729 roiavra 8' av
Xe^etev K.T.X.: O. C. 395 yipovra 8' 6p6ovv <f>\avpov. 381 ra iro
p£<i>, locative dative, denning the sphere of virep<(>€pouo-a, like 2TI
ovpavu I Zeus .£/. 174. iroXv^i]X<p = full of emulation (£7X05). Others
understand, ' in the much-admired life' (of princes). This is the sense
of iro\v£t)\ov (iroo-tv) in Track. 185. But (1) 0iu> seems to denote life
generally, rather than a particular station: (2) the phrase, following
•n-Xovre KCU rvpawi, would be a weak addition. For the general sense of
T€xvil c p . Phil. 138 Tiyya. yap re)(vas erepas Trpov^ei | Kal yvio/ia, 7ra/j' OTQ>
TO 6etov I Atos (TKrj-xTpov dvacrcreTai : for skill a n d wit (yvwfurj), surpassing
those of other men, belong to him by whom is swayed the godlike
sceptre which Zeus gives. Ant. 365 TO ^yoMoev Te'xvas, the inventive-
ness of (human) skill. The phrase here has a reference to that (jmv-
TLKTJ) Ttyyi) of Teiresias which Oed. surpassed when he solved the riddle:
cp. 357. 382 irap' «(itv...<)>vXd<r(reTai, is guarded, stored, in your keep-
ing : i. e. how much envy do ye tend to excite against those who receive
your gifts. 4>v\d<r<r«Tai, stronger than Tpe'^eTat, represents envy as
the inseparable attendant on success: cp. O. C. 1213 o-Kaiovvvav
<£vXao-o-<Dv, stubborn in folly: Eur. Ion 735 a£i' a£iW yeuvrjTopav | rjdrj
384 SwprjTdv, OVK alrtiTov, feminine. The adjectives might
OlAinOYI TYPANNOZ 85

Apollo is enough, whose care it is to work that out.


OE. Are these Creon's devices, or thine ?
TE. Nay, Creon is no plague to thee; thou art thine own.
OE. O wealth and empire and skill outmatching skill in
life's keen rivalries, how great is the envy that cleaves to you,
if for the sake, yea, of this power which the city hath put into
my hands, a gift unsought, Creon the trusty, Creon mine
old friend, hath crept on me by stealth, yearning to thrust
me out of it, and hath suborned such a scheming juggler
as this, a tricky quack, who hath eyes only for his gains,

be neuter: 'a thing given, not asked.' But this use of the neuter adj.,
when the subject is regarded in its most general aspect, is far most
common in simple predications, as //. 2. 204 OVK dya66v TroXvKot.pa.viri:
Eur. Hipp. log Tcpirvov IK (cwayias | TpdVe£a TrXrfprjs. And yvarov in
396—which must agree with yv—favours the view that here also the
adjectives are fem. Cp. //. 2. 742 KXUTOS 'ImroSajaeia: Thuc. 2. 41 yrjv
la-fiaTov: 7. 87 do-juai OVK dvtKToi: Plat. Rep. 573 B fj.avia?...iiraKTOv :
Eryxias 398 D apen} SiSaKTos : O. C. 1460 nrepcoTos flpovTr) : Track. 446
£i.../Ae/MTTos elfu (Deianeira). 385 Tavnjs, redundant, for emphasis:
Xen. Cyr. 8. 7- 9 T<5 §* Trpoj3ov\eveiv /ecu TO •qy€iu9ai, e<j> on av
Kaipos SoKJ} ctvat, TOVTO wpooTaTTa>. 387 «<(>eVs, having secretly sent as
his agent, 'having suborned.' [Plat.] Axiochus 368 E irpocSpous lyK<x-
0eVous vcj)€VTei, 'having privily brought in suborned presidents.' The
word |utY<>s expresses contempt for the rites of divination practised by
Teiresias : dYtyn)s taunts him as a mercenary impostor. So Plut. Mor.
165 F joins ayvpTO.% KOX y6-qra<s, Zosimus I. I I /xdyois r e Kal dyvprais.
The passage shows how Asiatic superstitions had already spread among
the vulgar, and were scorned by the educated, in Greece. The Persian
ftayos (as conceived by the Greeks) was one who claimed to command
the aid of beneficent deities (Sat/xovcs dyatfoepyoi), while the yor/s was
properly one who could call up the dead (Suid. 1. 490 : cp. Plut. De
Defect. Orac. c. 10). So Eur. Or. 1496 (Helen has been spirited away) ^
nv (by charms) r/ fiaymv | rixyaia-iv r/ 6t<Hv KXOTTCUS. 388 d-ytfpn]v
)), a priest, esp. of Cybele (/iiyTpayijpTijs, or, when she had the
lunar attributes, /bjvayu'p-njs), who sought money from house to house
(«ri ras raiv TTAOUO-IW 0vpas IOVTES, Plat. Rep. 364 B), or in public places,
for predictions or expiatory rites: Maximus Tyrius 19. 3 t&v h> TOIS
JCTJKXOIS ayetpovTto 1/..., ot Svolv d/JoXoiv T<3 Trpoarv^ovTi aT
86 IO*OKAEOYI

[JLOVOV Se'Sop/ce, rr/v Teyyqv 8' e<j>v TU^XOS.


iveC, $lp etTre, irov crv ILOLVTIS et cra^-q^; 39°
TTtus ou^, ocf 77 pa\jjcooo<; evoao r\v KVCOV,
Tjvoas TI rotcrS' a(TTo1cn,v iKkvrrjpiov;
Kanoi TO y ' aivt/yfi o^X} TOVTTIOVTOS t)v
dvSpo? SieLTreiv, dXKa fiavTeCas ISei*
TJV OVT' an' OICJVWV o~v irpov<f>avq<; €)(cov 395
OVT' IK 6eaJv TOV yvcorov aXA.' iyoi p.6ka>v,
6 /xrjBh' eiStus OISITTOVSJ eTravcra vtt',
yvcofjby Kvprj(ja<s ouS' a7r' olcovcov [xadcoV
ov §7) a-v neipa.'s iKJ3akeLV, BOKSV 0p6voL<s
irapacrraTrjcreiv rots Kpeovreiot? Tre'Xas. 400
So/cet? /x,ot K^al cru ^w cruv^els raSe
el Se /ai) 'SOKGIS yepcov
396 TOU L, T, Barocc. 66: TOV A et plerique.

iv TOIS K^p8«oT,v, in the case of gains: cp. Ai. 1315 iv ifiol 6pa<rvs; rather
than, ' on opportunities for gain' (= orav rj KcpSaivuv) as Ellendt takes it.
Cicero's videbat in litteris (Tusc. 5. 38. 112, quoted by Schneid.) seems
not strictly similar, meaning rather ' i n the region of letters' (like in
ietiebris). 390 «rel = ' for' (if this is not true): El. 351 ov TavTa....?>u\iav
*XU; [ ore! 8l8a£ov, K.T.X. irov ; where ? i.e. in what sense ? Eur. Ion 528
•JTOV 8c fioi warrjp av; (I <ra<|>ijs = Tri<f>r)vas w: cp. 355. 3 9 1 Kvav, e s p .
because the Sphinx was the watchful agent of Hera's wrath : cp. 36.
Ar. Ran. 1287 has a line from the %<j>tyi of Aesch., 2<£i'yya Svo-ayu,£pidi/
[vulg. hvo-a/xepiav] TrpvTaviv KVVO. irifnru, ' the watcher who presides over
evil days' (for Thebes). pcu|«j>83s, chanting her riddle (in hexameter
verse), as the public reciters chanted epic poems. T h e word is used
with irony: the baneful lay of the Sphinx was not such as the servant
of Apollo chants. Cp. 130. 393 T6 7' atvivii is nominative: the
riddle did not belong to (was not for) the first comer, that he should
solve it. O.C. 751 ovydfitov I e/wrapos, ciAXd TOVTTUOVTOS apTTarrai, Thuc.
6. 22 TToW-q yap ovaa [17 crrparia] ov micros Itrrai TroAcws «7roSe'£ao"#ai.
6 hnav, a n y o n e who c o m e s u p ; c p . P l a t . Rep. 372 D C09 vvv 6 TV\U>V KOX
oiSev Trpocn]Ku)v tp^erat iir' OVTO. 3 9 4 Swiireiv, ' t o declare,' (where Sia
implies t h e drawing of clear distinctions), ' to s o l v e ' : c p . 854. 395
fjv oiir dir otwvwv ?x w v °^T> & ^S("V TOV •yvwTov («X<0V) wpovi))ovtis J a n d t h o u
TYPANN02 87

but in his art is blind !


Come, now, tell me, where hast thou proved thyself a seer ?
Why, when the Watcher was here who wove dark song, didst
thou say nothing that could free this folk ? Yet the riddle, at
least, was not for the first comer to read; there was need of a seer's
skill; and none such thou wert found to have, either by help of
birds, or as known from any god : no, I came, I, Oedipus the
ignorant, and made her mute, when I had seized the answer by
my wit, untaught of birds. And it is I whom thou art trying
to oust, thinking to stand close to Creon's throne. Methinks
thou and the plotter of these things will rue your zeal to
purge the land. Nay, didst thou not seem to be an old man,

wert not publicly seen to have this art either from (dir) birds, or
as known through the agency of (IK) any god. irpov+ovus, when
brought to a public test. For dir-6 cp. 43 : U with 8«Sv TO«, of
the primary or remoter agent (Xen. Hetten. 3. 1. 6 a /3ao-iAe<os
meaning by a 4>tfpri (43) or other sign, YVWTOV: cp. on 384. 396
he was a mere stranger who chanced to arrive then. 6 prfilv elSus = 6
l)(u>v OUTCOS wcnrep ei /xijStv j]8r], who is as if he knew nothing. So 6 ^Sei/
(sc. iLv Ai. 1231) is ' one who exists no more than if he were not' (Ant.
1325 ToV OVK ovra [laXXov rj fur/Seva). 400 ir&.as, adv., SO Aesch. Theb.
669 •n-apao-raTetv TrcXas. 401 KXatav : cp. 368, 1152: Ant. 754 KACUW <£pe-
vo)(ms. 6 oTivOels, Creon, as whose agent (387) Teir. is regarded: so in
Thuc. 8. 68 o Trjv yviajx-qv eliriav is contrasted with d TO 7rpay//.a £vv6eis.
402 aYnXaretv = TO ayos iXavveiv (see On 98), in this case
(100), to expel the /uaorcop. Her. 5. 72 KX€O/i£Mjs...ay>jXaT«£t ki
ima-Tia (households) 'A&jvatW. The MSS. of Soph, have dyr]\a.Tciv (L.
has no breathing), and so Hesych.; so also the grammarians in Bekker's
Anecdota Vol. 1. p. 328. 32, p. 337. i r : Eustathius, however (1704—5),
and Suid. s. v., quoting Soph., give the aspirate. Curtius distinguishes
(1) ay-os, guilt, object of awe, whence ivayys: Skt. ag-as, vexation,
offence: Etym. § 116: (2) root ay, <X£-O-/«H reverence, ay-10-s, holy,
ay-vo'-s p u r e : S k t . y ^ (jag-A-mi) reverence, consecrate: Etym.\ 118.
In Aesch. Cho. 155 and Soph. Ant. 775 he would with Herm. write ayos
as = ' consecrated offering.' In both places, however, ayospiaculum will
stand: and for ayos in the good sense there is no other evidence. But
this, at least, seems clear: the compound synonym for TO ayos eXaweiv
(Thuc. 1. 126) should be written dy-qkantv. '86K«S is the scornful
88 IO<t>OKAEOYI

elvcu, iraOatv eyv(o<; av old irep <j>pov€L<;.


X O . rjiuv fikv eiKatpvcri KOI TO. TOUS' errq
opyfj XeXex^ai KCLI TO. <T, OISLTTOV, SoKeZ 405
oet o ov TOiovToiv, aAA omus r a TOU feou
IxavreV a.pi<TTa \v<rofxev, TOSC CTKOTTUV.
TE. ei Kal Tvpaweis, i^tcrcoTeov TO yovv
icr' avTiXe'^at' rouSe yd/3 Kayco Kpa.T(o.
ov yap rt cro! ^w 8oi)\os, dWd Aofia' 410
w a r ' 01) Kpeoi'TOS TrpooraTOV yeypdifjofjuai.
Xeyco h", eiretSi) Kat TV<^>\6V p?
cru Kat SeSop/ca? KOU ySXeirets iv' et
ouo evc/a vaieis, ovo OTWI' OIKCIS

4O5 Oi5£7rou codd. Usitatior vocativi forma OJSiTrous est, quam Dindorfius,
Elmsleium et Reisigium secutus, solam esse veram statuit. Dandum est aliquid tamen
librorum consensui, qui etiam in 0. C. 557, 1346 OlSlirov praebent; neque quem-
quam infitias iturum reor quin hie saltern locus vocativum sigmate carentem auribus
magnopere commendet. Post T& <T\ Oidiirovs sonum haberet minime gratum. Equidem
utramque formam poetae concedendam puto. 4 1 3 Sttiopnas KOV L, A, plerique:

phrase of an angry man ; I know little concerning thee, but from thine
aspect I should judge thee to be old : cp. 562 where Oed. asks, TOT'
ow o' /navTis OVTOS r/v iv Ty Tex}^; Not (1) ' seemed,' as opposed to really
being; nor (2) ' wert felt by me ' to be old : a sense which I do not see
how the word could yield. 403 iraOiJv, by bodily pain, and not merely
fiaOuv, by reproof: cp. 641. old ir«p <j>pov<is: see on 624 otdV can TO
<j>6oveh>. 405 KOI TO. <r' K.T.X., the elision as in 328 : see on 64. 407
emphatically resumes oirws \4<rep.tv, this we must consider : cp. 385
: SO Track. 4 5 8 TO firj irvOto-Oai, TOSTO fji dXyvveiev av. 408 A KOI
K.T.X. For el Kal see on 305. IJicrwrfov K.T.X. = 8«i i£urovv TO yow tcra
avTtXefat, one must equalize the right at least of like reply; i.e. you
must make me so far your equal as to grant me the right of replying
at the same length. The phrase is a pleonastic fusion of (1) tliowe'ov
TO avTiXefcu with (2) crvyxuiprjTeov TO laa avTiAe£ai. 410 Aoijiq.: see
note to 853. 411 <2or' oi Kplovros K.T.X. ' Y o u charge me with being
the tool of Creon's treason. I have a right to plead my own cause
when I am thus accused. I am not like a resident alien, who can
plead before a civic tribunal only by the mouth of that patron under
TYPANNOI 89

thou should'st have learned to thy cost how bold thou


art.
CH. T O our thinking, both this man's words and thine,
Oedipus, have been said in anger. Not for such words is our
need; but to seek how best we shall discharge the mandates of
the god.
T E . King though thou art, the right of speech, at least,
must be deemed the same for both; of that I too am
lord. Not to thee do I live servant, but to Loxias; and
so I shall not stand enrolled under Creon for my patron.
And I tell thee—since thou hast taunted me even with
blindness—that thou hast sight, yet seest not in what
misery thou art, nor where thou dwellest, nor with whom.
SedopKihs KOV B: <si, Ktd SeSopKiis, ov post Reiskium Brunck. Cui coniecturae quod
obiecit Hermann., KOL Sedopntis non quamvis videns sed etiam videns significare, id
quidem facile potest redargui; quis enim nescit quam saepe /ecu simplex compositi
Katwep officio fungatur ? Immo SiSopnas KOV idcirco melius est quam Sedopxus ov, quod
multo fortius : vide annot.

whom he has been registered.' Every JUCTOIKOS at Athens was required


iinypdfao-Oat •Rpo<n<xrr\vi i.e. to have the name of a citizen, as patron,
inscribed over his own. In default, he was liable to an aVpoarao-um
ypatprj. Ar. Pax 684 avTcp irovrfpov rrpoo"TaTijv cVeypdi/'aTO: Ach. 1095
iireypafov rrjv Topyova, you took the Gorgon for your patron: Lysias
or. 31 § 9 hi 'ilpanrio fieroiKLov KaraTiOii'i (paying the alien's tax) em. irpo-
(TTaTov (OKCI. 7c-ypd\|/o|xai, will stand enrolled: cp. Ar. Eq. 1370 otiStis
Kara OTroviSas ixenyypat^-qcrtTai, | a U ' wairep rjv TO irpdrrov iyyeypaxj/eTai:
Theocr. 18. 47 ypdfj.fji.aTa 8' Iv cp\oiw yeypdij/eraL, remain written. For
the gen. Kpfovros cp. Ar. Eq. 714 TOV BTJ/JLOV crcavroC vcvd/xiKas. 412
Xe-yw 8", a solemn exordium, bespeaking attention: cp. 449. TV<|>XOV |i*
<Jv«£8io-as. As wv«C8«ras could not stand for an-eKaActras, 'called me
reproachfully,' TV((>XOV must stand for ok TVCJ>\OV ovra. For the ellipse of
ovTa, cp. El. 899 cos 8' iv ya\t]vr) Tvdvr iSepKOfxrjv TOTTOV. for that of
<os, O. C. 142 fvq fi, IK£T£VO), irpoa-ihrjr avofx.ov. 4 1 3 orv Kal S^SopKas.
'Thou both hast sight and dost not see,' i.e. thou hast sight, and at
the same time dost not see. The conject. of Reiske and Brunck,
(ri, Kal SeSop/cuis {though having sight), ov /JAeVeis, spoils the direct
contrast with TV^AOV. 414 ?v6a vaCas might mean, ' in what a situation
thou art': but, as distinguished from the preceding and following
go I04>0KAE0YI

dp oTcr^' d<j> S>v el; K<U Xekrjdas i)(0pos wv 4*5


rots croLCTLv avTov vipde nairl yfj<; avca,
KaC or' dix.<f>LiT\rj£ ju/^rpos re KCLI TOU crov trarpos
iXa. TTOT' €K yrj? rfjoSe SewoVous dpd,
pkiirovra, vvv \xkv opff, erreiTa Se CTKOTOV.
(BOTJS Se T ^ S cnjs TTOIOS OVK lo-rat \Lfirjv, 420
T^-i9at,pu)v OV^L cruyLK^wvos ra^a,
KaTaCcrdr] T W VjaeVatov, 6V So//.ot5
avopiiov eicreVXeucra?, evTrXoias TV)(COV ;
dX\o)v Se irX-rjOos OVK iiratcrddvei K(XKU>V,
a cr' eficrojcra croi re /cat rots crois TZKVOLS. 425
4 2 5 Locus varie tentatus nulla eget medicina: quod infra paucis explicare
conatus sum.

clauses, is best taken literally: 'where thou dwellest'—viz. in thy


murdered father's house. 415 dp' oTo-Bo, K.T.X. Thy parents are un-
known to thee. Yea, and (KO.1) thou knowest not how thou hast
sinned against them,—the dead and the living. 417 d(j.<|>iirXiig: as in
Track. 930 dfurjiLTrXrjyi, (JHurydvip = a sword which smites with both edges,
so here diu{>ur\rj£ dpd is properly a curse which smites on both sides,—on
the mother's and on the father's part. The pursuing 'Apd must be con-
ceived as bearing a whip with double lash (SwrXr/ /jidani, Ai. 242). Cp.
s, carrying two torches {Track. 214). The genitives wp&%,
might be causal, with a/i^t7rXif^, 'smiting twice—-for mother and
for sire,' but are better taken with dpd, which here = 'Eptvus: cp. Aesch.
Theb. 70 'Apd T, "Epivis iron-pos 17 peyacrdevTJs. 418 8«IV(5TTOVS, with
dread, untiring chase: so the Fury, who chases guilt 'as a hound tracks
a wounded fawn' (Aesch. Eum. 246), is xaAico7rovs (El. 491), Tavvirovs
(Ai. 837), KdnfiTTovs ('fleet,' Aesch. Theb. 791). 419 p\6rovTa K.T.X., i.e.
TOTE UKOXOVfikiTrovra,el Kal vvv 6p6d /3Ae7r£is. T h e Greek love of direct
antithesis often co-ordinates clauses where we must subordinate one to
the other: cp. below, 673 : Isocr. or. 6 § 54 TTWS OVK alcrxpov,...rrjv ftxv
TUvpwirrjV KCU Trjv'AcrCa.v ft,e(TTrjv Trerroi,r]Kevai,TpO'iraCu>v,...virep 8c ffjsiraTpiSos
...fjii]Be jiiav pdyriv <f>a.ivecr6ai ^e/iax^/ievous; pXfrreiv <TK6TOV, like iv <XKOT(O...|
oxj/oCaro (1273), E u r . Bacch. 5 1 0 (TKOTLOV elaopa. Kvi<f)a<;. 420 POTJS Sk K.T.X.
Of thy cry what haven shall there not be (i.e. to what place shall it not
be borne),—what part of Cithaeron shall not be resonant with it (o-v/t-
<£u>vos ?<mu sc. avrfj), re-echo it? If we took <rvfji.<pwvos eor<u (and not
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOI 91

Dost thou know of what stock thou art ? And thou hast been
an unwitting foe to thine own kin, in the shades, and on the
earth above; and the double lash of thy mother's and thy
father's curse shall one day drive thee from this land in dreadful
haste, with darkness then on the eyes that now see true.
And what place shall not be harbour to thy shriek, what
of all Cithaeron shall not ring with it soon, when thou hast
caught the meaning of the marriage-song wherewith thou wert
borne to thy fatal haven in yonder house, after a voyage so
fair ? And a throng of other ills thou guessest not, which shall
make thee level with thy true self and with thine own brood.
«TT<H alone) with AI/XI/P as well as with KiOcupdv, the figurative force of
XifiLijv would be weakened. We must not understand: What haven
of the sea or what mountain (as if Cithaeron stood for opos) shall
not resound? Xijiiiv, poet, in the sense of VTTOSOXIJ, for that in which
anything is received: Aesch. Pers. 250 <5 Ilepvh ala KO.1 piyas TTXOVTOV
(imitated by Eur. Or. 1077): the augural seat of Teiresias is
o'uavmi XifjLijv Ant. 1000: the place of the dead is "AtSov
ib. 1284: cp. below, 1208. 421 irotos KiScupuv, vigorous for
TTOLOV fuepo's K.iOaipwvo'i. 422 6'rav KaToCo-Bn K.T.X. : Sv, cognate ace. to
as if -fi^vaiov had been TTXOVV. 86(iois, local dat. (381):
is added predicatively, though it (thy course) led thee to no true
haven: ewXoCas TUX^V, because Oed. seemed to have found oA/Jos, and
also because the gale of fortune had borne him swiftly on: cp. ovb'
opiov ov6' la-Topmv, 1484. TOV ti|Wvaiov, sung while the bride and bride-
groom were escorted to their home, / / . 18. 492 vvfi<f>a<s 8' e/c OaXdfiav
8ai8<ov VTTO XajitroixivatiiV \ rjyivtov ava a a r u , •jroXvs 8' V/J.£VCUOS opdpei, as
distinguished from the iTridaXdpiov afterwards sung before the bridal
chamber: Ant. 813 ovO' vjX€vai<av | tLyxXripov, OVT €7rivv/x<^)£ios » ju.e
Tts V/AVOS I v[ivr](Tev. 424 dXXuv 8* K.T.X. Verses 422—425 correspond
with the actual process of the drama. The words Karaia-Oy TOV
vfiivawv refer to the first discovery made by Oed.,—that his wife
was the widow of one whom he had himself slain: cp. 821. The
aXXuv irXrj6os Kandv denotes the further discovery that this wife
was his mother, with all the ' horrors involved (1405). 425 & <r"
Igiowa, which shall make thee level with thy (true) self,—by showing
thee to be the son of Laius, not of Polybus;—and level with thine
own children, i.e. like them, the child of Iocasta, and thus at
once aStX^ds KOU varrjp (458). For a <r' Markland conject. oo-', which
92 SO<t>OKAEOYZ

Tavra KOLI Kpeovra KOL TOV/XOV


i^e* crov yap OVK ecmv
KCIKLOV o a r i s e/cTpt/3^creTat TTOTC
OI. rj ravTa STJT' dveicra Trpos TOWTOV ;
ets oXeOpov ; ou^l Qa&crov; ou rrdXiv 430
oiKOiv TWVS' dvoo-Tpacfreis
1 b . ovo LKOfJLT]v eycoy av, et o"u /A1^
OI. ov yap rt cr' 178^ [itapa (JHIIVTJCTOVT', CTTEI

TE. T^eis TOIOIS' ([(fnjfAev, 6JS /^ev crot So/ceT, 435


/laipoi, yoveva-L 8', 01 cr' e(f>vcrav, efi<f>pove<;.
OI. Trotoicrt; jxelvov. m 8e /A' e/cc/)vet
o
434 c7x<Af/ cr' codd.: irx ^5 7' Suidas, et sic post Erfurdt. et Hermann, multi
edd.: quo recepto Porsonus post ifwvs intulit <r', et sic Blaydes. Pronomen quidem
a' facile subaudimus: codicum vero auctoritas contra Suidam eo praecipue argumento

shall be made equal for thee and for thy children: and so Porson
interpreted, conjecturing aver from Agathon fr. 5 dyivrjTa iroieiv
u<rcr av -g 7T67rpay/j,€va. Nauck ingeniously conj. a cr c^i<To5o"Et o"(3 TOKCI
Ken o-ois Tc/n/ots. But the vulgate is sound: for the •n-ap^ijo-is cp. 371.
426 Tovjiiov <rrd|j.a: i.e., it is Apollo who speaks by my mouth, which
is not, as thou deemest, the VTT6J3\T]TOV a-ro^a (O. C. 794) of Creon.
427 irpom]XaKij6: ace. to Arist. Top. 6. 6 TrpoTrrjXaKio-fws was defined
as vfipis fitTa xXeuao-ias, insult expressed by scoffing: so in Eth. 5. 2.
13 KaKrjyopia, TrpoirrjXaKio-fiLos = libellous language, gross abuse: and in
Ar. Thesm. 386 TrpoTrr)\a.Ki£ofji,eva.s is explained by TTOWO. KO.1 TTO.VTOT O.KOV-
oixras KOLKOL. Dem. In Mid. § 7 2 n & s di]0eR...TOv TrpoTrr]\o.K.L£}e(r6a.i, as
= ' unused to gross contumely' (generally, but with immediate ref.
to a blow). 428 lin-pip^o-erai, rooted out. Eur. Hipp. 683 Zev% ere yev-
vrjrwp i/JLOs I Trp6ppi£ov inrptyttev. 430 OVK els o'XeOpov K.T.X. Ar. Plut.
394 OVK h KopaKas; Trach. 1183 ov 6dcr<7ov oio-£is; Cratinus No/^oi fr. 6
(Meineke p. 27) OU'K aTrepprfow; <rv OSTTOV, Aesch. Theb. 252 OUK h <j>66pov
(Tiyuxr o.vau^(fj(TU raSe; irdXiv o>|/oppos like EL 53 aipoppov •q^ofj.ev iraXiv: the
gen. OJKWV TWV8' with dirooTpa<)>€ls. 432 iK6[i.r\v—iKaXeis: c p . 1 2 5 , 4 0 2 .
434 o-xoXjj <r' dv. T h e simple <rxo\fj is stronger than crxoXg yc would
be: ^4ȣ 390 vxohrj TTO6' rj^uv (where <r\oX^ y av is an inferior
V.I.), Plat. Soph. 233 B crxoXfj TTOT .. .rjOekev av, Prot. 330 E o^oA.^
//.eW av aAXo TI o<rtov 6*57, a n d often. OIKOVS: (?. C 6 4 3 So/tons (TTec)(jeiv
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 93

Therefore heap thy scorns on Creon and on my message:


for no one among men shall ever be crushed more miserably
than thou.
OE. Are these taunts to be indeed borne from him ?—
Hence, ruin take thee ! Hence, this instant! Back !—away !
—avaunt thee from these doors !
TE. I had never come, not I, hadst thou not called me.
OE. I knew not that thou wert about to speak folly, or
it had been long ere I had sent for thee to my house.
TE. Such am I,—as thou thinkest, a fool; but for the
parents who begat thee, sane.
OE. What parents ? Stay...and who of men is my sire ?
firmatur, quod addita particula ye vocis o-xoXfl vim non modo non auget sed etiom
extenuat.

e;uovs. 4<rreiXd|i,Tiv=/x.eTEOTaXajU.i7V, /i.eTeTr£fn\(/(ifi.rjv. Distinguish o-reAA.€-


ardai, to summon to oneself, from o-TeAAeiv said (i) of the messenger,
below 860 Trtfixj/ov riva a-TeXovvra: (2) of him who sends word by a
messenger, Phil. 60 ol a-' iv A.mus o-Tet/Wres ef O'KOV ixoXtiv. having
urged thee with prayers to come: Ant. 164 vfjM,';...irofi,Tro1<Ti.v... \ loretA'
lKe<r6ai, sent you word to come. 435 TOU>£8' refers back to the taunt
implied in juuSpa <f><i>vrj<rovT', and is then made explicit by |uopoi...2|u|>pov€s:
cp. Phil. 1271 TOIOUTOS rjo-Oa (referring to what precedes—thou wert
such as thou now art) -rots Aoyoieri ^o're fiov \ ra TO£' e/cAen-Tcs, TTKTTOS,
drijpos \d6pa. In fr. 700 (quoted by Nauck), KO.1 TOV #eoi' TOIOSTOV
€^£7n'oraju.at, | co^ois [i.ev aivtRriypa,... | crxatoTs Se (fravXov, we have not
the preceding words, but doubtless TOIOVTOV referred to them, us \>h> o-ol
SoKrt. <rol must be accented; else the contrast would be, not partly be-
tween o-ol and •yovelcri, but solely between 8OK«I and some other verbal
notion. <rol does not, however, cohere so closely with 8OK«! as to form a
virtual cretic. It is needless, then, to read (as Elms, proposed) 0S9 /x.eV
<TOL or cos (rot fniv. Cp. O. C. IS43 wo-irep o-^xo irarpt: Eur. Heracl. 641
cruiTrjp v&v jGAa/Jijs. As neither a-(f>(i> nor v&v adheres to the following
rather than to the preceding word, it seems unnecessary to read with
Porson cos irpXv o-c/>co or v&v cnonfp. Here we have <5s |x£v <rol instead of <Js
irot fikv, because, besides the contrast of persons, there is also a contrast
between semblance (»s SoKtt) and fact. 436 •yovsvo-i, 'for' them, i.e. in
their judgment: Ant. 904 KCU'TOI <f eyto Ve/x^cro, TOTS <j>povov<nv, ev.
Ar. Av. 445 Tracri viKav rots Kpirats. 437 4K()>V«I. The pres. is not
94 Z0*0KAE0Y2
TE. 178' iQjxepa <f>vo~ei <re /cat
OI. OJS irdvT ayav aivutTO.
TE. OVKOVV (TV TOLVT a/DicTTos evpicTKe.iv e<j>vs; 440
5
OI. TOIGUJT' oveiSt^ o?s e/i' eupiycrets fieyav.
TE. aurTy ye \L{VTOI cr iq Tv^r) SicoXecrev.
OI. aXX' ei TTOXIV TTJVS' i^ecrocr', ou /AOI ju,e'Xei.
TE. aireifii TOIVVV' /cat arv, irai, KOjiu£e /xe.
OI. Ko/xi^e'rcu S ^ ' " cJs TTapoJv arv y ipiroBaJv 445
, crvdei's r av OVK dv dkyvvcus vXeov.
airei/ju wv ovveic rjAuov, ov TO (TOP
Seicra? TrpoacoTrov' ov yap earff OITOV fi' oXels.
Xeyw Be crot" TOV avSpa TOVTOV, OV TraXat
eis aireiXoiv KavaKrjpvcrcrojv (f>6vov 450
445 ai 7' A et plerique. Et est 7' quidem in L, erasis duabus quae praecesse-
rant littcris: in marg. autem scripsit manus recentior yp. ai 7c Ex uno cod. Vat. 40

historic (for iijefoo-e), but denotes a permanent character: 'is my


sire.' Eur. Ion 1560 rjSe TIKT« cr, is thy mother: so perh.
Herad. 208 Trariyp 8' IK. rrja-Be yevvarai <r£6ev. Xen. Cyr. 8. 2. 27 o
Si fL-q VIKWV (he who was not victorious) TOIS /^«v VIKWO-LV tyOovei: and so
(f>evyeiv = <f>vyds ctvat passim. ShilletO thus takes oi iirayofievoi Thuc. 2.
2, 01 TrpoStSovTEs ib. 5, ot Sia^aXXovrcs 3. 4 ; which however I should
rather take simply as imperfect participles, =ot iirrfyovro, wpoiSt'Sotrar,
BUfiaWov. He well compares Verg. Aen. 9. 266 quern dat Sidonia Dido
(is the giver): in Persius 4. 2 sorbitio tollit quem dira cicutae I find
rather a harsh historic pres. 440 oiiicovv K.T.X. Well (ovv—if I do
speak riddles), art not thou most skilled to read them ? 441 roiaW
6veC8i# (|ioi), make those things my reproach, in which [ots, dat. of cir-
cumstance] thou wilt find me great: i. e. mock my skill in reading
riddles if thou wilt; but thou wilt find (on looking deeper) that it has
brought me true honour. 442 OCTIJ ye \UVTOI. It was just (yt) that fortune,
however (IM'VTOI), that ruined thee. \« emphasises the preceding word:
SO 778 OTTOVST/S y€ fxivTOL'. 1292 piofji.rji ye [AIVTOI.; Phil. 93 Tre[/.<f)6eis ye
(since I have been sent): 1052 vwav ye jneVrot: Ant. 233 re'Xos ye
TVXT] implies some abatement of the king's boast, yvw/j.T]
s, 398. 443 «|eV«(r', 1st pers., not 3rd. 445 KO|ui;eT(i> Stjfl". Srjra
in assent, as Aesch. Supfil. 206 Zevs Se yevrqrwp 1801. AAN. iSoiro hrjra.
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOI 95
T E . This day shall show thy birth and shall bring thy ruin.
OE. What riddles, what dark words thou ever dost speak!
TE. Nay, art not thou most skilled to unravel dark speech ?
OE. Make that my reproach in which thou shalt find me
great.
TE. Yet 'twas just that fortune that undid thee.
OE. Nay, if I delivered this town, I care not.
TE. Then I will go : so do thou, boy, take me hence.
OE. Aye, let him take thee: while here, thou art a
hindrance, thou, a trouble: when thou hast vanished, thou
wilt not vex me more.
TE. I will go when I have done mine errand, fearless of thy
frown: for thou canst never destroy me. And I tell thee—
the man of whom thou hast this long while been in quest,
uttering threats, and proclaiming a search into the murder of
ai n' recepit Campb. Sed lectio cti 7 ' ut libroram fide ita sua vi commendatur,
quippe quae optime conveniat indignantis fastidio. rd 7' £/j.iroBtii> B.

*(j.iroSuv with irapdv,—present where thy presence irks : cp. 1 2 8 : p a d d e d


to <ri is scornful. The weak conjecture ™ y €/i.7ro8u!i' is explained by
Brunck and Erfurdt (with Thomas Magister) ' t h o u hinderest the
business before us,' comparing Eur. Phoen. 706 a 8' e/^iroSojv fiAkurra
('most urgent') rdvO' yjKw fypdawv. 448 irpoerwirov: ' t h y face,'—thy
angry presence: the blind man speaks as though he saw the ' vultus
instantis tyranni.' Not, ' t h y person' (i.e. thy royal quality): irpio-imrov
is not classical in this sense, for which cp. the Hellenistic irpoo-tuiroXijir-
Ttlv, 'to be a respecter of persons,' and the spurious Phocylidea 10
(Bergk Poet. Lyr. p. 361) ft/rj pti/'jys TTCV6IJV dSiKws" pvij Kptve •KpoawKov.
OVK 8<r8' oirov, there is no case in which...: cp. 355, 390. 449 Xt-yc* 84 o-oi,
cp. 412. TAV avSpa TOI!TOV...O5TO'S ecrnv K.T.X. T h e antecedent, attracted
into the case of the relative, is often thus prefixed to the relative clause,
to mark with greater emphasis the subject of a coming statement: Track.
283 TOO-Se 8' a<Tirep tlxrop<j.s | ...^(opovcri: / / . 10. 416 (^vXaxas 8' as cipeai,
rjptas, I owns KtKpifiAvq pverai orparov: Horn. hym. Cer. 6 6 Kovpr/v rrjv
ITCKOV... I TTJS dSivqv OTT' OIKOVO"O : Ar. Plut. 200 rrjv Svvafn.iv rjv vjAtL<s
<j>a.Tt I ? x e " ' /**> faunjs $fo-ir6rr]s y€vrj<rofi.a.L. P l a u t . Tritium. 985 Ilium
quem ementitu's, is ego sum ipse Charmides. 450 ovaici]pii<r<r<i>v <JK5VOV, p r o -
claiming (a search into) the murder: cp. Xen. Mem. 2. 10. 2 o-ioorpa
TOVTOV dvaKrjpvTTiov: A n d o c . De Myst. § 4 0 ^ n p - a s TC 17S17
96 SO<t>OKAEOYI

TOP Aaieuov, OUTOS CCTTLV iv0a.Se,


Revo's \6ya> /u,eroiKOs, €LTCL 8' iyyevrjs
(fxxvrjcreTat, ©rj/Saio'S, ovS' rja6rjcr€Tat
Trj i-V[i<$>opq.' TV(f>\6<s yap 4K SeSo/)KOTos
al •JTTCU^OS avrl trkovcriov %£vt)V eiri 455
wpoSeiKVVs yalav i/xTropevaeTaL.
Se iraial TOIS avrov £wa>v
auTos Kal irarijp, Kct£ i^s ei^u
vios f a l TTOCTL1;, Kal TOV varp6<s
6fi6a-Trop6<s r e Kal (f>ovevs. Kal ravr la>v 460
etcrw Xoyi^ou' Kai* Xdfiys ixfjevcrfJievov,
<f>d<TKeiv €JM rjSrj fiavTiKfj jjirjbev <f>poveu>.

XO. <rrp. a. T I S OVTIV a ^ecTTTieVeta AeX^l? etTre rrerpa

4 6 1 Xii^BS tyevapiivov L et edd. plerique. Xc£/3j7S ^' i\pev<r/j.ivoi> A, E, V, al.,


qubs secuti sunt Brunck. et Hermann. Placet Blaydesio quoque Ad/3gs /x' in hoc
versu, in 462 TOT' 77817 legere. Dum vero in 462 (V ijfiij habeamus, in 461 pro-
nomine facile caremus. 4 6 3 el7re factum est in L post deletum verbum quod

KCKrjpvyfieva tKarov fivaq. 451 r&v Aatciov: Cp. 267.


452 £«'vos |I4TOIKOS, a foreign sojourner: ^cVoy, because Oed. was
reputed a Corinthian. I n poetry /JCTOIKOS is simply one who comes
to divell with others: it has not the full technical sense which be-
longed to it at Athens, a resident alien: hence the addition of £eros
was necessary. Cp. O. C. 934 /*€TOIKOS rrjotie y-ijs: Ant. 868 7rpos ovs
(to the dead) aS' eyai jLteroiKos ip^o/uu. tfoa Si opp. to vvv p.ev, implied
in 4v8d8e. lYVeviis> 'native,' as yewrjTos is opp. to TTOUJTOS (adoptivus).
454 Tfj J«ii<()opij: the (seemingly happy) event: cp. El. 1230 KCITU
<rvfi.<^opa.i(Ti JXOL I yeyrjOog Ipirti BaKpvov. 4K 8t8opj«>Tos: X e n . Cyr. 3. 1.
17 ei atfipovoi o-cJ^jotor yeyevrjTtu. 455 Jevrjv Siri, sc. yrjv : O. C. 184 ^eivo?
hr\ iivrji : Ph. 135 iv £iva £ivov. 456 ^atav with irpoSaKvis only: pointing
to, i.e. feeling, \j/rj\a<f>ujv, the ground before him : so of a boxer, \(.p<n.
vs, sparring, Theocr. 22. 102. Cp. Lucian Hercules 1 TO TO£OV
17 dpuTTepd trpohtiKwcri, i.e. holds in front of h i m :
id. Hermotimiis 68 0aXX<3 -Kpo^ti^divTi aKoXovOtlv, wo-Trep rd TrpoftaTa.
Seneca Oed. 656 repet incertus viae, \ Baculo senili triste praetenians
Her. The order of words is against taking ^vrjv with YOIOV (when
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 97

Lalus—that man is here,—in seeming, an alien sojourner,


but anon he shall be found a native Theban, and shall not
be glad of his fortune. A blind man, he who now hath
sight, a beggar, who now is rich, he shall make his way
to a strange land, feeling the ground before him with his
staff. And he shall be found at once brother and father of
the children with whom he consorts; son and husband of the
woman who bore him; heir to his father's bed, shedder of his
father's blood.
So go thou in and think on that; and if thou find that I have
been at fault, say thenceforth that I have no wit in prophecy.
CHORUS.
Who is he of whom the divine voice from the Delphian rock hath ist
strophe.
non dubito quin t?5e fuisset, praesertim cum in Flor. Abb. 152 (T) elSe a pr. m.
scriptum recentior in e?7re correxerit. Noverat scholiasta etSe illud, quod tamen
huic loco ita est alienum ut vix aliunde quam ex incuria librariorum gigni potuerit.

we should write eiri), and supplying rrjv 6S6v with n-poSei/tvus. 457
Juvwv: the idea of daily converse under the same roof heightens the
horror. Cp. Andoc. DeMyst. § 49 ots...exp<3 KOX ols o-vvfjo-da, your friends
and associates. 458 a8e\<j>os OVTOS. If d8eX<|>os stood alone, then <U5T6S
would be right: himself the brother of his oivn children : but with
dSc\<|>6s Kal iraTTjp we should read aii-os: at once sire and brother of his
own children. Cp. Phil. 119 <ro<£ds T' av avros Kaya#os KCKXIJ' afj.a:
Eur. Ale. 143 KOX irws ay CIUTOS KO.T6O.VOL re Kal ftXeiroi; 460 onoo-iropos:
here act., = T?;v avrrjv cnrtipuiv. but passive above, 260. Ace. to the
general rule, verbal derivatives with a short penult, are paroxytone when
active in meaning (see on /3owd//.ois, v. 26). But those compounded
with a preposition (or with a privativum) are excepted : hence 8ia/3o\os,
not 8ia/3d\os. So ofi6<nropo<s here no less than in 260. On the other hand
irpioTO<T7rdpos = ' sowing first,' irpajToo-jropos = ' first-sown.' 462 (jxCo-Ktiv:
'say' (i.e. you may be confident): El. 9 <j>dcrKeiv Mviajvas ras TTOXV-
opav: Phil. 1411 <f>aa-Ktiv S' aijSiyv -rrjv 'HpaxXeous | ...KXVCLV.
J: in respect to seer-craft: for the dat. cp. Eur. I. A. 338 T<5
T<
8OK€IV fxlv ov^t XPV&VJ ? ^ (BovXeaOai QeXmv.
463—511 First crraVi^ov. Teiresias has just denounced Oedipus.
Why, we might ask, do not the Chorus at once express their horror?
The answer is that this choral ode is the first since v. 215, and that
j . s. 7
98 IO0OKAEOYI

2 appy)T apprpciiv TekecravTa (JHUVCCUCTL y^pcriv ; 465


3 a>pa, viv deWaoW
4 LTTTTCOV crOevapdrepov
5 <f>vya TroSa voi^iav.
6 CVOTTXOS yap iir avrbv kmvQpwcTKu
7 irvpl /cat crTepoirats o Atos yeveras, 47°
8 oeivcu o aja ZTTOVTOLI
9
4 6 6 ae\\oTr65(i)i> codd.: aeXXdSuv Hesych. 4 7 2 Veram 1. oi/airXd/ctjTOJ habet
L, superscripto tamen /it falsam correctionem indicante. Praeter Laur. 31. 10 et

therefore, in accordance with the conception of the Chorus as personified


reflection, it must furnish a lyric comment on all that has been
most stirring in the interval. Hence it has two leading themes: (1)
'Who can be the murderer?': 1st strophe and antistrophe, referring
to vv. 216—315. (2) ' I will not believe that it is Oedipus': 2nd
strophe and antistrophe, referring to vv. 316—462.
\st strophe (463—472). Who is the murderer at whom the Delphic
oracle hints ? He should fly : Apollo and the Fates are upon him.
1st antistrophe (473—482). The word has gone forth to search for
him. Doubtless he is hiding in waste places, but he cannot flee his
doom.
znd strophe (483—497). Teifesias troubles me with his charge
against Oedipus : but I know nothing that confirms it.
2nd antistrophe (498—511). Only gods are infallible; a mortal,
though a seer, may be wrong. Oedipus has given proof of worth.
Without proof, I will not believe him guilty.
463 6«nri&reia, giving divine oracles (hrfj), fem. as if from SetriricTr^s
(not found): cp. api-iorna, iJSuAreia. Since 6e-(nr-i-s already involves
the stem cr«r (Curt. E. § 632), the termination, from fen- (id. 620),
is pleonastic. A«\<j>ls ir£rpa. The town and temple of Delphi stood
in a recess like an amphitheatre, on a high platform of rock which
slopes out from the south face of the cliff: Strabo 9. 418 01 Ae\<£oi,
ireTpdSSes \<op[ov, flearpoeiSes, Kara Kopwfirjv (i.e. at the upper part
of the rocky platform, nearest the cliff) exov TO jxavTzlov KOX rrjv iroXw,
o-raStW e/cKai'ScKci KVKXOV TrXtjpova-av: i.e. the whole sweep of the
curve extends nearly two miles. Horn. hymn. Apoll. 1. 283 mepOev |
(the rocky platform overhangs the Crisaean plain)
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOI 99

spoken, as having wrought with red hands horrors that no


tongue can tell ?
It is time that he ply in flight a foot stronger than the
feet of storm-swift steeds : for the son of Zeus is springing on
him, all armed with fiery lightnings, and with him come the
dread, unerring Fates.
Palat. 40, etiam T m>aw\6.Kf[Toi praebet: quo in cod. ascripsit schol. aeawX&K-qToi xpv
ypdupew (metri causa)...evprirai yip KO.1 b> nvi rav Tahcu.0T6.T0iv /3i/3Ma>>\
A et plerique.

8' vVo8e'8po/x.£ firjarcra. (the valley of t h e Pleistus). 465 app^i-' apprp-wv:


Blaydes c p . O. C. 1237 TTpo-n-avTa | KaKa Kaxw, Phil. 65 ea\a.T etrxaTiov,
Aesch. Pers. 681 w TTKrra TTUTTISV ijfXt/ce's T 77/817? e/Arjs, Uepcrai yepovres.
C p . also 1301 /J.ei£ova T(oj> ^.OKtcrTaJV. (But .£7. 8 4 9 8eiXaia SeiAaiW
[xvpeis], cited by Blaydes, and by Jelf § 139, is not in point.) 466 dcXXdSuv:
O. C. 1081 aeXXata Ta^jptocrros ireXeias: fr. 621 deWdSes <pa>vaL Not
' daughters of the storm,' as if alluding to- the mares impregnated by
Boreas, II. 20. 221. Eor the form cp. Ovo-raSa? Amis Ant. 1019. 467
tirircDv, instead of "wirtav 7roSos : Her. 2. 134 rrupafuSa Se Kal OUTOS direXiTreTO
7roXXov eXocrca) T.OU 7raTpos : Xen. Cjr. 3. 3. 41 ^olpav ?x£T£ '"'Scv yjrrov
evTi/Mov TWV TrpwTocrraTiov. 470 <rrcpoirots. The oracular Apollo is Aios
•n-po^vq$. As punisher of the crime which the oracle denounced, he
is here armed with his father's lightnings, not merely with his own arrows
(205). -yeviTos, one concerned with yivos, either passively, = 'son,' as here
(cp. yrfyevera. Eur. Phoen. 128), or actively, ='father.' Eur. has both
senses. Cp. ya/u/Jpo's, son-in-law, brother-in-law, or father-in-law: and
so KijSornjs or ircvOcpos could have any one of these three senses.
472 Kr}p«s: avenging spirits, identified with the Furies in Aesch. Theb.
1055 K.rjpe%'Epiyves, at T OtSuro'Sa | yevos toXeo-are. Hesiod Theog. 217
(Ni5^) (coi Moipas Kal K^pas eyetvaro v^Xeoiroivous... | ai r dvBpiSv re
Beiav T€ TrctpatjSotO'tas cd»c7rpu(7ai ovfteiroTe \yjyovui Seat oewoio ^oXoto,
irptv y oiro TW SuoKri Kaipjv oiriv, o<TTts. d/xdprrj. T h e Moipat decree, t h e
Krjpes execute. I n Track. 133 K^pes 5= calamities. dvair\dKt]Toi, n o t
erring ox failing in pursuit: cp. Track. 120 aAXa n s fl«<3*' | atcv
ava/iTrXoKi/Tov *Ai8a a-^e So/^cov epvK«, some god suffers not Heracles
to fail, but keeps him from death. Metre requires here the form
without (i. d/jLirXaKetv is prob. a cognate of irXa^w (from stem n-Xay for
B-Xax, .Curtius Etym. § 367), strengthened with an inserted /*; cp.

7—2
ioo I04>0KAE0YI
dvr. a. ikafjujje yap TOV vu^oevros a/mcos (jiavelcra
2 <£aju,a TLapvacrov TOV aSrjXov avSpa irdvT l)(yevei,v. 475
3 (jjoLTa yap VTT dypCav
& vXav dvd T avrpa. KOLI

6 jiieXeos ju.eA.ew TTOSI


7 TO. ju,ecro/A^>a\a y a s ajrovoa-fy'djuv 480
4 7 8 irirpaa da ravpou (sic) L, quod fecit antiqua manus ex ireTpaiotr 0 ravpoa.
irirpas dis TaCpos A et ceterorum pars maior. V autem et cod. Ambros. G. 56 (M)
irerpaios (is ravpos exhibent: quod, prima Laurentiani manu adiuvante, eo ducere
videtur ut credamus vocem irerpaios aliqua saltern vetustatis auctoritate niti. Nimirum

<x/3poTos, d/i/3poTos. 473 ?Xa|i>|/6: see on 186. TOV VW()6£VTOS: the mes-
sage flashed forth like a beacon from that snow-crowned range
which the Thebans see to the west. I have elsewhere noted
some features of the view from the Dryoscephalae pass over Mount
Cithaeron :—' At a turn of the road the whole plain of Boeotia bursts
upon the sight, stretched out far below us. There to the north-west soars
up Helicon, and beyond it, Parnassus; and, though this is the middle of
May, their higher cliffs are still crowned with dazzling snow. Just opposite,
nearly due north, is Thebes, on a low eminence with a range of hills
behind it, and the waters of Lake Copais to the north-west, gleaming in
the afternoon sun.' (Modern Greece, p. 75.) 475 Join T4V dSr|\ov avSpa,
and take irovra as neut. plur., 'by all means.' The adverbial iravra is very
freq. in Soph., esp. with adj., as Ai. 911 o iravra K<O^>OS, 6 -navr
but also occurs with verb, as Trach. 338 TOVTWV e^co yap iraVr' b
lya>. Here, the emphasis on irdin-a would partly warrant us in taking it
as ace. sing, masc, subject to iyytvuv. But, though the masc. nominative
wag sometimes = mxs TIS, it may be doubted whether Soph, would have
thus used the ambiguous iravTa. alone for the ace. sing. masc. Ellendt
compares 226, but there iravra is ace. plur. neut. 478 ir£rpas lo-oravpos
is Prof. E. L. Lushington's brilliant emendation of TreTpaTos 0 ravpo?, the
reading of the first hand in L. It is at once closer to the letters, and
more poetical, than ircrpas arc raSpos (Dorvilte), •n-irpa'; "era ravpois (M.
Schmidt), or irerpas cos ravpos, which last is a prosaic correction found
in some MSS. I suppose the corruption to have arisen thus. A
transcriber who had before him HETPA2I2OTAYPO2 took the first O
for the art., and then amended IIETPA212 into the familiar word
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 101

Yea, newly given from snowy Parnassus, the message hath Ist anti"
strophe,
flashed forth to make all search for the unknown man. Into
the wild wood's covert, among caves and rocks he is roaming,
fierce as a bull, wretched and forlorn on his joyless path, still
seeking to put from him the doom spoken at Earth's central
lectio quam V et M praestant id agebat ut traditum irerpaios cum correctione ws
conciliaret. irerpolos 6 ravpos legunt Hermann., G. Wolff., Schneidewin.: Trerpas ws
roOpos Campbell. Coniecit irtrpas are ravpos Dorville: receperunt Wunder., Hartung.,
Dindorf., Nauck., Blaydes. irirpas ttra raipois coni. M. Schmidt.: irirpas labravpos
elegantissime E. L. Lushington.: vide annot.

IIETPAIOS. With a cursive MS. this would have been still easier, since
in TT£Tp<wwroTa.vpo<T the first o- might have been taken for o (not a rare
mistake), and then a simple transposition of i and the supposed o would
have given Trtrpaioo: It is true that such compounds with itro- usu.
mean, not merely ' like,' but ' as good a s ' or ' no better t h a n ' : e.g.
lcroSa.iiJ.iov, iao(Jeos, urove/cus, icroveipos, i<TO7raes, ixroirpecrflv'S. Here, how-
ever, l<riTai>pos can well mean ' wild' or ' fierce of heart' as a bull. And
we know that in the lost Kpiovva Soph, used la-o6dva.To<i in a way which
seemed too bold to Pollux (6. 174 ov irdw dvtKrov),—probably in the
Sense of 'dread as death' (cp. At. 215 Oavdrto yap la-ov iratfos liareuo-ti).
The bull is the type of a savage wanderer who avoids his fellows.
Soph, in a lost play spoke of a bull 'that shuns the herd,' Bekk. Anecd.
459. 31 dTifxayeXrjs' 6 airou-raT^s TTJS dye\rj<; r a S p o s ' OUTM ^(xfto-
KA^S. Verg. Geo. 3. 225 (taurus) Victus abitf longeque ignotis exulat oris.
TheOCr. 14. 43 atvos Orjv Xiyerai TIS, e/3a /cat ravpos dv v\av' a proverb
lirl i w [irj dvao-rpe<l>6vTu>v (schol.). The image also suggests the fierce
despair of the wretched outlaw: Aesch. Cho. 275 diro^pij/xaToto-t fi^iais
Tavpov/ju-vov, 'stung to fury by the wrongs that keep me from my
heritage': Eur. Med. 92 o/i/ia Tavpovjxiv-qv. Ar. Ran. 804 l/JXei/^e
yovv ravp 1780v eyKv^as Kara : Plat. Phaed. 117 B ravprjSov VTroft\eij/a.s
rrpoi rov avOpwirov. On the reading Trcrpacos o ratJpos see Appendix,
Note 11. 479 x^P^"", solitary, as one who is- d<f>pijT<op, dOe/iio-Tos,
(Wo-nos (//. 9. 63): he knows the doom which cuts him off from all
human fellowship (236 f.). Aesch. Eum. 656 voia. <Se x«/"'"A <f>parepmv
irpoo"8e^£Tat; 480 rd |i«(ro'(i<|)aXa 70S iiavreia = rot diro fieaov d/<.<^aXo{! yas :
El. 1386 Sa)/*aT(ov viroareyoi = TO fTeyjj 8co/i,aT<ov: E u r . Phoen. 1351
Am/comfxets KTVTTOV? yipoiv. The o/i<^aXos in the Delphian temple (Aesch.
Eum. 40), a large white stone in the form of a half globe, was held to
mark the spot at which the eagles from east and west had m e t : hence
102 20<t>0KAE0YI

8 fiavreua' rd S' del

a-rp. /3'. Seivd fiev ovv, Sewd Tapdcrcrei cro<£os oloivo6era<;, 4 8 3


2 ovre SOKOVVT' OVT diro^do-Kovd'' o TL Xefcu 8' diropa). 485
3 7reT0ju,at o eAirtcriv OVT evuao opuiv OUT OTTMTO).
4 Tt yd/3 77 AaySSaKtSais 17 [ouYe TavuV TTW
5 TW IIoXuySoT; vei/co? €KeiT ovTe wdpoidev TTOT eycoy'
6 e/xadov, irpos OTOV SI) < fiacravlt,(tiv > fi
4 9 3 Excidit aut ionicus a minore post (imBov vel post 5i): aut choriambus post
fiaaavq. pa<ravlfai> conieci: vide annot. Tpbs OTOV. Inveni in Bodl. Laud. 54

Pindar calls Delphi itself /j.£yav o/u.<£aAoV eipvKoX-n-ov | ...Revo's {JVem.


7. 33): Liv. 38. 48 Delphos, umbilicum orbis terrarum. dirovocr<|>ft;<i>v,
trying to put away (from himself): the midd. (cp. 691) would be more
usual, but poetry admits the active: 894 t^u^as a/iwetv: Eur. Or. 294
avaKa\v7TTf...Kapa: Pind. Pyth. 4. 106 KOfLifcotv = KO[ii£6fievos (seeking to
r e c o v e r ) : 0. C 6 <j>epovra = <j>ep6fji.evov. I n Phil. 9 7 9 a.Trovo(r<f>[£tiv Tivd
TWOS = to rob one of a thing: but here we cannot render 'frustrating.'
482 Juvra, 'living,' i.e. operative, effectual; see on 45 £okras. iMpiiroTdrai:
the doom pronounced by Apollo hovers around the murderer as the
oTo-rpos around some tormented animal: he cannot shake off its pursuit.
The haunting thoughts of guilt are objectively imaged as terrible
words ever sounding in the wanderer's ears. 483 f. The Chorus have
described the unknown murderer as they imagine him—a fugitive in
remote places. They now touch on the charge laid against Oedipus,—
but only to say that it lacks all evidence. Seivd (Uv oiv. ovv marks the
turning to a new topic, with something of concessive force : ' it is true
that the murderer is said to be here': i^v is answered by & after X^u:
8«iva is adverbial: for (1) Topd<r<r«i could not mean Kwii, stirs up, raises,
dread questions: (2) SOKOOVTO, diro^do-Kovra are ace. sing, masc, refer-
ring to /ie understood. The schol., OVTE iricrra ovre an-iora, has
favoured the attempt to take the participles as ace. neut. plur.,
diro4>acrKovTa being explained as 'negative' in the sense of 'admitting
of negation,' a7rd<^ao-tv «at a.Tri<TTia.v 8ex°V£I/a (Triclinius). This is,
fruitless torture of language. Nor will the conj. dirapearKovr serve :
for, even if the Chorus found the charge credible, they would
not find it pleasing. SOKOWTO, is not 'believing,' but 'approving?
OIAITTOYS TYPANNOZ 103

shrine : but that doom ever lives, ever flits around him.
Dreadly, in sooth, dreadly doth the wise augur move me, who 2nd
approve not, nor am able to deny. How to speak, I know not;
I am fluttered with forebodings; neither in the present have I
clear vision, nor of the future. Never in past days, nor in these,
have I heard how the house of Labdacus or the son of Polybus
had, either against other, any grief that I could bring as proof
lectionem a nemine quod sciam prius memoratam, Trap' orov, adiecta interpr. Trap' ov,
•!}yow TOU vtlxovs.

Cp. Ant. 1102 KOX TtxvT araivets (cat Soxeis irapeiKa&Ti'; ' a n d
you recommend this course, and approve of yielding?' The preg-
nant force of SoKoivra is here brought out by the direct contrast with
dirocJHio-KovTa. I n gauging the rarer uses of particular words by an
artist in language so subtle and so bold as Soph, we must never
neglect the context. 485 X^«, deliberative aor. subj. 486 iviaSe, the
actual situation, implies the known facts of the past; dirfcrw refers to the
seer's hint of the future, v. 453 (/Sai^'own K.T.X. Od. 11. 482 atlo 8',
'AxiAAev, I OVTIS dvrjp irpoirdpoiOe (ia.Ka.pra.TOs, OVT dp' 6TTI<T(T<I> (nor will
be hereafter). 487 f. *j AapSaicCSais rf r<p IIoXiSpow. A quarrel might have
originated with either house. This is what the disjunctive statement
marks: since IKCITO, 'had been made,' implies 'had been provoked.'
But we see the same Greek tendency as in the use of TC Kai where KaC
alone would be more natural: Aesch. P. V. 927 TO T dp-^iv KOX TO SOU-
Xeveiv Si^a: cp. Hor. Ep. 1. 2. 12 Inter Priamiden animosum atque inter
Achillen Ira fuit. 493 irp<Ss 8TOV. In the antistr., 509, the words -yap
ITT avr<5 are undoubtedly sound: here then we need to supply ^ ^ —
or - u « - , I incline to believe that the loss has been that of a
participle going with fiaardvw. Had this been pao-avCjwv, the iteration
would help to account for the loss. Reading irpis STOU 8^ pao-avCguv
Pcuravip I should take irpAs with pa<rdv<o: ' testing on the touchstone
whereof—'using which (vet/cos) as a test.' To Brunck's /3ao-dv<a -^p-qa-d-
/itvos (Plat. Zegg. 946 c fiaadvois xpco/icvoi) the objections are (r) the
aorist part, where we need the pres., (2) the tame and prosaic phrase.
Two other courses of emendation are possible: (i) To supply after e/iaOov
something to express the informant, as w o s durmv, or Trpofpipovros, when
wpos OTOU would mean 'at whose suggestion.' This remedy seems to me
improbable, (ii) To supply o-w and an adj. with /Sao-aru, as crvv
p., or /?. <rvv <j>avepa. As the mutilated verse stands in the
104 I0<t>0KAE0YZ

7 im rav imSafiop (JMXTLV el/x OiSiTroSa Aa/SSa/ciSai? 495


8 i.TTiKOVpo<i ahrj\a>v davdruv. r-o

aVr. /3'. aXX' 6 fjuev ovv Zeus o T ' 'ATTOXXCUV ^ w e r o l Kai ra


2eiSores' dvhp&v S' o n jxdvri<s TT\4OV T} 'yoj (peptrcu, 500
3 Kauris ov/c eo-Ttv dhqdrjs' cro<£ia. S' av cro^Cav
4 TTapafjueCxjieiev dv-qp. [ a v Kara(j>aiy)v.
5 dXX' 0U7T0T1 eyaiy' av, Trptv ISoLfi opOov CTTOS, fJ£/j.(f)O(j.evc!)v
6 <j)cwepa yap err' a u r w Trrepoecrcr' ^ X ^ e Kopa
7 iroTe, Kal o~o(f>6<s b)(f>dr) /3ao-dva> 6' a8u7roXts" rai a V e^
5O9 (j>avep& yap £w' avrQ. Hermannus, cum versui 493 ifiaOov itpbs OTOV Si)
/3a<ravip nihil deesse crederet, hie verba yhp iir' avrtp in prima editione omisit, in
secunda tamen reposuit: Dindorf. etiamnunc omittit. lam Triclinius ^TT' aurtj}
omiserat, nullam aliam ob causam quam quod ea verba parum convenienter dici
censeret: yhp autem reliquerat, metri, ut solebat, securus. In A (ubi, ut in L,

MSS., it cannot, I think, be translated without some violence to Greek


idiom: the most tolerable version would be this :—' setting out from
which (irpos OTOV neut., referring to VEIKOS), I can with good warrant
(j3aardvw) assail the public fame of Oed.' Then p<xra.va> would be
an instrumental dative equivalent to (id.cra.vov l^v: and irpos OTOU
would be like 1236 irpoi TWOS TVOT a m a s ; Ant. 51 7rpos avro-
<pwptov dfj.Tr\aK7jiJ.dT<j}v: Trpos denoting the source back to which the act
can be traced. 495 eirl <j>airv tf|u, a phrase from war: it is unnecessary to
suppose tmesis : Her. 1. 157 o-rparov «r' Iwvrov iovra: Eur. I. A. 349
TV-VTO. /lev o~e TrpiiJT irr^XOov, Iva ae TrpioO' rjvpov KCLKOV, censured, t h e e :
Andr. 6 8 8 TOJVT tv <f>povu>v u iTnjX.6ov, OVK dpy^s \dpiv. 497 T h e
gen. 8avaT»v after lirtKovpos is not objective, 'against' (as Xen. Mem.
4. 3. 7 Trvp...hriKovpov...\\r!i-xpwi), but causal, ' o n account of'j being
softened by the approximation of inUovpos to the sense of TI/XCO/DOS :
E u r . El. 135 €A.#ois TW§e •KOVWV ipoi Ta //.eXea \vrqp, | ...irarpC 6'
al/xdrav \ l\6io-T<i>v eTrt/coupos (= ' a v e n g e r ' ) . T h e allusive plur. 6avd,T<Dv
is like aiju.aTo)i/ there, a n d OWTTOIW Oavdrouri. Aesch. Ch. 5 2 : c p .
above, 366 rots <£IAT<XTOIS. 498 It is true (o«v, cp. 483) that gods indeed
(|i*v) have perfect knowledge. But there is no way of deciding
in a strict sense (dXT]8rfs) that any mortal who essays to read
the future attains to more than 1 do—i. e. to more than con-
jecture: though I admit that one man may excel another in the art
of interpreting omens according to the general rules of augural lore
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 105

in assailing the public fame of Oedipus, and seeking to avenge


the line of Labdacus for the undiscovered murder.
Nay, Zeus indeed and Apollo are keen of thought, and ™J anti-
know the things of earth; but that mortal seer wins know-
ledge above mine, of this there can be no sure test; though
man may surpass man in lore. Yet, until I see the word
made good, never will I assent when men blame Oedipus.
Before all eyes, the winged maiden came against him of old,
and he was seen to be wise; he bore the test, in welcome
service to our State; never, therefore, by the verdict of my
verbis <f>aveph yb.p versus finitur, proximus a verbis iir' airy incipit) deleverat librarius
duos versus inter $avtp&, ykp et iir' airnp: quod tamen ad nullum textus vitium
spectat. Erraverant scribentis oculi, quod ipse simul ac senserat, illatos aliunde versus
expulit. 61O ijSiiTroXis codd., Hermann., Nauck., Blaydes.: dStfiroXis Dindorf.,
Campbell.

(<ro(|>{<j: cp. o-o<£os ouovotfe'ras 484). The disquieted speaker clings to


the negative argument: 'Teiresias is more likely to be right than a
common man : still, it is not certain that he is right.' 500 irX6>v <j>epcrai,
achieves a better result,—deserves to be ranked above me : Her. 1. 31
SOKCIOV irdyxy SevTepeia ySv oUrtcrBai, 'thinking that he was sure of the
second place at least.' 504 irapa|utt|/Eicv: Eur. / . A. 145 /uj T « o-e
Xddy I TpoxdXounv o^ois Trapafneuj/afiiivrj J ...atrrprq. 506 -irplv CSoip'. After
an optative of wish or hypothesis in the principal clause, irpiv regularly
takes o p t a t . : Phil. 961 0X010 firjirw Trp\v jx.d6oi^)! el KOI irocXiv | yvwfirjv
jucrourcts. So after 07705, OOTIS, Iva, etc.: Aesch. Eum. 297 e\6oi... | oVoos
yh/oiTo : Eur. Helen. 435 TIS av...[w\oi | OOTIS Siayyet'Xcie. opBov: the
notion is not 'upright/ established, but 'straight,'—justified by proof,
as by the application of a rule: cp. Ar. Av. 1004 op#c3 /xeTprjarui Kavovi
-irpoariOeis : SO below, 8 5 3 , Ant. I I 7 8 TOVVOS W9 oip' opdov rjvvtra';. 507
KaTa<j>afr]v: Arist. Metaphys. 3. 6 dSvvarov a/xa Ka.Ta<f>dvai nal aTro<jidvai
d\r]6<iis. Defin. Plat. 4 1 3 C dXijOeia 2£is lv Karatftda-ei KOU airo^ao-et.
508 irTep(5€o-o-a...Kopo: the Sphinx having the face of a maiden, and
the winged body of a lion: Eur. Phoen. 1042 a 7ircpoiWa irap6ivo<;.
See Appendix, Note 12. 510 pao-dvw with dSviroXis only, which, as a
dat. of manner, it qualifies with nearly adverbial force: commending
himself to the city under a practical test,—i.e. epyw KCU OV Xoyw. Pind.
Pyth. 10. 67 TreipuWi 8£ Kai xpwos iv fia&dva) irpeira KOL voos op66$:
106 IO<t>OKAEOYZ

8 <f>pevos OVITOT 6cf)Xijaei, KaKiav. $H


K P . dvSyaes TTOXITCU, heiv ITT^ •nenvcr\x.kvQ<$
xarriyopeZv p.ov TOV rvpavvov OlSCvovv
irapei/JL drXyjTcov. el yap iv r a i s fujU.<£o/3cu? 515
TCUS vvv vo\i.llfi.i irpos y ifxov Trenovdivai
XoyoLcrLV etr' epyoicriv ei? fiXdfirjv <f>epov,
OVTOI /8tov /AOL TOV fxaKpaicavos TTOOOS,
(f>epovTi TujvSe ySafiv. ov yap eis airkovv
5 1 6 ir/>6(T T' ^/aoO L, post factam in littera T' rasuram; neque dubium videtur quin
T' ex /"' ortum sit, ut in v. 294 $el/j.ar6<T T\ quem vide. Trpo' T' ?/is ( = 7rpi5s T' ^/*OU) A,
cui T'I litteris rubris super re scriptum corrector addidit. Indicatur v. 1. TI pro re
etiam in B : in V autem, cui Campb. earn tribuit, meis quidem oculis non adfuit.
Id autem animadversione dignum est, quod T, cum veram 1. irp6<r y t/wv servet,

' a n upright mind, like gold, is shown by the touchstone, when one
assays it': as base metal Tpifiu re KCU irpoo-ySoXcus | /x.£Xa^i7ray^s ireXci I
SiKaiwOus Aesch. Ag. 391. dSviroXis, in the sense of dvSdvwv TTJ irdAei
(cp. Pind. Nem. 8. 38 ao-rois dScov): boldly formed on the analogy
of compounds in which the adj. represents a verb governing the
accus., as CJ>I\6TTO\IS = <j>i\wv rqv iro\iv, opOoiroXi's (epithet of a good
dynasty) = op6<av rrjv irokiv (Pind. Olymp. 2. 7). In Ant. 370 vij/i-
•n-oXts is analogous, though not exactly similar, if it means ify
iv 7roXet, and not v^/rfKrjv iroXiv t^cov (like Si/catoVoXts = 8(Kaias
exovaa, of Aegina, Pind. Pyth. 8. 22). 511 T£, 'therefore/ as //.
1. 418 etc.; joined with vv, II. 7. 352 etc.: Plat. Theaet. 179 D TM TOI,
<3 <£i'X£ ®co8o)p£, fmWov (TKenriov Z£ o-PXV^- <*'lr'> o n the part of: Track.
4 7 1 KW7T ifJiov Krqo-ei X^PLV-
512—862 £7T£tcrd8iov Sevrepov, with KG/I/IOS (649—697). Oedipus up-
braids Creon with having suborned Teiresias. The quarrel is allayed
by Iocasta. As she and Oedipus converse, he is led to fear that he
may unwittingly have slain Laius. It is resolved to send for the
surviving eye-witness of the deed.
Oedipus had directly charged Creon with plotting to usurp the
throne (385). Creon's defence serves to bring out the character of
Oedipus by a new contrast. Creon is a man of somewhat rigid nature,
and essentially matter-of-fact. In his reasonable indignation, he bases
his argument on a calculation of interest (583),—insisting on the
substance in contrast with the show of power, as in the Antigone
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOI 107

heart shall he be adjudged guilty of crime.


CREON.
Fellow-citizens, having learned that Oedipus the king lays
dire charges against me, I am here, indignant. If, in the
present troubles, he thinks that he has suffered from me, by
word or deed, aught that tends to harm, in truth I crave
not my full term of years, when I must bear such blame
as this. The wrong of this rumour touches me not in one
L

ipse tamen f super ye scriptum habet. Equidem credo lectionem n inde provenisse,
quod cum y' in T' corruptum fuerat, rudes elisionis legum librarii ipsum illud T', quasi
pro n positum, ad <pipov rettulerunt. Deinde varia lectio n iis quoque libris accessit
in quibus, ut in T, vera manserat. Praeeunte tamen Hartungio 717165 n /wv recepit
Dindorf. TT/XJS 7' epov Suidas s. v. pd£ii>.

his vindication of the written law ignores the unwritten. His blunt
anger at a positive wrong is softened by no power of imagining the
mental condition in which it was done. H e cannot allow for the tumult
which the seer's terrible charge excited in the mind of Oedipus, any
more than for the conflict of duties in the mind of Antigone.
515 dTXi)T»v. The verb arXijTeo), found only here, implies an active
sense of drXip-os, impatiens: as jue/Mrrds, pass, in O. C. 1036, is active in
Track. 446. So from the act. sense of the verbal adj. we find dXacrriw,
dvaurOrjriw, dvaia-^yvriw, dveXTicrrita, dirpaKriw. 516 irpds y 4|toB, from
me, whatever others may have done. The weak correction irpos rt pov
was prompted by the absence of u with <Hpov: but cp. Aesch. Ag. 261 en)
8' elre (th I. ei TL) KCSVOV CITE fj.rj Treirvo-fjLcvr]: Plat. Soph. 2 3 7 c xaXeirov -tjpov:
Meno 97 E T<3v IKCIVOV 7ron7/naTO)V XeX.v/jL€vov fj-tv iKrrjadai ov iroWrjs TIVOS
atjiov €<TTL Ti/j,rjs. 517 cu-e is omitted before \6younv. Pind. Pyth. 4. 78
£cli/os aiT* &v aards: Track. 236 •jrarpaJas elre fiapfidpov. <|>^pov: 519 <^>e-
povn: 520 <j>epu: such repetitions are not rare in the best Greek and Latin
writers. Cp. 1276, 1278 (opov), Lucr. 2. 54—59 tenebris—tenebris—
tenebris—tenebras. 518 pCoti TOO naxp.: Ai. 473 TOU /xa/cpou xpy&w /3«w :
O. C. 1214 at fiakpal \ ajxipai, where the art. refers to the normal span
of human life. For pfos (uucpaUv cp. Track. 791 foxnrdpevvov Xinrpov.
519 els dirXow. The charge does not hurt him in a single aspect only,
—1. e. merely in his relation to his family and friends (ISia). It touches
him also in relation to the State (Koivfj), since treachery to his kinsman
would be treason to his king. Hence it 'tends to the largest result'
fe \Uyurrov), bearing on the sum of his relations as man and
io8 SO^OKAEOYZ

rj tfliLia, /XOL rod Xoyov TOVTOV <f>epei,, 520


<xXX' es fieyucrrov, el KOLKOS pkv iv iroXei,
/ca/cos Se Trpos crov teal <f>iXa>v KeKXrjcroiiai.
XO. aXX' r)Xde /xev Si) TOVTO roweiSos r a ^ ' av
opyfj (Hiaardkv [JLOLXXOV rj yvafirj <j>pevcov.
KP. TOV 7T/)o? 8' icfxivOr) r a i ? e/xais yvcofJLaLS o n 525
ireicr^eis o jaavri? TOU? Xoyous ifievSeis Xeyot;
X O . rjvSaTO [xev TaS', oTSa S' ou yvcS/A-fl rivi.
K P . e£ o\x,[i,a.TOiv S' 6p6u>v r e /ca
TOUTTUCXIJ/AO, TOUTO

5 2 5 Vulgo legebatur vel Trpds TOUS' (et hoc quidem, non irpos TOV 5', habet inter
aliqs A), vel irpos TOV S\ quod praetulit Brunckius. Multi autem codd. veram
lectionem TOV Trpos 5' servant; quorum sunt L et B, pravo tamen accentu TOV irpdo-
6" exhibentes. Cum TOVTTOS habeant T et L2, Nauckius TOCTTOS legit, omisso post X^yoi

citizen. The thought is, r) t^jxia ov^ a.Tr\ij 1<TTIV aWa


(cp. Plat. Phaedr. 270 D d-n-Xow rj TroXvtiSk ia-tLv): but the proper anti-
thesis to dirXfj is merged in the comprehensive /ieyio-Tov. 523 dXX' n'Xec...
TOX » v : ' would perhaps have come' (if he had been in a hasty mood at
the moment); a softened way of saying, 'probably came' dv with flX9«:
c p . 0. C. 9 6 4 Oeois yap rjv OVTU> <f>CXov | TO.-^ av T I fjt,7]vCov(Tiv €is yevos
irdXai: 'for such would perhaps have been (i.e. probably was) the
pleasure of the gods, wrath against the race from of old': where av
belongs to v\v, and could not go with i*,r)viov<nv, any more than here with
piao-eev. av can belong to the partic. or infin. only when this answers
to an apodosis with av and the finite verb: e.g. otSa (3iacr6h> av = on
tfiuLaOrf a v o r f$i.a.<T0£iV] av: i^aivovTat [ifjVLOVTe's av = <f>alvtTai o n e/xijVLOV
av or fi.-qvtoiev av. raxa, as = ' perhaps,' is commonest with optat. and
av, but occurs also with simple indie, as Phil. 305 rax' ovv TIS aK<ov
ecrxe: Plat. Legg. 711 A -J/t^s 8e -vdya. ovSe nOiacrOt. We cannot take
Tax' » v a s = 'perhaps,' and treat v^t as a simple indie. In Plat. Phaedr.
265 B Ta^a 8' av «a\ aXXotre Trapafapofievoi is explained by an ellipse of
a verb. Such a neutralisation of av could not be defended by the in-
stances in which it is irregularly left adhering to a relative word, after
a subjunct. verb has become optative (Xen. An. 3. 2. 12 oVoo
av KaraKaVoiEv). But the form of the Greek sentence, by putting
first, was able to suggest the virtual equivalence here of the con-
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 109

point alone, but has the largest scope, if I am to be called a


traitor in the city, a traitor too by thee and by my friends.
CH. Nay, but this taunt would have come under stress,
perchance, of anger, rather than from the purpose of the heart.
CR. And by whom was it set forth that my counsels won
the seer to utter his falsehoods ?
CH. Such things were said—I know not with what meaning.
CR. And was this charge laid against me with steady eyes
and steady mind ?
interrogationis signo. S 2 8 Suidam i% ip.ixi.rav 5' dpOuv re recte legentem
confirmare tres tantum videntur codd., V, A, Trin. Lectionum quae in codicibus
praevalebant duae sunt familiae: (i) <f| 6fi/j.driov 6p6uv Si L (ubi tamen 5£ ex re
factum est). Sic B, E, V, V4, cod. Ven. 467 (V3), alii. (2) e£ o^irav 6p6wv re A:
quocum consentiunt T, V2, Bodl. Laud. 54, Barocc. 66.

ditional r/XBev av to a positive rj\6e. Cp. the use of the optat.


with Sy in mild assertion of probable fact: enyow 8' av OVTOL Kp^Tts,
Her. 1. 2. It is hardly needful to add that rj\6t cannot be taken with
fiuurOh/ as a mere periphrasis for tfimaOvi {II. 18. 180 <n KIV TI VIKV%
-(j(Txvfifj,evoi i\6y). 525 TOV irp5s 8": this order (1) gives an emphasis on
rov answering to that on Taw €/iats yv.: (2) avoids a likeness of sound
between TOV 8' and TOCS'. irpis follows its case, as above, 177:
Aesch. P. V. 653 iroi/Avas /3ovoTocreis re wpos iraTpos: Theb. 185 /Sperr]
irc(rovo-as Trpog Tro\i/rcrovx<i>v 6eo>v: E u r . Or. 9 4 /JouAei rdfyov fwi irpoi
Ka<TLyvr]Ti]S [LoXtiv. Cp. / / . 24. 617 0ecov EK Krjdea •jrt<nrei. 4<f>dv8i], ' w a s
set forth' (for the first time). Who originated the story which Oedipus
repeated? Cp. below, 848: Antig. 620 o-o^i'a yap ?K TOD | K\CLV6V
ZTTOS Tre(j>avTai: Track. I Xoyos JXAV ICTT ap^aios avOpw-Kwv ^avci's.
527 T)V8OTO: these things were said (by Oedipus); but I do not know
how much the words meant; i.e. whether he spoke at random, or from
information which had convinced his judgment. 528 The reading
4f;d|j.|i,dTwv8' dpBoovre gives a fuller emphasis than lij o(j.|iaTO)v opBwv Sk: when
8" had been omitted, re was naturally changed to 8*. The place of re (as
to which both verse and prose allowed some latitude) is warranted, since
ojx.jx.a.Twv-6p6mv opposed to dp^s-^pei'o's forms a single notion. eg='with':
El. 455 e£ v-n-epripas XCP°S) Track. 875 cf aKivqTOV TTOSOS. O(I|MIT<I)V opflwv:
cp. 1385: Ai. 447 K£» /u.17 TOS' ojxix.a Kal <^>peVes Siaorpo^ot | yvoj/tT/s dirrj£av
s: Eur. H. F. 931 (when the frenzy comes on Heracles), o' 8' ovKtff
rjv, I aXX' iv <rTpo<f>al<riv 6/J.ft.a.Toyv e<j>6api*.evos, K.T.X. In Hor.
no I0<t>0KAE0Y2
X0. OVK otS'# a y a p Bpcicr' ol KpaTovvres ov^ opw. 530
auros 8' 08' 17877 Sca/JLaTcov e£a> irepa.
as
01. OVTOS av, ffws Bevp' tfXOes; 77 rocroVS' e x
T0X.ju.77s trpocrcoirov cucrre Tas exacts crreyas
t/cou, (j)oi>€v; <bv Toi38e rdvSpos i/xifiavtos
T' evapyrj<; T77S e^rjs TvpavvCSos; 535
' etire Trpos decov, BecXCav 77
ISciv TIV h> fj.oL TOVT' ifiovXtvcra)
77 Tovpyov <us ou yvcapLoifii crov roSe
8oXw vpoa-epnov 77 ou/c dXe^oCfjiyjv p,a9a>v;
ap oxr^i papou icrTi. Tovy^eCprjfid. crov, 54°
6 3 7 ex ^ o i codd.; quod cur nolim recipere, rationes allatas infra videbis. Iv fioi.
Reisig., Hermann., Dindorf. 63B yi/upLaoi/u codd., Schneidewin., Campbell.:

Carm. 1. 3. 18 Bentley gave rectis oculis for siccis. 530 O«K 0I8*.
Creon has asked: 'Did any trace of madness show itself in the bearing
or in the speech of Oedipus?' The Chorus reply: 'Our part is only to
hear, not to criticise.' These nobles of Thebes (1223) have no eyes
for indiscretion in their sovereign master. 532 Join OSTOS <nJ: cp.
112 r : E u r . Hec. 1280 OVTOS av, /iatVei Kal KaKwv «pas rv)(iiv; where
OWTOS, (TV fiaivet is impossible. TocrovSe T(SX|i.T]S-wpo<r<i>'irov, like Toi/xov
<f>pevwv-ovtipov {El. 1390), v£tKos-av8/3cov £VVOLI/J.OV {Ant. 793) - 535 ri\%
4(ITJS closely follows rovSt rdvSpos, as in Ai. 865 fi.v6ija-ofi.ai immediately
follows Aias Opoti. If a Greek speaker rhetorically refers to himself in the
third person, he usu. reverts as soon as possible to the first. 537 iv juu.
The MSS. have iv 4|iol. But when a tribrach holds the second place in a
tragic senarius, we usually find that (a) the tribrach is a single word, as
Phil. 1314 rjaOnfv I iraripa | TOV dfwv tiXoyovvrd ae : or (b) there is a
caesura between the first and the second foot, as Eur. Tro. 496 Tpvxtp\a
nepl I Tpv)(r)pov elfievriv xpoa : Eur. Phoen. 511 k\BovT\a. avv oir\|ots TovSe
Kal TropOovvra yrjv, if there we should not read iXOovr iv OTTXCHS. With iv
i[u>\ (even though we regard the prep, as forming one word with its case)
the rhythm would at least be exceptional, as well as extremely harsh.
On such a point as 4|ioV versus |noi the authority of our MSS. is not
weighty. And the enclitic \u», suffices : for in this verse the stress is on
the verbal notion (I8«v),—Creon's supposed insight: the reference to
Oedipus is drawn out in the next two verses by the verbs in the 1st
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ in

CH. I know not; I see not what my masters do : but here


comes our lord forth from the house.
OEDIPUS.
Sirrah, how earnest thou here ? Hast thou a front so
bold that thou hast come to my house, who art the proved
assassin of its master,—the palpable robber of my crown ?
Come, tell me, in the name of the gods, was it cowardice
or folly that thou sawest in me, that thou didst plot to
do this thing ? Didst thou think that I would not note
this deed of thine creeping on me by stealth, or, aware,
would not ward it off? Now is not thine attempt foolish,—
Elmsleius, Nauck., edd. plerique: vide annot. fl39 rj O$K con-
icientes opem loco necessariam tulerunt A. Spengel. (teste Nauck.) et Blaydes., cum
codd. omnes proclivi mutatione KOVK praebeant.

person, yv<i>pioiju.i—a.\e£oL/jLr]v. I8wv...iv: prose would say iviStov, either


with or without iv (Thuc. I. 9 5 : oirep /cat iv TIS Uavo-avia iveiSov: 3. 30
O...TOIS iroXe/uois ivopwv): cp. Her. 1. 37 ovre nva SeiXiriv vapi8<ov fioi
(remarked in me) ovre d.8v/xCrjv. 538 ij rovpyov K.T.X. Supply vo/utras
or the like from I8»v: 'thinking that either I would not see...or
would not ward it off': an example of what Greek rhetoric called
o's (from the form of X), since the first clause corresponds with
and the second with SeiXia. •yvcopiotim. 'Futures in -aru are not
common in the good Attic period: but we have no trustworthy collec-
tions on this point': Curtius, Verb 11. 312, Eng. tr. 481. On the
other hand, as he says, more than 20 futures in -ico can be quoted
from Attic literature. And though some ancient grammarians call
the form 'Attic,' it is not exclusively so: instances occur both in
Homer (as //. 10. 331 dyXaWi<r6ai, cp. Monro, Horn. Gram. § 63) and
in Herodotus (as 8. 68 drpefuelv, besides about ten other examples
in Her.). On the whole, the general evidence in favour of Yvo»pio!|u
decidedly outweighs the preference of our MSS. for yv(opia-oi[x.i in this
passage. 53i9 tj owe. The KOVK of the MSS. cannot be defended here—
where stress is laid on the dilemma of SciXta or popta—by instances
of 17...TI carelessly put for rj—rj in cases where there is no such sharp
distinction of alternatives: as //. 2. 289 v; iralSes veapol yfipaiTe ywatKes:
Aesch. Eum. 524 r) WXis /?poros 6' 6fiol«>s. dX4jot|uiv. This future has
the support of the best MSS. in Xeri. An. 7. 7. 3 OVK
H2 IO<t>OKAEOYI

avev re vXt^Oovs KOU fy'ikwv TvpavvtSa


drjpav, o TrXrjOei ^prj^acriv ff aXCcr/cerai;
KP. olcrO' <ws irolrjcrov; avrl TOJV elprjpdvcov
la avTOLKOvcrov, Kara uplv avros \LO.QWV.
OI. XeyeLV crv Setvos, \x.a.vQ6.veiv 8' iyai KCIKOS 545
aov' hvcrfxevr) yap Kal ftapvv a evprjK i/xoC.
KP. TOVT' at/To vvv fiov TrpSr' aKovaov OJS ipco.
OI. TOVT' avTo jxyj /not <f>pd£,', oV&is OVK el Ka/tos.
KP. et rot voyLitjeis KTrJix.<x TT\V avdahiav
elvaC TI TOU vov x^P^y °'"K opOa? <f>poveis. 550
OI. ei Tot vojmt^eis avSpa crvyyevrj Ka/cws
Spciiv ov% v<f)e£eiv Trjv SLKTJV, OVK ev (j>pove2<;.
541 7r?k750ous codd. : 7r\oi5rou coniecit anonymus in translatione Germanica a.

o!s 7roXe^.tous aA.efo/*€^a: and of grammarians, Bekk. A need. p. 4 1 5 :


the aorist aXe^cu, 6.\i£a.<r6a.t. also occurs. These forms are prob. not
from the stem a\e£ (whence present d\i£u>, cp. de£a>, oSa^co) but
from a stem <XXK with unconsciously developed e, making aXc/c (cp.
d\-a\Kov): see Curtius, F " ^ , 11. 258, Eng. tr. 445. Homer has
the fut. dXe^Vo), and Her. dX^a-ofj-ai. 541 TTXTJOOVS refers to the rank
and file of the aspirant's following,—his popular partisans or the troops
in his p a y ; $(\av, to his powerful connections,—the men whose wealth
and influence support him. Thus (542) xp'iFW"' is substituted for <£i\wv.
Soph, is thinking of the historical Greek rvpawos, who commonly began
his career as a demagogue, or else 'arose out of the bosom of the
oligarchies' (Grote i n . 25). 542 8, a thing which, marking the general
category in which the rupavvk is to be placed : cp. Xen. Mem. 3. 9. 8
<f>96vov 8c OTCOTIW o TL £117. So the neut. adj. is used, Eur. Hipp. 109
TepTrvov...\ TpcOTE^a irXifprjs: Eur. ffel. 1687 yvio/iijs, o iroXXais iv yvvai£lv
OVK ivi. 543 oto-9' <5s iroCiio-ov; In more than twelve places of the tragic or
comic poets we have this or a like form where a person is eagerly be-
speaking attention to a command or request. Instead of ola-6' ok SeZ CTE
TToifjtrai; or dlvO' ous ere KeXeva) iroojcrai; the anxious haste of the speaker
substitutes an abrupt imperative : ola-ff ws iroi^arov ; That the imperative
was here felt as equivalent to 'you are to do,' appears clearly from the
substitutes which sometimes replace it. Thus we find (1) fut. indie; Eur.
Cyel. 131 olcrO' OVV o Spao-ets; Med. 600 olaO' a5s f/.eTev£u KO.1 o-o<j>u)Tepa <j>avu;
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 113

to seek, without followers or friends, a throne,—a prize which


followers and wealth must win ?
CR. Mark me now,—in answer to thy words, hear a fair
reply, and then judge for thyself on knowledge.
OE. Thou art apt in speech, but I have a poor wit for thy
lessons, since I have found thee my malignant foe.
CR. NOW first hear how I will explain this very thing—
OE. Explain me not one thing—that thou art not false.
CR. If thou deemest that stubbornness without sense is a
good gift, thou art not wise.
OE. If thou deemest that thou canst wrong a kinsman
and escape the penalty, thou art not sane.
1803, recepit post Nauckium Dindorf. in Poet. Scenicorum ed. quinta (1869). Nollem
factum. Sana est vulgata 1., quod infra paucis docere conatus sum.

where the conjectures Spdcrov (Canter) and iierev&u (Elmsley) are arbitrary:
so with the 1st pers., / . T. 759 dXX' ola-8' o Spao-a; (2) a periphrasis: Eur.
Suppl. 932 dXX' o W o Spai/ <refiov\o[i,<uTOVTWV iripi; Only a sense that
the imperat. had this force could explain the still bolder form of the
phrase with 3rd pers.: Eur. / . T. 1203 olaOd wv a /xot ytviodtn = a 8a
yevta-dat poi: Ar. Ach. 1064 oto-0' 10s 7roieiTa> = tos <5ei Troietv avrqv, where
Trouire is a conjecture. T h e theory of a transposition (iroirjo-ov, ota-6'
<os, like Plaut. Rud. 3. 5. 18 tange, sed scin quomodof) would better
satisfy syntax; but the natural order of words can itself be a clue to
the way in which colloquial breaches of strict grammar really arise.
546 o-oi, emphatic by place and pause : cp. EL 1505 xPVv 8" t&6vs eTvcu
TifvSe TOIS iraaiv BLKHJV | OOTTS iripa Trpdatreiv ye i w VOJJLWV 6i\ei, | KTEI
vtiv TO yap Travovpyov OVK av r[V iroXv. 547 <os kpa, h o w I will State this
very matter (my supposed hostility to you): i.e. in what a light I will place
it, by showing that I had no motive for it. 548 f. TOUT' a«Ti K.T.X.
Oedipus flings back Creon's phrases, as the Antigone. of Aeschylus
bitterly echoes those of the Krjpv£ (ai8<3—av8<m—rpa^vs—Tpa^w', Theb.
1042 f.). An accent of rising passion is similarly given to the dialogue
between Menelaus and Teucer (Ai. 1142 ^817 TTOT eTSov dv8p' iyw—1150
eyw Se y avSp' oirto7ra). Aristophanes parodies this style, Ach. 1097
AAMAX02. irai, irai, <f>ep' cfu Sevpo TOV yvXiov ifwl. AIKAIOnOAIS.
irai, irai, <f>ep' e£u> Sevpo rrjv Kio-rrjv ifioL. 549 KTtj(i.a : c p . Ant. 1050 o<7<j> Kpd-

TUTTOV KTrj/jLaTiav tvfiovXLa. 550 TOO VOV XWP^S : for au^aSt'a is not necessarily
devoid of intelligence: as Heracles says (Eur. H. F. 1243) av(?aSes d
j . s. 8
ii4 ZO*OKAEOYI

KP. ^vjXf^rjfjLL croi r a u r ' £V8LK elpyjcrdcu. TO Se


ird67)[JL oTrotov <f)fj<s iraOetv SiSao-fce /xe.
OL eTret^es, 17 ou/c hreides, cos xPe^V P ^™ 555
TOV creixvo/xavTiv avhpa rrefj-xpacrOai, TWO. ;
KP. Kal W J ' ed' auros efyu T&5 fiovXevfjLaTL.
OI. 7rocroi> TIV' 17&? S?J0' d Aa'tos \p6vov
KP. SeSpaKe nrolov ipyov', ov ya-p ivvoco.
OI, aj>avro<i eppei davaaifLfo ^eipcJ/Aari; 560
KP. fioLKpol irakaioC T ' a i ' [JLeTprjdeicv ~)(povoi.
OI. TOT' OW d ixdvns OUTOS
KP. cro(j)6<s y O/AOIOJ? / c a f icrov Tt/A<w)u,evos.
OI. ifunjcrar ovv ijx,ov n TW TOT' ei> "ypovca ;
KP. OVKOVV ifjiov y eo^TWTOs ovhafiov TreXas. 565
OI. aXX' OUK epevvav TOV davomros Ic
K P . TrapecrxojLiev, 7rws 3 ' o O ^ i ; KOVK
5S5 xp«' ^ L, ubi spiritum et accentum litterae ij addidit manus certe recentior;
prima tamen xp^V vel xPe"? scripserit necne, propterea dubito quod intervallum est
iusto maius inter litteras i et T\. XPe'' 'h -A- (superscripto XP1> <lu0 XP^i n o n XP1?'

cos* irpos 8c TOIIS 6cous eyw. 555 ij[ O«K: AeSch. Theb. IOO aKOveT' ^ ov/c
a/cover' acr7rt'Sa>v KTVTTOV; (?(/. 4. 6 8 2 rj i'nre/j.evo.1 8/j.wfjcru> 'OSvtrtr^os OtCoio.
Such 'synizesis' points to the rapidity and ease of ancient Greek
pronunciation: see J. H. H. Schmidt, Rhythmik und Metrik § 3
(p.. 9 of Eng. tr. by Prof. J. W. White). 556 While such w'ords as
dpwrTo/iavTis, 6p66ft.a.vTi<; a r e seriously u s e d i n a g o o d sense, <re(i,v6navTi.s
refers ironically t o a s o l e m n m a n n e r : c p . o-ejuvoXoyeiv, o-efji.voTrpo<rw-
Trflv, <r£/*voiravoCpyos, cre/avoTrapao-iTOS, e t c . 557 atiros: ' I a m t h e s a m e
man In regard to my opinion' (dat. of respect): not, ' a m identical
with my former opinion' (when the dat. would be like <J?ot/3o> in 285).
Thuc. can dispense with a dative, 2. 61 KOU iy<o fitv o <II5TOS el/u KO.1
OVK iiurraiMu: though he adds it in 3. 38 «yw fx\v ovv 6 avros «/xi rrj yvoofny.
559 8£paKc. Creon has heard only what Oedipus said of him: he does
not yet know what Teiresias said of Oedipus (cp. 574). Hence he is
startled at the mention of La'ius. ov -yap M : /. e. ' I do not understand
what La'ius has to do with this matter.' 560 x€tP™KLOTl' deed of a
(violent) h a n d : Aesch. Theb. 1022 -rv\t.$6ypa. xeip<ojaaTa = service of the
hands in raising a mound. I n the one other place where Aesch. has
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOI 115

CR. Justly said, I grant thee: but tell me what is the


wrong that thou sayest thou hast suffered from me.
OE. Didst thou advise, or didst thou not, that I should
send for that reverend seer ?
CR. And now I am still of the same mind.
OE. HOW long is it, then, since La'ius—
CR. Since La'ius... ? I take not thy drift...
OE. —was swept from men's sight by a deadly violence ?
CR. The count of years would run far into the past.
OE. Was this seer, then, of the craft in those days ?
CR. Yea, skilled as now, and in equal honour.
OE. Made he, then, any mention of me at that time ?
CR. Never, certainly, when I was within hearing.
OE. But held ye not a search touching the murder ?
CR. Due search we held, of course—and learned nothing.
significari suspicor), et sic codd. plerique. Bodl. Barocc. 66 xpefa\ superscripto a:
r , xp"' V"- 601 Unus cod. A &vaneTpT)Beiev. Confer v. 1348, ubi eodem
mendo (vera lectione &v yvwvai. in dvayvwuai corrupta) codd. omnes laborant.

the word, it means 'prey' (Ag. 1326 8ov\rj<s Oavovarji


XeipuijuaTos): Soph, uses it only here (though he has
Ant. 126): Eur. never. 561 paKpol K.T.X. : long and ancient times
would be measured; i.e. the reckoning of years from the present time
would go far back into the past; |ioKpoi denoting the course, and
iroAcuot the point to which it is retraced. Some sixteen years may
be supposed to have elapsed since the death of Lai'us. 562 iv 1-5
Tfyyn: slightly contemptuous. Iv of a pursuit or calling: Her. 2.
82 TCOJ/ 'EAAT/VCOV 01 iv TroLtjaa •yevo/u.evoi: Thuc. 3. 28 ol iv TOIS
TTpayfiaai: Isocr. or. 2. § 18 ol iv Tali oXtyap^tats KOX T<US 8i7ju.OKpaTtats
(meaning, the administrators thereof) : Plat. Phaed. 59 A <OS iv <f>i\o-
<ro<j>[a Ty/naiv ovrutv : Legg. 762 A TWV iv Tats -yewpytat?: Protag. 317 C
(Protagoras of himself as a o-o<^to-T7ys) 7roAAa -ye h-q rjSr/ el/A iv ry Tfyyi}.
565 ovSo|ioS with to-ruTos ir^Xas, ' when I was standing anywhere near';
but equivalent in force to, ' on any occasion when I was standing near':
cp. Ai. 1281 ov ovBa/iov <£ijs ov§€ o-u/x/J^vou iroSt. 567 irop&rxojMV, we
held it, as in duty bound : irapi^eiv, as distinct from 2xeiv> expressing
that it was something to be expected on their part. Cp. O. C. 1498
irapa<r\iiv iraOtov. F o r irapi<r^OfiL€v after co^o/xcv c p .
8—2
u6 IO*OKAEOYZ

OI. 770)9 OVV Toff 0VT0S O O~O<f>6<; OVK T^uSa TCtSe ?


KP. OVK OLO • e<p ots y a p /ATJ <ppovw criyav <piA.&).
01. TocroVSe y ' olcrda KOLI Xeyois av eu ^povwv. 57°
KP. Troiov TOO' ; et y a p oTSa y', OVK dpvrjo~ofj.ai.
OI. odovueK, el ixrj crol £yvt)\de, TOL<S e/xd?
OVK av TTOT CTTTE Aatou Sia<£#opas.
KP. ei jnev Aeyet r a o , auros oicrc' • ey&> oe c o u
fiaOelv SiKaiw r a u ^ ' airep Ka/iov o~v vvv. 575
01. iKfidvdav' ov yap Brj <f>ovevs
KP. TI orjT ; aoek<pr)v TT)V efirp
01. apv7]0~i<; OVK iveo~Tiv <o
K P . ap^eis S' iKeCvrj ravTci y ^ s ICTOJ/ vefuov \
OI. a v 17 6ekovo~a TTOLVT ifj f^
KP. OVKOVV icrovyxat o~<f>cpv iyco Svoiv
57O T6 <rov 5^ 7' L : voluit autem corrector gravem vocis aov accentum in acutum
mutare, utpote qui rocovde veram esse 1. censeret. TO ffoc 5^ 7' [non Se 7'] A : sic
etiam V et alii. Veram lectionem, quamvis peccet accentus, praebere vult B, qui
ToaovSi 7 ' [sic] habet; ascriptum est enim TO<ro07-oi\ Cum B consentit cod. Ven. 616
(V2), et codicis T primamanus; recentior, rubro charactere usa, syllabae TO gravem

ara£«Ds...af«Ds: 575 fi.a$£.v...$']6 iKfiAvQav. 570 Too-ovSe 7". If we


read TA <TOV 8* 7", the coarse and blunt TO O-OV would destroy the edge
of the sarcasm. Nor would TO O-OV consist so well with the calm tone of
Creon's inquiry in 571. roo-ovSe does not need Se after it, since oto-Oa
is a mocking echo of oTSa. Cp. Eur. / . 7? 554 OP. -n-avo-ai vvv ^817, /JLTJO"
ipionjo-Tj'S Trepa. 1$. roowSe y, el ty TOV ra\anrwpov Sctjuap. Against the
conject. T6O-OV Se y' it is to be noted that Soph, has TOCTOS only in Ai. 185
(lyric, TOCTOW), 277 (Sts TOV), and Trach. 53 <£pao-ai TOO-OV. 572 The
simple answer would have been :—' that you prompted him to make his
present charge': but this becomes:—'that, if you had not prompted him,
he would never have made it.' £i>vtjX6e: Ar. Eq. 1300 <j>aa\v aXXiy'Xats
o-vvtX6flv i-as Tpiijpeis es Xoyov, 'the triremes laid their heads together': ib.
467 iSta 8' exei rots AoiceSai/Aovtois ^vyyiyveTat. TOLS 4|«ls: the conject. Toi<r8'
i\uis mars the passage: 'he would never have described this slaying of L.
as mine.' OVK dv stirs T£S 4|xas Aatou Sia<f>6opd$ = OVK av et7rev on iyio Aaiov
8U<l>9fipa, but with a certain bitter force added;—' we should never have
heard a word of this slaying of Laius by me.' Soph, has purposely chosen
0IAII70YZ TYPANNOZ 117

OE. And how was it that this sage did not tell his story
then ?
CR. I know not; where I lack light, 'tis my wont to be
silent.
OE. Thus much, at least, thou knowest, and could'st de-
clare with light enough.
CR. What is that ? If I know it, I will not deny.
OE. That, if he had not conferred With thee, he would never
have named my slaying of Laius.
CR. If so he speaks, thou best knowest; but I claim to
learn from thee as much as thou hast now from me.
OE. Learn thy fill: I shall never be found guilty of the
blood.
CR. Say, then—thou hast married my sister?
OE. The question allows not of denial.
CR. And thou rulest the land as she doth, with like sway ?
OE. She obtains from me all her desire.
CR. And rank not I as a third peer of you twain ?
accentum addidit. Inter editores quibus TO aov 64 y' placuit numerantur, quod mireris,
Bmnck., Hermann., Dindorf., Nauck., Burton. Cum Porsono ad Eur. Med. 461 et
Elmsleio roaovSe 7' probaverunt Erfurdt., Blaydes., Campbell. T6OOP Si 7' cum
Reisigio Wunder. 6 7 2 rhs codd.: rdaS' Doederlein., Wunder., Hartung.,
Dindorf., Blaydes. 6 7 5 raO8' codd.: raSB' Brunckius, quem secuti sunt edd.

a turn of phrase which the audience can recognise as suiting the fact that
Oed. had slain Laius. For 8icu|>6opas instead of a clause with Sia<£0«ip£"'>
Cp. T h u c . 1. 13 7 ypijii/'as rrjv €K ]§a\ayiuyos wpoayycXo-iv rrjs ai/a^wpijVeajs Kal
•nyv T<3v ye<j>vpiav...ov SiaXwriv. 574 To write o-ov instead of <rov is not
indeed necessary; but we thus obtain a better balance to Kdpov. 575 |io8etv
raW, to question in like manner and measure, TO.18' (MSS.) might refer to
the events since the death of Laius, but has less point. 577 yijiias i\as -.
simply, I think, =-ycya^ijKas, though the special use of lx«v {Od. 4. 569
lx«is 'EXeVijv Kaio-(f>iv ya/j,/?pos Aids iacri) might warrant the version, 'hast
married, and hast to wife.' 579 yns with apx«is: (o-ov W|u>v explains TOVTO,
—'with equal sway' (cp. 201 Kparrj ve/ioiv, and 237): y^s urov v€/xu>v would
mean, 'assigning an equal share of land.' 580 •g 6&.ovo-a: cp. 126, 274,
747. 581 rpCTos: marking the completion of the lucky number, as O. C.
8, At. 1174, Aesch. Eum. 759 (Tpirov | 2<oT^pos): parodied by Menander,
n8 IO<t>OKAEOYZ

OI. ivTavda yap Brj Kal Ka/cos <j>aCvet <f>C\os.


KP. OVK, el 8tSoi/>js y ws eya> cravrw Xoyov.
<TKe\jjai Se TOVTO irparov, et TLV av So/ceis
i\icr0ai £vv <£oy8oicn, juaXXov 77 585
CVOOVT , et r a y awf e£ei Kparrj.
iya> fiev ovv OVT auros ipelpoiv ecf>vv
Tvpavvo<i eTvau [ASXXOV r\ rvpavva Spav,
OVT' a\Xos OCTTLS croffypovelv imcrTaTau
vvv jjiku yap e«r crov TTOLVT avev (f>6/3ov (ftepa), 590
el S' avros rjp*)(ov, iroWa KOLV O,KO)V eSpcov.
Srjr e/AOt TVpawl<; rjhiav ixeLV
rjs akvirov /cat BvvacrTtlas £<f>v ;
TOCTOVTOV ^Trarijju.evos Kvpca
h)<TT aXXa ~^prjt,eiv r\ ra crvv KepSei KaXa. 595
7racri ^(aipci), vvv /xe 77<£s ^
ot cre0ev

5 0 7 Nisi quod in E mendose legitur ica\ov<ri, nulla varietate codd. &/caXoC<ri


praebent. Superscripta est in L interpretatio irporaXouo-i: in A corrector adiecit
vapa, ea potius, opinor, sententia ut ex explicaret quara ut variam 1. irapaicaXovai

(Sentent. 231) OdXaa-aa Kal Trvp Kal ywrj rpcrov KCKOV. 582 evralSo •yap:
(yes indeed:) for (otherwise your treason would be less glaring :) it is
just the fact of your virtual equality with us which places your ingrati-
tude in the worst light. 583 8i8o£r]s X070V: Her. 3. 25 Xoyov CWVTCO SOVS
oTi...€/A«AXe K.T.X. f on reflecting that,' etc.: [Dem.] or. 45 § 7 (the
speech prob. belongs to the time of Dem.) Xoyov 8' £//.avn3
tvpla-Kd) K.T.X. Distinguish t h e / / « r . in Plato's TTOIKIXIJ TTOIKIKOV;
SiSovs Xo'yovs, applying speeches (Phaedr. 277 c). 587 OVT' airds would
have been naturally followed by OVT' dXXa> TrapaLvdi/jL av, but the
form of the sentence changes to OUT' akX.01 (Iftupei). 590 ix o-oi: i<
is here a correct substitute for irapa, since the king is the ultimate
source of benefits: Xen. Hellen. 3. 1. 6 IKUVIO 8' avrr] rj x">Pa Swpov «c
/JacrtXews e&odrj. $ipa = (^epo/tai, as O. C. 6 etc. 591 KCIVOKOV: he would
do much of his own good pleasure, but much also (Kal) against it, under
pressure of public duty. 594 ofrirw, ironical: see on 105. 595 TO <rw K^>8«
KO\<£ : honours which bring substantial advantage (real power and personal
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 119

OE. Aye, 'tis just therein that thou art seen a false friend.
CR. Not so, if thou would'st reason with thine own heart
as I with mine, And first weigh this,—whether thou thinkest
that any one would choose to rule amid terrors rather than in
unruffled peace,—granting that he is to have the same powers.
Now I, for one, have no yearning in my nature to be a king
rather than to do kingly deeds, no, nor hath any man who
knows how to keep a sober mind. For now I win all boons
from thee without fear; but, were I ruler myself, I should be
doing much e'en against mine own pleasure.
How, then, could royalty be sweeter for me to have than
painless rule and influence ? Not yet am I so misguided
as to desire other honours than those which profit. Now,
all wish me joy; now, every man has a greeting for me;
now, those who have a suit to thee crave speech with me,
indicaret. Quid autem sibi velit verbum iiacakoStn viderat quisquis in B annotavit
/i£<r[lTr)v]iroiov<n: ut in E quoque schol. eh fior!)9ei.av ftetrovvra. altcdWovvi coniecit
Musgravius (cui etiam ^iriKaXowi in mentem venerat), recepit Diiidorf.: sed vide annot.

comfort), as opp. to honours in which outward splendour is joined to


heavier care. El. 61 So/cdS piv, ovSev prj^a uvv Kep8« KOKOV: i.e. the
sound' matters not, if there is xepSos, solid good. 596 mien. \a(po>, 'all
men wish me joy': lit. 'I rejoice with the consent of all men': all are
content that I should rejoice. Cp. O. C. 1446 dva£iai yap irao-Cv tore
v, all deem you undeserving of misfortune: Ar. Av. 445 irao-t
TOIS KptTats I KOX TOIS Oearals TT5.<TI. The phrase has been suggested
by x<"P£' f^h but refers to the meaning rather than to the form of the
greeting: i. e. irdo-i \alpv> is not to be regarded as if it meant literally, ' I
have the word x a 'P € s a 'd to m e by all.' This is one of the boldly subtle
phrases in which the art of Soph, recalls that of Vergil. Others under-
stand: (1) 'I rejoice in all,'—instead of suspecting some, as the rupawos
does, who <f>Bov&ti.. .loicri ipltrTouri.. .y(a.ipti Se roicri KaKurrouri T(3V dcrrwv
Her. 3. 80: (2) 'I rejoice in relation to all'—i.e. am on good terms
with all: (3) 'I rejoice in the sight of all': i.e. enjoy a happiness which
is the greater because men see it: (4) 'I rejoice in all things.' This
last is impossible. Of the others, (1) is best, but not in accord with
the supposed position of Oedipus o TrS.<n KXUVOS. 597 4KKaXov<ri. Those
who have a boon to ask of Oed. come to the palace (or to Creon's
own house, see on 637) and send in a message, praying Creon to speak
120 ZO*OKAEOYI

TO yap TV)(elv avrdtcri TTOLV evravd' evi.


TTws o->jr ey<w /ceii> a y Aapoi/A acpeis T a o e ;
ou/c aV yevoiro vovs Ka/cos /caXais (j>povcov. 600
dXX' OUT' ipacTTrjs TiJcrSe rjjs yik6fj/r)<; ecjivv
ovr av fxer aXXov Spcovro<s av rXaCrjv TTOT4.
KOX TWVS' ikeyxpv TOVTO fieu TlvdciS' ia>v
vev6ov Ta \pr)cr0evT', el cra^xws iJyyeiXa croi*
TOUT' aXX', eai* fie TW repaaKoiroy Xdf3r)<i 605
KOIV?7 Tt ySouXeuo-avTa, yu.77 /A' an-Xy Kjavrjs
xp7j<f)a), SiirXrj Se, 777 T ' e/i^ /cat cr^, Xafieiv.
yvoifirj S' aS^Xw jiii; fie ^copts a m w .
ou y a p hiKaiov OUTC TOUS /caKous \ia.Tt)v
598 Servatur in duobus codd., T et L2, vera 1. TTSC. Est in L auroicr [non
avTotia] airav clare scriptum. Nullum post airav litterae T vestigium. Consentiunt
cum L in airav codices Vaticani tres, Pal., et Trin.: pluralis airavT1 extat in A et

with them. Seneca's Creon says (Oed. 687) Solutus onere regio, regni
boms Fruor, domusque civium coetu viget. In Greek tragedy the king
or some great person is often thus called forth. Cp. Aesch. Cho. 663 :
Orestes summons an OIK4TI)'S by knocking at the ipKcia iriX-q, and, describ-
ing himself as a messenger, says—i£e\6eT<i) TIS hu>ixd.Tuiv TeA.eo-<£d/oos |
ymr) i-oVap^os,—when Clytaemnestra herself appears. So in Eur. Bacch.
170 Teiresias says—TI'S lv irvXauri KdSfnov ixKaXel BO/JLWV ; 'where is there
a servant at the doors to call forth Cadmus from the house?'—ITO> TIS,
€icrayyiXA.£ Tcipctrias ort | tryrii viv: then Cadmus comes forth. The
active e/cKaXetv is properly said (as there) of him who takes in the message,
the middle iKKaXelo-Oai of him who sends it in: Her. 8. 19 o-T-as iirl
TO <rvve8piov e^cKaXeero ©e/iiaroKXrja. Musgrave's conj. atKaXXovo"i is
scarcely a word which a man could complacently use to describe the treat-
ment of himself by others. aixaXos. KoXaf Hesych. (for aK-taXos, from
the same rt., with the notion of soothing or stilling, as axilo-Oat, ^ a ,
aK6(ov, a/ccuT/ca, a.Ka.uKoZo<s): Ar. Eq. 4 7 viroTretruv TOV SeaTroTTjv | yKaXX',
idiawev, £\oXa/<£v*, 'fawned, wheedled, flattered': in tragedy only once,
Eur. Alidr. 630 ^>I'XIJ/A' cSe^w, irpoSoriv aLKaXXwv Kvva. 598 To...rvxrtv
sc. wv xpyCovo-Lv. The reading airovT, whether taken as accus. after
TVX«IV ('to gain all things'), or as accus. of respect ('to succeed in all')
not only mars the rhythm but enfeebles the sense. When cwroto-i was
corrupted into auTots, wdv was changed into dirav, ag it is in L..
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 121
since therein is all their hope of success. Then why should. I
resign these things, and take thos*e ? No mind will become
false, While it is wise. Nay, I am no lover of such policy, and,
if another put it into deed, never could I bear to act with him.
And, in proof of this, first, go to Pytho, and ask if I brought
thee true word of the oracle; then next, if thou find that I have
planned aught in concert with the soothsayer, take and slay
me, by the sentence not of one mouth, but of twain—by mine
own, no less than thine. But make me not guilty in a corner,
on unproved surmise. It is not right to adjudge bad men good
reliquis plerisque. Praetulerunt TT&VT' Bothius et Burges. 6O4 irevdov A, L
(ex ireWov factum), cum codd. plerisque: iriffov T, irv8ov Nauck.

= £v T(3 tKKaXeiv (it, in gaining my ear: cp. O. C. 585 ivravda


yap fioi K€Lva <rvyKOfi.i£eTa.i, in this boon I find those comprised. 599 ir»s
STJT. Cp. Her. 5. 106 (Histiaeus to Dareius) /3a<ri,\ev, KOZOV icf>0ey£ao
eVos; Z/J.C ftovXevcrai Trprjy/JLa IK TOV <TOL TI ^ /*ey<* v) cr/niKpov «/teAXe Xvirrjpov
dvaa-^rjaeiv; TI 8' av £7ri8i£?7^.evos Troiioifni TavTa; rev 8e cVSejJs e«JV, T<3 irdpa
filv iravTa oawjrep <roi, iravruyv Si irpos alo fiovXevfiaTiov i-TraKoveiv d^ievfiai;
600 oiK OLV -y^voiTo K.T.X. Creon has been arguing that he has no motive
for treason. H e now states a general maxim. ' N o mind would ever
turn to treason, while it was sound.' As a logical inference, this holds
good only of those who are in Creon's fortunate case. If, on the other
hand, KOX»S <f>povwv means 'alive to its own highest good,' and not merely
to such self-interest as that of which Creon has spoken, then the state-
ment has no strict connection with what precedes: it becomes a new
argument of a different order, which might be illustrated from Plato's
KaKos «K«JV ovSets. It would be forcing the words to render: ' A
base mind could not approve itself wise,' i.e. 'such treason as you
ascribe to me would be silly,' 603 8X«-yx.ov, accus. in apposition with the
sentence: Eur. H. F. 57 V 8ucnrpa£ia | ^s /AIJITOO*, OCTTIS KOX //.erais ewous
ifjLOL, I TVJ(OI, <f>l\wv eA.ey^oi' ai^ei>S«rraTov. 605 i w r ' #X\O = TOVTO 8e.
Soph, has TOVTO fxiv irregularly followed by TOVT' avtfis {Ant. 165), by
flra {Ph. 1345), by Si {Ai. 670, O. C. 440). T<£ TepaerKdira>. This title
(given to Apollo, Aesch. Eum. 62) has sometimes a shade of scorn,
as when it is applied by the mocking Pentheus to Teiresias (Eur.
Bacch. 248), and by Clytaemnestra to Cassandra (Aesch. Ag. 1440).
608 \ap\i, 'apart': i.e. solely on the strength of your own guess (yvoj^r;
dS?j\os), without any evidence that I falsified the oracle or plotted with
122 Z04>0KAE0YS

XpycToix; vofxC^eiv ovre rows XP1?0"7"0"? KOLKOVS. 6IO


<f)Ckov yap icrBXov exfiakzLv Xcrov \eyco
KOX TO> irap' avT& (SIOTOV, ov irkeicrTov <f>t.\ei.
dXX' iv -)(p6vcp yvacrei r a S ' do"<£aXa!s, irrel
X/oovos 8LK(UOV dvhpa Zeiicvvaw fj.6vo<s,
KCLKOV Se Kav iv ^pepa- yvo'vrjs fua. 615
XO. KaXals e\e£ev euXaySovyxev^) irecrslv,
a v a ^ - <f)povelv yap oi Tape's OVK acr^iaXets.
OI. orav Ta^vs TIS ovirifiovkevav \d6pa
X^Pjjy T&Xyv Set /cd/ie fiovkeveiv irakiv.
ei 8' rjcrvxatfibv vpocrfJievo}, TO. TovSe fiev 620
TreTrpayfiev' ecrTai, ra/Aa. 8' i
KP. TI S^ra ~xprjZ,e.i<;; 77 /xe yij
OI. TjKicrTa' 6vrj<TK€iv ov (f>vyeli> ere )8ouXoju,ai
cus a*1 TrpoSet^jjs oidv ecrn TO <f>6oveiv.
KP. cos OVY vireC£oDV ovhe mo-Tevcrcjv Xe'yets; 625
AT * * * * * *

KP. ou y a p <f>povovi>T<£ cr' eu /SXeWco. OI. TO youi' e/i,oV.


KP. aXX' e'f icrou Sei /cdpV. OI. dXX' e<^us Ka/co?.
623—626 Nemini qui hunc locum diligenter perpenderit dubium fore credo

the seer. 612 TOV irap' airi? P£OTOV K.T.X. : the life is hospes comesgue
corporis, dearest guest and closest companion : cp. Plat. Gorg. 479 B ^17
vyi.il $vxfj crvvoLKilv: and the address of Archilochus to his own Ov/ios
as his trusty ally (Bergk fr. 66),—®uju,c, Ovp dfirf^dvouri KT/S«O-IV KVKW-
jueve, I craSev, $v<rfi.ev<3v 8' d\t£ev TrpofrflaXuiv Ivavriov | cnipvov. <j>iX.ei sc.
Tts, supplied from airrcp: H e s . Op. 12 T)Jv fx,iv KEV eiraivrfo-«iE voi;o-as | rj 8'
fTTLft.oifi.riT)]. 614 XP°V°S : cp. P i n d . fr. 132 a.v8pwv SiKaiiov j(p6vos
apicTTO's: Olymp. 11. 53 ° T> i£*)>-£yxo>v fovos | aXa^etav inqrvino
615 KOKOV 8J: the sterling worth of the upright man is not fully appre-
ciated until it has been long tried : but a knave is likely (by some
slip) to afford an early glimpse of his real character. The Greek
love of antithesis has prompted this addition, which is relevant to
Creon's point only as implying, 'if I had been a traitor, you would
probably have seen some symptom of it erenow.' Cp. Pind. Pyth. 2. 90
(speaking of the <j>0ovepo£): a-TdOixas Se TIVOS eAKOjitevoi | Trepicro-as €V
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOI 123

at random, or good men bad. I count it a like thing for a man


to cast off a true friend as to cast away the life in his own
bosom, which most he loves. Nay, thou wilt learn these things
with sureness in time, for time alone shows a just man; but
thou could'st discern a knave even in one day.
CH. Well hath he spoken, O king, for one who giveth
heed not to fall: the quick in counsel are not sure.
OE. When the stealthy plotter is moving on me in quick
sort, I, too, must be quick with my counterplot. If I await him
in repose, his ends will have been gained, and mine missed.
CR. What would'st thou, then ? Cast me out of the land ?
OE. Not so: I desire thy death—not thy banishment—
that thou mayest show forth what manner of thing is envy.
CR. Thou speakest as resolved not to yield or to believe ?
[OE. NO ; for thou persuadest me not that thou art worthy of belief.]
CR. NO, for I find thee not sane. OE. Sane, at least, in
mine own interest.
CR. Nay, thou should'st be so in mine also. OE. Nay,
thou art false.
quin post versum 625 unus desit versus : infra pluribus rem exposui. Versum 624
Creonti, v. 625 Oedipo tribuunt codd. In v. 624 pro ora? scripsi (is OP.

oBvvapov l a Trpoade KapSi'a, | vplv oaa <f>povriSi


Ant. 4 9 3 <£tA.eI 8' d 6v/x6s Trpocrdtv rjprj&Oai KAOTTCVIS T&V [irj&tv dpflcus Iv
(TKorta rc)(vo)fi.€va)v. 617 The infin. foovtiv is like an accus. of respect
{e.g. fJovXyv) construed with both adjectives : ' in counsel, the quick are
not sure.' Cp. Thuc. 1. 70 orivo^o-ai dfcis. 618 rayis ™ xwp-%, ad-
vances in quick fashion; nearly = Taxews TTWS. Ai. 1266 <f>tv, rov Oavov-
TOS <us raxeta TIS PporoLs | x«P's Biappel, in what quick sort does it vanish.
622—626 T£ 8TJTO, XPT)S"S ;...TA -yoOv 4(idv. A discussion of this passage will
be found in the Appendix, Note 13. My conclusions are:—(1)
Verse 624, orav irpoSeiiy^ K.T.X., which the MSS. give to Creon,
belongs to Oedipus; and for orav we must read <»s&v. (2) Verse 625,
<us o&x virel£<ov K.T.X., which the MSS. give to Oedipus, belongs to Creon.
(3) Between 625 and 626 a verse spoken by Oedipus has dropped out,
to such effect as ov yap fie 7rei'0£is OVVSK OVK a7rttTTOS ft. The
fact of the next verse, our 626, also beginning with oi yap may have
led to the loss by causing the copyist's eye to wander. The echoed
ov -yap would suit angry dialogue: cp. 547, 548 KP. TOVT
124 ZO*OKAEOYZ

KP. ei Se gvvir)<; fiyjhiv; OI. dpKTeov y


K P . OVTOL KCLKaJs y apxovTos. OI. <3 TTOXIS 770X15.
KP. Ka.fi.oL 7roXe&)s /xereo"Ttv, ov)(l crol /xovco. 630
XO. Travcraa-ff, a^a/cres* Kdipiav 8' V[JUV o/><3
TT^S' e/c So/Jbcov aTeu^ovaav 'loKacrTrjv, fjueff 77s
TO wi/ trapeaTOs vei/cos eu OeaOav

I0KA2TH.
TI TT}V dj3ov\ov, (3 TaXauircopoL
y\wcrcrr]<; hrrjpaud'; ovB' iTraicrxyvtcrde, yrj<; 635
ouT<u vo<rovo"r)<;, i S t a KLVOVVTCS KOLKO. ;
OVK et cru T 01/cous cru re, ILpiov, Kara crriyas,
KOX fxjrj TO fJbrjSev aX^yos ei? pey' otcrere;
KP. ojaaijae, Sewd jx OiStirous o o"os 7roo"ts
Svoiv Sifcatot Spdv diroKpivas KCLKOZV, 640
6 2 9 In L apx°>TO<r ex dpxovTea fecit vel prima manus vel Stopffwrijs. 631
Kaiplav A et codd. plerique: cum paucis L Kvplav praebet} ubi littera u post rasuram
facta est ex duabus quarum prima legi non potest, altera i fuit: in marg. yp. Kaiplav.
6 3 5 iirifpar', quod cum multis codd. A habet, vulgatior fuisse lectio videtur. L
a prima quidem manu habuit iir-qpaaB' (quod in aliis quibusdam, ut in V et V4, extat):

vvv /xov Trpcor aKovaov ws ip<5. OI. TOVT" avro fly) jj.01 <j>pa£. 628
dpicrfov —Sei ap\etv, one must rule : cp. Ant. 677 dfivvTe' earl T019 Koa-fiov-
jiievois. Isocr. or. 14 § 10 ov rmv aWtav avroi<s dpKTeov (they ought not
t o rule over others) aAAot TTOXV //.SiWov 'Opxp/ievtois <j>6pov oltTreov. In
Plat. Tim. 48 B dpia-iov = Set apy^aBai, one must begin; in Ai. 853
dpKTtov TO irpaynn. = must be begun. Some understand—'one must be
ruled^ and OVITOI KOKOJS y ap^ovros, 'No, not by one who rules ill': but
(a) though dpKria •jro'Xis might mean, 'the city is to be ruled,'an absolute
passive use of apxriov is certainly not warranted by such an isolated
example as oi KaTcnrXiyKTeov eoriV ('we must not be unnerved') in Dein.
In Dem. § 108: (b) dpxo^ai TIVOS, ' I am ruled by o n e ' (instead of « or
v-n-6), could only plead the analogy of aKovui TIWS, and lacks evidence.
629 oipxovros, when one rules. dpKTeov being abstract, 'it is right to
rule,' there is no harshness in the gen. absol. with rtvds understood (cp.
612), which is equivalent to Idv TIS apxiT- CP- Dem. or. 6 § 20 XeyovTos
av Tivos Trto-Tewai o*€o-0e; ' think you that, if any one had said it, they
would have believed?' = oteo-9e, d T19 eXeyt, 7ri,o-T£{io-cu av (avTOvs); <3
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOI 125

CR. But if thou understandest nought ? OE. Yet must I


rule.
CR. Not if thou rule ill. OE. Hear him, O Thebes !
CR. Thebes is for me also—not for thee alone.
CH. Cease, princes; and in good time for you I see Iocasta
coming yonder from the house, with whose help ye should com-
pose your present feud.
IOCASTA.
Misguided men, why have ye raised such foolish strife of
tongues ? Are ye not ashamed, while the land is thus sick, to
stir up troubles of your own ? Come, go thou into the house,
—and thou, Creon, to thy home,—and forbear to make much
of a petty grief.
CR. Kinswoman, Oedipus thy lord claims to do dread
things unto me, even one or other of two ills, —
sed mutavit in iivfipar' corrector antiquus. 6 3 7 Kptuv L, A, et reliqui codd. fere
omnes: quod tuentur Hermann., Nauck., Blaydes. Kptov E, probantibus Elmsleio,
Dindorf., Campbell. 6 4 O Spaaai SiKaioi Svotv diroKplvas naxotv codd. Quibus
causis adductus sim ut Svotv...Spav scriberem, infra leges. In T super Svoiv scripsit
ovvllfio'is librarius quem non effugerat inaudita contractio.

iroXxs: here, an appeal: in Attic comedy, an exclamation like


o tempora, o mores : Blaydes cp. Eupolis ap. Athen. 424 B U> -TTOXIS,
cus CISTV^IJS el yu.aA.Xoi/ -rj KaXws <f>poveis: and so Ar. Ach. 27. 630
Most of the MSS. have /HETEOTI rrjab" ovy(!,. Had they /XETECTTI
S' ov (which appears only in a few inferior MSS.) we should hardly
be warranted in ejecting rijo-b": but, having the choice, we may safely
prefer |i<T«m.v o$xl to jU.eVeo-n rrjo-8' ov. ' I have some right in Thebes, as
well as you.' Creon speaks not as a brother of Iocasta, but as a Theban
citizen who denies that 'the city belongs to one man' (Ant. 737). Plat.
•Legg. 768 B Sci 8e 817 Kal r&v IBLIDV 8u«Sv KOIVWVUV Kara 8vva[xiv airavras' 6
yap aKoiviaviyro^ wv i^ovcriai TOV o~vv8iKd£,civ TjyuTcu TO Tra.pd.irav TIJS
7roXecos ov fieVoxos elvai. 637 OIKOVS (the king's palace), ace. after el
(cp. 533); KOTO, with o-T^as only, referring to the house of Creon, who
is not supposed to be an inmate of the palace: see 515, 533.
638 TO HT)8JV aVyos, the grief which is as nothing (EL 1166 hi^ai...\rrjv
fjLrj&ev h TO yiujScV): els |if/a <))4p«i.v, make into a great matter: cp.
(Phil. 259) vocros | del TE^XE KOTTI p,e7£ov Ep^erai. 640 Svoiv...
diroKpCvas KaKotv. This is the only extant example of 8w>tv scanned as
126 I0<t>0KAE0Y5:

17 yrj<i diracrai iraTpCSos, y Kreivai Xafioiv.


OI. ^vfj,<f)r)fj.L' SpotWa ydp viv, S> yvvai, /ca/cws
et\7)<f>a TOVJJLOV crcGju,a arvv Te^yrj Kcu<fj.
KP. yu.77 vvv ovaijxiqv, dXk' dpa2o<;, el ere TL
SeSpcLK, okoiyu-qv, cov eVairia fie Spdv. 645
IO. (3 7T/3OS QeStV TTLCTTevCrOV, OtSlTTOUS, TCtSe,
ju.aX.KTTa ju.ei' TOVO opKOV alvecrdels decov,
eneura /cdjue roucrSe ff ot irdpeicri croi.
KOU.IXO S.

crrp. a'. XO. l TTidov dektjera1; <f>povT]cras T, dva£, XCcrcrofiaL. 649


OI. 2 TI croi #e\eis S^r' eiKadoi;

one syllable, though in the tragic poets alone the word occurs more
than 50 times. Synizesis of v is rare in extant Greek poetry : Pind.
Pyth. 4. 225 yei/Cui/: Anthol. 11. 413 (epigram hy Ammianus, 1st
century A. D.) UIKI/XOV, ySvofr/jLov, irqyavov, d<nrdpayo<s. Eur. I. T. 970
oo"at S' "EpinxDV OVK lTrti(r6r]<ra.v VOJJUO, a n d ib. 145 6 oiorpois 'Hpivvatv,
where most editors write '~Epivvv, as ib. 299 'Epivvs (ace. plur.). Hes.
Scut. 3 'HAe/cTpDcovos. It might be rash to say that Soph, could not have
used Suotv as a monosyllable ; for he has used the ordinary synizesis in a
peculiarly bold way, Ai. 1129 fi-q vvv dripa 6eovs ^eois o-co-co/ieVos: but at
least it moves the strongest suspicion. diroKpCvas, on the other hand, seems
genuine. dnoKplvuv is properly secernere, to set apart: e. g. yrjv (Plat.
JRep. 303 D): or to select : id. Legg. 946 A TTXIJOCI TU>V ij/rjipuiv cwroKpiVavTa?,
having selected (the men) according to the number of votes for each.
Here, ' having set apart (for me) one of two ills' is a phrase suitable to
the arbitrary rigour of doom which left a choice only between death
and exile. For 8uotv Elms, proposed TOIVS' or roivhi. y : Herm., roivS
%v. I should rather believe that 8pdv was altered into Spacrai by a
grammarian who looked to dir<3<r<u, K-mvcu, and perh. also sought
a simpler order. But for pres. infin. combined with aor. infin. cp. 623
6vr/<TKnv...<f>vy€iv: Ant. 204. ni]T£ KTepC£ti.v fitijTe KuiKvcrai. See also
O. C. 71,2 TJKW ydp ov% <«s Spav TI /3ouA.ij0eis, where in prose we should
have expected Spda-ai. The quantity of diroKpCvas is supported by
Aesch. P. V. 24 d-KoKpv^a: diroTpowq and its cognates in Aesch. and
Eur.: cTriKpvTTTeu' Eur. Suppl. 296: iirlicpdviov I. T. 51. Blaydes conj.
Soiis Suotv <cptrai KaKolv (i.e. 'giving me my choice of two ills'; cp. O. C.
640 TOVT(ov...8t8(u^i o"ot I KpivavTL \pija6ai): Dindorf, Odrepov Svoiy
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 127

to thrust me from the land of my fathers, or to slay me


amain.
O E . Yea; for I have caught him working evil, by ill arts,
against my person.
CR. NOW may I see no good, but perish accursed, if I have
done aught to thee of that wherewith thou chargest me !
Io. O, for the gods' love, believe it, Oedipus—first, for the
awful sake of this oath unto the gods,—then for my sake and
for theirs who stand before thee !
CH. Consent, reflect, hearken, O my king, I pray thee! Kommos.
OE. What grace, then, wouldest thou have me grant thee ?

KOLKOIV (where I should at least prefer KO.K6V) : but since, with either of
these supposed readings, the construction would have been perfectly
clear, it is hard to see how diroKp£vos—a far-sought word—could have
crept in as an explanatory gloss. 642 8p<5vra Kaicus TOV|«5V a-apa would
properly describe bodily outrage : here it is a heated way of saying that
Creon's supposed plot touched the person of the king (who was to be
dethroned), and not merely the vofioi TroXecos. 644 apaios = wo-Trcp
airos lTro.pvtfi.ai. 647 SpKov fltSv (object, gen.), an oath by the gods
(since o n e said Ofivvvai 6eov<s) : Od. 2. 377 6ewv fiiyav opKOV airiafivv :
IO. 299 fi.aKa.ptav fieyav opKOV d/xoo-om: Eur. Hipp. 657 opKois Oewv. B u t
in O. C. 1767 Aios "OpKos is personified. 649—697 The KO/H;U.OS (see
p. 9) has a composite strophic arrangement: (1) 1st strophe, 649—659,
(2) 2nd strophe, 660—668; answering respectively to (3) 1st antistr.,
678—688, (4) 2nd antistr., 689—697. 649 BeXiio-os, having consented
{iridTivuv). 0. C. 757 Kpv>j/ov (hide thy woes), ^eAvjVas aarrv Kal Sofiovs
fioXeiv. Isae. or. 8 § I I Taiira irovfjvai /AT; OeXrfaas. P l u t . Mor. 149 F
<ruv8enrveiv fir) 6e\ij<ravTos. <|>povijcras, having c o m e t o a s o u n d m i n d .
Isocr. Or. 8 § 141 KaXov &TTW iv rais T<3v a\.\a>v aSiKiats Kal juavwus
irpuTovs €v ^ p o v i j V a i / T o s Trpocrrrjvai T»JS TCOV 'TJXKIJVMV iXevOtpias.
651 fiKaSw: the aor. subj. is certainly most suitable here: Phil. 761
jSovXei Xaftuifiai; El. 80 Qk\c.is | fieivoifiev, In such phrases the pres.
subj. (implying a continued or repeated act) is naturally much rarer:
f3ovku iiria-Koir<SiJ.ev X e n . Mem. 3. 5. 1. A s regards t h e form of t'tKaOw,
Curtius ( Verb 11. 345, Eng. tr. 505), discussing presents in -6w and past
tenses in -6ov from vowel stems, warns us against 'looking for anything
particularly aoristic in the 0' of these verbs. In Greek usage, he holds,
'a decidedly aoristic force' for such forms as <rxeOuv and dKaOeiv 'never
128 IO*OKAEOYS

XO.3TOV OVT€ TTfiiv vrfTiov vvv T iv opK(p jieyav


01. 4 OT<T6' OVV a ^(pyt,eL<s; X 0 . oI8a/ 0 1 . <j>pd£e Si} T I <£T?S.
XO. 5TOV ivayrj (f>t\ov /ATJTTOT' iv alria 656
6 crvv d<j>avel \6ya> a OLTL/XOV fiakeuv.
01. 7 ei vvv inicrTCJ, T a u ^ prav t,rjry<i, e/xot
8 QrjTcov okeOpov rj <f)iryqv e/c rrjcrSe yrj'S-
j

p. XO. low TOV ndvTcov decav Oeov irpofjiov 660


2 AXiov iirel d9eo<s a<^)tX.os o r t Trvfiarov
3 okoCfJLOLV, (j>p6v7)O-LV el Tavh' k\(ti.
4 a \ X a jiiot hvo-fJLopq) ya <f>6Cvovcra 665
5 rpvyei \jnr\av, TO, 8' et Ka/cois Ka/ca
6 Trpocrdxjjei, TOIS i r a X a i r a i r p o s cr(f)<pv.
1/10

6 5 6 T&I> ^ayijt <[>l\ov ^TITTOT iv atriat [ <ri)j' dfpavet \6yov a/riixov iKpaXtlv L ;
litteras 710, lect. \byif indicantes, addidit manus antiqua. \6ytji praebent A et
plerique codd.: Uyoiv V cum aliis quibusdam. Lectiones X67o» et \6yw commenti
sunt librarii quibus hiatus displicebat, sensus autem loci neutiquam illuxerat.
a1 post Xoyifi primus inseruit Hermannus. In falsa 1. ^K/3a\eu> consentiunt cum
Laurentiano reliqui codd. fere omnes. /3aXeii' tamen, quod Suidas legit, inveni etiam
in cod. T. 6 S 9 </>vyrjv L, ab antiqua manu factum ex tpvyelv, quod in aliis

established itself: and he justly cites El. 1014 as a place where


is in no way aoristic. H e would therefore keep the traditional accent,
and write o-xe'0eiv, UKO.6UV, with Buttrnann. Now, while believing with
Curtius that these forms were prob. in origin presents, I also think
that in the usage of the classical age they were often aorists: as e.g.
axiOtiv in Aesch. Theb. J^ICJ distinctly is. 652 plyav, 'great,' i.e. strong,
worthy of reverence, Iv 6'pK<j>, by means of, in virtue of, his oath; Eur.
TfO. 669 ^we'ffti yevei irXovro) re KavSpcia /xiyav'. for Iv, cp. Phil. 185
iv T oSwais 6fji.ov I Xifiw T* oiKrpos. 656 'that thou shouldest never lay
under an accusation (4v OIT£<J poXetv), so as to dishonour him (dniiov),
with the help of an unproved story (o-iv d<t>avtf Xo'-ycj>), the friend who
is liable to a curse (Ivayfj)': i.e. who has just said (644) apaios
oXotju-av K.T.X. Aeschin. In Ctes. § 1 1 0 yiypaTnai yap OUTCOS iv Trj dpa,' tl
TXS Ta8e, (^r]uL} Trapaj3aivoL,...€Va.yq^, <f>i)o-LV, e<7Tco TOU'AiroXXtovos, ' l e t
him rest under the ban of Apollo': as Creon would rest under the ban
of the gods by whom he had sworn. Her. 6. 56 IvTOdya Ivi\i<x6ai, to
be liable to the curse. Iv atrCij paXetv: [Plat.] Epist. 7. 341 A cos
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 129

Cll. Respect him who aforetime was not foolish, and who
now is strong in his oath.
O E . NOW dost thou know what thou cravest ?
CH. Yea.
O E . Declare, then, what thou meanest.
Cll. That thou shouldest never use an unproved rumour to
cast a dishonouring charge on the friend who has bound himself
with a curse.
O E . Then'be very sure that, when thou seekest this, for me
thou art seeking destruction, or exile from this land.
Cll. NO, by him who stands in the front of all the heavenly 2nd
host, no, by the Sun ! Unblest, unfriended, may I die by the stro P he -
uttermost doom, if I have that thought! But my unhappy soul
is worn by the withering of the land, and again by the thought
that our old sorrows should be crowned by sorrows springing
from you twain.
quibusdam codd. mansit. 66O Be&v Scbv. In L deiv paene evanuit, tanquam
si librarius eluere voluisset: in A deletum est, relicto inter Sew et rpo/xov quattuor
litterarum spatio. Et plerique quidem codd. 6ebv omittunt; minor est numerus
eorum qui, lit V, OeHv reiciunt, debv servant. Integrae 1. Oeav Btbv pepercit cod. T.
6 6 6 nal rd5' codd. Recte delevit Hermannus Kal, quod versus antistrophicus 695
spurium esse docet. TCI S' Kennedius. 6 8 8 afyCi'w (i.e. a<pt}ii) codd. ornnes :
interpretatur schol. in E rh imp' v/iwu.

iv aiTia TOV EUKVVVTO. d\\' avrov avrdv, 'so that he may never
blame his teacher, but only himself,' equiv. to infiaXuv curia: cp. the
prose phrases e/i/3aAAe<.v eis eru/ic^opas, ypa<£as, e\6pav, K.T.X. TCur. Tro.
305 eU e/x ain'av /^a'Ai). 660 OVTOV—OV /xd TOV, as not seldom; USU.
followed by a second negative (as if here we had OVK I^W rdv8e cppovrjaiv):
1088, Ant. 758, etc. irponov, standing foremost in the heavenly ranks,
most conspicuous to the eyes of men : the god 'who sees all things and
hears all things' (//. 3. 277 os TOU' £^>opas KO.1 iravr iiraKoveis): invoked
Trach. 102 as <3 Kpa-nareiwv KOJ ofifxa. 663 8 TI mi|taTdv (tort),
oXoC|xav: Schol. (f>0apeir]v owtp Ifr^arov, fjyovv aircoAeiav ^ris ia
666 f. rd 8—' <r$C>v -. and, on the other hand, if the ills arising from
you two are to be added to the former ills. Prof. Kennedy gives rd 8',
rightly, I think: for y& <t>8Cvou<ra refers to the blight and plague (25):
TaS' would obscure the contrast between those troubles and the new
trouble of the quarrel. irpo<rdi|«i intrans., as perh. only here and in fr.
J- S. 9
130 I04>0KAE0YI

OI. o 8' ovv LTG), KOU ~xpri /^e Trcu'TeX.&>9 Qavciv, 669
r\ yfjs aTLfiov TTJCTS' d,TTaxT07)vai, /3ia. 670
TO yap crov, OV TO TOVS', eTroiKTeCpa) cno^a.
ekewov OUTOS o , evU av r/, crTvyijcrerai.
KP. crTvyvos [j.ev tuKwv S-ijXos el, /3apus 8', oVai'
Trepdcrys. at Se TOtauTai cf>vcrei<;
ais Si/catws eicriv aXyicxTat <f>epet,v. 675
OI. OVKOVV fjb eacrets Ka/cTos eT; KP.
crou /i.ei' rv^tov ayvcoTOS, ev oe Totcro tcros.
672 Aeeii'oi' codd.: k\etvov cum Porsono edd.

3 4 8 Kai juot Tpirov PIVTOVTI... | ay^ou irpocrrjtliiv, ' h e c a m e near t o m e . '


E u r . Hipp. 188 TO jU-e'v eo"Ttv a7r\o{!t'" T(3 8e CTUVUTTTCI | Xvirrj re tfcpevwv
Xepcriv re TOVOS, ' is joined.' It is possible, but harsh, to make •n-poo-ai/'ct
act. with yrj as subject. Since in 695 uXvovcrav KO.T 6p66v cmpio-as is clearly
sound, Herm. rightly struck out /cat before -rd 8' here. See on 696.
669 6 8' oiv. then let him go: Ai. 114 <n) 8' ow... | xpu XeiP^- ®1%
iXtivov- tertiary predicate: ' I compassionate thy words, piteous as
they are.' Where a possessive pron. with art. has preceded the subst,
Soph, sometimes thus subjoins an adj., which really has the predicative
force to which its position entitles it, though for us it would be more
natural to translate it as a mere attributive : Ant. 881 TQV 8' e/aoV Trorfiov
ou8as...oT£i'a£ei: Phil. 1456 TOVJXOV ereyx^1? | Kpar' iv86-
v. El. 1143 rrji ZfjLrjs 7raA.ai rpocprjs | d.v<x><j>e\iJTov. I n 1199 (where see
note) rav yafiuf/. TrapO. xpwix'i$°v i s n o ' a similar case. Prof. Kennedy,
placing a comma after iirotKrelpo), but none after TOVS', construes: TO
(Tov CTTOjua IXavov (eVrt), OVK liroiKrupw TO TOvSe. o-ru^rjo-crai, pass.
Other examples in Soph, are 1500 oveiSieia-Oe: O. C. 581 SjyAcoo-erai,
1186 XE^CTCH : Ant. 210 Ti/njcrtrai, 637 a|tooo-£Tai : El. 971 KOXCI:
Phil. 48 <j>v\d£eTai: among many found in prose as well as in verse
are aSiK?}o-o/mi, dXiafro/xai, eao"o//.at, ^ijyu.ttoo"o/xai, Tifiijaofuu, oji^eX^o-oynai.
The middle forms of the aorist were alone peculiar to that voice; the
so-called ' future middle,' like the rest, was either middle or passive.
673 <rnjYvos...irepd<rt]s: 'thou art seen to be sullen when thou yieldest,
but fierce when thou hast gone far in wrath': i.e., as thou art fierce in
passion, so art thou sullen in yielding. Greek idiom co-ordinates the
clauses, though the emphasis is on oruyvos ptv UKWV, which the other
merely enforces by contrast: see on 419. papOs, bearing heavily on the
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 131

OE. Then let him go, though I am surely doomed to death,


or to be thrust dishonoured from the land. Thy lips, not his,
move my compassion by their plaint; but he, where'er he be,
shall be hated.
CR. Sullen in yielding art thou seen, even as vehement in
the excesses of thy wrath; but such natures are justly sorest
for themselves to bear.
OE. Then wilt thou not leave me in peace, and get thee
gone ?
CR. I will go my way; I have found thee undiscerning,
but in the sight of these I am just. [Exit.

object of anger, and so, 'vehement,' 'fierce': At. 1017 Svaopyos, Zvytfpa
fiapv';, ib. 656 ixijviv fia-peiav: Phil. 1045 fiapvi re KCU fiapeiav 6 £eVos <pd.Tiv
Tqv}> elite: Ant. 767 vovs 8' eori TI]KIKOVTO% d\yyj(ras fiapvs. 674 irepcurgs
absol.,= 7rpoo-fc) ikOrji: O. C. 154 7repas, (you go too far), ib. 885 tripav
irepwcr* otSe 817. follow, partitive gen.: cp. II. 2. 785 Bieirpri(r<Tov TreSi'oto:
Her. 3. 105 irpoXaiJ.^a.veiv...T^s dSoi): sometimes helped by a prep, or
adverbial phrase, as Xen. Apol. 30 TrpofirjaeuBai Tr6ppa> fioxOrjpias: 2 Epist.
Tim. 2. 16 iiA TrXeiov ydp KpoKoil/owLv ao-e/3eia?. Others render: 'resentful
[or 'remorseful'] even when thou hast passed out of wrath': but (a) nepdcr^
with a simple gen. could not bear this sense: (b) the antithesis pointed
by |iiv and 8* is thus destroyed. 677 dfv«Tos, act., 'undiscerning,' as 681,
1133 : pass., 'unknown,' Ph. 1008, Ant. 1001. Ellendt is not quite
accurate in saying that Soph, was the first who used ayvws in an active
sense, for it is clearly active in Pind. Pyth. 9. 58 (478 B.C.) ovre
TrayKapTTUtv tyvruiv vr\Tsou>ov OVT ayviaTa. 6i)puiv (j(6ovos oltrav), ' a portion
of land not failing in tribute of plants bearing all manner of fruit, nor a
stranger to beasts of chase.' The passive use was, however, probably
older than the active: compare Od. 5. 79 dyva)T£s...aXXi;\o«Tt (pass.) with
Thuc. 3. 53 ayvwres aAA^Awv (act.), ev 8J TOIO-8' £<ros: 4v of the tribunal or
company by whom one is judged: Ant. 459 lv dedio-i rrjv BIKHJV | SOIW«:
Eur. Hipp. 988 01 yap lv <ro<£ots ^>ovAoi Trap' o^\o> p.ov<Tii«aT£poi Aryeiv :
and so, more boldly, O. C. 1213 o-Kaioowav tpvXdvaaw Zv Ipol (meiudke)
KaraSijXos eorat. tiros, aequus, just: Plat. Legg. 975 c TOVpeWovTa SiKacr-
•njv la-ov zo-tirOai. [Dem.] or. 7 § 35 (by a contemporary of Dem.) «r<p
KOL Koarto 8iKaoTijpiu>. So Ph. 685 icros lv lows dvrjp. The scholiast
explains, irapa. Se TOVTOts TI;S ofioias S o ^ s yv KOU irpurqv eixov ""V' *!"*, i- e.
'of the same repute as before.' To me such a version of i«ros appears most
9—2
132 SO*OKAEOYI

XO. l yvva.ii TI/ieXXeis KO^itfiiv SO/JLCOV TOVS' ecrw ; 678


IO. 2 fxaOovad y 17719 17 T^XV- 680
XO. 3 Sd/c^cris dyvws Xoycov rfkde, SaTrrei Se Kai TO /AI) VSIKOJ'.
IO. & d/A(f)oii> OLTT" OLVTOIV ; XO. vai^i. I O . Kai TIS 171/ \ 0 y 0 5 ;
XO. 5aXis ejaoiy', aXi<?, y a s 7rpoTrovov[xeva<;, 685

OI. 7 djoas 1^' r/Kw;, ayados aiv yvw/xrjv dvijp,


8 Tovfxbv Trapt,€i<; Kai KaTa^^kvvuiv Keap ;

XO. 1 wi'af, et7ro^ /Aev ov^ aTra^ povov, 689


2 tcr^i 8e 7rapa(f>povLiMov, dnopov iirl <j>p6vLjxa
3 TT€(f>di>6a.L ja' a ^ et cr'
684 Xo'705 L et codd. plerique: 6 X670S A, E (cum gloss. 17 8ia0opo), Bodl.
Laud. 54, Barocc. 66. 6 8 8 irapiris Kai KaTa^\6ve^ cum Hartungio Dindorf.,
posito post rficfis interrogationis signo, sublata autem interpunctione post avrip. Con-
Strange. 678 Creon leaves the scene. The Chorus wish Iocasta to with-
draw Oedipus also, that his excited feelings may be soothed in the
privacy of the house : but the queen wishes first to learn from the
Chorus how the dispute began. 681 86Kn<ris...Xd-y«v, a suspicion resting
on mere assertions (those made by Oedipus), and not supported by
facts (tpya): hence dyv<is, unknowing, guided by no real knowledge.
Thuc. I. 4 ov A.dy<i>v...KO|inros Ta.Be yu.aAA.ov fj ipyuv IUTLV dXijdna: 3- 43
Trjs ov fiefiaLov So/ofcrea)?. 8airrei 84: Oedipus was incensed against
Creon, without proof; on the other hand (84) Creon also (K<XI) was
incensed by the unjust accusation. 8dirm might be historic pres.,
but need not be so taken: Creon is still pained. Aesch. P. V. 437 o-vwoia
Se Scwi-To/iai Keap. The version, 'and even injustice wounds,' would make
the words a reflection;—'An accusation galls, even when unfounded':
but this is unsuitable. 683 f. a|i<|>oiv air" avTOiv SC. rt\de TO vtixos; Thus
far, Iocasta only knew that Oedipus charged Creon with treason. The
words of the Chorus now hint that Oedipus himself was partly to blame.
' So then,' Iocasta asks, 'provocation had been given on both sidesi'
Xo-yos, the story (of the alleged treason): for the words of Oed. (642
SpiSvTa KdKoos, ri)(yq Kaiaj) had been vague. 685 irpoirovoujie'vas, ' already
troubled,' not, ' troubled exceedingly.' irpoirovtiv always = to suffer
before, or for: Lucian lupp. Trag. § 40 'KO-qva "Ap-qv KarayotvL^Tai, arc
Kai irpoTretrovriKoTa OI/MU EKTOS rpav/iaros, already disabled. 687 The
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOZ 133

Cil. Lady, why dost thou delay to take yon man into the ist anti-
, , strophe,
r
house ?
Io. I will do so, when I have learned what hath chanced.
CH. Blind suspicion, bred of talk, arose; and, on the other
part, injustice wounds.
Io. It was on both sides ?
CH. Aye.
Io. And what was the story ?
CH. Enough, methinks, enough—when our land is already
vexed—that the matter should rest where it ceased.
OE. Seest thou to what thou hast come, for all thy honest
purpose, in seeking to slack and blunt my zeal ?
CH. King, I have said it not once alone — be 2 n d anti-
sure that I should have been shown a madman,
bankrupt in sane counsel, if I put thee away — thee,
firmat participium napiels ascripta in L et A interpretatio licMuy. 6 9 3 el (re
vocr<pi^o/j.aL codd., sed repugnat sententiae praesens indicativi. el a £vo<r(pit6/ia.i/ con-
iecerant Hermann., Hartung. (—-qv), Badham.; recepit Blaydes.

evasive answer of the Chorus has nettled Oedipus by implying that


the blame was divided, and that both parties ought to be glad to forget
it. He could never forget it (672). Ap£s W IJKEIS conveys indignant
reproach: a grave charge has been laid against your king; instead of
meeting it with denial, you are led, by your sympathy with Creon, to
imply that it cannot be directly met, and must be hushed up. Ant. 735
6pa<s raS' o)9 eipr/Kas (u; ayav veos: El. 628 opas ; irpos opyrjv (Kijjepei.
688 irapuls with Toi)|iov K&tp, seeking to relax, enervate, my resentment:
a sense which the close connection with KaraupXivuv interprets, though
the more ordinary meaning for wapitis, had it stood alone here, would
be 'neglecting,' 'slighting' (TTOOOS irapeiTo, El. 545): cp. Ar. Eq. 436
TOV 7roSos TrapUi, slack away (some of) the sheet: Eur. Cycl. 591 w v a
Trapa/xivo's: Or. 210 T<3 \{av Trapei/xevoi, (neut.) by too great languor.
Schneidewin understands, ' neglecting my interest, and blunting (your)
feeling': but TOV|J.OV must surely agree with Ke'ap. 692 iirl <f>p6vi|ia:
[ D e m . ] or. 25 § 31 iirl /j,ev K<X\6V y xpT<i<TTdv 7] riys 7roXecos d^iov Trpayfiia
ov&iv OUTOS i(TTL xp^Vt/AOS. 693 ire<|>av8ai dv, oblique of Tre^atr/xei'os av r/v:
for t h e t e n s e Cp. IsOcr. or. 5 § 56 Xonrov av rjv...d firj bmroL-qTO. T h e
el vo<n(>fl;o|j,ai of t h e MSS. would necessarily imply t h a t t h e C h o r u s do
134 IO<t>OKAEOYI

4 os T ijxav yav <f>i,\ai> Iv TTOVOMTIV


5 akvovcrav Kar' opdov ovpicra<s, 695
6 x a i w T eurro/ATTOs av yivoio.

10. 77/365 Oecov SCSa^ov KCL^, a.va£, OTOV TTOT£


fifjvLv rocriji'Se vpdyfxaTO<; cmjcras e^eis-
01. ipw' are yap rcavb' es vXeov, yvvai, cre/Sw 'JQO
Kpiovros, old fj.01
IO. X.ey\ e i aa<f>a)<s TOV
OI. <f>ovda fie <f>r)a\ Aatov KaOeardvai.
10. auros ^weiSeis, 17 paOatv dWov trdpa.;
6 9 4 iroVois codd.; q.uod> cam versui 665 ((pOiuovaa) non respondeat, Dindorf. ibi
(pOwlis legit. Sed praestat, servato <j>$ivov<ra, hie 7rocoiiriJ' legere. iroVois TOT' coniecit
Blaydes. 6 9 6 ravvv T"1 e^7ro/x7ros e^ ddvfuo yevov L. Litteram o voci Suvaio
addidit recentior manus : prima hbvm (i.e. Svvq) scripserat. Post TavO>' facta est
rasura in T', quod tamen 5' prius fuisse non ausim dicere. Deletum est aliquid super

reject Oedipus: Ant. 304 €t7rtp to-^ei Z«iis IT' e^1 eyuou o-^3a5. T h e
change of one letter restores the required «vocr<|>ijonov. 694 K.T.X. AS
SsTOcannot be epic for o?, T« goes with oiipuras: cp. El. 249 eppoi
T* a.v aiSoSs I airavrojv T* evcrc^eia ^varw. 695 oXi5ov<rav, of one
maddened by suffering, Ph. 1194 aXvovra. xei/tcpi'oi W"?. T h e con-
ject. aaXevova-av would be correct, but tame. 696 av YIVOIO. The
MSS. have tt Svvaio Y«VOV : for Svvaio, the 1st hand of L had written
Svvai, i.e. Svva. Now, elSw^-ysvoG is satisfactory in itself, since Suva
for hvvaaai has good authority in Attic, as Eur. Hec. 253 Spas S' oi&lv
17/ias ev, KaKws 8' otrov SVVCL. But then we must correct the strophe,
667,—as by writing there TO 7rpos <r<f>aiv TOIS ?raAai irpovaAJ/tTov, which
I should prefer to Nauck's ingenious irpowa.il/ei rots -trdXai i-a Trp6<r<f>a.Ta.
Verse 667, however, seems right as it stands: it gives a better rhythm
for the closing cadence than we should obtain by adding a syllable.
And if so, A Sivaio (or 8-6v<j) -yevov here must be reduced to -^ — —.
(1) If with Hermann we simply omit yevov, the elliptical «l Svvato—
understanding "<r8i or yevot)—is intolerably harsh; to me it does
not seem even Greek. (2) el 7^010, ' may est thou become!' is read by
Bergk and Dindorf; cp. 863 d fioi £weir). (3) T o this I much prefer ov
•yevoio, which Blaydes adopts; but I do so for a reason which he does
not give. I suspect that el 8w<uo was a marginal gloss intended to
OlAinOYI TYPANNOZ 135

who gavest a true course to my beloved country when dis-


traught by troubles—thee, who now also art like to prove our
prospering guide.
Io. In the name of the gods, tell me also, O king, on what
account thou hast conceived this steadfast wrath.
OE. That will I ; for I honour thee, lady, above yonder
men:—the cause is Creon, and the plots that he hath laid
against me.v
Io. Speak on—if thou canst tell clearly how the feud
began.
OE. He says that I stand guilty of the blood of Lai'us.
Io. As on his own knowledge ? Or on hearsay from
another ?
vocem Siivcuo, quod crii fuisse nihil indicat. rauvv r eiiwo/j.iros el Svvaio yevov A .
Repetunt duvaio omnes quos videriin codd. praeter Bodl. Barocc. 66 qui habet el
divtu 6 yevov. Numero testimoniorum praevalet ravvv 5', pondere ravir T', quippe
quod et A et antiquus Laurentiani corrector comprobent.

define the sense of av yevoio, and that av yivoio was corrupted to yevov
when et Svvoio had crept into the text. (4) Prof. Kennedy acutely con-
jectures et TO y iv o-oi: 'now also | with thy best skill thou ably waftest.'
Since the metre of 667 is not certainly sound, no treatment of our
verse can be confident. 697 Kan': these men know i t : allow me also
to know it. 6'T<n>...irpa-y|i.aTOS, causal gen.; Ant. 1177 Trarpl fj.7]v{aai
<j)6vov. 698 cri-ijo-os ?x"s, hast set up, i.e. conceived as an abiding senti-
ment, referring to 672 and 689. Cp. Eur. I. A. 785 eA7ris...|ofav...|o-i">7-
a-a crat raS' « aXkr)\a.% \ [ivdevo-ovo-i (Fritzsch). 700 TWVS' 4S irXe'ov =
irXiov r) rova&e, not TTXSOV rj otSe. The Chorus having hinted that Oedipus
was partly to blame, he deigned no reply to their protests of loyalty
(689 f.). But he respects Iocasta's judgment more, and will answer
her. The Chorus, of course, already know the answer to her ques-
tion. 701 KpeWros, sc. <TT7j<ras ex® Tiyv furjviv: causal gen. answer-
ing to OTOV TrpdyixaTos. 702 \ e \ ' : speak, if you can make a clear
statement (el cra<|xSs epeis) in imputing the blame of the feud: /. e.
if you are prepared to explain the vague ola (701) by defining
the provocation. eyxaXetv V«IK6S (TIVI) = to charge one with
ning) a quarrel: as Phil. 328 ypkov (TIVOS) KO.T OZTZV
charging them with having provoked your anger at a deed. 704 avros
£t>v«i8»s: i. e. does he speak as from his own knowledge (of your guilt) ?
136

OI. fiavriv fxev ovv KaKOvpyov eicr7reju<'/'as> eVet 705


TO y eis eavrov TTOLV ikevOepol crTO/xa.
10. crv vvv afftels creavTov 3>v Xeyeis iripi
'tfdKovcrov, KO.1 \i6.ff ovvi.it ecrrt croi
ovhkv jAavTi.K'rjs eX9v Te)(PT)<s.
(j>a.pci) Se o~oi <n)fi€i(t rcUvSe crvVTOfia. 710
Xprjcrfio? yap ijkOe Aal'a> 7ror', OUK ipco
<3>oi/3ou y air avTov, TU>V S' VTrrjpzToiv a/no,
CIJS CLVTOV yj^ot, jxolpa 7r/)os TraiSos Oaveuv,
ocrris yivoiT ifiov re KO.KV.VOV irdpa.
713 ij'£« L, Bed ex rffot factum. ^'Joi V et IA ifjei A et codd. plerique, ut

705 |«v ouv, 'nay.' EL 1503. Ar. Eq. 13 NI. Acye <rv. AH. o-u/xev ow
Xeye. Distinguish fiiv ovv in 483, where each word has a separate force.
706 TO Y' ets eavTov, in what concerns himself: Eur. 1. T. 691 TO JJL\V yap
tis c/x' ou KaKw ex6'- ' r * v «^61)8ePoI> sets wholly free (from the discredit of
having brought such a charge): Ant. 445 «£co /Bapua's alrtas ZKeudtpov:
Plat. Legg. 756 D iXcvdcpov 6.<$>ua6cu TTJS ^ry/xtas. 707 d<)>€ls O-IBMTOV, an
appropriate phrase, since dtpitvai was the regular term when the natural
avenger of a slain man voluntarily released the slayer from the penalties:
Dem. or. 38 § 59 av 6 TraSatV awds dtpfj rov (jwvov TOV 8pa.cra.vTai Antiph.
or. 2 § 2 011 TOV aiTiov a<£eVres TOV dvaiTiov SiuKOfiev. 708 |id8' K.T.X. : learn
that-thou canst find no mortal creature sharing in the art of divination.
<rot ethic dat.: &TTIV ixov = t\u (Eun SuppL 527 rt TOVTWV iatlv ov «aA.cus
*Xov;); T«'XVT]S, partitive gen. The gods have prescience (498); but they
impart it to no man,—not even to such ministers as the Delphian priests.
Iocasta reveres the gods (647): it is to them, and first to Apollo, that
she turns in trouble (911). But the shock which had befallen her own
life,—when at the bidding of Delphi her first-born was sacrificed without
saving her husband Laius-—has left a deep and bitter conviction that no
mortal, be he priest or seer, shares the divine foreknowledge. In the
Greek view the /u,arm might be (1) first, the god himself, speaking
through a divinely frenzied being in whom the human reason was
temporarily superseded (hence the popular derivation of fjiavTiKij from
fiavia) : Plat. Tim. 71 E //.avTiKiyv a^pocwg 0eos dvOpwirLvy o'ih'uiKeV oi'Sets
yap evvovs t^>a7TTerai //.avriK^s ivOiov KO.1 aXrj^oCs: this was much the
same as the Egyptian belief, Her. 2. 83 fuivTmrj Sc avroXcn <oSc
dvOptxiirtov /xiv ow'Seel TrpoaKe'erat •q Ti^y-q, TWV 8k QtStv
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOS 137

OE. Nay, he hath made a rascal seer his mouth-piece; as


for himself, he keeps his lips wholly pure.
Io. Then absolve thyself of the things whereof thou speak-
est; hearken to me, and learn for thy comfort that nought
of mortal birth is a sharer in the science of the seer. I will
give thee pithy proof of that.
An oracle came to Lai'us once—I will not say from Phoebus
himself, but from his ministers—that the doom should overtake
him to die by the hand of his child, who should spring from
him and me.
saepe usu venit cum inter indicativum et optativum pendeat lectio. ?|« coniecit
Canter.; efoi K. Halm., quod receperunt Nauck., Blaydes.

(2) Secondly, the /xaVns might be a man who reads signs from birds,
fire, etc., by rule of mystic science : it was against this rexyi that
scepticism most readily turned: Eur. El. 399 Ao^i'ou yap efnrtSoi |
•^prjCTfioi, fipoT&v Sc jiavTiKrjv ^aLpeiv \eyu>. Iocasta means : ' I will
not say that the message came through the lips of a truly god-possessed
interpreter; but at any rate it came from the priests; it was an effort of
human [XCLVTIKT].' SO in 946, 953 #eiov fia.vre.viM.ia, are oracles which
professed to come from the gods. Others render :—' Nothing in mortal
affairs is connected with the mantic art': i.e. is affected by it, comes
within its ken. Then brr\v fyov will not stand for c^erai (which it could
not do), but for &xeh a s meaning 'is of,' 'belongs to.' Her. has e?xe'" a s
= etvat, with expressions equivalent to an adverb, as 2. 91 dy&vo. yvfivLKov Sict
irdcrr]<; dy wvi'^s l\ovra, ' consisting in every sort of contest,' as he might
h a v e said TroXvrpoira'S t)(OVTa : SO 3. 128 Trepi TCOWS>V t ^ o n a
TOJV (=7roXXa^u!s): 6. 42 K a r a ^copiyv (=t/«.7reSa)s) e ^ o v T e s : J. 220 ev
e£a/u.cTpoio-i c^ovTa. But such instances are wholly different from the
supposed use of txav a^0lle a s = twai with a partitive genitive. 711 OUK
ipSt K.T.X. The exculpation of Apollo himself here is obviously not in-
consistent with 720, which does not ascribe the prediction to him. And
in 853 (ov ye. Aortas | Sian-e) the name of the god merely stands for that
of his Delphian priesthood. 713 4jgoi is better than the conject. ?fot
('constrain'), as expressing the suddenness with which the doom should
overtake him. El. 489 i7fci...\E/Hvvs. The simple ace. av-nSv, since
7'Jgoi = KaraXrJi/'OiTO: cp. Her. 9. 26 <£a/tev rjfleas LKviiuOa.1 yyefiove.ve.lv,
instead of h ^e'as (2. 29). 714 00-n.s Y^VOIT' is oblique for ooris av
ytvr/Tat, (whoever may be born), not for Sons iyevero (who has been
138 SO<t>OKAEOYI

/cat TOI> fjueu, bicnrep y rj ^ d n s , feVoi Trore 7J 5


\rj<TTal <$>ovevov<T iv TpiTrXat
TratSos Se ySXacrras ou hiicr)(ov
rpet?, /cat PIV apdpa Kelvos eV£eu^as 7708011/
eppupev aWcov ~)(<zpcriv ei? afiaTov opos.
KoivTavd' 'ATTOXXWV OVT' iKtivov yjvvcrev 72°
(f>ovea yevicrdai TraTpos, ovre Action,
TO Seivoi' ou^oySetro, TT/JOS TratSos Oaveiv.
TOLOLVTCL (jyrjfjLai fiavTtKal Sidjpurav,
oiv Ivrpiirov crv [A7]8ev av yap av Oeos
^peiav ipevva paSttws avros <f>aveL. 725
01. olou /jf aKovaavT' dprCas ex

10. Trotas fiepL/Avr)1? TOV0' VTTOCTTpanels Xeyets;

7 1 0 eh afiarov opos codd.: ii.fia.Tov eh Upos cum Musgravio Erfurdt., Dindorf.,


Bothius, Hartung., Seidler. 7 2 2 6aye?i> codd. In A autem yp. iraOeiv super
Baveiv rubris littevis scripsit manus antiqua; recentior eandem lectionem in marg.

born): Laius received the oracle before the birth of the child. 715 glvoi:
not Thebans, much less of his own blood. 716 see on 733. 717 SUo^ov.
'Three days had not separated the child's birth from u s ' : three days
had not passed since its birth. Plut. Tib. Gracch. § 18 KeXeva-avros
€.K.e.ivov hux.u)(uv TO 7rA.T7#qs, to keep the crowd off. pXaoras cannot be
ace. of respect (' as to the birth'), because Si&rxov could not mean ' had
elapsed': when SKETCH/ is intrans. it means (a) to be distant, Thuc. 8. 79
8i oXiyov ravrrj 97 Sa/^os njs rjirtipov : or (b) to extend, Her. 4. 42
^a.. .Ste^oucrav Is TOV 'Apdfiiov KOXTTOV. 718 KaC = ore (parataxis instead
of hypotaxis): Thuc. I. 50 rj8rj Se^voi/f£...Kat ot KopiV0iot e^airtVr/s irpvfji.vav
tKpovovTo. apepa iroSotv = ra <T<j>vpd : IVS«IJ|OS, fastened together by driving
a pin through them, so as to maim the child and thus lessen the chance
of its being reared if it survived exposure : Eur. Ph. 22 (Iocasta speaks)
tfuv iraiSa, KO.1 (nrupas fipl<f>os, | yvovs Ta//.7rAaKry//,a TOV 6eov re
<£aTiv, I Xei/iuiv' i<s "Hpas Kal Kt^aipdUvos Xiwa's StScocri J3OVK6XOKTLV
itpos, | (r<j>vpwv (TiStjpa Kevrpa Siairecpa^ fiiuov (better fiiawv), |
Sdev viv 'EAAas u>v6fiat,cv OJSiVouv. S e n e c a Oed. 8 1 2 Forata ferro
gesseras vestigia, Tumore nactus nomen ac vitio pedum. 719 ets oiparov 6'pos:
the tribrach contained in one word gives a ruggedness which is certainly
OlAinOYI TYPANNOZ 139

Now Lai'us,—as, at least, the rumour saith,—was murdered


one day by foreign robbers at a place where three highways
meet. And the child's birth was not three days past, when
Lai'us pinned its ankles together, and had it thrown, by others'
hands, on a trackless mountain.
So, in that case, Apollo brought it not to pass-that the babe
should become the slayer of his sire, or that Lai'us should die—
the dread thing which he feared—by his child's hand. Thus
did the messages of seer-craft map out the future. Regard
them, thou, not at all. Whatsoever needful things the god seeks,
he himself will easily bring to light.
OE. What restlessness of soul, lady, what tumult of the
mind hath just come upon me since I heard thee speak!
Io. What anxiety hath startled thee, that thou sayest this ?
Laurentiani notavit. Et receperunt quidem iraBeiv Erfurdt., Wunder., Dindorf.,
Hartung. Proclivis erat mutatio; nee dubium mihi videtur quin Baveiv verum sit.
7 3 8 I'/TTOffTpa<f>elsT, V4 : quod probat Kayser., recepit Dindorf.

intentional here, as in 1496 rov irarepa Trarrfp, At. 459 TrcSia TaSe.
A tribrach in the 5 th place, always rare, usually occurs either when
the penultimate word of the verse is a paeon primus (— ^ ^ ^), as
El. 326 ivrdtftia X€P°^V> o r when the last word is a paeon quartus
(^ ^ *-< —), as Phil. 1302 avSpa TTo\iu.Lov. Verse 967 below is exceptional.
720 KavT<xS6': cp. 582. 722 It is more likely that, as our MSS. suggest,
ira9etv should have been a commentator's conjecture than that Oovetv
should have been a copyist's error (from v. 713). No objection can be
drawn from the occurrence of 717009 TTCUSOS 6aveiv so soon after 713: see
on 519. 723 Toia{JTtt...8i»p«rav, i.e. made predictions at once so definite
and so false: $ij|uu, a solemn word used scornfully: cp. 86. The sense
of Suofiurav in 1083 is slightly different: here we might compare Dem.
or. 20 § 158 d Apa.KO)v...Ka0apov &iu>pi<rtv thai, 'has laid down that the
man is pure.' 725 <5v \ptiav Ipewa: a bold phrase blended, as it were,
from tov xpeiW %XV a n d & xPV(Tllx-a (ovra) ipevva: cp. Phil. 327 TtVos... |
yokov...h/KoXSiv, instead of rtvos ^oAov lxwv o r T ' fy^aXd)!'. 726—754
The mention of 'three roads' (716) has startled Oedipus. H e now asks
concerning (1) the place, (2) the time, (3) the person. The agreement
of (1) with (2) dismays him; that of both with (3) flashes conviction to
his mind. 727 irXdvi)|jia denotes the fearful ' wandering' of his thought
back to other days and scenes; as Z8o£' (729) is the word of one who
has been in a troubled dream. 728 iroCas pep- <moa~rp., having turned round
IX)<t>0KAE0Y2

OI. eSo^' aKovcrai crov TOS', COS d Acuos


KaTacr(f)ayeur) vpos rpiTrXats a/xaftrot?. 73^
IO. rjvSaTO yap Taur', ovSe irco Xrj^avT ?XeL-
OI. Km CTOU ere' o ^wpos OUTOS ov TOO 771' Tratfos;
IO. ^WKIS ju.et' 17 y ^ KXry^erai, cr^tcrr)} S' OSOS
es ravro Aekcfxav /cowro AavXtas ayet.
OI. /cat TIS XP°VO<S TOICTS' ecrriv ov^ekrjkvOat^ ; 735
IO. cr^eSot1 TI 7rp6cr0€v rj cru Trjcrh' e^wi'
dpXVv £<f>awov TOVT iK^pv^dr) vokec.
OI. w Zei!, TI JUOU Spacrai /3e/3ou\evcrai
IO. rt S' ecrrt crot TOVT', OIOLTTOV;, ivdvfxiov;
OI. \irqTTOi \h ipaTa' TOV 8e Action (f>vcriv 74°
73O SiTrXafs, quod habent L aliique complures, mendum est manifestum; neque
euim ita explicari potest ut compita significentur ubi via, per quam Laius incedebat,
cum dualms aliis se coniunxit. Inter paucos qui rpiirXats tuentur sunt A et E.
74O cpvcriv I -rfx' t?xe <t>P^ie T'lva- 5' d/c,u];K 17,87)8 ?%uv codd., nulla varietate praeterquam

on account of (= startled by) what care,—like a man whom a sound at


his back causes to turn in alarm:—far more expressive than i-rrujTpa^ii's,
which would merely denote attention. For the causal gen., cp. 724 and
At. 1116 TOV 8t croS ij/6(j>ov I OVK av (rrpa<f>€07]v. 731 Xi^avr': t h e b r e a t h of
rumour is as a breeze which has not yet fallen: cp. At. 258 IOTOS «JS
Aifyet, and O. C. 517. 733 (TXIO-TI^ 8' 686s. In going from Thebes to
Delphi, the traveller passes by these ' Branching Roads,'—still known as
the rpioSoi, but better as the o-rcvo; from Daulia it is a leisurely ride of
about an hour and a half along the side of Parnassus. The following is
from my notes taken on the spot:—' A bare isolated hillock of grey
stone stands at the point where our path from Daulia meets the road to
Delphi, and a third road that stretches to the south. There, in front,
we are looking up the road down which Oedipus came [from Delphi];
we are moving in the steps of the man whom he met and slew; the road
runs up a wild and frowning pass between Parnassus on the right hand
and on the left the spurs of the Helicon range, which here approach it.
Away to the south a wild and lonely valley opens, running up among the
waste places of Helicon, a vista of naked cliffs or slopes clothed with
scanty herbage, a scene of inexpressible grandeur and desolation'
{Modern Greece p. 79). At this cr^icm; oSos Pausanias saw TO. TOV Aalov
fj.vijiit.aTa. KCU OIKITOV TOV lirop.€vov: t h e legend was that Damasistratus
TYPANNOI 141

OE. Methought I heard this from thee,—that Laius was


slain where three highways meet.
Io. Yea, that was the story; nor hath it ceased yet,
OE. And where is the place where this befell ?
Io. The land is called Phocis ; and branching roads lead to
the same spot from Delphi and from Daulia.
OE. And what is the time that hath passed since these
things were ?
Io. The news was published to the town shortly before thou
wert first seen in power over this land.
OE. O Zeus, what hast thou decreed to do unto me ?
Io. And wherefore, Oedipus, doth this thing weigh upon
thy soul ?
OE. Ask me not yet; but say what was the stature of
quod laxe pro ct%e praebet A. Pro TIVO. 8' Nauckius dedit rlvos, quod recepi: vide
quae infra annotata sunt. Duas fere medendi vias inierunt editores. (i) Servatis
eT^e et rlva 5', pro exo;? Brunckius coniecit Tore, Kennedius eVi. (2) Servatis riva
S' et (xu"> P r 0 e'Xe Dindorfius coniecit y\6e, Hartungius Irvxe, Schneidewinus et
Blaydesius dpire.

king of Thebes had found the bodies and buried them (10. 5 § 4). The
spot has a modern monument which appeals with scarcely less force to
the imagination of a visitor,—the tomb of a redoubtable brigand who
was killed in the neighbourhood many years ago. 735 TOIO-B". For the
dat., cp. H e r . 2. 145 Aiovvcru) \i.kv vvv...KaToi i^aKoaia cVea KCLL ^iXia
jU.aA.iara eori es efii" 'Hpa/cXei 8£...Kara tivctKocna itTta.' I l a v i Si...Kara
TO oKraKoaia fidXia-ra « (fie. Then from persons the idiom is transferred
to things: ThllC. 3. 29 y/xepai fidXtcrTa rjcrav rfj MVTIXIJVJJ la\o>KVLa
kirrd. 736 (rx«8dv TI. irpotrBev. The interval supposed between the death
of La'ius and the accession of Oedipus must be long enough to contain
the process by which the Sphinx had gradually brought Thebes to despair:
but Soph, probably had no very definite conception of it: see on 758.
738 co Zii. A slow, halting verse, expressing the weight on his soul:
the neglect of caesura has this purpose. 739 4vflu'|uov: Thuc. 7. 50 rj
tre\t]VTj £KXeiVei...K<u 01 'A.By]valoi...iTricr^eiv eKtXevov TODS CTpar^yous,
ivO-ifkiov TroLovfuevoi. 740 I do not believe that Soph., or any Greek,
could have written <|>6<nv | rlv' el^e, <|>pdi«, rCva 8' ctK|iTJv rjpiis <SxMV> which
Herm. was inclined to defend as if TWO. cfava-iv £Tx« = «'s rjv <f>v<riv. Now
T£VOS would easily pass into TCVO, 8" with a scribe who did not follow the
142 IO<t>OKAEOYI

TIV ei)(e <f>pd£e, TLVOS dK/JLrjv rj/3r]<s


IO. /neyas, 'yyodtfav dpTi XevKavffes Kapa,
(Jiop<f)rj<; Se T ^ S cr^s OVK direcTTa-Tei. irokv.
OI. oijiioi raXa? 1 eoiK ijiavrov ei? apa?
Setms TrpofidWcov aprtaj? ov/c etSeVat. 745
IO. 7T&!? </)7j?; oKt"(3 rot TT/JOS cr' dTrocr/coTroucr', ava£.
OI. Sewws dOvfiai jLii) fiXeirav d fi.dvTi's TJ.
Seifeis Se juaWov, ^ ^ Iv itjeiTrgs ert.
IO. /cat ^,i)v d/<v&J )u.eV, av 8' epr; [xaOova-' ipai.
OI. TroTepov i)(cipei, ^ a t d s , 17 TTOXXOUS e^wi' 75°
avSpa? Xo^tra?, ot' dvijp dp^r)yerrj<;;
IO. TreW ^crav ot ^u/ATravres, eV 8' avroicrtv T^^
Kr}pv£' aTryjvrj 8' rjye Ad'iov jxLa.
OI. atcu, r a S ' i^Srj Suacjiavf}. Tts ^ Trore

7 4 2 x" 0 1 '^'' ••• Xewcai'Ws L, A, et codd. plerique : xv0^uv ••• Xfi"favSe!s T :


X»'oaf<«»'...Xeu/caj'Wc A. Nullus quod sciam codex x"°"-£°'' habet; L enim, quem unum
eius 1. testera citat Campbell., nisi me oculi mei fefellerunt, xpoafuv clare scriptum
exhibet. Hartungium taraen secutus praetulit Dindorf. x"0^i"0" • • - AE u*rar^eis, x"oa^ov
in x^oafwr propter voc. iiiyas mutatum esse credens, ~kevKavdeU vero turn demum in
\evKav$£s transiisse. Mihi quidem vulgatam lectionem et simplicitas et elegantia

construction; and to restore TIVOS seems by far the most probable as


well as the simplest remedy. No exception can be taken to the phrase
TtVos ci.KiJi.rjv ^y3ijs as = ' the ripeness of what period of vigorous life.'
742 xv0<"&''n' ^«vKav8^s Kapo = 2^(01' ^yoa^ov \CVKOUS Kapa: Ar. Nub. 978
yyav% uicnrep ftifXoio-iv cirijv^ei (the down on his chin was as the bloom on
apples): here the verb marks the light strewing of silver in dark hair.
As Aesch. has fieXavdls yeVos, 'swarthy' {Suppl. 154), so in Anthol.
12. 165 (Jacobs 11. 502) Xev/cavtfrfs = ' of fair complexion' as opp. to
s. 744 TdXas, as being for raXavs: Ar. Av. 1494 oi/toi TaXas, 6
07T<DS \t-~f] ju.' O\\IITOX. I n Anthol. 9. 3 7 8 ( J a c . 11. 132) KOX KOI/XCO
fi.eTa.j3d';, Z raXa?, aXXa^o'^i, TaXav is an easy remedy: but not so in
Theocr. 2. 4 d<£' <S raXas OV$£TTO6' r/Kei, where ireXas has been conjectured.
foiKO...o«K €l84vai = taiKtv on OVK rjSr] : cp. 236 f. 749 Kal |iiiv, ' i n d e e d ' I
fear (as you do): Ant. 221, El. 556. dv 8' is certainly preferable to a
8' av in a poet whose versification is not characterised by any love of
unnecessary SiaXvcns. Even in prose we find 3s av Se instead of os o"i av,
0IAITT0Y2 TYPANNOI 143

Lal'us, and how ripe his manhood.


Io. He was tall,—the silver just lightly strewn among his
hair; and his form was not greatly unlike to thine.
OE. Unhappy that I am! Methinks I have been laying
myself even now under a dread curse, and knew it not.
Io. How sayest thou ? I tremble when I look on thee,
my king.
OE. Dread misgivings have I that the seer can see. But
thou wilt show better if thou wilt tell me one thing more.
Io. Indeed I tremble, but will answer all thou askest,
when I hear it.
OE. Went he in small force, or with many armed followers,
like a chieftain ?
Io. Five they were in all,—a herald one of them; and there
was one carriage, which bore Laius.
OE. Alas! Tis now clear indeed. — Who was he
magis commendant. Nihili est piXas, quod cum A et Pal. habet V, ex /jt^yas tamen
factum. 7 4 9 o 8' av L, A, et plerique: av 5' Dresd. 183 (a), <u> 3' Bodl. Laud. 54.
Editorum alii d 5' av, alii av S' legere maluerunt. Apud Sophoclem av S' non dubito
praeferre, habita pvO/iov ratione quem Sophoclea poesis in universum dilexit: si autem
de Euripidis versu res ageretur, a 5' a? cum maiore codd. numero darem.

Her. 7. 8. 750 (Jaw's identifies the chief with his retinue, the adjective,
when so used, suggesting a collective force like that of a stream, full or
thin: so iroXvs pu, ?roXi)s irvu of vehement speech, etc.; Eur. Or. 1200
rjv iroXi>s TiLprj, if he come in his might: crv^vov iroXt^vtov, a populous
town (Plat. Rep. 370 D). 751 Xoxfras: cp. Aesch. Cho. 766 XO. •n-ws ovv
KtXevei vw fjioXelv eoraX/tcvov; | ...r) £vv Xo^i'rais eirc /cat fx,ovocrTij3rj;
TP. ayetv KEXEVEI Sopvcj>6pov; 6ira.ova<i (said of Aegisthus). 753 Kijpujj, as
the meet attendant of a king on the peaceful and sacred mission of a
0ea>pos (114)- The herald's presence would add solemnity to the
sacrifice and libation at Delphi: Athen. 660 A iSpaov (=Z6vov) Se 01
KTjpvKts «XP' ^oXXov, (3ov6vTovvTes... KOX <TK£va.£ovTes KOI fucrrvWovTis,
ZTL Se O'LVOXOOVVTCS. omjvi] rfys |i£a = piu rjv dTrrjvrj, fj yye: P i n d . Nem.
g. 41 h>6' "Apeas iropov avOpwiroi KaXeoitrt -•= Iv6a. vopoi cortv oe 'A.
KCLXOVO-LV. The dinjvT), properly a mule-car (Pind. Pyth. 4. 94) but here
drawn by colts (802), and in the Odyssey synonymous with a[ia£a (6. 37,
57), was a four-wheeled carriage used for travelling, as dist. from the
two-wheeled war-chariot (ap^a): its Homeric epithet v\j/rj\rj indicates
144 ZO*OKAEOYZ

o roucrSe Xefas rows Xoyovs vfilv, ywat; 755


IO. ouceu? Tt5, ocrirep licer e/fcrw^eis fxovos.
OI. 77 /caV 86/J.OICTL jvyydvei ravvv irapav;
IO. ou STJT'' a^>' ou y a p KeWev rjXde KOI Kpdrr)
ere T eiS' ey^ovra Kdlov T SXcoXora,
efi/cerevcre TTJ? ifirjs ^eipo? Oiyoiv 760
dypovs cr<f>e irdfixfiai KIXTTI iroLfivtav po/ids,
ws TrXetcrrov etij rovS' (XTTOTTTOS acrrews.
KaTrefjujf iyco viv • a^tos y a p o f
SovXo? <f>ep€LV rjv rrjcrSe KOU [xeL^
OI. TTOJS af' jtxoXoi S?70' ij/xli' & r a ^ e i vdXiv; 765
IO. TrdpecrTW dXXd 7ipos Tt rovr' e^iecrai;
OI. Se'Soi/c' ifjLCLVTOV, d> yvvai, /AT) 7ro\A.' ayav
7 5 S Sairep cum ceteris L, facta quidem in o litura, nullo tamen litterae a
manente vestigio. 7 6 3 o y' dvrjp L : 0 ^ 7 ' dc^o A, id agente librario ut metro
subveniret, S 7' in d St y' mutato. Et praevaluit in codd. d 5^ y\ quanquam cum

that it stood higher on its wheels than the ap/xa : it could be fitted with
a frame or basket for luggage (virepTcptr] Od. 6. 70, Trdpiw; II. 24. 190).
756: cp. 118. OIK£VS = otKcV^s, as in the Odyssey and in a VOJIOI %o\wvo% in
Lysias or. 10 § 19, who explains it by Ocpd-Kinv. The Iliad has the word
only twice, both times in plur., of'inmates' (slave or free: 5. 413 : 6. 366).
757 Vi Kal marks keen interest: El. 314 y KCLV lyia Oaparovaa fiaWov h
\6yovs I TO-LIS aov; LKoifjLrjv ; 758 The poet has neglected clearness on a
minor point, which, so far as I know, has not been remarked. The
OIKCVS—sole survivor of the four attendants—had fled back to Thebes
with the news that Laius had been slain by robbers (118—123). This
news came before the trouble with the Sphinx began : 126—131. And
the play supposes an interval of at least several days between the death
of Laius and the election of Oedipus: see on 736. Hence KeWev rjX.6*
Kai...e?8c cannot mean that the okevs, on reaching Thebes, found
Oedipus already reigning. Nor can we suggest that he may have fled
from the scene of the slaughter before he was sure that Laius had been
killed: that is excluded by 123 and 737. Therefore we must under-
stand:—'when he had come thence, and [afterwards] found that not
only was Laius dead, but you were his successor.1 (For the parataxis
o-e Tc.Aaioi' T£ see on 673.) I incline to suspect, however, that
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 145

who gave you these tidings, lady ?


Io. A servant—the sole survivor who came home.
OE. IS he haply at hand in the house now ?
Io. No, truly; so soon as he came thence, and found thee
reigning in the stead of LaTus, he supplicated me, with hand
laid on mine, that I would send him to the fields, to the pastures
of the flocks, that he might be far from the sight of this town.
And I sent him ; he was worthy, for a slave, to win e'en a larger
boon than that.
OE. Would, then, that he could return to us without delay!
Io. It is easy : but wherefore dost thou enjoin this ?
OE. I fear, lady, that mine own lips have lately uttered

paucis V SS' avrjp habet. oV arrjp coniecit Hermann., recepit Dindorf. Coniecerunt
alii vel ws vel ws 7'.

Sophocles was here thinking of the man as coming back to find Oedipus
already on the throne, and had overlooked the inconsistency. 760
X«p6s 81701V, marking that the i/cereta was formal; as when the suppliant
clasped the knees (airreo-0<u yovdriov). Eur. Hec. 850 rvx^s criBar, \
'E/ca/Jv;, Si OIKTOV xeVa & ^eviav ?x«>. 761 d-ypoiis might be ace. of
motion to (O. C. 1769 ©?7y3as 8" »^uas | ...trc/juj/ov); but it is better here
governed by M.: for the position of the prep. cp. 734, 1205, El. 780 OIJTE
pvKTos OVT i£ 17/xepas. vo|ids: on Cithaeron, or near it, 1127. The man had
formerly served as a shepherd (1039), and had then been taken into per-
sonal attendance on La'ius (oucevs). 762 TOSS" oWirros dor«»s, ' far from
the sight of this town': that is, far from the power of seeing it: whereas
in El. 1487 KTavuiv wpo6«s|...aTO7rTov jjpov = 'far from our eyes': the
gen. as after words of ' distance from.' See Appendix, Note 14. 763
of: the o y of L (clumsily amended to o 8e y in other MSS.) prob.
came from of, rather than from <os or u ; y\ Phil. 583 oF dvrjp Trivrjs,
'for a poor man': Eur. Or. 32 nayi /aeTea-^ov, ola 8rj yvvrj, <]>6vov, 'so
far as a woman might.' nk, however, is commoner in this limiting sense
(1118); ola more often = 'like' (751). Here ola qualifies <xgu>s, implying
that in strictness the faithful service of a slave could not be said to create
merit. 764 typnv. cp. 590. 766 irap«mv: 'it is easily done.' Eur.
Bacch. 843 HE. lK9u>v y is OZKOVS dv 80/07 fiovXevaofmi. | AI. efeo-Ti'
•jravTrj TO y ifiov evrperrh irdpa. Not, 'he is here' (nor, 'he is as good as
here,' as the schol. explains): in 769 ?!eTai='he will come from the
J. S. 10
146 IOct>OKAEOYI

elprjfxev Tj [AOL, 8L a viv elcnSeiv Oekco.


IO. aW ifeTat fiev afta Se TTOV
Kaya> r<£ y Iv crol 8vcr(f)6pa>s e^
01. KOV fir) cTTeprjdfjs y' es TOCTOVTOV ik
e/x,o£» /Se/JaJxos. T<5 yap av Kal //,ei£ovt
KegaiiA av i) croi oia r v ^ s TOtacro io>v;
i/xol waTrjp [J.ev IloXvySos 77V 'KaptvOios,
\iy\rr\p Se Mepoirrj AcapCg. -qyo^rjv S' avi}^ 775
acrTwv ixeyi<rrois TCOV e/cet, ttpiv /xoi
i-ireo-Tr), #avju,acrai /iev d^ta,
i75 ye //-eWot TIJS e/x^s OVK a^ia.
avrjp yap iv SetTT^ois JU,' VTrepTr\rjam6el<;
KaXei Trap' oivot TrXacrros <ws etrjv Trarpc.
Kaycj fiapvvdels TTJV (JLCV ovcrav rj^epav
oXis KaT€(r)(ov, daWepa 8' iwi' ire'Xas
7 7 0 /x^9r;s A et codd. plerique, quos secuti sunt Hermann., Wunder., Hartung.
Sed in L /^0i;s fjictum est ex /neBrji.: Y ixidrj habet. [itSy Nauck., Blaydes.,

pastures' 768 8i a. The sense is : ' I fear that I have spoken too
many words ; and on account of those words I wish to see him': cp.
744, 324. Not: l I fear that my words have given me only too much
cause to desire his presence.' A comma after poi is here conducive to
clearness. 770 Kd-yw and irou express the wife's sense that he should
speak to her as to a second self, iv <rol = within thee, in thy mind (not
'in thy case'): cp. ev with the reflexive pronouns, Plat. Theaet. 192 D iv
/xeynvrjjU.ei'os : Crat. 3 8 4 A irpo<77roiou/t«vos TL airros iv eauTui Stavo-
771 Is TOO-OVTOV tXirCSwv : Isocr. or. 8 § 3 1 eis TOVTO yap rives
dvoias iXrj\v6a<rcv : Ar. JVub. 832 trv 8' is TOCTOVTOV T W /^avicov (XrjXvOa's.
The plural of iXms is rare as = anxious forebodings : but cp. 487. 772
\uCtflvi.: strictly, 'more important': cp. Dem. or. 19 § 248 dvTi...Tr/s
TToXtlOS TTjV QlXlTTTTOV ^CVldV KOI <j)lXca.V TToXXti) fJ-tL^OVCL TJyT]<ra.TO 0.VTU) KOL
Xvo~iTeXeo~Ttpav: as Ant. 637 oi8£is...yct/x,os | {J.ei£<av fylptcrOai aov
KaXws yyovfuivov, no marriage can be a greater prize than your good
guidance. The Kal with X^ai|j.' av:—could I speak? ' Lysias or. 12 § 29
irapa. TOV TTOTC Kal Xyif/eo-Oe o*LK-qv, from w h o m will y o u ever exact satis-
faction? 773 Iwv, present, not future, part. : Ant. 742 Sid
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOI 147

words too many; and therefore am I fain to behold him.


Io. Nay, he shall come. But I too, methinks, have a claim
to learn what lies heavy on thy heart, my king.
OE. Yea, and it shall not be kept from thee, now that my
forebodings have advanced so far. Who, indeed, is more to me
than thou, to whom I should speak in passing through such
a fortune as this ?
My father was Polybus of Corinth,— my mother, the Dorian
Merope; and I was held the first of all the folk in that, town,
until a chance befell me, worthy, indeed, of wonder, though
not worthy of mine own heat concerning it. At a banquet,
a man full of wine cast it at me in his cups that I was
not the true son of my sire. And I, vexed, restrained my-
self for that day as best I might; but on the next I went
Campbell., recte. Genitivus enim ita demum commode diceretur, si vox JI^OTI non
vinolentiam sed vinum significaret.

Trorpi. Xen. An. 3. 2. 8 81a <£iXtas levau 775 The epithet • Dorian '
carries honour: Merope was of the ancient stock, claiming descent from
Dorus son of Hellen, who settled in the region between Oeta and
Parnassus. The scholiast's comment, UeXoTrovvrjcnaia], forgets that the
Theban story is laid in times before the Dorian ( conquest. 776 irptv |»t
...eiTCOTi]. The use of -rrptv with the aorist or imperf. indie, is limited to
those cases in which irp'w is equivalent to 2<os, 'until': though, where the
sentence is negative, irplv may be otherwise rendered in English: e.g.
OVK h/vu>v Trplv rJKova-a, ' I did not become aware until I heard'; which we
could also render,' before I heard.' B u t ' I became aware before I heard'
would be lyvmv irplv d.Kova-aL (not ^Kovo-a). See Prof. B. L. Gildersleeve in
the American Journal of Philology vol. n. p. 469. bri<m\: a verb often used
of enemies suddenly coming upon one: Isocr. or. 9 § 58 fiwpov Seii/ ZXaOev
avrov £7ri TO ySao"iXeiov e?rio"Tas: Her. 4. 203 ipi rrj K.vprjvaiwv TTOXL
€Trtcnrr]<ra.v. 780 irop' otvij): Plut. Mor. 143 c rqis rfj Xypa x/jco^evovs Trap'
oa'oj'. Thuc. 6. 28 juera TraiStas Kal olvov. ir\a<rrAs ws eilTjv instead of 7rA.a<rroV,
as if preceded by oVaoY£« /JLOI instead of KOX«I H«. Somewhat similarly
oVo/xa£a> = A.eya>, as Plat. Prot. 311 E arocf>i(TTrjv ... oVo/xafowt ... TOV
avSpa ctvat. irXaoros, 'feigned (in speech),' ' falsely called a son,' iroTp£,
'for my father,' i.e. to deceive him. Eur. Ale. 639 fiaa-riS yvvaucos o->;s
VTre/3\i]$r]v Xa9pa, w h e n c e virofioXifMuos = v66os. 782 KOT^ITXOV, SC. ijjjxvrov.
In classical Attic this use occurs only here: in later Greek it recurs, as Plut.
10—2
148 IO<t>QKAEOYI

narpos T' yjXeyxpv' 61 Se


/LM?T/3OS
roweiSos rjyov TW [Ltdivri TOV \6yov.
TO. [lev KCCVOLV irepTrofJLrfv, O/AWS 8' 7^5
e /i aet TOVU vcpeipire yap iroXv.
Xddpa Se firjrpos KCU Trarpos Tropevoficu
HvOcoSe, /cat ju,' d $oiy8os wi' ju,e&> LKOfLTjv
aTLfjLov iijeTTefJAJjev, aXXa 8' aOXua
Kal 8eiva /cat SvcrTrjva irpov(f>r)vev Xdyav, Jgo
e 6
cos firjTpl fx,ev XP "7 Z* pi'X@'tjvait yivo<s 8'
CLTXTJTOV dv6pa>voi(Ti ZrjXaxToii^ opav,
<f>ovev<s 8' icroCixrjv TOV <j>VTevcravTO<; iraTpos.
/cdycu '7ra/coi;o"as r a v r a TTJV K.opivdiav
TO Xoi7rov e/c/Aerpouju,efos ^(66va 795
79O wpoi<pa.vT] codd. Est autem in E interpretatio ir/WS€i£e : quo confirmatur
Hermanni coniectura irpoi<j>yivev, a Wundero, Nauckio, Blaydesio, Dindorfio recepta.

Artaxerxes § 15 enTer oui/ ^17 Karacrxwr. v/icis //.ev K.T.X. Cp. ?xc»
eirto^cs (' stop'), in Plat., Dem., etc. 784 TW |MWV« : the reproach was like
a random missile: Menander fr. 88 OUT' IK x^pos f^Oivra Karepov \160v
I paov Karacr-)(ilv, OVT diro yXoj'o-trijs Xoyov. The dat., because 8w4>6p<»s
Toi'vttSos I'^OV = wpyitflvro eveKa. TOU 6V€LBOVS. 785 6(J.o>sS': cp. 79 1 ! a n d n.
on 29. 786 t)4>apire Yip iro\i: so v<^ep7reti/ of malicious rumour, Aesch.
Ag. 450 <j>0ovepov 8' inr' aXyos cpTrei | TT/JOSIKOIS 'Arpet'Sais. Libanius 784 A
(quoted by Musgrave) TTOXVS TOIOVTOS v<f>eipTre Xoyos (perhaps suggested
by this passage). Pind. Isthm. 3. 58 TOCTO yap dOdvarov cfxavoiev eprrei, |
ct rts eu etirr; TI. Cp. Ant. 700 roiaS' ipefivrj criy' cVepxcTai <j>dris. For
iroXv cp. 0 . C. 517 TO 7roXu TOI xai /xy/Sapia X^yov, that strong rumour
which is in no wise failing: z'£. 305 ITOXV...TO trov ovo/^a | 8n;Ka iravTas.
This version also agrees best with 775, which implies that the incident
had altered his popular repute. We might render: 'it was ever recurring
to my mind with force': but this (a) is a repetition : (b) is less suited to
7roXv, which implies diffusion. 788 wv IKIJ|MIV aTi(iov = cm/xov TOVTOIV a
iKOfirjv, not graced in respect of those things (responses) for which I had
come: Eur. Andr. 1014 arifiov opydvav x*Pa TtKTOfrvvas, not rewarded
for its skill. For a iKo/x-qv (cogn. accus. denoting the errand, like ip-^ofiai
dyyeXtav) cp. 1005 TOVT' d<f>LKofir]v: O. C. 1291 a 8' rj\6ov...6eKw \££ai:
Ar. PI. 966 o TI /xaXiaV eXij'Xv^as : Plat. Prot. 310 E aXX' auTa TaiJTa /cat
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOS 149

to my mother and father, and questioned them; and they were


wroth for the taunt with him who had let that word fly. So on
their part I had comfort; yet was this thing ever rankling in
my heart; for it still crept abroad with strong rumour. And,
unknown to mother or father, I went to Delphi; and Phoebus
sent me forth disappointed of that knowledge for which I came,
but in his response set forth other things, full of sorrow and
terror and woe ; even that I was fated to defile my mother's
bed ; and that I should show unto men a brood which they
could not endure to behold; and that I should be the slayer of
the sire who begat me.
And I, when I had listened to this, turned to flight from the land
of Corinth, thenceforth wotting of its region by the stars alone,
Vide annot. 7 9 1 xpeV ^ L, paene eraso i post if: X/3"' V A. Ceteri codd.
eodem fere modo variant ut in v. 555, q. v.: nullus quod sciam %Pe^V habet.

vvv yK(o Trapd. <je (where the acc. is cogn. to rjK<a, not object to the follow-
ing SiaXexOys)- 790 irpov<J>t]v«v, suggested by Herm., has been adopted
by several recent editors. Cp. Herod. 1. 210 T<3 <5e d Sai/xuv •n-poi-
<f>aiv€, and so 3. 65, 7. 37 : Plut. Dem. § 19 h> ols y) re TlvOla Seivd.
irpov(j>aive /xavrevfjiaTa KOX 6 xprjo-fws TJSCTO : Camill. § 4 (a man who pre-
tended to /xayri/07) \6yia irpovcjiaivev diroppijTa • Dem. or. 21 § 54 Toii e<j>
e/cao-TT/s pivTeias irpo<f>aivoi*evois 0£ols, the gods announced (as claiming
sacrifice) on each reference to the oracle. Yet the fact that Trpo<j>a[veiv
was thus a vox sollennis for oracular utterance would not suffice to
warrant the adoption of irpoii<|>T)V6v, if the irpo«<|>dvTi of the MSS. seemed
defensible. irpov<j>avi] Xfywv would mean, ' came into view, telling': cp.
above, 395> and El. 1285 vvv 8' C^OD W irpov^avrj'S Se | <j>i\Ta.Tav €^<i)i/
irpoaoxl/iv. It might apply to the sudden appearance of a beacon (cp.
o <f>pvKTOi dyyiXXtov TrpeVei, Ag. 3 0 ) : but, in reference to the god speak-
ing through the oracle, it could only mean, by a strained metaphor,
'flashed on me with the message,' /. e. announced it with startling
suddenness and clearness. The difficulty of conceiving Sophocles to
have written thus is to me so great that the special appropriateness of
v turns the scale. 791 Y^VOS 8': see on 29. 792 6pav with
which, thus defined, is in contrast with 8T)XWO-<H(I.' : he was to
show men what they could not bear to look upon. 794 liraxovo-as (708),
' having given ear'—with the attention of silent horror. 794—797 TI\V
'Henceforth measuring from afar («K|UTpofyevos) by the stars
ISO 10*0KAE0YI

e<f>evyov, Hvda ILTJTTOT' 6ipoi.ft.rjv


6veC8r) TCOV ificov
8' IKVOVIJLCU rovcrSe TOUS ^olyaovs ev ot?
crv rov rvpavvov TOVTOV oWvcrBai, Xeyets.
Kai <roi, yvvai, rakrjdes i£epa>. TpLirXrjs 800
or' rj Ktkevdov T^CTS' dSonrop&iv ireXas,
hnavBa fjiOi KTJpvi; re Kairl ira>\iicfjs
avr)p aTrrjvy)<i ifj.^ej3oj's, otov crv
gutTjvT«.a4ov' Kag ooov fju o a
auros ff 6 irpeafiws irpos fitav rfkavverriv. 805
Kaya> TOZ' e/CTpeVovra, TOV Tpo^Xarijv,
Si' opyfjs' Kai JU,' d TrpecrySvs W5 opa,
7 9 7 TeXoifitva cum cett. codd. L ; erasa tamen post a littera quam c fuisse
conicias. reXoTj/xevov autem an re\ov^vo)v ibi primo stetisset, nescio. Post xP7l(rP-&1'
particulam y' addunt B, V, V3, V 4 . 8OO Deest in solo L hie versus: accessit

the region of Corinth, I went my way into exile, to some place where
I should not see fulfilled the dishonours of [= foretold by] my evil
oracles.' aorpois !K|i.eTpoii|j.*vos: i.e. visiting it no more, but only thinking
of it as a distant land that lies beneath the stars in this or that quarter
of the heavens. Schneidewin cp. Aelian Hist. Anim. (irepl ^w
7. 48 •>;«£ 8' ovv ('AvSpoxX^s) es rijv Aifivrjv KOI Tas p.iv •jrdAtts aT
Kai TOVTO 81} TO Xe.y6jj.EVOv ao'Tpocs a v r d s tcrrjixalv^TO, Trpo-gtL Se es
ryjv Zprjprjv: ' proceeded to leaVe the cities, and, as the saying is, knew
their places only by the stars, and went on into the desert.' Wunder
quotes Medea's words in Valer. Flacc. 7. 478 quando hie aberis, die,
quaeso, profundi Quod caeli sp'ettabo latusi &)«vyov might share with
eKprrp. the government of TT^V Kop. yfttoa., but is best taken absolutely.
Sense, not grammar, forbids the Version :—' I went into exile from the
Corinthian land (TT)V KopivBiav); thenceforth measuring my way on earth
(x.9ova) by the stars.' P h r a s e s like virao-rpov...fnrJxaP opi^ofiat ydpov 8vo--
<f>povos I 'f'vya, (Aesch. Suppl. 395)) aorpois TeKjj.aipeo'Ba.i 6B6v (Lucian
Icaromenippus § 1), are borrowed from voyages in which the sailor has no
guides but the stars. Such phrases could be used figuratively only of
a journey through deserts: as Hesych. explains the proverb aorpois
OTjjixeioikr#ai- fiaKpdv Kai ipijixrjv 0S0V /3aSi£eiv ~q Se fj,^Ta<j>opd aVd raiv
. 796 Sv8a = cKcto-e Iv6a. di|/o£nt]v after the secondary tense
for o\j/o[iai: w with the fut. as 1412 : Ai. 6 5 9 : El. 380, 436 :
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 151

to some spot where I should never see fulfilment of


the infamies foretold in mine evil doom. And on my way
I came to the regions in which thou sayest that this prince
perished. Now, lady, I will tell thee the truth. When
in my journey I was near to those three roads, there
met me a herald, and a man seated in a carriage drawn
by colts, as thou hast described; and he who was in
front, and the old man himself, were for thrusting me
rudely from the path. Then, in anger, I struck him who
pushed me aside—the driver; and the old man, seeing it,

autem in marg. a manu recentissima. Omissum igitur non animadverterat antiquus


ille codicis corrector qui in supplendo siquid prima manus neglexerat alias Lyncea
se praestabat; unde dubitatio potest incidere, fueritne is versus necne in archetypo
quocum ille Laurentianum contulit.

Track. 800. 800 K<XC <roi...Tpiir\tjs. The fact that this verse is added in
the margin of L only by a late (14th century?) hand has induced Din-
dorf and Nauck to regard it as due to interpolation. But the trait has
dramatic force. Oedipus is now at the critical point: he will hide
nothing of the truth from her who is nearest to him. It is part of his
character that his earnest desire to know the truth never flinches : cp.
1170. 802 KTjpvi; -re, not KijpiSf; T«: see Chandler, Accentuation § 971
2nd ed. 803 dirrjrris: see on 753. olov adverbial neut. = <ik, referring
to Iocasta's whole description; not ace. masc, referring to the person
of La'ius as described by her. 804—812 The xt}pu£ is, I think, identical
with the T|Y€|i,<ov, and distinct from the Tp<>xT|XdTr|s. I understand the
scene thus. Oedipus was coming down the steep narrow road when
he met the herald (to be known for such by his stave, K^pv/cciov) walking
in front of the carriage (ifyeijuov). The herald rudely bade him stand
aside ; and Ia'ms, from the carriage, gave a like command. (With the
imperfect TJX.aw£rr|v, ' were for driving,' irpAs P'av need not mean more
than a threat or gesture.) The driver (TpoxT|Xdrr|s), who was walking at
his horses' heads up the hill, then did his lord's bidding by actually
jostling the wayfarer (iKTp&rovra). Oedipus, who had forborne to strike
the sacred herald, now struck the driver; in another moment, while
passing the carriage, he was himself struck on the head by Laius. He
dashed La'ius from the carriage; the herald, turning back, came to the
rescue; and Oedipus slew La'ius, herald, driver, and one of two servants
who had been walking by or behind the carriage; the other servant
152 I0<t>0KAE0Y2:

/xecrov
Koipa SnrXois KevTpoicrC fiov Ka6iKero.
ov [xrjv Icrrjv y ericrev, dWd crwro/AWs 8iO
TUTrels e/c r^crSe ^eipo5 UTTTIO?
dTrrjvrjs evdvs e/c/cuXivSerai"
KTeivco Se TOUS fuyxTravras. ei Se T&5 ^eV&>
TOVTW TrpocrrjKei, Aaxw T I crvyyeves,
Tt5 rouSe vui' ecrr' av8po5 a^Aiwrepo?; 815
Tts i-^dpoSaifxcov fiaXKov dv yivoir dvrjp;

8 O 8 6xov codd. : est in B gloss, TOV a/j^iaros. In uno cod. T inveni quod primo
aspectu 6xov videri poterat; re perpensa tamen illic quoque credo librarium 6%ov
dare voluisse. &xov coniecit Schaefer.: flxovs Doederlirms, quod receperunt Hartung.,
Dindorf., Nauck., Blaydes. 8 1 4 AaiV codd., recte : vide annot. Aai'ou Bo-
thius, Wunder., Hartung., Dindorf., Blaydes. 8 1 5 Ws rovSi y' avSpbs vvv
£GT' ad\idirepos L, paene eluto vvv, et superscripto a m. rec. gloss. J t t w (i. e.
aXXoff?). rls rovdi y' ai>5pbs iarlv (sic) ad\id)Tepos A. Ceterorum codd. alii hanc lect.,
alii illam repetunt. Vocem vvv, qua priori fortunae repentina calamitas opponitur,
pro genuina habeo; contra, si 1<TT' in ?T' mutetur (quod proposuit Dindorf., recepit
Nauck.), misere debilitatur comparativus. Lego igitur, TJS TOVSC VVV &rr' avSpbs

(unperceived by Oedipus) escaped to Thebes with the news. 808 6'xov :


'from the chariot—having watched for the moment when I was passing—
he came down on me, full on my head (|U<rov Kdpo ace. of part affected),
with the double goad.' The gen. 8\ov marks the point from which the
action sets out, and is essentially like ras TroXvxpvaov | Ilu0<oi'os...!/?as
V. 151 : cp. Od. 21. 142 opwcrOe... [ ap^a/ievoi TOV ^wpou o6ev re 7rep olvo-
Xoeiki, from the place. In prose we should have had d.^' o^ou. As the
verb here involves motion, we cannot compare such a gen. as l&v...
ToCyov TOV hepov {II. 9. 219), where, if any prep, were supplied, it would
be 7rpos. Tupi^o-as: [Dem.] or. 53 § 17 (contemporary with Dem ) njpif-
o-as M£ aviovTO. IK IletpaiaJs 6ip\...apird.ll,u. 809 KaBCKeTO governs |iov, which
\ii<Tov Kapa defines : Plut. Anton. § 12 <TK.VT£<JI \ao-tovs... KadtKvovfievoi T<3V
ivTvy^avovToiv : L u c i a n Syinp. § 1 6 r a ^ a 8 av rivoi Ka6iKtro rfj PaKTr/pia:
Icarornenippus § 24 cr<£dSpa rj^Ssv 6 irlpvcn \eLfn.wv KaOiKtro. T h i s v e r b
takes accus. only as = to reach, lit. or fig. (as //. 14. 104 /xdXa ™'s pe
KO.61.KZO 6vfx.6v). SiirXots K6VTpoi<rt.: a stick armed at' the end with two
points, used in driving. Cp. //. 23. 387 (horses)...avev KtVrpoio Oiovrvs.
The Tpoxy^arrjs had left it in the carriage when he got out to walk up
the hill. 810 oi |irv t«"iv 7': not merely an even penalty (cp. TJ}V 0/j.oiav
OlAinOYI TYPANNOS 153

watched the moment when I was passing, and, from the carriage,
brought his goad with two teeth down full upon my head.
Yet was he paid with interest; by one swift blow from the staff
in this hand he was rolled right out of the carriage, on his back ;
and I slew every man of them.
But if this stranger had any tie of kinship with Larus, who is now
more wretched than the man before thee ? What mortal could prove
more hated of heaven ? Whom no stranger, no citizen, is allowed
dSAtcirepos, particulam ye metri causa intrusam esse credens postquam dvdpbs e sua
sede migraverat. Elmsleius coniecerat Tcivdp6$, quo recepto Blaydesius dedit Hs
rovde rdpdpbs 'iiT1 ?r' adXtibrepos, Campbellius ris rovde ravSpbs Ztrrtp ddXtuirepos.
Dindorfius olim (ed. i860) versum e textu eiecerat; est autem plane necessarius,
cum, si deleretur, nihil habiturum esset pronomen Sv (v. 817) ad quod referretur.
Sed iampridem (ed. 1869) poenituit virum doctissimum quod insontem versiculum
capitis daranasset: sapit tamen etiamnunc Draconem, reposuit enim ris TOVS'
anoieiv dvdpbs d6\iu>repos, collato v. 1204. 8 1 7 $...Ti.vb. codd., quod defendit
Hermann., interpretans tp ny ?{eoTi, %ivav nvb. Six^Sai. air6v: ' cui non concessum
est ut quisquam eum recipiat.' <jS in ov mutavit Schaefer., idem neck servans, ut

a7ro8iSoVai, far fari referri) : Thuc. 1. 35 ovx o/*ota 17


the renunciation of such an alliance is more serious, OT>VT6|UI>S, in a way
which made short work: cp. Thuc. 7. 42 ijimycro hzifiiaQai rfj Trtipa.
Kai 01 |«vTo/xo)TaTijv ijyeiro Ziairo\i[i.-q(Tiv, the quickest way of deciding
the war: Her. 5. 17 tori Se O-T5VTO/*.OS xapTa. (sc. oSos), there is a short
cut. T h e conject. O-UVTO'KDS (Tr. 923 <TVVT6VU> X*P'L) would efface the
grim irony. 812 yA<n\s implies that a moment before he had seemed
firmly seated: 'right out of the carriage.' Eur. Cycl. 7 Ireav
Oevdv, striking/^// on the shield: I. T. 1385 vijos 8' IK /Ae' |
/Jo?/TIS, from within the ship itself: El. 965 apuw «is /j-eayv, right into
the net. 814 A <ruyyeves TI T(j Aatw if any tie with Ldius irpocrtJKei TOVTCO TIJ
Jiv(? belongs to this stranger, o-vyyev^'s can take either dat. (akin to) or
gen. (kin o f ) : and here several editors give Aaiou. But the dat.
Aafop, making it verbally possible to identify the iivos with Lai'us, suits
the complex suggestiveness with which the language of this drama is
often contrived : cp. T W in 1167. Again, T£ ^V<J> TOVT^ might apply to
Oedipus himself (452). H a d we n without a-vmtvte, Aaiov (part, gen.)
would then be necessary. T h e constructions of Trpoo-rjKtiv axe. (1) Trpo<rrji«i>
TIVI, I am related t o : (2) Trpoo-ijKa ixoi TIVOS, I have a right in, or tie
with: (3) TrpocnjKtL fnoiTI, it belongs to me. Here it is (3). 817 8V...TIVI.
The MSS. »...Tiva must be rendered : ' t o whom it is not allowed that any
one should receive (him)': but the words would naturally m e a n : 'to
154 S04>0KAE0YS

Sdyums he^ecrdai, p.rj8e vpocrffxtiveiv nva,


coUeiv o air OLKWV, KOLI rao o i m s aAA.os r)v
fj *yaj V ifxavra) racrS' apas d 7rpocrTi#eis. 820
Se TOU davovTos iv ^epolv ifx-aiv
) , hi (bvvep uiXer. ap e<f)vv KCLKOS ;
dp' ovxi T^as avayvos; et /u-e ^pi) <f>vye2v,
i JLIOI <f>Vy0VTL fJiTjCTTl TOUS C/iOUS iScW
S' ifL^arevecv TrarpCSos, rj ya/^ois fie Set 825
lxr}Tpo<s £,vyr)vai /cal irarepa KaraKraveiv
Uokvfiov, os i£e<f>v<re Ka^eOpexfje fj.e.
dp' OVK drr w/xov ravra Sai/xovos Tt? az/
Kpuvav in avhpX TWS' av 6p9oir) \6yov;
p/rj SfJTa p.r) 8rjr', w fewy dyvov cre'/Sas, 830
TavTTjv rjp.dpav, dW e/c fiporcov
a<f)avTO<; TrpocrOev rj r o i a v S ' tSett'
ip,avT(S <rvjjL<f>opa<; d(f)iyjjLevrjv.
XO. TJ/AIV jaeV, wmf, r a v r ' OKvqp'' ecus S' ai> o w
absolute diceretur ?|ecrri. Coniecit Elmsleius oJ, quasi attractum esset ad roCSc
avdpis, structura sane durissima. Nauckio venit in mentem ei ^ij %ivuv...Tivl, mox
autem, pro nvi. in v. 818, i/xi. Nihil opus est mutare, modo legas 6V...TIW cum
Wunder., Hartung., Dindorf. Frequens in codd. hoc genus inversionum ; cf. v. 376.
8 2 4 ixfiffTi.. L ix-qre (correctum a manu antiqua ex pr/cm.), A, T (cum yp. p.-// 'UT'C)
E, V2, V3, Bodl. Laud. 54. 8 2 5 /XJJT' {/ij3aTeiei.v L, facto ab antiqua manu /n^re
ex lUij'or', quod prima dederat. ,UT}T' A quoque et alii. Possis igitur legere (1) ut

whom it is not allowed to receive anyone.' In 376, where <re...y' i/xov


is certain, all our MSS. have /«...ye crov: much more might the cases
have been shifted here. 818 |u]8*...Tiva, sc. S^cm, absolutely: nor is it
lawful that anyone should speak to him. 819 wfletv 8': the positive 8d
must be evolved from the negative OVK e^cori: cp. El. 71 KOX /it) p
aTifiov T^trS' a.TrocTTuXr]Te yrjs | dAA' dp^eirXovTOV (st. KaTaarrjo-aTe). See
above, 241. Kal Td8". And these things—these curses—none but I laid
on myself. As the thought proceeds, the speaker repeats rdSe in a
more precise and emphatic form: cp. Plat. Rep. 606 B eVai/o KepSaiveiv
yyurai, Trjv yBovrjv. 821 iv xepotv, not, 'in their embrace,' but, ' by their
agency': //. 22. 426 ok oi^cXev Oavieiv iv-^epcnvIprjcnv. 822 f. dp'—op*
ovxi. Where apa is equivalent in seit'se to ap ov, this is because it
OIAITTOYI TYPANN02 155

to receive in his house; whom it is unlawful that any one


accost; whom all must repel from their homes! And this
—this curse—was laid on me by no mouth but mine own!
And I pollute the bed of the slain man with the hands by
which he perished. Say, am I vile ? Oh, am I not utterly
unclean ?—seeing that I must be banished, and in banishment
see not mine own people, nor set foot in mine own land, or else
be joined in wedlock to my mother, and slay my sire, even
Polybus, who begat and reared me.
Then would not he speak aright of Oedipus, who judged these
things sent by some cruel power above man ? Forbid, forbid,
ye pure and awful gods, that I should see that day! No, may
I be swept from among men, ere I behold myself visited with
the brand of such a doom !
CH. TO US, indeed, these things, O king, are fraught with fear;
Elmsleius monuit, pyre robs tpois ISeiv | firrr' infiaTeiew, subaudiio ?£e<rn, sed hoc
durissimum videtur: (2) firjcm. rois i/tobs IStiv, \ fijjar' &/if)aTe6ea>, quod vereor ut
Sophocleae Xd/itres facile patiantur: (3) iam res ad triarios rediit, neque alia superest
ratio quam ut, /ATJUTI servato, /J.i)d' £/jifla.Tei5eii> cum Dindorfio scribas. 827
Huius versus, post Wunderum a Dindorfio fraudis insimulati atque uncis inclusi,
causam orare nullo coram iudice reformidem : vide annot. ££4(f>v<re KaZeOpeipe L, A,
et codd. plerique. Praeposteram lectionem ££40pc]/e Ka%£(pv(re tres tantummodo codd.
praebent, praetulit tamen Erfurdt.

means, 'are you satisfied that it is so?' i.e. 'is it not abundantly clear?'
{EL 614). Here, the transition from apa to ap' <>•&•£ is one' from bitter
irony to despairing earnest. 827 IldXvpov. Wunder and Dindorf think
this verse spurious. But it is, in fact, of essential moment to the deve-
lopment of the plot. Oedipus fears that he has slain Lai'us, but does not
yet dream that Lai'us was his father. This verse accentuates the point at
which his belief now stands, and so prepares us for the next stage of
discovery. A few MSS. give iie9pe\j/€ «af e'^vo-e : but the Homeric
•xpoTtpov varepov (Od. 12. 134 dptyiKTa. TtKovaa re) seems out of place
here just because it throws a less natural emphasis on i£ecj>v<je.
829 in dv8pl T$8e with op8o£r) X.6-yov, speak truly in my case. Isaeus or.
8 § I €7U TOIS TOIOVTOIS, <3 avSpcs, avayK-q iarl )(O.\e7rws cf>eptiv, in Such
cases. II. 19. 181 <n) 8' oreiTa Si/ceuoVepos «<u e;r' aX\o) | tcrorcat, in
another's case. 832 Tou£v8e, not roiao-Se: cp. 533. 833 Ki)\i8a: cp. ayos
1426: O. C. 1133 K17A.1S KO-KUIV. For cru|i<J>opas, see on 99. 834 8' o$v. So
where the desponding <£vAa£ hopes for the best, Aesch. Ag. 34, yivouo
156 ZOCJJOKAEOYI

Trpos TOV wapovTOS iK(Aa.$r)s, e^' ikirtSa. 835


01. /cat jj.rjv Toaovrov y icrrC fioi rrj<s eXiri'Sos,
TOV dvSpa TOV [ioTrjpa TrpocrfJcelvaL /JLOVOV.
IO. Tre^ao-fJievov Se rt's 7ro#' 77 Trpodv/xca;
OI. e'ya> StSafw <r'" ^v y a p cvpedrj Xeycov
crol TOLVT', eycoy' dv iKire^evyoirjv TrdOos. 840
IO. TTOLOV Se fjuov Trepio-crov ^/covcras
OI. X^ards e^>acr«:es avrov avSpas
cus viv KaTaKT€Lvaiev. ei jixej' 05^ e n
Xefei TOP auroi' dpiOjxov, OVK iyai 'KTCLVOV'
ov yap yivoiT dv ets ye rots TroXXois tcros' 845
ei o at-op ev oto^wvoi' avorjo-ei, o-aqxos
TOVT €0~TIV tfSrj Tovpyov ets e'^ne piirov.
IO. aXX' cos <{>avev ye TOVTTOS <US' e7rtcrrao"o,
84O C170S pro Tr&ffos coniecerunt Blaydes., M. Schmidt., Arndt., a l . : recepit
Nauck. 8 4 3 KaraKTcivaiev L, a manu antiqua; prima manus, quae in hac voce

8' ovv K.T.X. 835 TOV irapovros, imperf. part., = IKUVOV 6 S Traprjv: Dem.
or. 19 § 129 01 crv/XTrpecr/SeiJovTcs KO.1 Trapovrc; KaTa/jLapTvprjaovaiv, i.e.
o* ovveTrpto-pevov Kal Traprjaav- 836 -rijs IXirtSos. The art. is due to the
mention of iXircSa just before, but its force is not precisely, ' the hope of
which you speak.' Rather iXniSa is 'some hope,' rrj% eWSos is 'hope' in
the abstract: cp. Dem. or. 19 § 88 rj\iKa Tracriv dvOpunroii dyaOd €K T?JS
elpyvr]* ylyverai., i.e. 'from peace,' not 'the peace.' 838 irt^ao-^vov, sc.
avrov: gen. absol. El. 1344 reXov/xiviov CLTTOIIC dv, when (our plans) are
being accomplished. 840 iraOos, a calamity,—viz. that of being proved
blood-guilty. The conjecture &yos is specious. But xdOos shows a finer
touch; it is the euphemism of a shrinking mind (like the phrase yv TL 7rd6u>
for Odvw). For perf. with dv cp. 693. 841 irepunrdv, more than ordinary,
worthy of special note: Her. 2. 32 roik dXXu TC fjL7]xavd(rOa.i...Trepi(T(rd,
i.e. among other remarkable enterprises : Eur. Suppl. 790 TO fitv yap OVK
TJXTT^OV av TreKOvOivai \ ir&Qos Trtpurcrov, ei ydjxu>v aTre^vyrjv, I h a d n o t
deemed it a more than common woe. Iocasta is unconscious of any
point, peculiar to her version, on which a hope could depend: she had
reported the story of the slaughter in the fewest words, 715—716.
844 TOV avTov dpi8|iov, i.e. TTXCI'OVS and not era: or, in the phrase of
grammarians, TOV TTXIJOWTLKOV and not TOV en/cov dpiO/wv. 845 to-os: 'one
OIAITTOYS TYPANNOS 157

yet have hope, until at least thou hast gained full knowledge
from him who saw the deed.
OE. Hope, in truth, rests with me thus far alone; I can
await the man summoned from the pastures.
Io. And when he has appeared—what would'st thou have
of him ?
OE. I will tell thee. If his story be found to tally with
thine, I, at least, shall stand clear of disaster.
Io. And what of special note did'st thou hear from me ?
OE. Thou wert saying that he spoke of La'ius as slain by
robbers. If, then, he still speaks, as before, of several, I was
not the slayer: a solitary man could not be held the same with
that band. But if he names one lonely wayfarer, then beyond
doubt this guilt leans to me.
Io. Nay, be assured that thus, at least, the tale was first told ;
scribenda videtur haesisse, quid dare voluerit dubium est. KaTanrelvaiev A et codd.
plerique. KaraKTelveiav cum paucis V 2 .

cannot be made to tally with (cannot be identified with) those many':


Tots iroXXots, referring to the plur. Xgo-ras (842). 846 olojwvov, journeying
alone. The peculiarity of the idiom is that the second part of the
compound is equivalent to a separate epithet for the noun: i.e. ol6?wvos,
'with solitary girdle,' signifies, 'alone, and girt up.' O. C. 717 T<OV
£KaT0jinro8u>v NrjpijSwv, not, 'with a hundred feet each,' but, countless,
and dancing: ib. 17 irvKvoirTtpoi aijSdves, not, thickly-feathered, but,
many and winged: ib. 1055 SIO-TOXOUS a8eX<£as, not, separately-
journeying sisters, but, two sisters, journeying: At. 390 8itrcrapx a s
fiturikyjs, not, diversely-reigning kings, but, two reigning kings: Eur. Ale.
905 Kopos /Aovoirats, not, a youth with one child, but, a youth, his
only child: Phoen. 683 8IOJVU//.OI 6eai, not, goddesses with contrasted
names, but several goddesses, each of whom is invoked. So I understand
Eur. Or. 1004 //.ovoVcoXov'Au), 'Eos who drives her steeds alone' (when
moon and stars have disappeared from the sky). 847 €is iyk p£irov: as if he
were standing beneath the scale in which the evidence against him lies j that
scale proves the heavier of the two, and thus descends towards him. 848
eirCoTCuro <|>aviv roiJiros «8«, know that the tale was thus set forth: eirCo-rao-o
uS <j>aviv Toi'iros <58e, know that you may take the story to have been thus set
forth: where us merely points to the mental attitude which the subject
of lirCoTtwro is to assume. Phil. 567 ws TO.VTCT"toTa>SpdfJLtv', ov j
158 IO*OKAEOYS

KOVK icrTLv aur<w TOVTO y eKJiakziv irdXiv'


TroXts yap rjKova, OVK iya> /JLOVT], raSe. 850
et 8' ovv TL KaKTpeTTOLTo TOV irpoo-dev Xoyov,
OVTOL TTOT, wvai;, TOV ye Aatov (j)6vov
eu St/catais opdov, ov ye Ao^ta?
-^prjvai iratSos ££ i/xov Oaveiv.
KOLCTOI, VIV ov KCZVOS y 6 Zvo~Trjv6<i TTOTE 855
KareKTav, dW avros irapoidtv wXero.
G>O~T> ov)(l jx.avTeia'i y dv ovre TTJS1 iya>
/3Xc\jjat,iM dv ovveK ovre TrjS" dv va-repov.
01. KaXaJ? voixitfiLS. dW OJUWS TOJ' ipydrrjv
Tcvd o-reXovvTa, firjSe TOVT d^rjs. 860
8 5 1 Variam 1. KO.1 rpiiroi.ro (quae defendi quidem potest, multo tamen minus
est probanda quam KaKrpiTroiro) praebent A, E, et prima manus in V;). 8 6 2 rbv

h-L, know that you may assume these things to be a-doing, not delayed:
and ib. 253, 415: below 956. So with the gen. abs.: Ai. 281 o5s <S8'
iyovrmv TCWS' iirca-raaBai ere xpij, these things being so, you must view
them in that belief. 849 kpaXetv, repudiate: Plat. Crito 46 B TOVS 8k
\6yovs ovs iv ™ efj.TrpoaOev eXtyov ov hvvafx.ai vvv €K/3a\elv, 851 A
Kawpfrroi/ro, if he should tarn aside: see on 772 Kai...A.e£ai/u' av. 852 TOV
•y« Aa£o« <(>dvov. Iocasta argues: 'Even if he should admit that the deed
was done by one man (a circumstance which would confirm our fears
that the deed was yours), at any rate the death of Lalus cannot be
shown to have happened as the oracle foretold; for Laius was to
have been killed by my son, who died in infancy. The oracular art
having failed in this instance, I refuse to heed Teiresias when he says
that you will yet be found guilty of slaying your father Polybus.'
Iocasta, bent on cheering Oedipus, merely alludes to the possibility of
his being indeed the slayer of La'ius (851), and turns to the comforting
aspect of the case—viz., the undoubted failure of the oracle, on any
supposition. This fine and subtle passage is (to my apprehension)
utterly defaced by the conjecture <r<5v ye Aatov ,$6vov (Bothe), ' i t can-
not be shown that your slaying of Laius fulfils the oracle.' Herm. reads
To'vSe, ' this slaying' (of which you think yourself guilty): but the yt is
needed. 853 SIKOCWS 6p96v, in a just sense correct, i.e. properly fulfilled:
for <5p86v see on 503. 854 Swiire: expressly said : cp. SiaSeiKWfii, to
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOI 159

he cannot revoke that, for the city heard it, not I alone. But
even if he should diverge somewhat from his former story,
never, king, can he show that the murder of Lai'us, at least, is
truly square to prophecy; of whom Loxias plainly said that he
must die by the hand of my child. Howbeit that poor inno-
cent never slew him, but perished first itself. So henceforth,
for what touches divination, I would not look to my right hand
or my left.
OE. Thou judgest well. But nevertheless send some one
to fetch the peasant, and neglect not this matter.
ye codd.: xrbv ye Bothius, Dindorf. Lectio rbvSe, quani V habet, nihili est. Vide
annot.

show dearly (Her.), SiaS-qXoo), SiapprjSyjv, 'in express terms': so above, 394
alviyixa...Sienreiv = ' t o declare' (solve) a riddle. Ao££as : a surname of
the oracular Apollo, popularly connected with Xo£o's, 'oblique' (akin to
Xex-pio?, obliquus, luxus 'sprained'), as = the giver of indirect, ambiguous
responses (Xofa KOX kira[i,<j>oTepit,ovTa, Lucian Dial. Dear. 16):
Cornutus 32 Xo^tav Sc KOX TrepuTKeXwv OVTWV TS>V )(prj<Tfji(ov ovs oYStocri
Ao£i'as wvopao-Tai, and so Lycophron 14. 1467: to this Pacuvius
alludes, Flexa non falsa autumare dictio Delphis solet. The association
of Apollo with Helios suggested to the Stoics that the idea connecting
Xo£o's with AO|«JS might be that of the ecliptic: to which it might be
replied that the name Ao£ias was older than the knowledge of the fact.
It is not etymologically possible to refer Ao£uxs to XVK, lux. But pho-
netic correspondence would justify the connection, suggested by Mr
Fennell, with a-Xe£ (Skt. rak-sli). Aortas and his sister Ao£u> (Callim.
Del. 292) would then be other forms of Phoebus and Artemis a\*£ij-
•njpioi, d\c£ifjiopoi (above, 164), 'defenders.' Iocasta's utterance here
is not really inconsistent with her reservation in 712 : see note
there. 857 oiVe TJJ8«—oiVe rjjSe = OUT' im Ta.Se OVT €7ri Odrcpa, neither
to this side nor to that : Phil. 204 •>} irov 17JS' r) rfjSe TOVCUJ/ : //.
12. 237 (Hector to Polydamas): TVV17 8' oltovolcn Tavvirrtpvye^ai
TreCOe<rda.i- TWV OVTI ixcTaTpinojx OVT aXeyi£<»>, | «IT* CTTI
wpos r/<3 T ifeXtoV re, | dr eir' dpuTTepa rot ye TTOTI £,6<f>ov
859 KaXus vojiC^is: he assents, almost mechanically—but his
thoughts are intent on sending for the herdsman. 860 OT«XOVVTO, ' to
summon': oreXXeiv = ' t o cause to set out' (by a mandate), hence ' t o
s u m m o n ' : O. C. 297 o-K07ros 8e viv | os Koi/xe Sevp' lirep-Trev
160 ZO*OKAEOYI

IO. TrefJLxjjct) TO)(yva<T' aXX' layyuev es S6fiov<s.


ouoei' y a p a p irpagai/ji av an/ ov croi qnKov.

X O . OTp. a', ei jXOL i^VVZli) <f>ep<3VTL


2 jjLolpa TOLV evcrtiTTov dyvetav Xoywv
3 ipyoiv re 7rdW<wv, otv VO/AOL TtpOKUvrai 865

iJT dc^-QS, ' a n d do not neglect this.' With a point after o


we could render: 'neglect not even this': but Oed. does not feel, nor
feign, indifference. 862 -yap, since £«>|MV K.T.X. implies consultation.
The doubled av gives emphasis: cp. 139. <Sv o£ croV <|>CW = TOUTWI' a
irpafat ov crot <f>tXov ICTTL. Phil. 1227 «rpa£as tpyov irotov <uf or! aoi
irperrov;
863—910 Second OTWI/XOV. The second eima-oSiov (512—862)
has been marked by the overbearing harshness of Oedipus towards Creon;
by the rise of a dreadful suspicion that Oedipus is avayvos—blood-
guilty for Lams; and by the avowed contempt of Iocasta, not, indeed,
for Apollo himself, but for the [WLVTIK-Q of his ministers. These traits
furnish the two interwoven themes of the second stasimon : (1) the prayer
for purity in word as in deed: (2) the deprecation of that pride which
goes before a fall;—whether it be the insolence of the ripa.wo<s, or such
intellectual arrogance as Iocasta's speech bewrays (Xo'yoi, v. 884). The
tone of warning reproof towards Oedipus, while only allusive, is^yet in
contrast with the firm though anxious sympathy of the former ode, and
serves to attune the feeling of the spectators for the approach of the
catastrophe.
1st strophe (863—872). May I ever be pure in word and deed, loyal
to the unwritten and eternal laws.
1st antistrophe (873—882). A tyrant's selfish insolence hurls him
to ruin. But may the gods prosper all emulous effort for the good
of the State.
2nd strophe (883—896). Irreverence in word or deed shall not
escape: the wrath of the gods shall find it out.
2nd antistrophe (897—910). Surely the oracles concerning La'ius
will yet be justified : O Zeus, suffer not Apollo's worship to fail.
863 it |ioi guvtfo] |ioipa <|wpovTi is equivalent to tWe StarcAot/u <f>epu>v, the
part, implying that the speaker is already mindful of dyveCa, and prays
that he may continue to be so : whereas el /i.01 <ruvar] p-olpa (friptw would
have been equivalent to eWe fioi yivono cj>epeiv, an aspiration towards
OIAITTOYS TYPANNOZ 161

Io. I will send without delay. But let us come into the
house : nothing will I do save at thy good pleasure.
C H . May destiny still find me winning the praise of rever- ist
ent purity in all words and deeds sanctioned by those laws s r o p e>

dyvda. as not yet attained. Though ixotpo is not expressly personified (cp.
Pind. Pyth. 3. 84 TIV Se fwlp' evSat/x.oi'ias CVCTCU), the conception of it is so
far personal that £we£i] is tinged with the associations of £wcL?>etri, and thus
softens any boldness in the use of the participle; a use which,, in prin-
ciple, is identical with the use after such verbs as SIOTCXW, rvyxdvw, Xav-
tidvo). cj>^povTi (=fapofjLtvo),see on 52o)...d-yveiav, winning purity, regarded
as a precious Krrjfia {Ant. 150): cp. 1190 irXeov Tas evSai/AOVias <£e'pei:
El. 968 £W£'j8etav...oicrei (will win the praise of piety): Eur. Or. 158
virvov...4>epoixiv(o x<xpav. 864 cvo-eirrov, active, 'reverent,' only here :
so 890 riav dcreTTTwv, also act., 'irreverent deeds,' as in 'Eur. Helen.
542 npwreajs dcrivTov mxiSos, impious, unholy: see on 515. 865 »v
vd|ioi irp<$K«ivTai i\|/Cir., 'for which (enjoining which) laws have been set
forth, moving on high,'—having their sphere and range in the world
of eternal truths : IJI^I'TTOSCS being equiv. to v^/rjXol KO! vxj/ov mxTotWes:
see on ol6£wvov 846, and contrast x^ovoa"rlI^V 3 O 1 - The metaphor in
v<5|ioi was less trite for a Greek of the age of Sophocles than for us : cp.
Plat. Legg. 793 A Ta KaXovfu-eva VTTO TWV TTOXX(SV dypa<f>a
-—otrre vofiovs Sei wpocrayopevetv avTai ovre appyjTO. idv. ir
(Thuc. 3. 45 «v ovv Tais ToXecrt iroXXmv Oavdrov t,fjjua
strengthens the metaphor: Xen. Mem. 4. 4. 21 Suo?v ye TOZ SISOWIV ot
Trapa/JouVovres r o i s viro r<av Otiov KCIJUCVODS VO/AOVS, rjv ovSevi rpomo
Svvarov dvOpiairip 8ia<f>yyeiv, <o(T7rep r o i s VTT' dv6pu>it<nv Keifiivov;
V6[JLOV5 €VLOL Siatpevyova-i TO SIKT]V StSovat: where Socrates speaks of the
aypa(j>oi vofj.01. which are eV irdarj \u>p<} Kara, ravrd vo/xi^o/ievot,—as to
revere the gods and honour parents. Arist. Rhet. 1. 13. 2: 'I consider
law (vofnov) as particular (iSiov) or universal (KOIVOV), the particular law
being that which each community defines in respect to itself,—a law
partly written, partly unwritten [as consisting in local custom]; the
universal law being that of nature (TOV Kara cpva-iv). For there is a
certain natural and universal right and wrong which all men divine
(/xavT€vovTai), even if they have no intercourse or covenant with each
other; as the Antigone of Sophocles is found saying that, notwith-
standing the interdict, it is right to bury Polyneices' {Ant. 454, where
she appeals to the aypama i<d<r<f>a.Xri 6e<av vo/^tp-a). Cp. Cope's
J. S. II
162 IO*OKAEOYI

4 v^tTroSes, ovpaviav
5 Si' aWepa reKvcoBevTes, £>v *O\V[JLTTOS
6 TraTrjp ixovos, ovSi viv
7 Ovara <£ucris dvepcov
scTiKTev, ovSe //.aV Trore \ a # a Kara/an/uacref 870
9 fieyas «* TOUTOIS 0eos, ovSe yr/pdcrKeu.
air. a'. v/3/xs (ftvreveL Tvpavvov 873
2 U/8/HS, et TroXAaJp VTTepTrXrjcrdfj fxarav,
3 a jai) 'triKaipa fnqhk avjif^epovra, 875

8 7 O oi)5> /i9}j/ irore L, A, codd. plerique: ot55£ jnoiy ffori (sic) V : oi55£ /tr/wore E .
Maior ergo codd. auctoritas pro 1. oi)5£ n&v TTOTC....KaraKOLfidaei facit quam pro 1.
ovii n-qiroTe...Ka.Ta.KoiiAa.<xri. H a b e t certe L Ka.TaKoifj.d<Tfl. Contra legitur KOTOKOI-

Introd. to Arist. Rhet. p. 239. 866 oipavCav 81 aie^pa TeKvwe^vT«s, called


into a life that permeates the heavenly ether (the highest heaven): the
metaphor of T«KV<O6€VT£S being qualified by its meaning jn this particular
application to vojioi, viz. that they are revealed as operative; which allows
the poet to indicate the sphere throughout which they operate by 8i"
alBe'pa, instead of the verbally appropriate iv aWipi: much as if he had
said Si' aidipa ivepyol ara^aveVrEs. So, again, when he calls Ofympus, not
Zeus, their irarrip, the metaphor is half-fused with the direct notion of
'source.' Cp. Arist. Rh. 1. 13. 2 quoted on 865, which continues
(illustrating TO <£vo-£i SiVaioi/): Kal <US 'E/UTTESOKX^S Xiyei irepl TOV /JLY)
KTUVCIV TO efitj/v^ov' TOVTO yap ov rurl [i.\v StVatoi/ TKTI 8' ov Si'xaiov,
a TO [lev TraVTinv v6ft.ifJ.ov 8ta r' tvpvfj.iSovTO'S | aiOepO's rjvt-
TtTaroi 8ta r d-jrXerov av yrj'i (so Scaliger rightly amended
s: Emped. 438): where the special reference of Empedocles is to
a principle of life common to gods, men, and irrational animals (irvevfia
TO Sia iravTOS TOV Koa/iov hvrJKOV "/'v^s rpoirov, SextUS Emp. Adv. Math.
9. 127: cp. Cope ad loc). al0<?pa: //. 16. 364 <a% 8' OT' ax OvXv/xirov
v£(j>o<; epxtTat. ovpavov elcrw | aWipos ex 81^5: where, Olympus being
the mountain, the ovpavos is above the aWrjp, since i£ alOipos could
not = Z£ aWpas, after clear weather: and so //. 2. 458 Si' aWepos ovpavov
iK€i: II. 19. 351 ovpavov eKKareiraXTo 81* aldipoi: cp. Ant. 420. Here
oi!pav(av atOt'pa = the highest heaven. 867 "OXvpn-os: not the mountain,
as in the Iliad, but, as in the Odyssey (6. 42), the bright supernal abode
of the gods: and so = the sky itself: O. C. 1654 yyjv TE
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOS 163
of range sublime, called into life throughout the high clear
heaven, whose father is Olympus alone; their parent was no
race of mortal meri, no, nor shall oblivion ever lay them to
sleep ; a mighty god is in them, and he grows not old.

Insolence breeds the tyrant; Insolence, once vainly 1st anti-


s
surfeited on wealth that is not meet nor good, °p e*
ficurei in A (cui calami fortasse lapsu Campb. aoristum subiunctivi tribuit), et
in reliquis codd. paene omnibus, exceptis L2, A, Pal., Trin. Quocirca cum fateri
debeamus, lectionem f/.7iT0Te...KaTa.K0tuaiTQ sententiae nihilo secius convenire, alteram.
tamen, ut multo gravioribus innixam testimoniis, praeferendam duximus.

ofiov I Kal TOV 6e<Sv "OXvfiirov. 870 ?TVKT«V, ' was their parent,' sometimes
used instead of ereKe where the stress is not so much on the fact
of the birth as on the parentage, 1099, O. C. 982, fr. 501 : Pind.
P. 9. 15 Zv 7roTe...Neus...?TiKTO'. (It would be prosaic to render,
'brought forth successively,'—developed.) o«8i |tdv...KaraKoi|iairci: the
MSS. favour this reading, and ovSJ jidv is suitable as = ' n o , nor...' But
I do not see how ov /^...KaraKot/xotrj; could be rejected on the ground
which Prof. Campbell assigns, as ' too vehement.' In itself ov fi.ij
simply expresses conviction: Plat. Phaed. 105 A OVKOVV 17 i/oi^V T°
ivavriov <5 avrrj im<j>epei del ov furj irore Bi^rjrai, <us e/c T(3v Ttpoo'Otv
cu/AoXoyip-ai; 871 fiivas tv roiiroisfl«o«:the divine virtue inherent in them
is strong and unfailing. Cp. Eur. fr. 188 6t6s TIS Iv tjfuv, 9«rfs without
a r t , as 880: O. C. 1694 TO <f>ipov «K OCOV. Better thus than, 'there
is a great god in these'—which is weak after what has preceded.
873 fippis. The tone of Oedipus towards Creon (esp. 618—672) sug-
gests the strain of warning rebuke. Aeschylus, with more elaborate
imagery, makes v(3pis the daughter of <Wcre/3ta. and the parent of a
via v/3pi<s. which in turn begets icdpos and Opdaos {Ag. 764). nipavvov,
here not ' a prince,'—nor even, in the normal Greek sense, an uncon-
stitutionally absolute ruler (bad or good),—but, in our sense, 'a tyrant':
cp. Plat. Pol. 301 C OTav fitfTe Kara VO/AOVS pijTt Kara. t6t] TrpaTrg rts cis
ap^tov, irpao~TroirJTai 8« (uoTrep o emo~nj)j.(ov <os apa Trapa r a yeypafx.fji.eva
TO ye PeXno-rov troirjriov, rj Si Tts eiriOvfiia Kal ayvoia TOVTOV TOV
ln.fji.rjfi.aTos tfyovfievr], fuSv ov TOTC Tor TOIOUTOV 2«ao-Tov Tvpavvov
KkrjTiov ; Rep. 573 B ap' ovv...Kal TO TraXai 81a TO TOIOTJTOV T v p a v v o s o
"Epcos Xiyerai; 874 «l...virepirXT]O-8jj : P l a t . Rep. 573 C TvpavviKos Be...
dvrjp aKpifiws ylyverai, orav ^ <f>vo~ei i\ eiriTij8ev/x.ao"tv ~q afj.<j>OTepois fitOv-
T« Kal ZpwTiKOS Kal fieXayxoXiKoi yevrjTai.. F o r tl with

II—2
164 SO*OKAEOYI

4 OLKporaTov elcravafiacr'
5<a.Kpov> airoTo^ov wpovaev eis avayKav,
6 evff ov iro&l xprftrCfiw
TJ TO KaXws S' ex 0 1 '
Xatcr//,a [JLI]TTOT€ Xucrat 0eov atrou/iai. 88o
9 ^eoV ou Xrjtja) irork TrpocrTaTav lcry(O)v.

arp. yS'. et Se Tt9 vnepoTrra ^epaiv rj \6yco nopeveTcu, 883


8 7 6 seq. aapov in 877 ex mea coniectura supplevi. aKporarav eiaavafiS.<r'
o
airoTfiov I wpovaev els dvdyKav L. aKporaray tlaavafiatT' dirorfiov \ wpovcev els twayKO.v
A: ubi signum ' post claavaftur et litteram o super airorp.oy rubro charactere usus
corrector addidit. Scilicet in hoc codice prima manus scripserat elaavafiaaa TT&TIXOV :

subj., see on 198. 876 dKp6raTov is metrically required for correspon-


dence with vi//tVo8cs in 866. The MSS. have dKpoTdrav, possibly due to
dvayKav. In 877, diro'Tojiov apovtrev «ls avayKav, there is a defect of one
long syllable or two short ones, the corresponding verse of the strophe,
866, being BC aWipa T£KVO)#CVT£S U>V "OAI^/ATTOS. diroTO|iov seems un-
questionably right: neither aTroTfwv (which occurs as a variant) nor
aTropov is nearly so forcible, or so appropriate to this image of the
sudden, headlong fall. If, then, airoTo^ov is kept, these methods of
correction are open:—(1) T o prefix i£- to wpowev. T o this the ob-
jection, I think, is that aKpirarov euravapacr must then mean, 'having
climbed to the highest point'; i.e. a«poT. must be a substantive; for,
with clowa/?. (this would not hold of dvaj3a<r), aKporarov could not be
a d v e r b i a l : c p . Horn. Hymn. 19. n 6.KpoTa.Tt\v Kopv<f>rjv ^XOO-KOTTOV elcrava-
fiawuiv : and so in all places (about 14) where it occurs in the Homeric
poems the verb has an accus. Now, ro aKporarov might serve for such :
but surely not aKporarov. (2) T o supply before dir<>TO|i.ov.a noun agree-
ing with dKpiTOTov. Arndt conj. al^i-os ('A#<3ov, 'Apa^vatov al7ros Aesch.
Ag. 285, 309). Another possibility is oX/Jov. I propose dicpov, which
a scribe ignorant of metre might easily have taken for a redundancy
generated by aKpororov. 877 dir6TO|iov...€ts dvd-yicav, to sheer ruin: the
epithet of the precipice being transferred to the abyss which receives
h i m : Her. 1. 84 TO \<apCov TTJS aKpo7ro\tos...eov afuiyov re (cat airo-
rofwv. Cp. awrw o\i6pov (//. 6. 57), Odvarov at7rw (Pind. 01. I I .
42). dvd-yKav, a constraining doom from the gods: Eur. Ph. 1000 e?s
dvdyKrjv BaL/jLovwv d<f>Ly/t.ivoi. C p . P l a t . Legg. 716 A o Se T6S ef
itro fj.eyaXav^ia.'; rj xpiyjU.aa-U' liraipo^vos rj Ti/xats r) KCU o-aj/taros
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 165

when it hath scaled the crowning height, leaps on the abyss


of doom, where no service of the feet can serve. But I pray
that the god never quell such rivalry as benefits the State;
the god will I ever hold for our protector.

But if any man walks haughtily in deed or word, 2nd


strophe.
deinde irdr/iov voluit corrector in airSrofnov mutare, hoc cum v. avayKav iuncturus.
Est autem et in L et in A gloss, airoppuya ad v. O.W6TO/J.OV. Pro aKporaray nulla
extat in codd. lectionis varietas. Habent item codd. quos viderim omnes tSpovaev,
excepto T, qui avupovaev insulse praebet. Frustra erunt qui ad expediendas huius loci
tricas plus opis a codicibus exspectant. Rationes vero quibus coniectura axpov
finnatur infra annotatae sunt.

a/La veorrjTi Kal dvoia. (jtXeyerai rrjv if/vxrjv pe0' vfiptb)1:...fJ-CTO. Se xpovov
ov TTOXVV viro<T)(u>v Tiyn<optW TYJ SiKy tavrov TC Kal OLKOV Kal TTOXIV dpSrjv
avdo-TdTov €Troir)(T€. 878 xpi(r'li<?- • •xp'i Tai: where it does not use the
foot to any purpose: i.e. the leap is to headlong destruction; it is
not one in which the feet can anywhere find a safe landing-place. For
the paronomasia cp. Pind. P. 2. 78 KepSoi Se «' /uiXa TOVTO KepSa-
Xiov Tt\i0€i; ' but for the creature named of gain (the fox) what
so gainful is there h e r e ? ' 879 T6 KOXSS 8' i\ov. but I ask that the god
never do away with, abolish, that struggle which is advantageous for
the city,^—i. e. the contest in which citizen vies with citizen who shall
most serve the State. The words imply a recognition of the irpotftyua
which Oed. had so long shown in the service of Thebes : cp. 48, 93, 247.
880 irttXaur|ia: cp. Isocr. Ep. 7 § 7 T0 ^ s KotXoJs ras TroXeis TOIS avT(3v
SioiKoixriv a/xiXXijTeor Kal Treipariov SieveyKtiv airuv. Plut. Mor. 820 C
wtnrep OVK dpyvpiTT/v ovSe Soiplr-qv dywva iroXiTtias dymvi^ofnevois (the
emulous service of the State), dXXd Up6v cJs aXi^6u5s Kal o-Te<paviTijv (like
the contests in the great games). 882 irpoo-Tarav: defender, champion :
not in the semi-technical sense of 'patron,' as in 411. 883 iir^poirro, ad-
verbial neut. of iWpouros [not virtpoVra, epic nom. for wepoVrij? {Ant.
130), like luTroTa]: cp. O. C. 1695 OVTOI KaTapefiTrT Zfirfrov, ye have fared
not amiss. / / . 17. 7S a / a ^ r a 8L<OKWV | nrrrous: Eur. Suppl. 770 a.Kpavr
oSvpet: Ph. 1739 aweifii...airap6ivevT dXaifitva: Ion 255 aveptvvrjTa
Bvadv/iei (hast griefs which I may not explore). x ' P 0 ^ *'« contrast
with \6y<f, merely = tpyois, not ' deeds of violence': cp. Eur. Ph. 312
7r<3s... I Kal X^P0"' Kc " Xoyot(ri... I irepi)(opevovo'a Tepxj/iv...Xa/?<o,findjoy in
deed and word of circling dance, i.e. in linking of the hands and in
166 Z04>0KAE0YS

2 Awas a^oySijros, ovSe 885


3 Baifiovcov £$7) <re/3a>v,
l KO.KO. viv eXoiro fxoipa,
5 SucnroT/tou ^dpuv ^XtSas,
6 ei JU,IJ TO KepSos Kephavev St/cauu?
7 /ecu TWV dcreiTTcov ejoferai, 890
877
89O tplcTox L : ubi litteram £ ex 7 ortam esse mihi quidem haud certum videtur.
HpZercu A. Consentiunt in voce, in spiritu tantum variant ceteri codd. 891

song : cp. 864. 885 ACKO.S d<j>dpt)Tos, not fearing Justice: cp. 969
ai/rawros <£yxovs> not touching a spear. The act. sense is preferable
only because class. Greek says <t>o[3r]0a<s -rrjv BUrjv, not 4>oftrj0eis vird Trji
81/ojs: the form Of the adj. would warrant a pass, sense : cp. Tr. 685
<XKTIVOS. . .aOiKTov. With a<^>o/3os (At. 366) a<jf>o/3?jTos cp. drap/ify's (7V. 322)
arap/S^Tos (y4/. 197). 886 ®*\, images of gods, whether sitting or
standing; but always with the added notion that they are placed in a
temple or holy place as objects of worship. Timaeus p. 93 ISos- TO
a.yaXfx.0. KCU d rdiros iv <o iSpvrai.: where TOTTOS prob. denotes the small
shrine in which an image might stand. Dionys. Hal. 1. 47 uses ISrj to
render fienates. Liddell and Scott J. v. cite the following as places in
which «Sos ' may be a temple': but in all of them it must mean image.
Isocr. or. 15 § 2 4>£iStav TOV TO T^S 'A^Tjvas eSos Ipyacra^tvov, i.e. the
chryselephantine Athena Parthenos; cp. Hut. Per. 13 6 Se "fcciSias
iipyd&To fikv T ^ S 6eoC TO xpvtroCj' ISos, Xen. Hellen. 1. 4. 12 IIXw-
Tqpva. tjyev ij 7roXi5, TOV ISovs KaTaKeka\viXfj.evov T^S 'A^ijvas : z.^. t h e
dpxaiov jSpeVas of Athena Polias in the Erechtheum was veiled in sign of
mourning (the death of Aglauros being commemorated at the festival
of the Plunteria). Paus. 8. 46. 2 <£<uVer<u Se OVK ap£as 6 Avyouoros
dvaOtJiiara KO.1 tSrj 6e<5v dirdyecrOai irapa T<UV Kpar-qdevTuiv (i.e. carry
off to Italy): where dva6rjp.aTa are dedicated objects generally, £%
images worshipped in temples. Is Sophocles glancing here at the
mutilators of the Hermae in 415 B.C., and especially at Alcibiades?
We can hardly say more than this:—(1) There is no positive proba-
bility as to the date of the play which can be set against such a view.
(2) The language suits it,—nay, might well suggest i t ; nor does it
matter that the 'Eppal, though dvadTJ^ara (Andoc. De Myst. § 34), were
not properly llr\. (3) It cannot be assumed that the dramatic art of
Sophocles would exclude such a reference. Direct contemporary
OIAITTOYX TYPANNOI 167

with no fear of Justice, no reverence for the images of gods,


may an evil doom seize him for his ill-starred pride, if he will
not win his vantage fairly, nor keep him from unholy deeds,
but must lay profaning hands on sanctities.
eSiercu naraifav L. e^erai nardfav (sic) A : deest iota subscriptum in aliis quoque
cockl., ut B, V, Bodl. Laud. 54. Recepi quod Blaydes. coniecit, 8l£tTcu : vide annot.

allusion is, indeed, uncongenial to it. But a light touch like this—
especially in a choral ode—might fitly strike a chord of contemporary
feeling in unison with the emotion stirred by the drama itself. I do
not see how to affirm or to deny that such a suggestion was meant here.
888 8DO-W6T|IOD, miserably perverse : Ant. 1025 OVKIT IO-T... j a/3oi>Aos OUT'
ai'oX/3os. 890 TWV do-einw: see on 864. S?p£erai, keep himself from :
O. C. 836 elpyov, 'keep off' (the holy ground): Her. 7. 197 ak m m TO
aA.o~os eyivero, CIUTOS Te epyeTO aurov Kai vfj (rrpaTiy Trday TrapyyyeiXe.
P l a t . Legg. 8 3 8 A Cl)S €V T£ KOLL aKpljUo'S UpyOVTCU TTJ'S TWV KaXlSv £uyOV(TUK.
As to the form, Her. has Ipyo or iipyw: in Attic the MSS. give Aesch.
Eum. 566 Ka.Te.pya.Qov : Soph. Ai. 593 £vvep£eTe: Thuc. 5. U TrtpUp^avTes
(so the best MSS., and Classen): Plat. Gorg. 461 D KaOepiys (so Stallb.
and Herm., with MSS.) : Rep. 461 B ^vvipiavTos: Rep. 285 B ep^as. So
far as the MSS. warrant a conclusion, Attic seems to have admitted
ip- instead of dp- in the forms with £ T h e smooth breathing is right
here, even if we admit a normal distinction between elpyio ' to shut o u t '
and eipyu ' t o shut in.' 891 BCf-erai. This conjecture of Blaydes seems
to me certain. The form occurs Eur. Hippol. 1086 /cXa«ov TIS O.VTS>V ap
ip.ov ye 6(£frcu: Her. 652 el 8e T<3vSe irpocrdi^ei yept. Hesych. has
6l£e<r6cu. L has e£erat with no breathing. Soph, could not conceivably
have used such a phrase as ex€<T^al ™v O-OIKTUSV, to cling to things which
should not even be touched. H e himself shows the proper use of
e\ecr6a.L in fr. 327 TOU ye nepZaiveiv op.w<s | txTrpl£ c)(0VTai, ' s t i l l they cling
tooth and nail to gain' : fr. 26 ra p.ev | Stxat' «raiVei TOV 8k KepSaweiv
e^ou. Some explain e$erai as ' a b s t a i n ' : Od. 4. 422 aylaQai re ySt'ijs
Xvaai re yepovTa: Her. 6. 85 CO-^OVTO TTJS aywy^s. To this there are two
objections, both insuperable: (1) the disjunctive 7},—with which the sense
ought to be, 'unless he gain &c...or else abstain': (2) /j.a.Ta£wv, which
could not be added to ?|cTai as if this were mivo-cTou. (JMT^UV, acting
with rash folly: Her. 2. 162 direfiaTaCae, behaved in an unseemly
manner: Aesch. Ag. 995 airXayxya 8' OVTI p\a.Ta.t,ei, my heart does not
vainly forebode. T h e reason for writing yua.Tc££w, not /«iTa£w, is that
168 ZO^OKAEOYI

9TIS e n TTOT iv ToicyS dvrjp OeaJv

11 ei y a p at rotatSe Tr/aafets rt/xtat, 895


12 TI Set )ite

air. /?'. ovKen TOV dOucrov ei/u y a s eV 6yL<f>a\6v creftav,


2 oi38' es rov 'AySatcri vaoV, 900
8 9 2 seq. ris ?« TTOT' & ToiirS' ai'^p | 8v/j,t2i j34\ri epgerai (sic) ^u^as d/ivvav L. Sic
etiam A, in quo et 0u/tcSi et Ip^erai (sic) clare scripta sunt. Plerique codd. Ip^erai
(sic) habent. Pro Ov/ty, pauci quidam Su/ioi/ praebent. Extat dvnui (sic) in B, E,
T, Pal., V2, V3, V4. Pro iv rdtaSe, habet E cum paucis aliis iv TOVTOIS, B (omisso ii>)

the form fnwrdlifa is well attested (Her., Josephus, Hesych., Herodian):


while there is no similar evidence for ixardtfa, though the latter form
mig?U have existed, being related to a stem fiara (/UXITIJ) as SiKa£-<o to
SIKCL (SUrj). 892 T£S 2« iroT'...d(MWv; Amid such things (if such deeds
prevail), who shall any longer vaunt that he wards off from his life the
shafts of the gods? The pres. aiuivav, not fut. a/xwciV, because the
shafts are imagined as already assailing him. 4v roto-S": 1320: Ant. 38
ei raS' iv TOVTOIS. 893 8eSv p&ij. The MSS. have 0u/x.ak, 6V/AOV or 6vfj.w: in A
over dv/jiwi j3i\r] is written rr)v 6dav 8Urjv. This points to the true sense,
though it does not necessarily presuppose the true reading. T h e phrase
Sv^u>v $i\r\, 'arrows of anger,' could mean, 'taunts hurled by an angry
man'; but, alone, could not mean, 'the arrows of the divine wrath.'
The readings of the MSS. might have arisen either through the v of Oeuiv
being written, as it often is, in a form resembling fi, and a> having then
been transposed (so that dv/iiS would have arisen before #v//,dk); or from
a gloss Ovpov on i/ar^ds. For P&.11 cp. Plat. Legg. 873 E •K'krfv Sa-a
Kepawos t) Tt Trapa 6tov TOIOVTOV /?e'A.os lov. 894 ci'Jerai. This COnject.
of Musgrave (which Blaydes adopts) involves only the change of one
letter from Spgerai.: and nothing would have been more likely than a change
of euferai into ip^erai if the scribe's eye or thought had wandered to
ipierai in 890, especially since the latter is not obviously unsuited to the
general sense. But ?p|eTdi here is impossible. For (1) we cannot render:
' will keep off the shafts from himself, so as to ward them from his life':
this would be intolerable. Nor (2), with Elmsley: 'who will abstain from
warding off the shafts of the soul (the stings of conscience, ^v^tts fi&rj)
from his mind (#17x01!)?' i.e. who will not become reckless? This most
assuredly is not Greek, ei'gerai., on the other hand, gives just the right
OlAinOYI TYPANNOZ 169

Where such things are, what mortal shall boast any more
that he can ward the arrows of the gods from his life ? Nay,
if such deeds are in honour, wherefore should we join in the
sacred dance ?

No more will I go reverently to earth's central 2nd anti-


s rop e
and inviolate shrine, no more to Abae's temple "

aiirois: quae mera fudit incuria. BeCiv pro 6a} coniecit Hermann.; eH^erai. pro
?p!ercu Musgravius. Vide annot. 8 9 6 Post x°/ )cl ' e '" habet L in eodem versu
haec verba, Troveiv 17 TOIS 6eoi<r: eadem in Pal., M (a correctore), M2, M5 (omisso
i) TOIS 8eoU) leguntur. Corrupta sunt ex gloss, vocem x°Pc^av interpretante, iravq-
yvplfav TOU Bedis, quod est in cod. Trin. aliisque.

sense: 'If justice and religion are trampled under foot, can any man dare
to boast that he will escape the divine wrath?' 896 xopdav. The words
irovuv rj TOIS 6101s added in a few MSS. (including L) have plainly arisen
from a contracted writing of Travrjyvpt&Lv TOIS 6tot<s which occurs in
a few others. This gloss correctly represents the general notion of
Xopeveiv, as referring to the x°P°^ connected with the cult of Dionysus,
Apollo and other gods. The x°P°'s was an element so essential and
characteristic that, in a Greek mouth, the question TL 8CI jae x°Pe^iLV>
would import, 'why maintain the solemn rites of public worship?' Cp.
Polybius 4. 20 (speaking of the youth of Arcadia) /uem Se TavTa TOVS
QiXoiivov KOX TijioOiov vojuows fiavOdvovTes (learning the music of those
masters) TroXXfj <f>i\orif>Lia. ^ o p e i i o u i r i KO.T' iviavrov TOIS Aiovuo-iaKOis
hi TOIS #ecny>ois, 01 [ikv TraiSes TOIIS 7rai8iKOi)S dyuSvas, 01 Se
Tois TUIV av^putv Xeyo/xei/ovs. E u r . Bacch. 181 Sei...Aioi'vicrov...
ocroi' Ka6' i?/xas OWUTOV av^ecrdaL [neyav' \ irot Set \opeveiv, irol KaOicrTcivai
7ro'Sa, I Kai Kpara aelcrai TTOXIOV; i^-qyov <rv fioi | ytpuv yipovn, Teipe<ria.
The Theban elders need not, then, be regarded as momentarily forget-
ting their dramatic part. Cp. 1095 xop^tcrdcu. 898 attiKrov: cp. the story
of the Persian attack on Delphi in 480 B.C. being repulsed by the god,
who would not suffer his priests to remove the treasures, <£as auras
txavos tiva.1 TWV iiavrov TrpoKaTrj(r6a.i, Her. 8. 36. 6|i,<j)aX6v: see on 480.
900 T6V "Apoio-i vaov. The site of Abae, not far N. of the modern village
of Exarcho, was on a hill in the north-west of Phocis, between Lake
Copais and Elateia, and near the frontier of the Opuntian Locrians.
Her. 8. 3 3 tvOa r/v upov 'ATTOXXWVOS TrXavcriov, Orjcravpoicri TE KOI
TTOXXOLCTL Ka.Te(TK£va<rfiivov' rjv Se Kai TO'T£ Kai vvv
I04>0KAE0YZ

3 ovSe TCLV
4 el jxrj r a S e ^ e t
a TTOLCTLV dp/jiocrei.
C d\A.\ cu KparvvoiV, etTrep opff a«rouet?,
7 Zev, TrdvT dvdcrcrcov, /AT) Xddou
8 ere r a i ' re crdv dddvarov aiev dp^dv. 905
$<f>9lvovTa yap Aa'iov <7ra\ai(f)ara>
10 d4cr^>aT i^aipovcnv rjSr),
11 KovSa/i.ov Tt/iais 'ATTOXXWI' i[i.<f>a,vijs'
12 Ippet Se TO, #eta. 9 10

IO. ^wpas avaKres, So£a /tot


9O3 c5p(?6c L, 8/>ff' A et ceteri codd. 9O4 \<L6oi L, quod ardenter pre-
cantibus potissime convenit. \a.6i) (sic) A, V 2 , V3, V J : \a9y Brunck., Elmsleius,
Blaydes. 9O6 (pdivovra y&p \atov .'. Oecrcpar' L, adnotato .". 7raXati in marg. a
maun recentiore, iraXaia post Xafou inserendum esse significans. Quem ordinem

^prj(TT7jpLov avToOc KOI TOVTO TO tepov cnjXr/O-avTes iv£Trpr](Ta.v (the P e r s i a n s


in 480 B.C.). Hadrian built a small temple beside the ancient Upov,
Paus. 10. 35. 3. 901 T&V 'O\v|iiriav, called by Pindar SEOTTOIV' aXaBua.%
{01. 8. 2), because divination by burnt offerings (fiavriKr) Si' ifx.Trvp<av)
was there practised on the altar of Zeus by the Iamidae, hereditary
/nai'Tcis (Her. 9. 33) : Pind. 01. 6. 70 Zrjvds ht a.Kpora.Tia^uiH.&
6e<r0ai KiXevaev (Apollo)' | l£ ov ITOXVKXUTOV KO.9' "EWavas yivos
902 et |ii) Td8« dp|j.o(r«i, if these things (the prophecy that Laius should be
slain by his son, and its fulfilment) do not come right (fit each other),
X«tp6S«KTa urao-iv pporois, so as to be signal examples for all men. Cp.
Ant. 1318 TotS' OVK iir aXXor fipoTiav e^tas dp/xocrei TTOT' i£ atrias,
can never be adjusted to another,—be rightly charged on him. Prof.
Campbell cites Plat. Soph. 262 C uynv av TLS rot, oVo/xacri ra pij/j.aTa.
Kcpdarj. Tore 8' -qpfiocri re, K.T.X..,—where I should suppose r/p^ocre to
be transitive : ^p/xocri TL<S TOIS oVo/mo-i ra prHiara: if so, it is not parallel.
X»p6S. only here. 903 cUoieis, audis, alluding chiefly to the title Zevs
pamXevs, Xen. Anab. 3. 1. 12; under which, after the victory at Leuctra
in 371 B.C., he was honoured with a special festival at Lebadeia in
Boeotia, Diod. 15. 53. 904 The subject to XdOoi is not definitely TdSe
(902), but rather a notion to be inferred from the whole preceding
sentence,—'the vindication of thy word.' Elms. cp. Eur. Med. 332
0IAIT70YI TYPANNOI 171

or Olympia, if these oracles fit not the issue, so that all men
shall point at them with the finger. Nay, king,—if thou art
rightly called,—Zeus all-ruling, may it not escape thee and
thine ever-deathless power!
The old prophecies concerning Lai'us are fading ; already
men are setting them at nought, and nowhere is Apollo glorified
with honours ; the worship of the gods is perishing.
10. Princes of the land, the thought has come to me
codd. plerique exlribent, quanquam in paucis stat vox iraXati. vel ante Xafou vel
post Biatftara plene scriptum (non 6ia<f>aT'). Lin wood, autem, qui in v. str. 892 u>»
TOIOITS' pro iv roiaS' coniecerat, hie legit <f>8ti>oi>Ta y&p ri. Aa'tov irakalipaTa.: quem
sequitur Blaydes. Arndt., qui ipse TraXalrpara coniecerat, rh voci Aai'ou non praefixit,
cum in v. 802 iv roluS' servaret.

Zev, firj XaBoi <re TU>V8* os amo? KaKuv. 906 After <|>6ivovTa Y&p Aa'Cov we
require a metrical equivalent for Oewv /3i\rj in 893. The iraXaid in the
marg. of L and in the text of other MSS. favours ira\a£<J>aTa, proposed by
Linwood and Arndt, which suits 4>8£vovra: cp. 561. Schneidewin conj.
TLv66xpr]<j-Ta. Aaiov. Aatou, object, gen.: cp. Thuc. 1. 140 TO TWV Meyap-
eW \f/T]4>i.a-fii,a {about them). 908 IgcupoCo-iv, are putting out of account.
This bold use comes, I think, not from the sense of destroying (Xen. Hellen.
2. 2. 19 jj.rj cririvSecrOai 'A6r]va(oK dW e£aipeiv), but from that of setting
aside, excluding from consideration: Plat. Soph. 249 B TOUTM T<3 Aoyco
ravrdi' TOVTO IK T<3V OVTU>V i£aip-ij<rof*,ev, by this reasoning we shall strike
this same thing out of the list of things which exist. Cp. Theaet. 162 D
0eoi>s...ovs eyco €K T€ TOV Xeyciv Kail TOV ypa<f>eiv ircpl avrwv, OJS e'urlv r] <<5s
OVK EicriV, e£cup<3. T h e absence of a gen. like Xoyov for c^aipovo-iv is
softened by <|)8£VOVTO, which suggests 'fading from men's thoughts.' 909
Ti|jiats...4H>avr^, manifest in honours (modal d a t ) : i.e. his divinity is not
asserted by the rendering of such worship as is due to him. Aesch. P. V.
171 (of Zeus) (TKrjiTTpov TijJid.<s T diTocrvXaTat.. 910 TO. 8eta, 'religion,' both
faith and observance: cp. O. C. 1537.
911—1085 eireto-oStov rpirov. A messenger from Corinth, bringing
the news that Polybus is dead, discloses that Oedipus was not that
king's son, but a Theban foundling, whom the messenger had received
from a servant of La'ius. Iocasta, failing to arrest the inquiries of
Oedipus, rushes from the scene with a cry.
911—923 Iocasta comes forth, bearing a branch (iKerripia), wreathed
with festoons of wool (o-re^ry), which, as a suppliant, she is about to
lay on the altar of the household god, Apollo AVKEIOS, in front of
172 I04>0KAE0YI

vaovs iKecrOai Saifiovav, rdS' iu


CTT€<fyr) Xaftohcrrj KairiOvfxid^aTa.
tyov yap atpei OVJXOV OISLTTOVS ayav
\imaicri iravToiaiaiv' ov8' OTTO? avrjp 915
evvovs r a Kaiva rols TraXax reKfJiaipeTai,
aXX' e o r i TOV Xeyovros, rjv <f)6/3ovs Xeyy.
OT ovv Trapaivova' ovBev is irXiov TTOLCJ,
cr', (o Avicei ATTOXXOV, ay^icrros yap et,
ffiyfjcai, rotcrSe o~vv KaTevyfj,ao~LV, 920
O7T<us XVO-LV TLV rjjAv evayrj
OJS vvv oK.vov[ia> iravres iKTr
Kelvov fiXeirovTes <Z>s Kv$e.pvr\rr\v

8 1 7 He 0oj3oucr Xe7H L, i.e. \^yg. Post \ey facta est rasura. Potuit quidem
prima manus \eyoi. scribere, vel \tyei: nihil tamen superest quod aut hanc 1. aut
illam firmet. iji' 0d/3ous \£yii (sic) A : eadem lectio in B, E, V, ceteris, nisi

the palace. The state of Oedipus frightens her. His mind has been
growing more and more excited. It is not that she herself has much
fear for the future. What alarms her is to see 'the pilot of the ship'
(923) thus unnerved. Though she can believe no longer in human
fiavriK-q, she has never ceased to revere the gods (708); and to
them she turns for help in her need. 912 vaovs 8ai|i6vwv can only
mean the public temples of Thebes, as the two temples of Pallas
and the 'la^viov (20). The thought had come to Iocasta that
she should supplicate the gods; and in effect she does so by
hastening to the altar which she can most quickly reach (919).
913 O-T^TJ: see on 3. £iri6v|urf|MiTa, offerings of incense: cp. 4. In El.
634, where Clytaemnestra comes forth to the altar of Apollo Trpoo-Tanjpios,
an attendant carries Ovfrnra irayKapira, offerings of fruits of the earth.
Xapoij<ru. Xafiovo-av would have excluded a possible ambiguity, by show-
ing that the 86ia had come before and not after the wreaths were taken
up: and for this reason the accus. often stands in such a sentence:
X e n . An. 3. 2. 1 eSo£ev a v T o i s irpCKpvXa.Ka.'; K(XTaaTrjcravTas <rvyK<xXilv
rov? orpaTiwras. 916 T<1 Kaivd, the prophecies of Teiresias, TOIS imXai, by
the miscarriage of the oracle from Delphi: 710 f. 917 TOV
P l a t . Gorg. 5 0 8 D tlfu Se tin, T(jS ^ov\o/j,4vto, wrinp ol a.Ti[wt. TOV ZOIX
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 173

to visit the shrines of the gods, with this wreathed branch in my


hands, and these gifts of incense. For Oedipus excites his soul
overmuch with all manner of alarms, nor, like a man of sense,
judges the new things by the old, but is at the will of the
speaker, if he speak terrors.
Since, then, by counsel I can do no good, to thee, Lycean
Apollo, for thou art nearest, I have come, a suppliant with
these symbols of prayer, that thou mayest find us some
riddance from uncleanness. For now we are all afraid, seeing
him affrighted, even as they who see fear in the helmsman of
their ship.

quod r A^yoi praebet. Quae cum ita sint, haud dubie suadent codd. ut rjf...\dyri
potius quam d...\4yoi vel el...\iyi] legamus. 92O Ka.Ttiyixa.tJLV codd.: Karapy-
/ituriv Wunder., Hartung., Dindorf., Nauck., Blaydes.

av re TVITTUV Poik-qrai, K.T.X.—as outlaws are at the mercy of the first


comer: O. C. 752 TOVTTLOVTO<S dpirda-ai. rjv <)>opovs X^YU has better MS.
authority than d Xe'yoi, and is also simpler: the latter would be an opt.
like At. 520 dvhpi TOI xpt<i>v (=XPV) I C-v^f-fiy rpo&sivcu, TtpTrvov el ri
TTOV irddoi: cp. ib. 1344: Ant. 666. But the statement of abstract
possibility is unsuitable here. el-.-Xiyrj has still less to commend it.
918 o«, seeing that, = hra&q: Dem. or. 1 § 1 ore roiwv ovrtos ?x c ' : s o
o7roTE Thuc. 2. 60. 919 AVKCI' "AiroXXov: see on AvKtu 203. 920
KaTcifyiiao-iv, the prayers symbolised by the iKer^pia and offerings of
incense. The word could not mean 'votive offerings.' Wunder's con-
ject. KOTap-yiuuriv, though ingenious, is neither needful nor really apposite.
That word is used of (a) offerings of first-fruits, presented along with
the elpeo-uavrj or harvest-wreath, Plut. Thes. 2 2: (b) the ovko)(VTai or
barley sprinkled on the altar and victim at the beginning of a sacrifice :
Eur. / . T. 244 \Lpvi$6.<i re /ecu KardpyfuaTa.. 921 Xv<riv...€va-yrj, a solution
without defilement: i.e. some end to our anxieties, other than such an
end as would be put to them by the fulfilment of the oracles dooming
Oedipus to incur a fearful ayos. For euay^s Xv'o-is as = one which will
leave us tv'ayci?, cp. Pind. Olymp. i. 26 KaOapov X^SIJTOS, the vessel of
cleansing. 923 d% KvpepviJTqv v«»s, not oSs (OVTO) Kvflepv. v., because he is
our pilot, but us (OKVOI/AEV av) /JXororres Kv/3epv. v. kKTrenX-qyiiivov: Aesch.
Theb. 2 oems <£vAacrcrei irpayos iv itpv\x.vQ iroXecos | otaxa
174

AITEAOS.
dp av nap vfiwv, ci $evoi, ji.d8oifx OTTOV
TOL TOV Tvpdvvov Sco/iar' icrrlv OISLTTOV ; 925
/AaXicrra S' auTW eirrar', et KOJTMTQ* OTTOV.
XO. oreyai ju.ep aiSe, KCIUTOS li'Soi', w ^eVe"
yvi'iy Se p.r)Tiqp rfie TCOV KCLVOV reKvcov.
A r . aA.A. oApia Te Kai fui' oApiots aet
yivoiT', iKeivov y ovcra Trai'TeXi}? Sd/Jiap. 930
IO. avrws oe «:ai cru y , w fef agio? yap et,
eueiretas ovveK. aXXct (J>pdC orov
d(f)l^at ^w r t crrjfjLrjvai, dikcov.
AT. dyaOd SOJUCHS r e /cat irocrei ra crw, y w a i .
IO. TOL TTola ravTa; TT/3OS TIVOS 8' d<f>Ly[JLevo<;; 935

926 KC£TKT0' A. KaroicrB' L et codd. plerique. Hinc fortasse, ut Dindorfio


visum est, materiem sumpsit grammaticus in Bachmanni Anecd. vol. i. p. 358. 20,
qui Sophoclem rb dlaSe airb rod ol'Sare /cara trvyKoirrjv usurpasse tradit. 933 .^afrt

/ti; Kotjucoi' VTTVW. 924 When the messenger arrives, Iocasta's prayer
seems to have been immediately answered by a Xwts evayjfs (921), as
regards part at least of the threatened doom, though at the cost of the
oracle's credit. 926 ndXio-ra denotes what stands first among one's
wishes : cp. 1466 : Track. 799 /xaXtcrTa fj.lv /xe $es | ivravO' OTTOV /JL€
firj TIS otpirai /3poT(oV I ei 8' OIKTOV lo^eis, K.T.X. : Phil. 617 olovro fiiv
fjidXia-O' IKOVO-IOV XajSwv, | el fir] 6e\oi 8", CLKOVTO.: Ant. 327 oXK evpeOurj
fi.lv jiiaAio"r'' lav 8e TOI | \rj<j>6fj re KO.1 firj K.T.X. 928 Y«vi] 8J. Here, and
in 930, 950, the language is so chosen as to emphasise the conjugal
relation of Iocasta with Oedipus. 930 irovTcXijs, because the wife's
estate is crowned and perfected by the birth of children (928). The
choice of the word has been influenced by the associations of TCAOS,
with marriage. Aesch. Eum. 835 $vrj irpo iraL&wv KO.1 ya.fi.-qXi.ov
(the marriage rite): ib. 214'Hpas rcAcias KW. Atos TrtoroJ/xara :
schol. on Ar. Thesm. 973 infioivro ev TOIS ya/iots <us wprravct? ovres rwv
ya.fi.mv' reXos 8c o ya/xos: Pindar JVem. IO. 18 TtXeia /jirJT-rjp—^Hpa,
who (Ar. Th. 976) icA^Sas yd.fi.ov <^>vAaTT£i. In Aesch. Ag. 972 dvrjp
T«Aetos=oiKoSccriroTr;s: as 80/ios •qfi.iTtXrj^ (IL 2. 700) refers to a house
left without its lord: cp. Lucian Dial. Mort. § 19 iq'fUTiXrj fiiv TOV
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOZ 175

MESSENGER.

ME. Might I learn from you, strangers, where is the house


of the king Oedipus ? Or, better still, tell me where he himself
is—if ye know.
CH. This is his dwelling, and he himself, stranger, is within;
and this lady is the mother of his children.
ME. Then may she be ever happy in a happy home, since
she is his heaven-blest queen.
Io. Happiness to thee also, stranger! 'tis the due of thy
fair greeting.—But say what thou hast come to seek or to tell.
ME. Good tidings, lady, for thy house and for thy husband.
Io. What are they ? And from whom hast thou come ?
dubitari non potest quin recte legatur, quanquam L (cum V et Pal.) x^s TI habet,
T autem Kal TL 9 3 6 irpbu L, quod tamen ex iraph fecit manus vel prima
(ut mihi videtur) vel certe antiquissima; paullo recentior addidit S' post ri'cos. irapa
L2 et Pal.: irpbt A et plerique.

KaTokiiriov, ^fipav 8e rrjv veoya/xov yvvatKa. 9 3 1 OVTWS {Trach. 1040


wS auT<os <us /A aiX«(7e) c a n b e n o t h i n g b u t adverb from <XUTOS (with
Aeolic accent), = 'in that very way': hence, according to the context,
(a) simply 'likewise,' or (b) in a depreciatory sense, 'only thus,'—i.e.
' inefficiently,' ' vainly.' The custom of the grammarians, to write
avras except' when the sense is 'vainly,' seems to have come from
associating the word with OUTOS, or possibly even with euros. For Soph.,
as for Aesch. and Eur., our MSS. on the whole favour av-ras: but their
authority cannot be presumed to represent a tradition older than, or
independent of, the grammarians. It is, indeed, possible that
was an instance of old aspiration on false analogy,—as the Attic
(Aeolic a/t/xes for do-jut's) was wrongly aspirated on the analogy of
(see Peile, Greek and Latin Etymology p. 302, who agrees on this with
Curtius). In the absence of evidence, however, that avrws was a like
instance, it appears most reasonable to write avrms. 932 eveireCas, gracious
words, = ev<j!>»7/*ia.s, in this sense only here : elsewhere = elegance of dic-
tion : Isocrates rrjv cveirciav «K 7ravros SHOKEI /cat TOV yXai^upws \eyciv
o-TOxaCerai fiaWov rj TOC a^eXws (Dionys. Isocr. 538). 935 irpis TCVOS, 'sent
by whom,' bringing a message on the part of whom: while irapd TWO*
would be simply ' from whom.' Had 7rapd been genuine, the less ob-
vious Trpds would not have been likely to supplant it in A and other MSS.
176 IO<t>OKAEOYI

AF. 4K Trjs KopCvdov. TO 8' CTTOS ovc;epa>


rjooio fj.eu, 7TWS o ou/c a v ; acr^aAAot? o ic
10. r t o' ecrrt; iroiav BvvafJLLV <5S' e^ei SiiTXrjv ;
AF. Tvpavvov OVTOV ovTn^cjpLou ~)(6ovo<;
T-I^S 'laO/xCas CTTTJO-OVO-LV, ws ^vSar' e/cet. 940
10. n o ; ou^ d 7rpeo~f3vs IIoXu/3os ey/cyoar^s e r t ;
AF. ov S^T', ei7ei I'll' OavaTos Iv r a ^ o i s ex ei *
10. 7ra>s etnas ', V) redvrjKe IloXuySos, < <S > yipov ;
AF. et /LIT) \eyca Takr/des, a^tw davelv.
IO. w npoo-iToX', ou^i SecrTroT^ r a S ' GJS r a ^ o ? 945
fjioXovcra Xefeis; cS ^ew
Iv ecrre1 rourov OiStirous TraXat
TOP avhp €(f>evye firj KTOVOL, kal vvv o8e
77-pos r ^ s TV)(7]S oXcaXev ov8k TOVS" VTTO.
01. tS <f)C\TaTOV yvvcuKds 'ioKacrrTys fcapa, 950
Tt JU,' itjeTrefjLxjjoi) Sevpo rcui'Se hoifiarcav;
10. cucove TavSpos TOUSC, /cai CTKOTTCI KXVOV
TO. criyjv iv T/KU TOV Oeov ix.avTeifj.aTa.
8 4 3 •? TiBmiKe nd\i//3os; AP. ei S£ fiy | \ ^ w 7' fyci TVLX^S L et A. Scripsit
Triclinius, irfis eiTras; ^ TiBvijKe IIdXv/3os 7^pw><; | Ar. ei /ii} X^w TOXIJWS K.T.X. Qua
coniectura paullum in melius flexa praebent codd. aliquot recentiores y4pm> pro yipwv :
nullus autem, quern quidem cognoverim, w yipov exhibet. Acceperant igitur librarii
versum mutilum, TTUS (TTTCLS ; y rtSv-qKe H6\vflos; quem explere placuit aut versu 944
per ineptias distento, aut ratione Tricliniana. Potuit certe poeta « yipov scribere,

L, too, has irpoa- made from wapd by (as I think) the first hanVi itself;
certainly by an early hand. Cp. Od. 8. 28 IKIT i/wv 8<S | 17c 7rpds
•ijottav yj la-irepiiov dvOpwTroiv. 936 TO 8' Jiros, 'at the word,' accus. of the
object which the feeling concerns: Eur. El. 831 TI XPW a^vjucis; 937
d<rxdX\ois, from root crc^, prop, ' n o t to hold oneself,' 'to be impatient,'
the opposite of the notion expressed by axo-Xij (Curt. Etym. § 170): the
word occurs in Her., Xen., Dem.; and in Od. 2. 193 replaces the epic
dcrxa\dav. C p . Aesch. Ag. 1049 TTUOOI dv, el ireiOoi', dirti6oiq<; 8' urois.
941 4YKPaT11s = *v KP<*-Til '• C
P- f-vap\o% = iv dpxfj, in office, A p p i a n Bell.
Civ. 1. 14. 943 A defective verse, ir<Ss etiras; i\ T^6VI)K« IldXvpos; h a s
been patched up in our best MSS. by a clumsy expansion of the next
verse (see crit note). The lipav supplied by Triclinius (whence some
OIAITTOYS TYPANNOI 177

ME. From Corinth : and at the message which I will speak


anon thou wilt rejoice—doubtless ; yet haply grieve.
Io. And what is it ? How hath it thus a double potency ?
ME. The people will make him king of the Isthmian land,
as 'twas said there.
Io. How then ? Is the aged Polybus no more in power?
ME. NO, verily: for death holds him in the tomb.
Io. How sayest thou ? Is Polybus dead, old man ?
ME. If I speak not the truth, I am content to die.
Io. O handmaid, away with all speed, and tell this to thy
master! O ye oracles of the gods, where stand ye now! This
is the man whom Oedipus long feared and shunned, lest he
should slay him; and now this man hath died in the course of
destiny, not by his hand. [Enter OEDIPUS.
OE. Iocasta, dearest wife, why hast thou summoned me
forth from these doors ?
Io. Hear this man, and judge, as thou listenest, to what the
awful oracles of the gods have come.
vel a %ive. Mini vero magis arridet Nauckii sententia, restituendum suspicantis ?r<2s
eliras; i; riBvriKtv Ol&iirov warrip; Sed utinam vir eximius manum de tabula tollere
voluisset, neve versum 944, qui sanus est, hunc in modiim refingere ; ridvr\Ke IIo\u(3os'
el 8t M, dfifi 6avelv. Praeeunte Nauckio Dindorfius in Poet. Scenic, ed. v. dedit jrws
cliras; 17 Tt9vt[Kev OlStwov iraTijp; | AF. ri9ri]Kti>' el Si fir/, avros dftw davelv. 95O
•Q81<TTT)S, quod praebent M et A, ineptae tantum coniecturae deberi videtur, ut fiiXas
pro fiiyas in v. 742.

late MSS. have -^pov) was plainly a mere guess. Nauck's conj.
OlSfarov irai-ifr; is recommended (1) by the high probability of a gloss
HoXvpos on those words: (2) by the greater force which this form gives
to the repetition of the question asked in 941: (3) by the dramatic
effect for the spectators. 946 » 8«Sv iMurcvpara. Iocasta's scorn is
pointed, not at the gods themselves, but at the yaaireis who profess
to speak in their name. The gods are wise, but they grant no
irpoVoia to men (978). Cp. 712. 947 Xv ia-ri: tvo as 367, 687, 953,
1311, 1515- O. C. 273 iKo/j.r]v iv LKOfj.r)v. T»«TOV T6V avSpo...Tpe'(i<»v
he feared and avoided this man, |uj KTCIVOI (airov). 949
TVXT|S, i.e. in the course of nature, and not by the special death which
the oracle had foretold. Cp. 977. 951 i^eiri^a, the midd. as in «KKO-
(see on 597), /«T<Mre//,7r«r0ai, etc., the act. being properly used
J. S. 12
178 SO<J>OKAEOYI

OI. OUTOS Se TIS nor' ecrri KOL TI /MOI Xeyei;


IO. e« TTJS KopCvdov, irarepa TOV a w dyyeXwv 955
6$s OVK4T OVTCL UoXvfiov, aXk' dXwXora.
OI. TI <£^5, £eV; auros /xot crii <rr][x,6.vTOip yevov.
AY. et TOUTO irpaiTov Set p ' ctTrayyeiXai crae^ws,
eu u r 0 ' ticeivov 0avdcrifJLOV ^e/S^/cora.
OI. Trorepa BOXOLOTLV, 19 foVou £vvak\ayfj; 960
AF. crjatKpa TraXaia craj/Aar' eut-a^et pomj.
OI. i>o<T(H9 d rXTJficov, OJS eoiicev, e(f)0LTo.
AT. Kai T&3 jiiaKpw ye crv/Ajaerpovjuevos XP^V-
OI. </>eu ^>ei), r t 8177' av, w ywcu, o-/co7roird TIS
iv eoTiav, ^ TOUS at'w 965
opvis, wv v<f>Tjyr)T<av iyaj

9 5 7 trquivTup A et reliqui codd. fere omnes : est autem in B, Boil. Laud. 54,
aliis gloss, IITJVVTTIS. ai]fiAf/a.a L a prima manu habuit, quod recentior in <n)fx&vTup
mutare voluit. Ascripsit antiquus corrector in margine yp. uij/xapTup. Nulla prae-

of t h e s u m m o n e r or e s c o r t : see o n O-TCXOVVTOL ( 8 6 O ) . 954 TI (ioi X^ei;


'what does he tell (of interest) for me?' (not 'what does he say to
me?': nor 'what, pray, does he say?'). 956 «Ss: see on 848. 957
oiuulvTCDp is, I think, unquestionably right. A is among the MSS.
which have it, and in several it is explained by the gloss /^i/imf?.
That the word was not unfamiliar to poetical language in the sense
('indicator,' 'informant') which it has here, maybe inferred from Anthol.
6. 62 ( J a c o b s I . 205) KVKkoreprj fio\ifiov, are\i8a>v o-rjfidvTopa irXevprys, t h e
pencil which makes notes in the margin of pages: Nonnus 37. 551
arjfiAvTopi (jxavjj. On the other hand, otnujvas Y«VOU could mean nothing
but 'place yourself in the position of having told me,' and could only be
explained as a way of saying, ' tell me at once.' But such a use of yeve-
crOai with aor. partic. would be unexampled. The only proper use of it
is made clear by such passages as these: Ai. 588 firj irpoSoiis ij/xas
•yevr?, do not make yourself guilty of having betrayed us : Phil. 772 p j
crauToV 6' a//.a | Kaju,e...KTeiVas ywy, do not make yourself guilty of having
slain both yourself and me. 959 «{i (<r8\ Dionys. Hal. 1. 41 thus
quotes a verse from the Tlpo/xrjOiv^ Auojuevos of Aesch. (Nauck fr. 193. 2)
£
tvO' ov ft-dxv^ " °^a KC
" Oovpos Trep wv, where Strabo p . 183 gives <rd<j>
018a; and so Pors. here would write <rd.<f "aOi. But the immediately
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOZ 179

OE. And he—who may he be, and what news hath he


for me ?
10. He is from Corinth, to tell that thy father Polybus
lives no longer, but hath perished.
OE. HOW, stranger ? Let me have it from thine own mouth.
ME. If I must first make these tidings plain, know indeed
that he is dead and gone.
OE. By treachery, or by visit of disease ?
ME. A light thing in the scale brings the aged to their rest.
OE. Ah, he died, it seems, of sickness ?
ME. Yea, and of the long years that he had told.
OE. Alas, alas! Why, indeed, my wife, should one
look to the hearth of the Pythian seer, or to the birds
that scream above our heads, on whose showing I
terea nisi codicis V auctoritate firmari videtur lectio ar/nrivas, quam falsam esse mihi
persuasum habeo : vide annot. 9 5 9 eS tad' codd.: aa<j>' tad' Porson., ged
vide infra : Ka.Ti.a6' Hartung.: t£ia6' Meinekius.

preceding crocus is decisive against this. Soph, had epic precedent,


//. I. 385 ev £tS(ik dyopeve, etc. Cp. 1071, iov lov. Oavdo-qiov pfpi-
K<5ra: At. 516 /toipa... | Ka$ei\ev "AiSou 0ai>ao~i^ous oiKijTopas ; Ph. 424
Ba.vu>v...fypo\&o<;. 960 {woXXo-yjj : see on 34. 961 o-|UKpd poirij, leve
momentum: the life is conceived as resting in one scale of a nicely
poised balance: in the other scale is that which sustains the life.
Lessen this sustaining force ever so little, and the inclination (poTrrj),
though due to a slight cause (oyuKpa), brings the life to the ground
(cvvdgci). Plat. Rep. 556 E uxrirep crw/na vo<7<u8es fiiKpas powfjs e£<o0ev SeTrai
irpos TO Kafivuv,... OVTUI 8rj /cat -q Kara rauTa txciVa) Siaxei-
jroXts a7ro w/iiKpas 7rpo<£ao"£<Ds...vocreT. 963 Yes, he died of
infirmities (fdo-ois Z<J>6ITO), and of the long years (T» |MIKP<J> XP°V(S>> causal
dat.), in accordance with their term (o-n(i.n«Tpoii|ievos, sc. avroh, lit. ' com-
mensurably with them'): the part, being nearly equiv. to o-v/i/xerpws, and
expressing that, if his years are reckoned, his death cannot appear
premature. Cp. 1113, and Ant. 387 iroia £u/u./neTpos Trpovftrjv
'seasonably for what hap?' f965 n}v II\j06(i,avTiv lorCav = nijv HvOol f
TiK-qv ia-Tiav, as Apollo himself is HvOofj.avTis, i. e. 6 nu0oi fiams, Aesch.
Cho. 1030: cp. HvOoKpavros, Tiv66xpr](JTOS, HV$6VIKOS. ia~rta.v, as O. C.
413 Ae\<£iKi7s a.<j> ecrrt'as: Eur. Ion 461 $otj8);ios...yas I /H€O-o/x^>aXos
966 KXajovTas, the word used by Teiresias of the birds when
12—2
180 204>0KAE0YI

efJieWov TTcnepa TOV e/xoV; d Se davaiv


Kevde.i Karw 8rj yrjsm eya 8' oS' ii/ddSe
axjiavcrTos e y ^ o u s ' et Tt ^17 Twyxw Tr66a>
/care(p(7(.f OUTCU O a v vavcov evq g €JXOV.
ra S' ovv Trapovra crvWafiaJv 9e.crvlcrjJ.aTa
Keirai Trap VALSTJ IIo\vy8os OL£L ovSevos.
10. OVKOVV iyco croi ravTa irpovXeyov TraXat;
OI. TjvSas" eyai Se ra ^>o'/8o) TrapyiyojjL-rjv.
10. /A7j vvv er' avraJv fiyjhkv e? dvpov /SaXiys. 975

0 6 7 Kraveh L, A, et ceteri fere omnes : in uno V2 KTeveiv vidi. Kreveiv tamen


cum Dindorfio verum esse duco: plura infra habes. 0 6 8 Post (cdru forte omiserat
5)) prima Laurentiani manus, ipsa vero supplevit. Cum autem A et ceteri 5q ha-

their voice (<£0o'yyos) h a d ceased t o b e clear t o h i m , Ant. i c o i KO.KI3 |


KXa'^ovras oiarpw KO.1 j3e^3apy8apto/ieva). (3v v<f>r]-yiiTol>v ^ . OVTOIV, qnibus
indicibus: 1260 o5s vcjiriyrjTOv TWO'S : C. C. 1588 v^yjyrjrrjpo'S OTJSCVOS
^>I'A.OJI/. In these instances the absence of the part, is softened by the
noun which suggests the verb; but not so in O. C. 83 o5s C/AOV jxovryi
TrcAas. 967 Kreveiv. KTavav, which the MSS. give, cannot be pronounced
positively wrong; but it can hardly be doubted that Soph, here wrote
KTtveiv. If Kravelv is right, it is the only aor. infin. after //.CAAOJ in Soph.,
who has the fut. infin. 9 times [El. 359, 379, 5 3 8 : Ai. 925, 1027,
1287: Ant. 4 5 8 : Phil. 483, 1084): and the pres. infin. 9 times {El.
305, i 4 8 6 : Ai. 443 = O. T. 678, 1385: O. C. 1773: Tr. 79, 756: Phil.
409). Aeschylus certainly has the aor. in P. V. 625 fujroi )u,e Kpvi//rjs
TOC0' oTrcp fniXXw iraOeiv. Excluding the Laconic ISijv in Ar. Lys. 117,
there are but two instances in Comedy, Av. 366 TL fieWer
and Ach. 1159 /«A\OVTOS \a.$<Tiv. Cp. W. G. Rutherford,
nichus pp. 420—425, and Goodwin, GVft^ Moods and Tenses § 23. 2.
The concurrence of tribrachs in the 4th and 5 th places gives a
semi-lyric character which suits the speaker's agitation. 968 Kettki, is
hidden. Ai. 635 'AiSa Ktvdwv. In Tr. 989 o-iyfj KevOeiv may be re-
garded as transitive with a suppressed a c e , ' t o shroud (thy thought)
in silence.' Elsewhere Kev9m is always trans., and only the perf. KtKtvda
intransitive. 8r| here nearly = rjBt]: cp. Ant. 170 or' ovv U>\OVTO... | eyto
KpaTr] &r)...e)(a). 969 otyavoros = ov xj/avo-a?: cp. d.i^6j3rjTOi 885 (with

note) : Phil. 688 dfxipiirXr]KTa p66ia, billows beating around: Tr. 446
OIAITTOYZ TYPANNOZ 181

was doomed to slay my sire ? But he is dead, and hid already


beneath the earth ; and here am I, who have not put hand to
spear.—Unless, perchance, he was killed by longing for me:
thus, indeed, I should be the cause of his death. But the
oracles as they stand, at least, Polybus hath swept with him
to his rest in Hades: they are worth nought.
Io. Nay, did I not so foretell to thee long since ?
OE. Thou did'st: but I was misled by my fear.
Io. Now no more lay aught of those things to heart.
beant, nulla de ea voce suspicio inde oriri debet quod deest in codd. Trin. et T.
Dindorfius, qui olim Karudev coniecerat, iam Harm Si; reposuit. Coniecit Nauckius
Kevdet Kara 777s' OiSlirovs 5'. Dedit autem ex coniectura Blaydesius Kara K^KevBe yrjs.

O?, blaming: Eur. Hec. 1117 viroirTos, suspecting. Cp. note on


515. etTi|Hj, an abrupt afterthought:—unless perchance: see
on 124. Tw|i<i ir6B<j): cp. 7 9 7 : Od. 11. 202 <roV..7rd0os, longing for
thee. 970 ttr\ 'J: cp. 1075 : Phil. 467 irkiiv /J.rj '£ diroiTTOV. i£, as
dist. from uVo, is strictly in place here, as denoting the ultimate, not
the proximate, agency. 971 i-i 8' ovv irap<$vTa: but the oracles as they
stand, at any rate (8' oiSv, 669, 834), Polybus has carried off with him,
proving them worthless (agi' ovSevos, tertiary predicate), and is hidden
with Hades, TO irapovra, with emphasis : even supposing that they have
been fulfilled in some indirect and figurative sense, they certainly have
not been fulfilled to the letter. The oracle spoke of bloodshed (^oveus,
794), and is not satisfied by Kari^Oiro i£ i/xov in the sense just explained.
o-uWapuv is a contemptuous phrase from the language of common life :
its use is seen in Aristophanes Plut. 1079 vvv 8' d-n-iOi ^aipwv o-v\Xafi<i>v
d, now be off—with our blessing and the girl: Av. 1469
crv\Xa/36vre's rd irrepd, let us pack up our feathers and
be off: Soph, has it twice in utterances of angry scorn, O. C. 1383 av
8' Ipp airo7TTt»OTos T€ KaTrcLTup ifiov I KdKuSv Ka.Ki<TTe, TatrSe avWafioiv
apas, begone...and take these curses with thee: Phil. 577 eWAei
o-cavTov o-v\\a/3u>v IK TrjaSe yrj<s, 'hence in thy ship—pack from this
land !' 974 riifSas instead of 7rpovA.ey«: see on 54. 975 vw, enforcing the
argument introduced by OVKOW (973), is clearly better than the weak vvv.
is 6v(ibv P<£X.x|s: Her. 7. 51 cs OVJWV jSaXeu KCU TO iraAatov liros: 8. 68 KUI
ToSe « dvpov /JaAcv, cos K.T.X. I . 84 iStoV...TtoV Ttva AuSioj/ Kara/faira...
KOI h OVJIOV iftdXtTo. The active in the Bios '0/j.rjpov § 30 «
ZfiaXe TO prjOiv. In El. 1347 oiS« y h Ovfiov <f>ep<i> is not really
182 IO0OKAEOYI

OI. Kal 7TC3? TO fj.r)Tpo<; XeKrpov OVK oKvelv fie Set;


1O. TI o av (popoiT avapwiros, OJ r a Try? T V ^ ;
Kpa.Tei, TTpovoia, S' icrrlv ouSei'os o~a(f>7]<;;
eiKrj KpaTicrrov tfiv, oirws S I W I T O TIS.
cru S' eis TO. fjL7)Tp6<i fxrj (ftofiov vvfityeviLaTa' 980
7roXX.ot y a p rjSrj Kav oveupacriv (SpoToxv
fx/rjTpX £vvevva<r9r)<rav. d\\a ravff OTCO
Trap' ovSev ecrri, pacna TOV j3Cov <j>epei.
OI. KaXaJs arravra Tavr' av i&Cp-qro <TOL,
el iirj 'Kvpei ^eucr' rj reKOvcra" vvv S' eiret
^ , Tracr' dvdyKT), Kel KaXaJs Xeyeis, OKvelv.
10. Kai //,i)i' /Aeya? y' ccfrdaXfJios 01 Trarpos Ta<f>oL.
0 7 6 W^os OIJK oKveiv fit dei L, ubi \iKTpov super X^xos corrector scripsit. "Kticrpov
OVK 6KV(IV /ie Set A. Utramque lectionem codd. aliquot firmant: suadent tamen
pvd/x6s et ordo verborum ut cod. A potius sequamur quam scribamus OVK &Kvelv /xe
Set X^x°s- 9 8 7 ye post /ityas in codd. deest omnibus. Cuius rei causam

similar. 977 u, 'for whom,' in relation to whom: not, 'in whose


opinion.' TA TI]S TU^S is here somewhat more than a mere periphrasis
for rj Tvxq, since the plur. suggests successive incidents. rixr\ does not
here involve denial of a divine order in the government of the world, but
only of man's power to comprehend or foresee its course. Cp. Thuc. 5.
104 TrixrrevofiCev rrj fx,ev TI/\TJ IK TOV 6UOV JXTJ iXaaadaeaBai. Lysias or. 24
§ 2 2 ov /Jiovov jj.iTaXa.fHiv rj Tv^rj ju.01 eZaiKtu ev Trj iraTpi&i, t h e Only privi-
lege which Fortune (i.e. my destiny) has permitted me to enjoy in my
country. 978 irpo'vowi. Bentley on Phalaris (xvn, Dyce ii. 115) quotes
Favorinus in Laertius Plat. § 24 as saying that Plato Trpwros kv cjuXocrofaa
...wv6iJ.a<Te...0eov irpovoiav. Bentley takes this to mean that Plato was
the first to use irpovoua. of divine providence (not merely of human fore-
thought), and cites it in proof that Phalaris Ep. 3 (= 40 Lennep) ecus
av 17 SioiKoScra irpovoia Trjv avTqv a.pji.oviav TOV KOCT/JLOV <j>v\a.TTy is lat er t h a n
Plato. Lennep, in his edition of Phalaris (p. 158), puts the case more
exactly. The Stoics, not Plato, first used irpovoia, without further
qualification, of a divine providence. When Plato says Trjv TOV Otov...
•Trpovoiav (Tim. 30 c), Trpovotas 0ei3i/ (44 c), the phrase is no more than
Herodotus had used before him, 3. 108 TOV 6etov -q vpovoiTj. The meaning
of FavoHnus was that Plato first established in philosophy the conception
of a divine providence, though popular language had known such a
OlAinOYZ TYPANNOZ 183

OE. But surely I must needs fear my mother's bed ?


Io. Nay, what should mortal fear, for whom the decrees of
Fortune are supreme, and who hath clear foresight of nothing ?
'Tis best to live at random, as one may. But fear not thou
touching wedlock with thy mother. Many men ere now have
so fared in dreams also : but he to whom these things are as
nought bears his life most easily.
OE. All these bold words of thine would have been well,
were not my mother living; but as it is, since she lives, I must
needs fear—though thou sayest well.
Io. Howbeit thy father's death is a great sign to cheer us.
fuisse suspicor, quod cum /ii^ycts scriptum esset /tel"^ (ut in A), alterum r', tanquam
errore duplicatum, delevit impeiitus metri librarius. Restituit autem ye Porsonus,
qui ad Eur. Phoen. v. 1638 haec dicit: ' Ita postulat metrum...idemque coniecit
nescio quis in editione Londinensi a. 1746, sed neglexit Brunckius.'

phrase before. Note that in O. C. 1180 wpoVoia TOV &eov = 'reverence for
the god': in Eur. Phoen. 637 a man acts 8eta. -rrpovoia = 'with inspired
foresight': in Xen. Mem. 1. 4. 6ffpovo^TtKaJs= not, 'providentially,' but
simply, 'with forethought' 979 CIKTJ: cp. Plat. Gorg. 503 E OVK clur}
ipti, dXX' <uro/3Xcnw irpos -n (with some definite object in view).
KpoTioTov...oir<os SwaiTo. Cp. Ant. 666 aXA' 6V woXis cmfo-eie rov8e xprj
KXVCLV: where \PV xXveiv = Sucauos av KXVOL. SO here, though co-u (not
r/v) must be supplied with KpaVioTor, the whole phrase = tlni} Kparunov av
TIS l<arj. Xen. Cyr. I. 6. 19 TOV...avrov Xeyctv a psrj cra^iaSs elSeirj <ftel-
BttrOai 8ei— 6p0<Ss av c^eiSoiro. 980 <j>o(3ou. (f>o/3ei(r6ai es n = to have
fears regarding it: Tr. 1211 d <f>o/3el Tpos TOVTO : O. C. 1119 pr}
6avp.a.t,i Trpos TO Ai?rapcs. 981 Kav ovtCpao-iv, in dreams also (as well as
in this oracle); and, as such dreams have proved vain, so may this
oracle. Soph, was prob. thinking of the story in Her. 6. 107 that
Hippias had such a dream on the eve of the battle of Marathon, and
interpreted it as an omen of his restoration to Athens. Cp. the story
of a like dream coming to Julius Caesar on the night before he crossed
the Rubicon (Plut. Caes. 32, Suet. 7). 983 irap" ov&v: Ant. 34 TO
Trpoiyfi.' ayeLv \ ou'x ws irap' ovBiv. 984 «|e£pt)To: the e£- glances at her
blunt expression of disbelief, not her frank reference to a horrible
subject. 987 «f>0a\.|i.os: the idea is that of a bright, sudden comfort: so
Tr. 203 Deianeira calls on her household to rejoice, <os aeXnTov op.[x
ip.ol I <f>ijp.ris dvaaxpv rrjaSe vvv Kapirovfieda (the Unexpected n e w s t h a t
Heracles has returned). More often this image denotes the 'darling' of
184 I04>0KAE0YS

OI. /xeya?, ^vvit)^' dXXa 1-775 Z>o>o~q<; (f>6/3os.


AF. Trotas Se KOU yvvaiicbs e/f^oySeicr^' vnep;
OI. MepoVijs, yepaue, TLo\vf3os 17s w/cei //.era. 990
Al. T(, o ecrr e/ceii^is VJU.II/ e? (popov (pepov;
OI. Oe/jkarov jU.cu'Teujna SeivdV, u> £ei>e.
AT. rj pyjjov; rj ou^t OefiLTov ak\ov elSevai;
OI. juaXto-ra y ' 1 CTTTC ya/3 /xe Ao^ias TTOTC
j fjuyy}v<u JU.IJT/31 T^/xavTOV, TO re 995
v aifia ^epcrX r a i s e/iats cXeii'.
x tf Kopivdos ef e^ioO irakai
9 9 3 15 ou Bejxirbv codd. omnes, quasi librariis hiatum inter ij et oi) legitimum esse
arbitrantibus: est tamen in cod. T superscriptum <rwifrri<ns. Veram loci medicinam
esse credo non quod Johnsonius proposuit, rj oi dc/utrrbp, sed quod Brunckius, rj ov%l

a family (Aesch. Cho. 934 o<£0aA/x.os O'LKIOV), or a dynasty that is 'the light'
of a land (SoccAi'as S' law \ 6<f>6a\fi,6$t Pind. 01. 2. 9: o BCITTOV TraXaios
oX^3os,...7rvpyos ao-T£os, o/i/ia T£ ^atvvdraTOv | ^kvoiai, Pyth. 5. 51). Not
merely (though this notion comes in) 'a great help to seeing' that oracles
are idle (S^'Xwo-ts cus ra juarrev/AaTa Ka/«Ds «xei> schol.). A certain hardness
of feeling appears in the phrase: Iocasta was softened by fear for Oedipus
and the State: she is now elated. 989 Kal with «i<4>o|3et<rfl<:; 772, 851. 991
tKeirns, what is there belonging to her, in her (attributive gen.): Eur. I. A.
28 OIJK ayafuu ravr aySpos a/nor«os. h <|>oPov <|>^pov, tending to fear: cp. 519.
992 6«i\aTov, sent upon us by the gods : cp. 255. 993 The MSS. having
ov 9t|iiTov, the question is between ov'xl 8C|UTOV and ov Otfjuo-rov. The
former is much more probable, since 0«/UTO'S is the usual form, found in
Attic prose, in Eur. (as Or. 97 crot 8" ov^t Oefinov), and in Soph. O. C.
1758 aXX' ov OefiiTov K€L<rt (jLoXeiv. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d Oeftia-TO's is a rare
poet, form, found once in Pindar (who has also 0e/xu-o's), and twice
in the lyrics of Aesch. H a d we aXX<p, the subject of 9«|u-rov would be
lidyrcvpa: the accus. dXXov shows 6«|UTAV to be impersonal, as in Eur.
Or. 97, Pind. Pyth. 9. 42 ov O^JXITOV l^evSei Qiyeiv. 996 T6 irarp^ov otjio
IXeiv, is strictly 'to achieve (the shedding of) my father's blood.' Classical
Greek had no such phrase as at/xa^tii/ or tKxeiV in the sense of 'to slay.'
alpeiv is to make a prey of, meaning 'to slay,' or 'to take,' according to
the context (Tr. 353 EvpvTo'v 0' eXot rijv 6' vij/Lirvpyov OlxaXiav). Cp.
fr. 726 oivSpos at/na o-vyye»'£9 | xretVas, which is even bolder than this, but
similar, since here we might have had simply TOV Trarepa IXtiv, 'to slay
OIAITTOYS TYPANNOI 185

OE. Great, I know; but my fear is of her who lives.


ME. And who is the woman about whom ye fear ?
OE. Merope, old man, the consort of Polybus.
ME. And what is it in her that moves your fear ?
OE. A heaven-sent oracle of dread import, stranger.
ME. Lawful, or unlawful, for another to know ?
OE. Lawful, surely. Loxias once said that I was doomed
to espouse mine own mother, and to shed with mine own hands
my father's blood. Wherefore my home in Corinth was long
Bijinhv. Cum autem in Bodl. Laud. 54 dXXois pro aXXoJ" scriptum invenissem, venit
mihi in mentem, ut cuivis poterat, TJ OVK aWoitri Be/urdv eld&ai; Prior in eandem
coniecturam inciderat Blaydes.

my father': Eur. Or. 284 c'pyaorat S' i/xol | /jirjTp&ov alfjia, I have wrought
the murder of a mother. 997 «|l(j.ov, = 'on my part': 11 KopivOos4g e|u>0
(iaKpav airipKeiTO = ' Corinth was inhabited by me at a great distance,'
meaning, ' I took good care not to go near my old home at Corinth.'
This implies as the corresponding active form, iy<a /laKpdv d-n-iaKow
r-qv Ko'pii^ov, I inhabited Corinth (only) at a great distance, i.e.
shunned inhabiting it at all: where the paradoxical use of aVoiKeiv
has been suggested by contrast with CVOIKCLV. The phrase is one
of those which, instead of saying that a thing is not done, ironically
represent it as done under a condition which precludes it; as here
the condition expressed by dizo precludes the act described by
OLKelv. See below 1273 Iv O-KO'TQ>... | o\f/oiaO'. Cp. Ant. 715 virriois
KWTW I o-rpiij/as TO Xomov <jik/iao-iv vavTiWtTai, having upset his ship, he
makes the rest of his voyage keel uppermost (/. e. his voyage comes to an
a b r u p t e n d ) : id. 310 lv ciSoVes TO KepSos h>Qiv olcniov | TO Xonrov dp-rrd-
: where etSo'res means 'taught by capital punishment': Ai. 100
SIJ TCI/A' d<f>at,pdo-$(ov oir\a. We must not, then, render: (1)
' Corinth was inhabited (by others) at a great distance from m e ' : where
If ifiov would be very harsh for dv ifi.ov. When IK denotes distance from,
it refers to things or places. Nor (2) 'Corinth was exchanged by me
for a distant home,' as if this were the pass, of eyii d-TnpKow ix Tiys
KopivOov, 'migrated from': where both the use of the passive
and the use of the imperf. tense would be incorrect. airoiK«tv is
a comparatively rare word. Eur. has it twice (H. F. 557: I. A. 680:
in both with gen., '•to dwell far from'): Thuc. once with /naKpav
(3. 55) and Xen. once (Oecon. 4. 6),—both absol., as = '/<? dwell afar\-
186 IO<t>OKAEOYI

fxiv, dXX'
TO. TWf TeKovTw ofJLjjLaO' TJSCO-TOV j3\eveLv.
AT. •>} yap r a S ' 6KVU>V KeWev rjad' aTroTTToXis; IOOO
OI. Trarpo? r e yjp-Qtfxtv JJLTJ (fyovevs elvat, ylpov.
A F . Tt 817/ iya> o u ^ i TouSe TO{! <f>6/Sov cr, dva^,
ineCvep evvovs rfkdov, i^eXvcrdfirjv;
OI. KCU fLrjv -^apiv y av d^iav Xa/8ots ifjiov.
A F . Kal /A^V jLtaXicrra TOUT' d(j>LK6fji.r)v) 6Vcos 1005
(TOU TTpOS SojLlOUS ekdoVTOS ev TTpd^aLflC TL.
OI. aXX. OVTTOT' et//.t Tots cfivTevcra.crCi' y 6[JLOV.
AF. w Trat, KaXw? et SrjXos OVK elSats TL Spas.
OI. 7ra5s, w yeptxii; irpos Oeaiv SiSaavce jae.
AF. et Twj'Se <^euyets OVVZK et? OIKOUS yxoXeiv. 1010
OI. TapySw ye JLI^ JUOI $ o i ^ o s i£e\6r/
AF. 7) JU,T) /Atacrjua TaJv (f>vTevcrdvT(ov
OI. TOVT a i r o , irpecrfiv, TOVTO JX eicraei <f)oj3eZ
1OO1 Trarpls re codd.: Trarpds ye Elmsleius, Elaydes., secundum Hermanni con-
iecturam, quam ipsius 5ei5re/3ai <ppovH5es improbaverant. 1OO2 (ywy' ov L,
eraso x* post ou: £7107' ofy! A, V, Bodl. Laud. 54: ^7017' oi) reliqui codd. fere omnes,

as prob. Theocr. 15. 7 (reading <3 /nOC a7rotKcZs with Meineke): Plato
once thus {Legg. 753 A), and twice as = to emigrate («K Toprwos, Legg.
708 A, is ©ouptovs, Euthyd. 271 c) : in which sense Isocr. also has it
twice (or. 4 § 122, or. 6 § 84): Pindar once (with accus. of motion to a
place), Pyth. 4.258 KaAXiWav diruKtio-av, they went and settled at Callista.
998CTTVX<S>S,because of his high fortunes at Thebes. 999 T<SV T«K(!VT<I>V= TWV
yoveW : Eur. Hipp. 1081 TOVS Te.K.ovia.% ocrta Spal', and oft.: cp. H. F. 975
/?oa §€ /J-tJTrjp, w TCKWV [ = <Sffarep],Tt Spas ; 1000 dir<JirroX.is, exile, as O. C.
208. 1001 ira/rpos n. So the MSS., rightly. It is the fear of Oed. regarding
his mother by which the messenger's attention has been fixed. In ex-
plaining this, Oed. has indeed mentioned the other fear as to his father:
but in v. 1000, i? yap raS' OKVWV, the messenger means: ' S o this, then,
was the fear about her which kept you away?'—alluding to his own
question in 991. As the speaker's tone seems to make light of the
cause, Oed. answers, ' and that further dread about my father which I
mentioned.' Trarpos -ye is unsuitable, since it would imply that this was
his sole fear. 1002 iyooiJxt: synizesis, as Ph. 551 e'yw tl/u, O. C. 998
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOI 187

kept by me afar; with happy event, indeed,—yet still 'tis sweet


to see the face of parents.
ME. Was it indeed for fear of this that thou wast an exile
from that city ?
OE. And because I wished not, old man, to be the slayer of
my sire.
ME. Then why did I not free thee, king, from this fear, see-
ing that I came with friendly purpose ?
OE. Indeed thou should'st have guerdon due from me.
ME. Indeed 'twas chiefly for this that I came—that, on thy
return home, I might reap some good.
OE. Nay, I will never go near my parents.
ME. Ah my son, 'tis plain enough that thou knowest not
what thou doest.
OE. HOW, old sir ? For the gods' love, tell me.
ME. If for these reasons thou shrinkest from going home.
OE. Aye, I dread lest Phoebus prove himself true for me.
ME. Thou dreadest to be stained with guilt through thy
parents ?
OE. Even so, old man—this it is that ever affrights me.
Erunckius: £yi> o$xl coniecit Porsonus, receperunt edd. plerique. Si Hyur/' oi genuina
lectio fuisset, vix transiturum erat ov in oixl: contra, si ovxl in ou semel corrupissent
librarii, facillime poterat £y& in tyosyc mutari. 1O11 rap/3i3 L, A, codd. reliqui
fere omnes: Tapft&v Erfurdt., Vat. a, c.

€yio o£8e, and El. 1281 : Ant. 458 Jyu OVK. 1004 KO.1 HTJV, properly
'however'; here, like our 'well indeed' (if you would do so). The
echoing Kal |M)V of 1005 expresses eager assent. Cp. Ant. 221. 1005 TOOT
a(j>iK6|j.T|v: see on 788. 1008 KOXUS, pulchre, belle, thoroughly,—a col-
loquialism, perh. meant here to be a trait of homely speech : cp. Alciphron
Ep. 1. 36 ireivqaw TO KOIXOV (' I shall be fine and hungry'): Aelian Ep. 2
ZireKoijre TO CTKEXOS irdw XP>7<T<3S ('in good style '). 1011 With Erfurdt I
think that rapp&v is right; not that TapP<3 could not stand, but Greek
idiom distinctly favours the participle. Ant. 403 KP. r/ KOU ^wirji KOX
Aeyeis 6p6u>s a <j>yjs ; $ Y . Tavrrjv y' I8<ov Od-TrTovcrav. ib. 517 A N . . . .aSeX<^>os
SsXf.ro. K P . iropOwv ye Tijv8e y^v. Plat. Symp. 164 E euror ovv o n . . .
r]KOifii.—/caAws (v. I. xaXws y), <l<ftr), TTOIWV. C p . 1130 fuvaXAafay.
]: cp. 1182 ifrjKOi cra<f>rj, come true. 1013 Cp. Tr. 408 TOVT avr
i88

AF. dp' 6lcr6a Srjra Trpos StK^s ovSev Tpe[xa)v ;


OI. 7TC3S 8' ou^t, Trais y ' ei TcwSe yewjjT&Ij' e(j>vv; 1015
1
AT. odovveK 77V crot IIoXu/3o9 ovSet ev yeVei.
OI. 7T&JS eiTras; ov y a p IIoXv/3os i£e<f>vcre /xe;
AF, ou JXSXXOV ovSev rovSe raVSpos, aXX' icroi'.
OI. Kat 7rais o <f>vcra<; ef tcrou TW fir)8ev[;
AT. aXX' ou cr' iyeCvaT' OVT' e/ceii'os OVT' eyw. 1020
OI. aXX' avrl TOU S>} TratSa JJJ wuofxdCeTo ;
AF. hwpoV TTOT,' Icrdl, TMV i[JiSv ^ELpbiV \af3<OV.
OI. Ka^5 eSS* avr' aXX^s ^eipos ecrrep^ev yueya;
Al. ->j y a p irpLV avrov eg'eireicr aTratoia.
OI. (TV S' ijXTrokrjCTa<i rj r u ^ w v -JU,' aura) StSws; 1025
AF. evpaiv vavraiats ev Ki^aipaJvo? 7TTU^ars.
OI. o5So(.7ropets Se Trpos Tt rovcrSe rovs TOTTOUS ;
AP. ivTavff opetois TTOI/AVIOIS hrecrT&Tovv.
OI. TTOLfJirjv y a p "qcyda Kairl OrjTeia
1O25 TeKiiv codd. Coniecturam procul dubio veram Tiixwy, quam Bothio Din-
dorfius, Foertschio Hermannus tribuit, receperunt Herm., Dind., Nauck., Blaydes.

TOVTO (TOV fjLaOfiv. 1014 irpAs [8CKT]S, as justice would prompt,


'justly.' irpis prop. = 'from the quarter of,' then ' o n the side o f :
Thuc. 3. 59 ov u-pos T-iJs v^itTtpas So^rys...Ta8e, not in the interest of your
reputation : Plat. Gorg. 459 c idv n -tj/xiv 7rpos \6yov ij, 'if it is in the
interest of our discussion.' Rep. 470c ovSiv...a.Tr6 rpo-n-ov Acytts1 opa Srj
K<xl d roSe Trpos Tpoirov \eyu>, ' correctly.' Theophr. Char. 30 (= 26 in
my 1st ed. p. 156) •n-pos rpoVo-u -niakCiv, to sell on reasonable terms.
1016 ivy^vei: [Dem.] or. 47 § 70 OVK toriv iv ya'€L <TOI i) avdptx>tro<s,
compared with § 72 ifnol Se OVTC yevu TrpoarJKtv. 1019 Tiu |j.r)S«v£, dat.
of d /xijSeis, he who is as if he were not (in respect of consanguinity
with me): Ant. 1325 TOV OVK ovra jUaAAov T] firjSeva. 1023 air' OXXTJS
X«pos JA \afiu>v. 1025 l|iiroX.ii(ras...ri TUX^V: z'.£ ' D i d you buy me,
or did you light upon me yourself in the neighbourhood of Corinth?'
Oed. is not prepared for the Corinthian's reply that he had found the
babe on Cithaeron. 4|nro\ijo-as: cp. the story of Eumaeus (Od. 15.
403—483) who, when a babe, was carried off by Phoenician merchants
from the wealthy house of his father in the isle Syria, and sold to
OlAinOYI TYPANNOI 189

ME. Dost thou know, then, that thy fears are wholly
vain ?
OE. HOW SO, if I was born of those parents ?
ME. Because Polybus was nothing to thee in blood.
OE. What sayest thou ? Was Polybus not my sire ?
ME. NO more than he who speaks to thee, but just so
much.
OE. And how can my sire be level with him who is as
nought to me ?
ME. Nay, he begat thee not, any more than I.
OE. Nay, wherefore, then, called he me his son ?
ME. Know that he had received thee as a gift from my
hands of yore.
OE. And yet he loved me so dearly, who came from
another's hand ?
ME. Yea, his former childlessness won him thereto.
OE. And thou—had'st thou bought me or found me by
chance, when thou gavest me to him ?
ME. Found thee in Cithaeron's winding glens.
OE. And wherefore wast thou roaming in those regions ?
ME. I was there in charge of mountain flocks.
OE. What, thou wast a shepherd—a vagrant hireling ?

Laertes in Ithaca: the Phoenician nurse says to the merchants, TOV


KCV ayoifx im vijos, o 8' VJUV //.vpiov <uvov | a\<j>oi, oirrj 7rc/3a(rijT£ KO.T' dAAo-
6p6ov<; avBpunrov;. TU\I1IV is answered by €i5/Dwv(io2 6)as in 973 irpovXeyov
by 7;i!Sas. Cp. 1039. The TCKWV of the MSS. is absurd after vv. 1016—
1020. The man has just said, 'Polybus was no more your father than
I am'; Oed. is anxiously listening to every word. H e could not ask. a
moment later, ' H a d you bought me, or were you my fatherV 1025
The fitness of the phrase vairatais in-uxats becomes vivid to anyone who
traverses Cithaeron by the road ascending from Eleusis and winding
upwards to the pass of Dryoscephalae, whence it descends into the
plain of Thebes. 1029 farl &]•«£*, like bn /xio-fty Her. 5. 65 etc.
Orjreia, labour for wages, opp. to SouXeia: Isocr. or. 14 § 48 TTOWOVS f>Xv
... SowXevovTas, aAAovs 8' ITT\ Orjniav JoVras. irXav^s, roving in search of
any employment that he can find (not merely changing summer for
winter pastures, 1137). The word falls lightly from him who is so
i go I04>.0KAE0YZ

AF. crou 8', & T4KVOV, o-aTifp ye TW TOT' IV *xp6v(d. 1030


OI. TI 8' aXyos tcrx o l ' r ' "M^ Ka/coisf fie XafjuftdveLS;
AY. iroZoiv dv apOpa fiaprvprjcre.L€v TO, era.
OI. oifioi, Tt TOUT OLpxcuov iweireis KCLKOU l
AT. \vot (r V^OVTO. SiaTopous TTOSOU' d/c/ias-
OI. Seitw y oVeiSos enrapydveov dvtikon.iqv. l°35
AF. WOT' d)voiidcr9rj<i £K TU^IJS Taurus 05 et.
OI. w irpos ^ec3v, irpo<; firjTpos, rj TraT/sos; (f>pdcroi>.
AT. OVK oTS'1 d Sous 8e T a u / e^iou Xwoi' <f>povtZ
OI. 7] yo-p irap a.Kkov [JL eAapes ovo auTos TV^COV ;
1O3O croO 3'.. .<rwT?jp 76 cum uno cod. Flor. Abb. 152 (Y) recte probaverunt Elmsleius,
Dindorf., Wunder., Campbell. L et ceteri codd. cod y'...i70iT^p ye habent, quod
tuentur Brunck., Hermann., Blaydes. Quod Nauckius dare maluit, aov T\..aarrip ye,
hebetat aciem responsi quo senex regem superbius interrogantem leniter perstringit.
1O31 iv KCIKOIS /jt,e Xanfiiveis A et plerique (omisso in duobus codd. Mec'iolanen-
sibus /ie): (v K<upo~<r lie \ap-f}Ai>eis L , iv Kaipoia Xafifidveis Pal. Mirum sane foret si a

soon to be o' •n-Xavr/rr]'; OiSiVous (O. C. 3). 1030 orov 8'. With the
<rov -y' of most MSS. : ' Yes, and thy preserver' (the first ye belonging to
the sentence, the second to o-corifp). Cp. Her. i. 187- fj.rj /JLCVTOI yc p.rj
<nravi<ja<; ye ctAAcos dvoiiy: where the second yc belongs to Giravi-
era's. There is no certain example of a double ye in Soph, which is
really similar. With <rofl 8": 'But \hypreserver': the ye still belonging
to woTiyp, and 8J opposing this thought to that of v. 1029. For 8^ ye
cp. Aesch. Ag. 938 AI\ ^Vf-V ~/€ fiwroi Srjjj.60povs fj.eya uOevei. KA.
d 8' a<j>66vr]T6<; y OVK eTrt^ijXos 7re'\«i. 'True, but....' T h e gentle
reproof conveyed by 8^ ye is not unfitting in the old man's mouth:
and a double ye, though admissible, is awkward here. 1031 T£ 8'
ciX-yos K.T.X. And in what sense wert thou my a-mrrjp ? T h e Iv KO.KOIS
of most MSS. is intolerably weak: 'what pain was I suffering when
you found me in trouble ?' From the iv Kaipoto- of L and another
good MS. (a most unlikely corruption of so familiar a word as KaKots),
I conjecture e'-yiaipuv, 'when you lighted on m e ' : cp. 1026, 1039.
Soph, has that verb in El. 863 T\VI\TOI% OXKOIS iynvpo-ai (meet with).
1035 oTropydvuv, 'from my swaddling clothes': i.e. 'from the earliest
days of infancy' (cp. Ovid Heroid. 9. 22 Et tener in cunis iam love
dignus eras). The babe was exposed a few days after birth (717). El.
1139 ovTe...Trvpo% I dvei\6/j.r]v...a.6\iov j3dpos. Some understand, ' I was
furnished with cruelly dishonouring tokens of my birth,' 8«ivws tnwei'Stcrra
OlAinOYS TYPANNOZ 191

ME. But thy preserver, my son, in that hour.


OE. And what pain was mine when thou foundest me in
distress ?
ME. The ankles of thy feet might witness.
OE. Ah me, why dost thou speak of that old trouble ?
ME. I freed thee when thou had'st thine ankles pinned
together.
OE. Aye, 'twas a dread brand of shame that I took from
my cradle.
ME. Such, that from that fortune thou wast called by the
name which still is thine.
OE. Oh, for the gods' love—was the deed my mother's or
father's ? Speak!
ME. I know not; he who gave thee to me wots better of
that than I.
OE. What, thou had'st me from another ? Thou did'st not
light on me thyself?
vera lectione KCDCOIS falsa sed exquisita Ktupots, metro eadem repugnans, in optimo
codice extitisset. Immo ipsum illud iv jccupois vulneris est antiqui cicatrix. Restitu-
endum credo iyKvp&v /ic \a/if}dreis: cf. Tir^iv in vv. 1025, 1039. Vulgata quidem
1. iv KtiKoh hie magis languet quam ut ferri possit. Coniecit iv KO.\§ Wunder., iv
<rndrp(wrt ('in cunis,' omisso /te) Nauck., $ KCKHV Blaydes., iv vairais Dindorf.

o-irapyava, alluding to a custom of tying round the necks of children, when


they were exposed, little tokens or ornaments, which might afterwards serve
as means of recognition (crepundia, monumentd): see esp. Plautus Rudens
4. 4. in—126, Epidicus 5. 1. 34: and Rich s.v. Crepundia, where a
wood-cut shows a statue of a child with a string of crepundia hung over
the right shoulder. Plut. Thes. 4 calls such tokens yvwpi<r^ara.. In Ar.
Ach. 431 the (nrdpyava of Telephus have been explained as the tokens
by which (in the play of Eur.) he was recognised; in his case, these were
paKia/j-ara (431). But here we must surely take <rirap-ydv«v with dv«i\6-
l«)v. 1038 <»<rr« assents and continues: '(yes,) and so...' Ss et, i.e.
OiSiVovs : see on 718. 1037 irpos |M]Tpos, i\ irarpos; SC. oveiSos dva.X6fx.riv
(1035): 'was it at the hands of mother or father (rather than at those
of strangers) that I received such a brand?' The agitated speaker
follows the train of his own thoughts, scarcely heeding the inter-
posed remark. He is not thinking so much of his parents' possible
cruelty, as of a fresh clue to their identity. Not: ' was I so
named by mother or father?' The name—even if it could be con-
192 I04>0KAE0YZ

AF. OVK, dWd TroLfj.rjv aXXos e/cSi'Swcri /JLOL. 1040


01. rts OUTOS ; y] Kdroio~6a S^XaJcrai Xoyw;
AF. TWV Aaiov BTJTTOV TIS cavofid^ero.
OI. ^ TOU Tvpdvvov rrjcrSe yrjs irdXau TTOT4;
AY. nakicTTa- TOVTOV rdvSpos ouros r\v
OI. Tj K<XO~T €TL (,(01/ OVTOS, CuCTT 1061V
A l . V/ACIS y apicrT eioetr av
OI. eoTiv rts Vjjitov TWV irapecrTcoTcov
ocrns /caroiSe TOV fioTrjp ov ivviirei,
v » T s » 3 -v y 3 / 1 / r v s » c \ /

eir o w eTT aypcov eire Kavaao CLCTLOCOU ;


crrjiA-qvaO', (<5s d /catpos evprjcrOai TaSe. 1050
XO. OLfiau jxev ovoev akkov 7] TOP eg aypcov,
ov /ca/xareues irp6o-0ev etcriSeiv drdp
770 a.v r a o o u ^ TJKLO~T av WKao-TT] Xeyoi.
OI. yuvat, voets eKelvou OVTLV' aprtw?
I
fioXelv i(f>L€[ieo-0a ; TO'VS' ovros Xeyei; O55
IO. ri o ovrtv et7re; fjurjdev evTparnrj<;. TO. oe
prjdevra ySovXou /u/^Se [i.envfjo-0ai fxdTrjv.
1 O 5 5 /xo\e?v £cprfpeerffa rbv $' ovrot X^7EI ; L , A , et codd. plerique, cum rbv $'
illud tanquam pro &v 6' dictum Hbrarii acciperent. Itaque super rbv scriptum est in
cod. B &vnvu, in Bodl. Laud. 54 6V. Veram 1. rbvS1 tres saltern codd. praebent (M,
ceived as given before the exposure—is not the sting; and on the
other hand it would be forced to take 'named' as meaning 'doomed
to bear the name.' 1044 Ponjp: cp. 837, 761. 1046 elSeir" = d8eir]Te,
only here, it seems: but cp. cTrc=ci?;Te Od. 21. 195 (doubtful in Ant.
215). eiSeTjuei/ and ci/nei/ occur in Plato {Rep. 581 E, Theaet. 147 A) as
well as in verse. In Dem. or. 14 § 27 KaraOtirc is not certain (Kara-
601TC Baiter and Sauppe): in or. 18 § 324 he has lv6e.(.r)T*. Speaking
generally, we may say that the contracted termination -tiev for -etrjaav is
common to poetry and prose; while the corresponding contractions,
-elpev for -£U7/x£v and -CITE for eu?Te, are rare except in poetry. 1049 ovv
with the first tin, as El. 199, 560 : it stands with the second above, 90,
271, Ph. 345. eir' a7pcov: Od. 2 2. 47 iroAXa jnev iv peydpouriv. ..iroXXa 8'
iir dypov: (cp. O. C. 184 eTrl |evr;s, El. 1136 Kairl yrj<s dXXrjs :) the usual
Attic phrase was h> ayp<3 or KO.T dypovs. 1050 0 xcupis : for the art., cp.
[Plat.] Axiochus 364 B VVV O Kaipos evSttfacr^at rrjv del OpvXovfievrjv vpos
0IAITT0Y2 TYPANNOI 193

ME. NO : another shepherd gave thee up to me.


OE. Who was he ? Art thou in case to tell clearly ?
ME. I think he was called one of the household of Lai'us.
OE. The king who ruled this country long ago ?
ME. The same : 'twas in his service that the man was a
herd.
OE. IS he still alive, that I might see him ?
ME. Nay, ye folk of the country should know best.
OE. IS there any of you here present that knows the herd
of whom he speaks—that hath seen him in the pastures or the
town ? Answer! The hour hath come that these things should
be finally revealed.
CH. Methinks he speaks of no other than the peasant whom
thou wast already fain to see; but our lady locasta might best
tell that.
OE. Lady, wottest thou of him whom we lately summoned ?
Is it of him that this man speaks ?
Io. Why ask of whom he spoke? Regard it not...waste
not a thought on what he said...'twere idle.
M 3 a pr. manu, A); cod. autem Par. 2884 (E), cui rbvS' dubitanter imputatum video,
T<SJ> 0' habet.

aov <To<f}iav. «vpTJ<r8ai: t h e perf. = ' d i s c o v e r e d o n c e for all.' Isocr. or.


15 § 295 T W Svva/j.€va)v Aeyeiv r) irai&eveiv rj iroXis iy/i(3v So/cei yeyevrj-
crOai SiSatr/caXos, to be the established teacher. 1051 Supply h/vbrav
(airov), not tvviitu. The form ot|uu, though often parenthetic (as
Track. 536), is not less common with infm. (Plat. Gorg. 474 A O W eycu
o7//.ai Setv eii/ai), and Soph, often so has it, as El. 1446. 1053 av...av:
see on 862. 1054 vosts = 'you wot of,' the man—i.e. you understand to
whom I refer. We need not, then, write ei KUVOV for IKWOV with A.
Spengel, or voils; Ueivov with Blaydes, who in 1055, reading TOVS', has a
comma at c<£i<(/xeo-#a. Cp. 859. 1055 rdvS' is certainly right: TOV 8'
arose, when the right punctuation had been lost, from a desire to
connect Xfya with I«)>ifyi£<r8a. Dindorf, however, would keep TOV 6':
'know ye him whom we summoned and him of whom this man speaks?'
i.e. ' C a n you say whether the persons are identical or distinct?' But
the language will not bear this. 1056 rl 8' Svnv' dire; Aesch. P. V. 765
OiopTov rj /3poT(iov [yd/iov ya/iti] ; et prfrov, <j>pdo~ov. I I P . TI 8' OVTLV ; Ar.
Av. 997 o-ii 8' ei Tts a.v'hpwv; M. ocms tly.' eyco ; Mmov. Plat. Euthyphr.
J. S. 13
194 IO*OKAEOYZ

OI. OVK av yivoiTO TOVO', oV&>s iy<*> XafScov


(rrjiiela TOLOLVT' OU ^>avw rovfidv yevos.
IO. firj 7T/3OS de&v, elirep n TOV cravTov fiiov 1060
K-qhei, [jLaTevcrrjs TOV0'' aXis voaovcr' iyd.
OI. Odpcrec av /xkv yap ovS" idv
/xijrpos (£avcu T/H'SOUXO? ii<(f>avei
IO. O/ACUS TTI^OU /AOt, Xurcro/Aat' yu.r) Spa raSe.
OI. OT)K ai/ Tridoifj^v fir} ov r a 8 ' eKfj-adelv cra^w?. 1065
IO. /cat JH^V (frpovovcrd y eu r a Xwcrra crot Xeyw.
OI. ra, Xwcrra TOIVVV ravTci [x aXyvvei irdkai.
IO. w SvanTOT/JL1, eWe firjirore yvoi^s os eT.
OI. afet r t s iXdcjv Sevpo TO> fioTrjpd [JLOL ;
S' eare irkovaita -^aipeiv yevei. IO/O
1O61 coffoOcr' ?xw consensu satis mirabili codd. praebent oranes, uno excepto, ut
videtur, codice quodam Chigiano, de quo nihil praeterea compevtum habeo quam
quod scripsit Dindorfius (ed. i860): ' ^ c i ex scholiasta et apographo Chigiano apud
Schowium in libro de charta papyracea Borgiana restitutum pro ? x u ' : idem vero in
Poet. Scenic, ed. quinta (1869), nulla cod. Chigiani mentione facta, soli scholiastae
hanc 1. tribuit. 1O62 0118' av CK rpirris codd.: in L vocis av accentus a prima
manu, spiritus a recentiore venit. Primam Hennanni coniecturam, oi35' ear rpirriS,

2 B rCva ypa<j>rjv ffe yeypaTrrai; SO. r)VTiva; OVK ayiwfj. 1058 Since
OVK ICTTIV OJTIOS, OVK av yivono ira-ws mean ' there is, there could be found,
no way in which,' TOS6' is abnormal; yet it is not incorrect: 'this thing
could not be attained, namely, a mode in which] etc. Cp. the mixed
constr. in Ai. 378 ov yap yivoir' av ravd' oirws ov% <SS' e^fiv (instead of
e^«). 1060 Since the answer at 1042, Iocasta has known the worst.
But she is still fain to spare Oedipus the misery of that knowledge.
Meanwhile he thinks that she is afraid lest he should prove to be too
humbly born. The tragic power here is masterly. 1061 aXis
vo<rovo-' iyd instead of aXts «<rri TO voaeiv ifti: cp. 1368: Ai. 76
apKCLTw jxtvuiv: ib. 635 Kptiacroiv yap AiSa Kevdwv : H e r . 1. 37 a/xeiV<o cari
ravra ovr<a iroieu/^eva: Dem. or 4 § 34 OIKOL fnivmv, /3eXrto)v: Isae. or. 2
§ 7 licavos yap avrov €<t>-q ctrv^wv elvai : Athen. 435 D XPV Tiveiv, 'Ai/TiVa-
rpos yap Ixavos tern vq<f><m>. 1062 For the genitive Tp£ii]s (ii]Tp6s without
CK, cp. El. 341 ovarav irarpos, 366 KaXoi! | T</s /tiyrpos. rphr\% y.rftf>A$
TpCSovXos, thrice a slave, sprung from the third (servile) mother: i. e. from
a mother, herself a slave, whose mother and grandmother had also been
OIAITTOYI TYPANNOZ 195

OE. It must not be that, with such clues in my grasp, I


should fail to bring my birth to light.
Io. For the gods' sake, if thou hast any care for thine own
life, forbear this search ! My anguish is enough.
OE. Be of good courage; though I be found the son of
servile mother,—aye, a slave by three descents,—thou wilt not
be proved base-born.
Io. Yet hear me, I implore thee : do not thus.
OE. I must not hear of not discovering the whole truth.
Io. Yet I wish thee well—I counsel thee for the best.
OE. These best counsels, then, vex my patience.
Io. Ill-fated one! May'st thou never come to know who
thou art!
OE. GO, some one, fetch me the herdsman hither,—and
leave yon woman to glory in her princely stock.
receperunt Erfurdt., Elmsleius, Wunder., Hartung., Nauck. Quae haud dubie vera
est. Cum enim ib.v in formam vulgatiorem an correptum fuisse