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# 1 A car of mass 1000 kg is travelling along a straight, level road.

Fig. 6.1

(i) Calculate the acceleration of the car when a resultant force of 2000 N acts on it in the direction
of its motion.

How long does it take the car to increase its speed from 5 ms-• to 12.5 ms- 1 ? (3)

The car has an acceleration of 1.4 ms-2 when there is a driving force of 2000 N.

(ii) Show that the resistance to motion of the car is 600 N. (2)

A trailer is now atached to the car, as shown in Fig. 6.2. The car still has a driving force of 2000 N
and resistance to motion of 600 N. The trailer has a mass of 800 kg. The tow-bar connecting the
car and the trailer is light and horiz.ontal. The car and trailer are accelerating at 0.7 m s 2•

Fig. 6.2

(iii) Show that the resistance 10 the motion of the trailer is 140 N. (3)

## (iv) Calculate the force in the tow bar. (3)

The driving force is now removed and a braking force of 6JON is applied to the car. All the
resistances to motion remain as before. The trailer has no brakes.

(v) Calculate the new acceleration. Calculate also the force in the tow-bar, stating whether it is a
tension or a thrust (compression). ( 6)

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
2 Fig. 3 shows two people, Sam and Tom, pushing a car of mass 1000 kg along a straight line l on level
ground.

Sam pushes with a constant horizontal force of 300 N at an angle of 30 ° to the line l.

Tom pushes with a constant horizontal force of 175 N at an angle of 15 ° to the line l.

Sam
300 N
30°
1000 kg l

15°
Tom 175 N

Fig. 3

(i) The car starts at rest and moves with constant acceleration. After 6 seconds it has travelled 7.2 m.

## Find its acceleration. [3]

(ii) Find the resistance force acting on the car along the line l. [4]

(iii) The resultant of the forces exerted by Sam and Tom is not in the direction of the car’s acceleration.
Explain briefly why. [1]

3 A particle is travelling along a straight line with constant acceleration. P, O and Q are points on the line, as
illustrated in Fig. 4. The distance from P to O is 5 m and the distance from O to Q is 30 m.

5m 30 m
P O Q

Fig. 4

Initially the particle is at O. After 10 s, it is at Q and its velocity is 9 m s−1 in the direction OQ.

(i) Find the initial velocity and the acceleration of the particle. [4]

## (ii) Prove that the particle is never at P. [3]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
1 A train consists of a locomotive pulling 17 identical trucks.

The mass of the locomotive is 120 tonnes and the mass of each truck is 40 tonnes. The locomotive gives a
driving force of 121 000 N.

The resistance to motion on each truck is R N and the resistance on the locomotive is 5R N.

Initially the train is travelling on a straight horizontal track and its acceleration is 0.11 m s−2.

## (B) the locomotive and the first truck. [3]

The train now comes to a place where the track goes up a straight, uniform slope at an angle α with the
1
horizontal, where sin α = 80 .

The driving force and the resistance forces remain the same as before.

(iii) Find the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of the train. [4]

The train then comes to a straight uniform downward slope at an angle β to the horizontal.

The driver of the train reduces the driving force to zero and the resistance forces remain the same as before.

## (iv) Find the value of β. [3]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
2 A box of mass 8 kg slides on a horizontal table against a constant resistance of 11.2 N.

(i) What horizontal force is applied to the box if it is sliding with acceleration of magnitude 2 m s−2 ?
[3]

Fig. 7 shows the box of mass 8 kg on a long, rough, horizontal table. A sphere of mass 6 kg is attached
to the box by means of a light inextensible string that passes over a smooth pulley. The section of the
string between the pulley and the box is parallel to the table. The constant frictional force of 11.2 N
opposes the motion of the box. A force of 105 N parallel to the table acts on the box in the direction
shown, and the acceleration of the system is in that direction.

8 kg 105 N

6 kg

Fig. 7

(ii) What information in the question indicates that while the string is taut the box and sphere have
the same acceleration? [1]

(iii) Draw two separate diagrams, one showing all the horizontal forces acting on the box and the
other showing all the forces acting on the sphere. [2]

(iv) Show that the magnitude of the acceleration of the system is 2.5 m s−2 and find the tension in the
string. [7]

The system is stationary when the sphere is at point P. When the sphere is 1.8 m above P the string
breaks, leaving the sphere moving upwards at a speed of 3 m s−1 .

(v) (A) Write down the value of the acceleration of the sphere after the string breaks. [1]
(B) The sphere passes through P again at time T seconds after the string breaks. Show that T is
the positive root of the equation 4.9T 2 − 3T − 1.8 = 0. [2]
(C ) Using part (B), or otherwise, calculate the total time that elapses after the sphere moves
from P before the sphere again passes through P. [4]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
1
B
A

a C b

8 kg

Fig. 7.1

A box of mass 8 kg is supported by a continuous light string ACB that is fixed at A and at B and passes
through a smooth ring on the box at C, as shown in Fig. 7.1. The box is in equilibrium and the tension
in the string section AC is 60 N.

(i) What information in the question indicates that the tension in the string section CB is also 60 N?
[2]

(ii) Show that the string sections AC and CB are equally inclined to the horizontal (so that α = β in
Fig. 7.1). [2]

(iii) Calculate the angle of the string sections AC and CB to the horizontal. [5]

In a different situation the same box is supported by two separate light strings, PC and QC, that are
tied to the box at C. There is also a horizontal force of 10 N acting at C. This force and the angles
between these strings and the horizontal are shown in Fig. 7.2. The box is in equilibrium.

P Q

45° C 25°
10 N
8 kg

Fig. 7.2

## (iv) Calculate the tensions in the two strings. [8]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
2 Robin is driving a car of mass 800 kg along a straight horizontal road at a speed of 40 m s–1.

Robin applies the brakes and the car decelerates uniformly; it comes to rest after travelling a distance of
125 m.

(i) Show that the resistance force on the car when the brakes are applied is 5120 N. [4]

(ii) Find the time the car takes to come to rest. [2]

For the rest of this question, assume that when Robin applies the brakes there is a constant resistance force
of 5120 N on the car.

The car returns to its speed of 40 m s–1 and the road remains straight and horizontal.

Robin sees a red light 155 m ahead, takes a short time to react and then applies the brakes.

## The car comes to rest before it reaches the red light.

(iii) Show that Robin’s reaction time is less than 0.75 s. [2]

The ‘stopping distance’ is the total distance travelled while a driver reacts and then applies the brakes to
bring the car to rest. For the rest of this question, assume that Robin is still driving the car described above
and has a reaction time of 0.675 s. (This is the figure used in calculating the stopping distances given in the
Highway Code.)

(iv) Calculate the stopping distance when Robin is driving at 20 m s–1 on a horizontal road. [3]

The car then travels down a hill which has a slope of 5° to the horizontal.

(v) Find the stopping distance when Robin is driving at 20 m s–1 down this hill. [6]

(vi) By what percentage is the stopping distance increased by the fact that the car is going down the hill?

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
3 A trolley C of mass 8 kg with rusty axle bearings is initially at rest on a horizontal floor.

The trolley stays at rest when it is pulled by a horizontal string with tension 25 N, as shown in Fig. 8.1.

string
25 N
C
8 kg

Fig. 8.1
(i) State the magnitude of the horizontal resistance opposing the pull. [1]

## A second trolley D of mass 10 kg is connected to trolley C by means of a light, horizontal rod.

The string now has tension 50 N, and is at an angle of 25◦ to the horizontal, as shown in Fig. 8.2. The
two trolleys stay at rest.

50 N string
25°
D rod C
10 kg 8 kg

Fig. 8.2
(ii) Calculate the magnitude of the total horizontal resistance acting on the two trolleys opposing the
pull. [2]

## (iii) Calculate the normal reaction of the floor on trolley C. [3]

The axle bearings of the trolleys are oiled and the total horizontal resistance to the motion of the two
trolleys is now 20 N. The two trolleys are still pulled by the string with tension 50 N, as shown in
Fig. 8.2.

## (iv) Calculate the acceleration of the trolleys. [3]

In a new situation, the trolleys are on a slope at 5◦ to the horizontal and are initially travelling down
the slope at 3 m s−1 . The resistances are 15 N to the motion of D and 5 N to the motion of C. There is
no string attached. The rod connecting the trolleys is parallel to the slope. This situation is shown in
Fig. 8.3.

1
initial speed 3 m s

rod C
D 8 kg
10 kg

Fig. 8.3
(v) Calculate the speed of the trolleys after 2 seconds and also the force in the rod connecting the
PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
trolleys, stating whether this rod is in tension or thrust (compression). [9]
M3 Dynamics - Variable forces PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1. A particle P of mass m is above the surface of the Earth at distance x from the centre of the
Earth. The Earth exerts a gravitational force on P. The magnitude of this force is inversely
proportional to x2.

At the surface of the Earth the acceleration due to gravity is g. The Earth is modelled as a sphere

mgR 2
(a) Prove that the magnitude of the gravitational force on P is .
x2
(3)

A particle is fired vertically upwards from the surface of the Earth with initial speed 3U. At a
height R above the surface of the Earth the speed of the particle is U.

## (b) Find U in terms of g and R.

(7)
(Total 10 marks)

2. A rocket is fired vertically upwards with speed U from a point on the Earth's surface. The rocket
is modelled as a particle P of constant mass m, and the Earth as a fixed sphere of radius R. At a
distance x from the centre of the Earth, the speed of P is v. The only force acting on P is
cm
directed towards the centre of the Earth and has magnitude 2 , where c is a constant.
x

1 1
(a) Show that v 2 = U 2 + 2c  − .
 x R
(5)

(3)
(Total 8 marks)

## Edexcel Internal Review 1

M3 Dynamics - Variable forces PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1
3. A particle P of mass 3
kg moves along the positive x-axis under the action of a single force.

## The force is directed towards the origin O and has magnitude

k N, where OP = x metres
( x + 1)2
and k is a constant. Initially P is moving away from O. At x = 1 the speed of P is 4 m s–1, and at
x = 8 the speed of P is √2 m s–1.

## (a) Find the value of k.

(10)

(b) Find the distance of P from O when P first comes to instantaneous rest.
(4)
(Total 14 marks)

4. A particle P of mass m kg slides from rest down a smooth plane inclined at 30° to the
horizontal. When P has moved a distance x metres down the plane, the resistance to the motion
of P from non-gravitational forces has magnitude mx2 newtons.

Find

## (a) the speed of P when x = 2,

(7)

(b) the distance P has moved when it comes to rest for the first time.
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

5. Above the earth’s surface, the magnitude of the force on a particle due to the earth’s gravity is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the particle from the centre of the earth.
Assuming that the earth is a sphere of radius R, and taking g as the acceleration due to gravity at
the surface of the earth,

(a) prove that the magnitude of the gravitational force on a particle of mass m when it is a
mgR 2
distance x (x ≥ R) from the centre of the earth is .
x2
(3)

## Edexcel Internal Review 2

M3 Dynamics - Variable forces PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

A particle is fired vertically upwards from the surface of the earth with initial speed u, where
u2 = 23 gR. Ignoring air resistance,

(b) find, in terms of g and R, the speed of the particle when it is at a height 2R above the
surface of the earth.
(7)
(Total 10 marks)

6. A toy car of mass 0.2 kg is travelling in a straight line on a horizontal floor. The car is modelled
as a particle. At time t = 0 the car passes through a fixed point O. After t seconds the speed of
the car is v m s–1 and the car is at a point P with OP = x metres. The resultant force on the car is
modelled as 101 x(4 – 3x) N in the direction OP. The car comes to instantaneous rest when x = 6.
Find

(7)

## (b) the initial speed of the car.

(2)
(Total 9 marks)

7. A car of mass 800 kg moves along a horizontal straight road. At time t seconds, the resultant
48 000
force acting on the car has magnitude newtons, acting in the direction of motion of
(t + 2) 2
the car. When t = 0, the car is at rest.

(a) Show that the speed of the car approaches a limiting value as t increases and find this
value.
(6)

(b) Find the distance moved by the car in the first 6 s of its motion.
(6)
(Total 12 marks)

## Edexcel Internal Review 3

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
61 A car of mass 700 kg is travelling up a hill which is inclined at a constant angle of 5◦ to the horizontal.
At a certain point P on the hill the car’s speed is 20 m s−1 . The point Q is 400 m further up the hill
from P, and at Q the car’s speed is 15 m s−1 .

A(i) Calculate
uniform the has
rod AB work done 20
weight byNthe
andcar’s engine
length 3 m. as theend
The carAmoves from
is freely P totoQa, point
hinged assuming
on a that any
vertical
wall. resistances
The rod istoheld
the horizontally
car’s motionandmayinbeequilibrium
neglected. by a light inextensible string. One end of the [4]
string is attached to the rod at B. The other end of the string is attached to a point C, which is 1 m
Assumeabove
(seethe resistance
diagram). to the car’s
Calculate themotion
tensionbetween P and Q is a constant force of magnitude
in the string. [4]
200 N.

2 A(ii) Given
golfer hitsthat the acceleration
a ball from a pointof Othe
on car at Q is ground
horizontal zero, show
withthat the power
a velocity of of m s−1
50 the engine
at anas the car
angle of
◦ passes through Q is 12.0 kW, correct to 3 significant figures. [3]
25 above the horizontal. The ball first hits the ground at a point A. Assuming that there is no air
resistance, calculate
(iii) Given that the power of the car’s engine at P is the same as at Q, calculate the car’s retardation
(i) the
at Ptime
. taken for the ball to travel from O to A, [3]
[3]
(ii) the distance OA. (Q6, June 2005)
[2]
4729/S05 [Turn over

32 A box of mass 50 kg is dragged along a horizontal floor by a constant force of magnitude 400 N acting
at an angle of α above the horizontal. The total resistance to the motion of the box has magnitude
300 N. The box starts from rest at the point O, and passes the point P, 25 m from O, with a speed of
2 m s−1 .

## (i) For the box’s motion from O to P, find

(a) the increase in kinetic energy of the box, [1]
(b) the work done against the resistance to motion of the box. [1]

## (ii) Hence calculate α . [3]

(Q3, Jan 2006)
4

73 Marco is riding his bicycle at a constant speed of 12 m s−1 along a horizontal road, working at a
constant rate of 300 W. Marco and his bicycle have a combined mass of 75 kg.

(i) Calculate the wind resistance acting on Marco and his bicycle. [2]

Nicolas is riding his bicycle at the same speed as Marco and directly behind him. Nicolas experiences
30% less wind resistance than Marco.

## (ii) Calculate the power output of Nicolas. [2]

The two cyclists arrive at the bottom of a hill which is at an angle of 1◦ to the horizontal. Marco
increases his power output to 500 W.

(iii) Assuming Marco’s wind resistance is unchanged, calculate his instantaneous acceleration
immediately after starting to climb the hill. [5]

## of 13 m s−1 . He then freewheels down a hill of length

Marco reaches the top of the hill at a speed4729/Jan06

200 m which is at a constant angle of 10 to the horizontal. He experiences a constant wind resistance
of 120 N.

## (iv) Calculate Marco’s speed at the bottom of this hill. [5]

physicsandmathstutor.com
(Q7, Jan 2006)
2

14 A child of mass 35 kg runs up a flight of stairs in 10 seconds. The vertical distance climbed is 4 m.
Assuming that the child’s speed is constant, calculate the power output. [4]
(Q1, June 2006)
3
PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
45 A car of mass 900 kg is travelling at a constant speed of 30 m s−1 on a level road. The total resistance
physicsandmathstutor.com
to motion is 450 N.
2
(i) Calculate the power output of the car’s engine. [1]
1 A uniform solid cylinder has height 20 cm and diameter 12 cm. It is placed with its axis vertical
A
on roof box horizontal
a rough of mass 50plane.
kg is mounted
The planeonis the rooftilted
slowly of theuntil
car.the
The total resistance
cylinder to motion
topples when of the
the angle of
inclination is α . Find α .
vehicle increases to 500 N. [3]

(ii) The car’s engine continues to work at the same rate. Calculate the maximum speed of the car on
2 Two the levelspheres
smooth road. A and B, of equal radius and of masses 0.2 kg and 0.1 kg respectively, are free[2] to
−1
move on a smooth horizontal table. A is moving with speed 4 m s when it collides directly with B,
The
which power output ofThe
is stationary. the collision
car’s engine increaseselastic.
is perfectly to 15 000 W. Thethe
Calculate resistance
speed oftoAmotion ofimpact.
after the the car, with
[4]
roof box, remains 500 N.

3 (iii) Calculate
A small sphere the instantaneous
of mass acceleration
0.2 kg is projected of the car
vertically on the level
speed itss−1
21 m speed
fromisa25 m s−1
point at. a
height of 40 m above horizontal ground. It hits the ground and rebounds vertically upwards, coming [3]
to instantaneous rest at its initial point of projection. ◦Ignoring air resistance, calculate
(iv) The car climbs a hill which is at an angle of 5 to the horizontal. Calculate the instantaneous
the coefficient
(i) retardation of restitution
of the car when itsbetween
speed is m s−1 .and the ground,
the26sphere [6]
[3]
(ii) the magnitude of the impulse which the ground exerts on the sphere. (Q4, June 2006)
[2]
5
4
6 A skier of mass 80 kg is pulled up a slope which makes an angle of 20◦ with the horizontal. The
skier is subject to a constant frictional force of magnitude 70 N. The speed of the skier increases from
2 m s−1 at the point A to 5 m s−1 at the point B, and the distance AB is 25 m.

(i) By modelling the skier as a small object, calculate the work done by the pulling force as the skier
moves from A to B. [5]

(ii)

A uniform lamina ABCDE consists of a square and an isosceles triangle. The square has sides of
18 cm and BC = CD = 15 cm (see diagram).

(i) Taking x- and y-axes along AE and AB respectively, find the coordinates of the centre of mass of
the
It islamina. [7]
given that the pulling force has constant magnitude P N, and that it acts at a constant angle

of 30 above the slope (see diagram). Calculate P. [3]
(ii) The lamina is freely suspended from B. Calculate the angle that BD makes with the vertical.
physicsandmathstutor.com (Q4, Jan 2007)
[2]
3

5
7 A model train has mass 100 kg. When the train is moving with speed v m s−1 the resistance to its
3000
motion is 3v2 N and the power output of the train is W.
v
(i) Show that the driving force acting on the train is 120 N at an instant when the train is moving
with speed 5 m s−1 . [2]

(ii) Find the acceleration of the train at an instant when it is moving horizontally with speed 5 m s−1 .
4729/S06 [2]
[Turn over

The train moves with constant speed up a straight hill inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where
sin α = 98
1
.
(iii) Calculate the speed of the train. (Q5, Jan 2007) [5]
ans−1 m ◦s−1
2
attached
the to the
rocket’s sack.
speed The rope
increases makes
from 100 m angle of 35
to 150 with
in athe horizontal
time and the tension in the rope
t seconds.
is 40 N. Calculate the work done in moving the sack 100 m. PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
[3]
8
1 A man drags a sack at constant speed in a straight line along horizontal ground by means of a rope
(i) Calculate the value of t . ◦ [4]
attached to the sack. The rope makes an angle of 35 with the horizontal and the tension in the rope
m s−1
is 40 N. Calculate the work done in moving the sack 100 m. [3]
2 Calculate the range
(ii) Calculate on a horizontal
the acceleration of theplane ofata the
rocket small stonewhen
instant projected from
its speed is a120
point on. the plane with
[4]
speed 12 m s−1 at an angle of elevation of 27◦ . (Q1, June 2007)
[4]
2 Calculate the range on a horizontal plane of a small stone projected from a point on the plane with
physicsandmathstutor.com
−1
4 A
speed 12 m s at an angle of elevationonofthe
ball is projected from a point O 27◦edge of a vertical cliff. The horizontal and vertically
m s−1inand s−1 respectively.
. [4]
93 A rocketcomponents
upward of mass 250ofkgthe is moving in a straight
initial velocity are 2 7 line space.21 mThere is no resistance to motion,
At time and
t seconds
the mass
after of the rocket
projection the ballisisassumed
at the point to be(xconstant.
, y) referred With to its motor working
horizontal at a constant
and vertically upward rate
axesof through
450 kW
−1 −1 −1 ◦
1
3 O
the
A .ball
Air
rocket resistance
rocket’s
is mass may
speed
projected
of 250with bespeed
increases
kg neglected.
is from12 100
moving mins ma at toangle
sstraight
an 150 linemof sinelevation
in a time
space. oft seconds.
There 55is above the horizontal.
no resistance to motion, At and
the
instant when the ball reaches its greatest height,
the mass of the rocket is assumed to be constant. With its motor working it hits a vertical wall, which is perpendicular
at a constant rate of 450 kW to the
Calculate x the value t.from
of of
y in terms t,100 −1 show −1y = − 101 2
[4]
the Express
(i)rocket’s
ball’s path. The and
speed coefficient
increases of andmhence
restitution sbetween
to 150the mthatsball a3xtime
inand the txseconds.
wall. is 0.65. Calculate the speed[5] of
the ball
(ii)
The Calculate
(i) ball the
hits thethe
Calculate sea acceleration
at a of
value point of the isrocket
t. which 25 m at the instant
below the level whenof O its. speed is 120 m s−1 . [4]
[4]
(i) immediately before its impact with the wall, [2]
(Q3, June 2007)
Find the horizontal
(ii) immediately
(ii) Calculate theafter itsdistance
accelerationimpact ofbetween the the
the rocket
with wall.atcliff and thewhen
the instant point itswhere speed theisball m s−1
120hits the. sea. [3]
[4]
[2]
4 A ball is projected from a point O on the edge of a vertical cliff. The horizontal and vertically
upward components of the initial velocity are 7 m s−1 and 21 m s−1 respectively. At time t seconds
102
5
4 A cyclist
after is and
projection
ball her
thebicycle
projected ballkgisishave
mfrom at theapoint
a projected
point O on (directly
combined y) mass
x, the up of
referred
edge 70
to
aofrough kg. The cliff.
a horizontal
vertical cyclist ascends
and avertically
The m s−1
a5straight
ofupward
horizontal . hill
axes
and AB
through
verticallyof
−1
A particle of mass plane with speed The plane
O . Air an resistance ◦ −1 −1
constant
upward
makes slope,
components ofmay
anglestarting be
from
30ofwiththe neglected.
initial
the A and reaching
resthorizontal
atvelocity andarethe asspeed
7 mcoefficient andof214ofm mfriction
ss at Bis. The
0.2. level
respectively. At
Calculate B is
of time 6t m
the above
seconds
distance
the level
afterparticle
the of
projectionA . For
theup
travels the
ball cyclist’s
theis plane motion
at the before
point (xcoming
, y) referred
from A to B , find
to horizontal
instantaneously and vertically upward axes through
to rest. [6]
of t, and hence show that y = 3x − 10
physicsandmathstutor.com 1 2
(i)
O(i)
. AirExpress x andmay
resistance y inbe terms
neglected. x . [5]
the increase in kinetic energy, [2]
2
3 The
(ii) ball
the hits the
increase sea
in at a point
gravitational which is
potential
(i) Express x and y in terms of t, and hence show that 25 m below
energy. y = 3of
the level x −O10 1. 2
x . [2]
[5]
1 A ball is projected with speed 12 m s at an angle of elevation of 55◦ above the horizontal. At the
−1

instant Find
(ii) ball
During
The when
the the the
ascent
hits the ball
theatreaches
horizontal
sea point its
a distance
resistance togreatest
which is 25height,
between
motion the cliffit and
is constant
m below hits
theand aB vertical
the point
has
level .wall, the
Owhere
ofmagnitude which N.isThe
60ball perpendicular
hits the sea.
work done by to the
[3]
ball’s path.
cyclist The coefficient
in moving from A toof B restitution
is 8000 J. between the ball and the wall is 0.65. Calculate the speed of
the
(ii)ball
Find the horizontal distance between the cliff and the point where the ball hits the sea. [3]
5 (iii)cyclist
A and her
Calculate the bicycle
distancehave AB. a combined mass of 70 kg. The cyclist ascends a straight hill AB[4] of
(i) immediately before its impact with the wall, −1 [2]
constant slope, starting from rest at A and reaching a speed of 4 m s at B. The level of B isJune
(Q5, 6 m above
2007)
5 the
A level
cyclist
(ii) of A. her
and
immediately Forafter
the cyclist’s
bicycle its have
impact motion
a combined
with the from A to B
mass
wall. of, find
70 kg. The cyclist ascends a straight hill AB[2] of
−1
constant slope, starting from rest at A and reaching a speed of 4 m s at B. The level of B is 6 m above
(i) the increase in kinetic energy, 60°B, find80° [2]
the level of A. For the cyclist’s motion fromAA to
112 A(ii)particle of mass
the increase in m kg is projected
gravitational directly
potential energy.up a rough plane with a speed of 5 m s−1 . The plane [2]
(i) the increase in kinetic ◦ energy, [2]
makes an angle of 30 with the horizontal and the coefficient
A uniform rod AB, of weight 25 N and length 1.6 m, rests in equilibrium in a vertical plane with the of friction is 0.2. Calculate the distance
the
(ii)particle
During
end inthe
Athe travels
ascent
increase
contact up
inthe
with the plane
resistance
gravitational
rough before
topotential
motion
horizontal coming energy.
ground instantaneously
is constant
and theand endhas to rest.against
B magnitude
resting 60 N.a The work
smooth done
wall [6]
by the
which [2]
is
cyclist in moving◦ from A to B is 8000 J. ◦
inclined at 80 to the horizontal. The rod is inclined at 60 to the horizontal (see diagram). Calculate
(Q2, Jan 2008)
During
the the ascent
magnitude theforce
of the resistance
actingtoon motion
the rod is at
constant
B. and has magnitude 60 N. The work done by the [6]
3 (iii) Calculate
cyclist in moving thefrom A toAB
distance . 8000 J.
B is [4]
B
124 carCalculate
(iii)
A of mass 1200 kg has aAB
the distance .
maximum speed of 30 m s−1 when travelling on a horizontal road. The
[4]
−1
car experiences a resistance of kv N, where v m s is the speed of the car and k is a constant. The
maximum power of the car’s engine is 45 000 W.

## (ii) Find the maximum possible acceleration of60

the
° car when
80°
it is travelling at 20 m s−1 on a horizontal
A

A uniform
(iii) The carrod AB, of
climbs weight
a hill, 25 N
which and length
is inclined at an1.6angle
m, rests in◦ equilibrium
of 10 in a vertical
to the horizontal, plane speed
at a constant with the
of
−1
end A15inmcontact with rough horizontal ground and the end B resting against a smooth wall which[3] is
s . Calculate the power of the car’s engine.
inclined at 80◦ to the horizontal. The rod is inclined at 60◦ to the horizontal (see diagram). Calculate
(Q4, Jan 2008)
the magnitude of the force acting on the rod at B. [6]
5 A particle P of mass 2m is moving on a smooth
© OCR 2007 2 Jun07horizontal surface with speed u when it collides
4729/01
directly with a particle Q of mass km whose speed is 3u in the opposite direction. As a result of the
−1
A car
car is
ofpulled
mass 1200 kg has a maximum ◦
4OCR 2007
A the directions of speed
at constant motionalong a speed
of both ofJun07
particles
horizontal
4729/01 30straight
−1
m sreversed
are when
by athe on200
speed
force of aofhorizontal
halved. at 35The
to
car experiences a resistance of kv N, where v m s is the speed of the car and
the horizontal. Given that the work done by the force is 5000 J, calculate the distance moved by the k is a constant. The
maximum
(i) Find, power
car. in termsof of
theucar’s
and engine is 45 000
k, the speed of QW.after the collision. Hence write down the range[3] of
possible values of k. [4]
(i) Show that k = 50. (Q1, June 2008) [2]
(ii) Calculate the magnitude of the impulse which Q exerts on P . [2]
it is travelling at 20 m s−1 on a horizontal
2 A bullet of mass 9 grams passes horizontally through a fixed vertical board of thickness 3 cm. The
(ii) Find the maximum possible acceleration −1 of the car when −1
speed of the bullet is1 reduced from 250 m s to 150 m s as it passes through the board. The board
the horizontal. Given that the work done by the force is 5000 J, calculate the distance moved by the
car. PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
[3]
142 A bullet of mass 9 grams passes horizontally through a fixed vertical board of thickness 3 cm. The
speed of the bullet is reduced from 250 m s−1 to 150 m s−1 as it passes through the board. The board
2 A bullet
exerts of mass resistive
a constant 9 grams force
passesonhorizontally through athe
the bullet. Calculate fixed vertical of
magnitude board
this of thickness
resistive 3 cm. The
force. [4]
−1 −1
speed of the bullet is reduced from 250 m s to 150 m s as it passes through the board. The board
exerts a constant resistive force on the bullet. Calculate the magnitude of this resistive (Q2, June 2008)
force. [4]
−1
3 The resistance to the motion of a car of mass 600 kg is kv N, where v m s is the car’s speed and k is
a constant. The car ascends a hill of inclination α , where sin α = 10 1
. The power exerted by the car’s
−1
153 The resistance toW
theand
motion of has
a car of massspeed
600 kg s−1N,
20ismkv . where1 v m s is the car’s speed and k is
a constant. The car ascends a hill of inclination α , where sin α = 10 . The power exerted by the car’s
engine is 12 000 the car constant

engine is 12that
(i) Show 000kW and the car has constant speed 20 m s−1 .
= 0.6. [3]

Show that
(i) power
The k = by
exerted 0.6.the car’s engine is increased to 16 000 W. [3]

The
(ii) power exerted
Calculate by the car’s
the maximum engine
speed is increased
of the car whiletoascending
16 000 W.the hill. [3]

Calculate
(ii) car
The the maximum
now travels speedground
on horizontal of the and
car while ascending
the power the16
remains hill.
000 W. [3]

The
(iii) car now travels
Calculate on horizontal
the acceleration ground
of the and
car at anthe power
instant remains
when 16 000
its speed W.m s−1 .
is 32 [3]

(iii) Calculate the acceleration of the car at an instant when its speed is 32 m s−1 . [3]
4 on horizontal ground with a velocity of 35 m s−1 at an angle of θ
A golfer hits a ball from a point Ophysicsandmathstutor.com
(Q3, June 2008)
above the horizontal. The horizontal range of the ball is R metres and the time of flight is t seconds.
4 A golfer hits a ball from a point O on horizontal 3 ground with a velocity of 35 m s−1 at an angle of θ
(i) Express
above t in terms
the horizontal. The θ , and hence
of horizontal show
range of that R = is
the ball 125
R sin 2θ . and the time of flight is t seconds.
metres [5]
164 A car of mass 800 kg experiences a resistance of magnitude kv2 N, where k is a constant and v m s−1
The
is thegolfer
(i) car’s hits
Express speed.theterms
t in The θ ,engine
ball car’s
so
of that it lands
and 110
is working
hence show at aRO
m from
that =. 125 sin
constant 2θ of
rate . P W. At an instant when the car[5] is
travelling on a horizontal road with speed 20 m s−1 its acceleration is 0.75 m s−2 . At an instant when
Calculate
(ii)car
The golfer hits the
the two
ball possible
so of itvalues
thatconstant of t.m12
lands slope
110 ◦
from O. horizontal with speed 10 m s−1 its acceleration [5]
the is ascending a hill to the
−2
is 0.25 m s .
(ii) Calculate the two possible values of t. [5]
(i) Show that k = 0.900, correct to 3 decimal places, and find P. [7]

## The power is increased to 1.5P W.

(ii) Calculate the maximum steady speed of the car on a horizontal road. [3]
physicsandmathstutor.com (Q4, Jan 2009)
5 2
physicsandmathstutor.com
A
171 A boy on a sledge slides down a straight track2of length 180 m which descends a vertical distance
of 40 m. The combined mass of the boy and the sledge is 75 kg. The initial speed is 3 m s−1 and the
A boy on aissledge −1
1 final speed 12 m sslides down
. The a straight
magnitude, track
R N, of length
of the 180 to
resistance m motion
which descends a vertical
is constant. distance
By considering
−1
of 40 m. The combined mass of
the change in energy, calculate R. the boy and the sledge is 75 kg. The initial speed is 3 m s and the
[5]
−1 0.4 m
final speed is 12 m s . The magnitude, R N, of the resistance to motion is constant. (Q1, By considering
June 2009)
the change in energy, calculate R. [5]
2 A car of mass 1100 kg has maximum power of 44 000 W. The resistive forces have constant magnitude
182 A car of mass 1100 kg has maximumP power of 44 000 W. The resistive forces have constant magnitude
(i) Calculate
1400 N. the maximum steady speed 0.24
ofmthe car on the level. [2]
0.2 kg
The
(i) car
is moving
Calculate the on a hill ofsteady
maximum constant inclination
speed of4729/01 α to
the Jun08
car onthe
thehorizontal,
level. where sin α = 0.05. [2]
0.3 m
Calculate
(ii) car
The the maximum
is moving on a hill ofsteady speed
constant of the car
inclination α when
to the ascending
horizontal,the hill. sin α = 0.05.
where [3]

## speed of 10 m s−1 working

B
(ii) Calculate the acceleration
(iii) of thespeed
maximum steady car when it is
of the cardescending the hillthe
when ascending at ahill. [3]
at half the maximum power. [3]
(iii) Calculate the acceleration of the car when it is descending the hill at a speed of 10 m s−1 working
A particle P of mass 0.2 kg is attached to one end of each of two light inextensible strings, one of
length 0.4 m and one of length 0.3 m. The other end of the longer string is attached to a fixed point
at half the maximum power. [3]
3 A, and the other end of the shorter string is attached to a fixed point B, which is vertically below A.
The particle moves in a horizontal circle of radius m m at a constant angular speed (Q2,
June (see
diagram). Both strings are C tension in AP is S N and the tension in BP
A taut, the B is T N.
3 0.5 m
2.8 m
2
A uniform piece of wire, ABC, forms a semicircular O is the mid-point of
AC (see Fig. 1). Show that the distance from O to the centre of mass of the wire is 3.82 cm,
1
19 Find correct
the average
to 3 power exerted
significant by a climber of mass 75 kg when climbing a vertical distance of 40[2]
figures. m
in 2 minutes. [3]
(ii) physicsandmathstutor.com (Q1, Jan 2010)
A
2 A small sphere of mass 0.2 kg is dropped from rest 3 at a height of 3 m above horizontal ground. It falls
vertically, hits the ground and rebounds vertically upwards, coming to instantaneous rest at a height
204 of
A 1.8
car m
of above the ground.
mass 700 kg is moving along a horizontal road against a constant resistance to motion of
400 N. At an instant when the car is travelling at 12 m s−1 its acceleration is 0.5 m s−2 .
B
(i) Calculate the magnitude of the impulse which the ground exerts on the sphere. [5]
(i) Find the driving force of the car at this instant. [2]
(ii) Calculate the coefficient of restitution between the sphere and the D ground. [2]
3 grams
(ii) Find the power at this instant. [2]

## The maximum steady speed of the car on a horizontal road is 35 m s−1 .

5 grams
3
0.3 m 0.7 m
(iii) Find the maximum power of the car. C [2]

The car now moves at maximum power against the same resistance up a slope of constant angle θ ◦ to
Fig. 2
the horizontal. The maximum steady speed up the slope is 12 m s−1 .
Two semicircular pieces of wire, physicsandmathstutor.com
ABC and ADC , are joined together at their ends to form a
0.8 m
circular
(iv) Find θ . hoop of radius 6 cm. The mass of ABC is 3 grams and the mass of ADC is 5 grams. The [4]
4
hoop is freely suspended from A (see Fig. 2). Calculate the angle which the diameter AC makes
(Q4, Jan 2010)
with the vertical, giving your answer correct to the nearest degree. [5]
6 A particle A of mass 2m is moving with speed u on a smooth horizontal surface when it collides with
5 Two spheres of the same radius with masses 2 kg and 3 kg are moving directly towards each other
on a smooth horizontal plane with speeds 8 m s−1 and 4 m s−1 respectively. The spheres collide and
a stationary particle B of mass m. After the collision the speed of A is v, the speed of B is 3v and the
213 particles
Thekinetic move
maximum in the
power same direction.
0.2
bykg 0.3 akgsmall
the energy lostproduced the engine
is 81 J. Calculate of
the speed aeroplane
and direction of of mass of
motion 2 tonnes is 128after
each sphere kW. Air
the
resistance opposes the motion directly and the lift force is perpendicular to the direction of motion.
collision. [12]
Find v in terms Fig. 1
(i) magnitude
The of theofairu.resistance is proportional to the square of the speed and the maximum steady [3]
−1
speed in level flight is 80 m s .
6 Show that
A(ii)uniform the coefficient
conical shell has mass of restitution between
0.2 kg, height 0.3 Am and is 45 .diameter 0.8 m. A uniform hollow
andBbase [2]
cylinder has massthe0.3 kg, length of0.7
themair
and diameterwhen 0.8 m.the The conical m s−is1 .attached to the cylinder,
sshell
–1
(i) Calculate magnitude resistance speed 30ism60 [5]
B subsequently
with hits a vertical
the circumference wallcoinciding
of its base which is perpendicular
with one end to of the direction of motion.
cylinder (see Fig. 1). As a result of
angle of 2◦ to the horizontal.
3
the
Theimpact, B loses
aeroplane 4 of its at
is climbing kinetic energy.
a constant
P object from 40 m s–1
(i) Show that the distance of the centre of mass of the combined the vertex of the conical
(iii) Show
shell that
is 0.47the
m. speed of B after hitting the wall is 3
u . −1 [4]
(ii) Find the maximum acceleration at an instant when 5 the speed of the aeroplane is 60 m s . [4]

(iv) B then hits A. Calculate the speeds of A and B, in terms of u, after this collision(Q3, June their
and state 2010)
V1
directions of motion. [8]
80° 250 m
7
22
B

!1
5m 5m
O A

## A particle P is projected 30° speed V1 m s−1 at an angle of elevation θ1 from

with 30° a point O on horizontal
A C
ground. When P is vertically above a point A on the ground its height is 250 m and its velocity
components are 40 m s−1 horizontally and 30 m sFig.
−1 2
vertically upwards (see diagram).

The
(i) combined V1 = 86.0
Show that object is freely 1 = 62.3 , correct to 3 significant figures.
and θsuspended ◦
from its vertex and is held with its axis horizontal. This[5] is
achieved by means of a wire attached to a point on the circumference of the base of the conical shell.
At the
The instant
wire makeswhenan angle 80◦ withabove
P isofvertically A, edge
the slant a second conicalQshell
of theparticle is projected from O with speed
(see Fig. 2).
−1
A small ball of mass 0.2 kg is projected with speed 11 m s−1 up a line of greatest slope of a roof from
V2 m s at an angle of elevation θ2 . P and Q hit the ground at the same time and at the same place.
(ii) Calculate the tension in the wire. [4]
a(ii)
point A at thethe
Calculate bottom of theofroof.
total time flightThe
of Pball
andremains
the totalintime
contact withof
of flight theQroof
. and moves up the line
[4]
of greatest slope to the top of the roof at B. The roof is rough and the coefficient of friction is 12 . The
distance
© OCR 2010 AB is 5the
(iii) Calculate and AB
m range of is
theinclined
particles 30◦ 4729
at and to the
henceJan10horizontal (see diagram).
calculate V and θ . [8]
2 2

(i) Show that the speed of the ball when it reaches B is 5.44 m s−1 , correct to 2 decimal places. [6]
(Q7, June 2010)
The ball leaves the roof at B and moves freely under gravity. The point C is at the lower edge of the
(ii) Calculate the speed of the centre of mass of the open frame. [2]
PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
The resistance to the motion of a car is kv N, where v m s−1 is the car’s speed and k is a constant.
3
232 2

The power exerted by the car’s engine is 15 000 W, and the car has constant speed 25 m s−1 along a

## (i) Show that k = 4.8. [3]

With the engine operating at a much lower power, the car descends a hill of inclination α , where
sin α = 15
1 . At an instant when the speed of the car is 16 m s−1 , its acceleration is 0.3 m s−2 .

(ii) Given that the mass of the car is 700 kg, calculate the power of the engine. [5]
physicsandmathstutor.com (Q2, Jan 2011)
3
3
A
244 A block of mass 25 kg is dragged 30 m up a slope inclined at 5◦ to the horizontal by a rope inclined
at 20◦ to the slope. The tension in the rope30is° 100 N and the resistance to the motion of the block is
70 N. The block is initially at rest. Calculate
(i) the work done by the tension in the rope, [2]
0.5 m
(ii) the change in the potential energy of the block, [2]
B
(iii) the speed of the block after it has moved° 30 m up the slope. [4]
60
physicsandmathstutor.com (Q4, Jan 2011)
5 A uniform solid is made of a hemisphere with2 centre O and P radius 0.6 m, and a cylinder of radius
0.6 m and height 0.6 m. The planephysicsandmathstutor.com
face of the hemisphere and a plane face of the cylinder coincide.
1 (The formula for the volume of a sphere is 34 π r3 .)
25 A particle P of mass 0.4 kg is attached to one end
2 of each of two light inextensible strings which are
both taut. The other end of the longer string is attached to a fixed point A, and the other end of the
(i) Show that the distance of the centre of mass of the solid from O is 0.09 m. [5]
1 shorter string is attached to a fixed point B, which is vertically below A. The string AP makes an angle
of 30◦ with the vertical and is 0.5 m long. The string BP makes an angle of 60◦ with the vertical. P
(ii)
moves with constant angular speed in a horizontal circle with centre vertically 2 Nbelow B (see diagram).
The tension in the string AP is twice the tension in the string BP. Calculate
(i) the tension in each string, [4]
(ii) the angular speed of P. [4]
A sledge with its load has mass 70 kg. It moves down a slope and the resistance to the motion of the
sledge is 90 N. The speed of the 0.6sledge
m is controlled by the constant tension in a light rope, which is
attached
A sledge with its load has mass 70 kg. It slope
to the sledge and parallel to the moves (see
down diagram).
a slope While
and thetravelling
resistance20tomthe
down the slope,
motion of the
−1 −1
the speed of the sledge decreases from 2.1 m s
sledge is 90 N. The speed of the sledge is controlled to 1.4 m
by s
the and it descends
constant tension a vertical
in a distance
light rope, of 3 m.
which is
O
attached to the sledge and parallel to the slope (see diagram). While travelling 20 m down the slope,
Calculate
(i)speed
the of thethe change
sledge in energy
decreases fromof2.1
them s−1 toand
sledge 1.4 m −1
and it descends a vertical distance of 3 [4]m.
0.6 m
(i) Calculate
(ii) Calculate the
the tension in energy
change in the rope.
of the sledge and its load. [3]
[4]
45° (Q1, June 2011)
(ii) Calculate the tension in the rope. [3]
2 A car of mass 1250 kg travels along a straight road inclined at 2◦ to the horizontal. The resistance to
the motion of the
The solid is car is kvwith
placed N, where v m s−1surface
the curved is the speed the car and konis aa rough
of theofhemisphere constant. The car surface
horizontal travels
−1 ◦ ◦
2
26 at
A acarconstant
and the speed
of mass axis
1250 ofkg25travels
inclined m sat 45 up the
along aslope
the engine
horizontal.
straight of the
at 2car
The equilibrium
inclined toworks at asolid
constant
of horizontal.
the the isTherate of 21 by
maintained
resistancekW.
toa
horizontal force of 2 N applied to −1 highest point on the circumference of its plane face (see
the
the motion of the car is kv N, where v m s is the speed of the car and k is a constant. The car travels
at(i) Calculate
diagram).
a constant the value
Calculate
speed of 25 m of sk−.1 up the slope and the engine of the car works at a constant rate of 21 kW. [4]

## (a) the mass

Calculate of the solid,
the value
constant [4]
(ii)
(i) Calculate the of kspeed
. of the car on a horizontal road. [3]
[4]
(b) the set of possible values of the coefficient of friction between the surface and the solid.
(ii) Calculate the constant speed of the car on a horizontal road. [3]
3 A uniform lamina ABCDE consists of a square ACDE and an equilateral triangle ABC which are
joined along their common edge AC to form a pentagon whose sides are each 8 cm in(Q2, June 2011)
length.
3 A uniform lamina ABCDE consists of a square ACDE and an equilateral triangle ABC which are
(i) Calculate
joined the common
along their distance of theAC
edge centre of mass
to form of the lamina
a pentagon sidesAC
whosefrom are. each 8 cm in length. [5]

## (ii) The lamina

(i) Calculate theisdistance
freely suspended from
of the centre of Amass
and of
hangs from AC.Calculate the angle that AC
in equilibrium.
the lamina [5]
makes with the vertical. [2]
[Questionsfrom
(ii) The lamina is freely suspended 6 andA 7and
arehangs
printed overleaf.] Calculate the angle that AC
in equilibrium.
PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
275 A car of mass 1500 kg travels up a line of greatest slope of a straight road inclined at 5° to the horizontal.
physicsandmathstutor.com
The power of the car’s engine is constant and equal to 25 kW and the resistance to the motion of the car is
constant and equal to 750 N. The car passes through point A with speed 10 m s−1.
2

## 1 A(i) Find the

particle, acceleration
of mass of the car
0.8 kg, moves at A.
along [5]
a smooth horizontal surface. It hits a vertical wall, which is at right
angles to the direction of motion of the particle, and rebounds.
−1 The speed of the particle as it hits the wall is
4The −1 later passes through a point B with speed 20 m s . The car takes 28 s to travel from A to B.
m scarand the coefficient of restitution between the particle and the wall is 0.3. Find
(ii) Findimpulse
(i) the the distance AB.wall exerts on the particle,
that the [7]
[3]
(Q5, Jan 2012)
(ii) the kinetic energy lost in the impact. [2]
[Questions 6 and 7 are printed overleaf.]
282 A car of mass 1600 kg moves along a straight horizontal road. The resistance to the motion of the car has
constant magnitude 800 N and the car’s engine is working at a constant rate of 20 kW.

(i) Find the acceleration of the car at an instant when the car’s speed is 20 m s−1. [4]

The car now moves up a hill inclined at 4° to the horizontal. The car’s engine continues to work at 20 kW
and the magnitude of the resistance to motion remains at 800 N.
physicsandmathstutor.com
4729 Jan12 Turn over
(ii) Find the greatest steady speed at which the car can move up the hill. [4]
3
(Q2, June 2012)
5 physicsandmathstutor.com
3
2 B
physicsandmathstutor.com
291 A block is being pushed in a straight line along horizontal 1.5 ground
m by a force of 18 N inclined at 15° below
2
the horizontal. The block moves a distance of 6 m in 5 s with constant speed. Find
1 A block is being pushed in a straight line along horizontal ground by a force of 18 N inclined at 15° below
(i) horizontal.
the the work done by themoves
The block force, a distance of 6 m 4inm5 s with constant
P speed. Find [3]
Q
(ii) the work
(i) the powerdone
withby
which theAforce is working.
the force,
B [2]
[3]
2.5 m (Q1, Jan 2013)
(ii) the power with which the force is working.
30° a straight [2]
2 A car of mass 1500 kg travels along 1.5 m horizontal road. The resistance to the motion of the car is
1
kv 2 N, where v m s–1 is the speed P of the car and k is a constant. At the instant when the engine produces a
302 power
A car of of mass
15 0001500
W, the
kg car has speed
travels along 15 m s–1 and
a straight is accelerating
horizontal m s–2. to the motion of the car is
at 0.4resistance

1
kv 2 N, where v m s–1 is the speed of the car and 60° k is a constant. At the instant when the engine produces a
(i)
A uniform
power Find the value
of 15beam
000 W, of
ABthe k.
of mass
car has15speed A
kg and15length –1
m s 4andm isis freely hingedatto0.4
accelerating m s–2. wall at A. The beam is held[4]
a vertical in
equilibrium in a horizontal position by a light rod PQ of length 1.5 m. P is fixed to the wall vertically below
It is
A(i)
and given thatvalue
PQ the
makes theangreatest
of 30° speed ofvertical
the car (see
on this road is 30 mforces–1. exerted on the beam at Q by the
A Find
uniform rod AB, of
ofk.mass 3 kgwith
andthe
length 4 m, is indiagram).
limitingTheequilibrium with A on rough horizontal[4]
rod is in the direction PQ. Find
ground. The rod is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal and is supported by a small smooth peg P, such that
(ii) given
It Find the
theisdistance thatgreatest
APthe
power
greatest
is 2.5 m (see
that the
speed
diagram).
can
of the
Find carproduce.
on this road is 30 m s–1. [3]
(i) the magnitude of the force exerted on the beam at Q, [3]
(ii)
(i) Find the greatest
the force acting on power thatatthe
the rod P, engine can produce. [3]
[3]
3 A(ii)particle A is released
the magnitude from restoffrom
and direction the top
the force of a smooth
exerted plane,atwhich
on the beam A. makes an angle of 30° with the
[6]
horizontal. The particle A collides 2 s later with a particle B, which is moving up a line of greatest (Q2, Jan 2013)
slope of
(ii) the coefficient of friction between the ground and the rod. [5]
3 the plane. The coefficient
A particle A is released of restitution between the particles is 0.4 and the speed of B immediately
from rest from the top of a smooth plane, which makes an angle of 30° with the before
the collision is 2 m s–1. B has velocity 1 m s–1 down the plane immediately after the collision. Find
horizontal. The particle A collides 2 s later with a particle B, which is moving up a line of greatest slope of
316 the plane. of
A particle The coefficient
mass 0.5 kg isofheld
restitution
at rest atbetween thewhich
a point P, particles
is atisthe
0.4bottom
and theofspeed of B immediately
an inclined before
plane. The particle
(i) collision
the the speedis of
2 mAs–1
immediately
. B has after 1the
velocity m collision,
s–1 down the plane immediately after the collision. Find [4]
is given an impulse of 1.8 N s directed up a line of greatest slope of the plane.

(ii)
(i) the speed
(i) the
distance
of A
A moves
Find the speed
up the planethe
immediately
at which the after
after the collision.
collision,
particle starts to move.
[2]
[4]
[2]
The
(ii) masses of A and
the distance B are up
A moves 0.5the
kg and
planem kg, respectively.
The particle subsequently moves up the after
planethe
to collision.
a point Q, which is 0.3 m above the level of P. [2]
(iii) masses
The Find theofvalue
Athe ofBm.
andplane
areis0.5 kg andfind
m kg, [3]
(ii) Given that smooth, therespectively.
speed of the particle at Q. [4]

(iii)
cont
It Find the
on next
is given value of m.
pagethat
the plane is rough. The particle is now projected up the plane from P with initial
4 –1
speed 3 m s , and comes to rest at a point R which is 0.2 m above the level of P.
D 6 cm
4729 Jun12
C
(ii) Given that the plane is smooth, find the speed of the particle at Q. [4]
PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
It is given instead that the plane is rough. The particle is now projected up the plane from P with initial
speed 3 m s–1, and comes to rest at a point R which is 0.2 m above the level of P.

(iii) Given that the plane is inclined at 30° to the horizontal, find the magnitude of the frictional force on the
particle. [4]
(Q6, Jan 2013)
2

321 A and B are two points on a line of greatest slope 2of a smooth inclined plane, with B a vertical distance of
8 m below the level of A. A particle of mass 0.75 kg is projected down the plane from A with a speed of
1 A2 mands−1B. Find
are two points on a line of greatest slope of a smooth inclined plane, with B a vertical distance of
8 m below the level of A. A particle of mass 0.75 kg is projected down the plane from A with a speed of
2m (i) s−the
1 loss in potential energy of the particle as it moves from A to B,
. Find [2]

## (ii) the loss

(i) the speedin of the particle
potential when
energy it reaches
of the particleB.as it moves from A to B, [4]
[2]
(Q1, June 2013)
(ii) the speed of the particle when it reaches B. [4]
2 The power developed by the engine of a car as it travels at a constant speed of 32 m s−1 on a horizontal road
is 20 kW.
2
33 The power developed by the engine of a car as 4729/01
it travels at a constant speed of 32 m s−1 on a horizontal road
Turn over
is (i)
Calculate the resistance to the motion of the car.
20 kW.
Jan13
[3]

The
(i) car, of mass
Calculate the1500 kg, nowtotravels
resistance downofa the
the motion straight
car. road inclined at 2° to the horizontal. The resistance[3]
to
the motion of the car is unchanged.
The car, of mass 1500 kg, now travels down a straight road inclined at 2° to the horizontal. The resistance to
(ii) motion
the Find the
of power
the car produced
is by the engine of the car when the car has speed 32 m s−1 and is accelerating at
unchanged.
0.1 m s−2. [4]
(ii) Find the power produced by the engine of the car when the car has speed 32 m s−1 and is accelerating at
0.1 m s−2. [4]
3
A (Q2, June 2013)
3 C
A
θ°
C

θ°
4c
m

PN
4c
m

PN
B

A uniform semicircular arc ACB is freely pivoted at A. B The arc has mass 0.3 kg and is held in equilibrium by
a force of magnitude P N applied at B. The line of action of this force lies in the same plane as the arc, and is
perpendicular to AB. The diameter AB has length 4 cm and makes an angle of i ° with the downward vertical
A uniform semicircular arc ACB is freely pivoted at A. The arc has mass 0.3 kg and is held in equilibrium by
(see diagram).
a force of magnitude P N applied at B. The line of action of this force lies in the same plane as the arc, and is
perpendicular to AB. The diameter AB has length 4 cm and makes an angle of i ° with the downward vertical
(i) Given that i = 0 , find the magnitude of the force acting on the arc at A. [6]
(see diagram).
(ii) Given instead that i = 30 , find the value of P. [4]
(i) Given that i = 0 , find the magnitude of the force acting on the arc at A. [6]

## (ii) Given instead that i = 30 , find the value of P. [4]

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1. A car of mass 750 kg is moving up a straight road inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal,
1
where sin θ = . The resistance to motion of the car from non-gravitational forces has
15
constant magnitude R newtons. The power developed by the car’s engine is 15 kW and the car
is moving at a constant speed of 20 m s–1.

## (a) Show that R = 260.

(4)

The power developed by the car’s engine is now increased to 18 kW. The magnitude of the
resistance to motion from non-gravitational forces remains at 260 N. At the instant when the car
is moving up the road at 20 m s–1 the car’s acceleration is a m s–2.

## (b) Find the value of a.

(4)
(Total 8 marks)

2. A cyclist and her bicycle have a total mass of 70 kg. She cycles along a straight horizontal road
with constant speed 3.5 ms–1. She is working at a constant rate of 490 W.

## (a) Find the magnitude of the resistance to motion.

(4)

The cyclist now cycles down a straight road which is inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal,
1
where sin θ = , at a constant speed U ms–1. The magnitude of the non-gravitational
14
resistance to motion is modelled as 40U newtons. She is now working at a constant rate of 24
W.

## (b) Find the value of U.

(7)
(Total 11 marks)

3. A truck of mass of 300 kg moves along a straight horizontal road with a constant speed of
10 m s–1. The resistance to motion of the truck has magnitude 120 N.

(a) Find the rate at which the engine of the truck is working.
(2)

## Edexcel Internal Review 1

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

On another occasion the truck moves at a constant speed up a hill inclined at θ to the horizontal,
1
where sin θ = . The resistance to motion of the truck from non-gravitational forces remains
14
of magnitude 120 N. The rate at which the engine works is the same as in part (a).

## (b) Find the speed of the truck.

(4)
(Total 6 marks)

4. A car of mass 1500 kg is moving up a straight road, which is inclined at an angle θ to the
1
horizontal, where sin θ = . The resistance to the motion of the car from non-gravitational
14
forces is constant and is modelled as a single constant force of magnitude 650 N. The car’s
engine is working at a rate of 30 kW.

Find the acceleration of the car at the instant when its speed is 15 m s–1.
(Total 5 marks)

5. A lorry of mass 2000 kg is moving down a straight road inclined at angle α to the horizontal,
1
where sin α = . The resistance to motion is modelled as a constant force of magnitude
25
1600 N. The lorry is moving at a constant speed of 14 m s–1.

## Find, in kW, the rate at which the lorry’s engine is working.

(Total 6 marks)

6. A car of mass 1200 kg moves along a straight horizontal road with a constant speed of 24 m s–1.
The resistance to motion of the car has magnitude 600 N.

(a) Find, in kW, the rate at which the engine of the car is working.
(2)

## Edexcel Internal Review 2

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1
The car now moves up a hill inclined at α to the horizontal, where sin α = The resistance to
28
motion of the car from non-gravitational forces remains of magnitude 600 N. The engine of the
car now works at a rate of 30 kW.

(b) Find the acceleration of the car when its speed is 20 m s–1.
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

7. A car of mass 1000 kg is moving along a straight horizontal road. The resistance to motion is
modelled as a constant force of magnitude R newtons. The engine of the car is working at a rate
of 12 kW. When the car is moving with speed 15 m s –1, the acceleration of the car is 0.2 m s–2.

## (a) Show that R = 600.

(4)

The car now moves with constant speed U m s–1 downhill on a straight road inclined at θ to the
horizontal, where sin θ = 401 . The engine of the car is now working at a rate of 7 kW. The
resistance to motion from non-gravitational forces remains of magnitude R newtons.

## (b) Calculate the value of U.

(5)
(Total 9 marks)

8. A car of mass 1200 kg moves along a straight horizontal road. The resistance to motion of the
car from non-gravitational forces is of constant magnitude 600 N. The car moves with constant
speed and the engine of the car is working at a rate of 21 kW.

(3)

## Edexcel Internal Review 3

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

The car moves up a hill inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where sin α = 1
14 .

The car’s engine continues to work at 21 kW and the resistance to motion from
non-gravitational forces remains of magnitude 600 N.

(b) Find the constant speed at which the car can move up the hill.
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

9. A car of mass 1000 kg is towing a trailer of mass 1500 kg along a straight horizontal road. The
tow-bar joining the car to the trailer is modelled as a light rod parallel to the road. The total
resistance to motion of the car is modelled as having constant magnitude 750 N. The total
resistance to motion of the trailer is modelled as of magnitude R newtons, where R is a constant.
When the engine of the car is working at a rate of 50 kW, the car and the trailer travel at a
constant speed of 25 m s–1.

## (a) Show that R = 1250.

(3)

When travelling at 25 m s–1 the driver of the car disengages the engine and applies the brakes.
The brakes provide a constant braking force of magnitude 1500 N to the car. The resisting
forces of magnitude 750 N and 1250 N are assumed to remain unchanged. Calculate

(3)

## (c) the thrust in the tow-bar while braking,

(2)

(d) the work done, in kJ, by the braking force in bringing the car and the trailer to rest.
(4)

(e) Suggest how the modelling assumption that the resistances to motion are constant could
be refined to be more realistic.
(1)
(Total 13 marks)

## Edexcel Internal Review 4

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

10. A lorry of mass 1500 kg moves along a straight horizontal road. The resistance to the motion of
the lorry has magnitude 750 N and the lorry’s engine is working at a rate of 36 kW.

(a) Find the acceleration of the lorry when its speed is 20 m s–1.
(4)

The lorry comes to a hill inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where sin α = 1
10
. The
magnitude of the resistance to motion from non-gravitational forces remains 750 N.

## The lorry moves up the hill at a constant speed of 20 m s–1.

(b) Find the rate at which the lorry's engine is now working.
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

11. A car of mass 400 kg is moving up a straight road inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal, where
sin θ = 141 . The resistance to motion of the car from non-gravitational forces is modelled as a
constant force of magnitude R newtons. When the car is moving at a constant speed of
20 m s–1, the power developed by the car’s engine is 10 kW.

## Find the value of R.

(Total 5 marks)

12. A girl and her bicycle have a combined mass of 64 kg. She cycles up a straight stretch of road
which is inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where sin α = 141 . She cycles at a constant
speed of 5 m s−1. When she is cycling at this speed, the resistance to motion from
non-gravitational forces has magnitude 20 N.

## (a) Find the rate at which the cyclist is working.

(4)

She now turns round and comes down the same road. Her initial speed is 5 m s −1 , and the
resistance to motion is modelled as remaining constant with magnitude 20 N. She free-wheels
down the road for a distance of 80 m. Using this model,

## Edexcel Internal Review 5

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

(b) find the speed of the cyclist when she has travelled a distance of 80 m.
(5)

The cyclist again moves down the same road, but this time she pedals down the road. The
resistance is now modelled as having magnitude proportional to the speed of the cyclist. Her
initial speed is again 5 m s−1 when the resistance to motion has magnitude 20 N.

(c) Find the magnitude of the resistance to motion when the speed of the cyclist is 8 m s −1 .
(1)

## (d) Find the magnitude of her acceleration when her speed is 8 m s −1 .

(4)
(Total 14 marks)

13. A car of mass 1000 kg is moving along a straight horizontal road with a constant acceleration
of f m s–2. The resistance to motion is modelled as a constant force of magnitude 1200 N. When
the car is travelling at 12 m s–1, the power generated by the engine of the car is 24 kW.

## (a) Calculate the value of f.

(4)

When the car is travelling at 14 m s−1, the engine is switched off and the car comes to rest,
without braking, in a distance of d metres. Assuming the same model for resistance,

## (b) use the work-energy principle to calculate the value of d.

(3)

(c) Give a reason why the model used for the resistance to motion may not be realistic.
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

14. The resistance to the motion of a cyclist is modelled as kv2 N, where k is a constant and
v m s–1 is the speed of the cyclist. The total mass of the cyclist and his bicycle is 100 kg.
The cyclist freewheels down a slope inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where
sin α = 201
, at a constant speed of 3.5 m s−1.