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Fig. 6.1

(i) Calculate the acceleration of the car when a resultant force of 2000 N acts on it in the direction

of its motion.

How long does it take the car to increase its speed from 5 ms-• to 12.5 ms- 1 ? (3)

The car has an acceleration of 1.4 ms-2 when there is a driving force of 2000 N.

(ii) Show that the resistance to motion of the car is 600 N. (2)

A trailer is now atached to the car, as shown in Fig. 6.2. The car still has a driving force of 2000 N

and resistance to motion of 600 N. The trailer has a mass of 800 kg. The tow-bar connecting the

car and the trailer is light and horiz.ontal. The car and trailer are accelerating at 0.7 m s 2•

Fig. 6.2

(iii) Show that the resistance 10 the motion of the trailer is 140 N. (3)

The driving force is now removed and a braking force of 6JON is applied to the car. All the

resistances to motion remain as before. The trailer has no brakes.

(v) Calculate the new acceleration. Calculate also the force in the tow-bar, stating whether it is a

tension or a thrust (compression). ( 6)

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

2 Fig. 3 shows two people, Sam and Tom, pushing a car of mass 1000 kg along a straight line l on level

ground.

Sam pushes with a constant horizontal force of 300 N at an angle of 30 ° to the line l.

Tom pushes with a constant horizontal force of 175 N at an angle of 15 ° to the line l.

Sam

300 N

30°

1000 kg l

15°

Tom 175 N

Fig. 3

(i) The car starts at rest and moves with constant acceleration. After 6 seconds it has travelled 7.2 m.

(ii) Find the resistance force acting on the car along the line l. [4]

(iii) The resultant of the forces exerted by Sam and Tom is not in the direction of the car’s acceleration.

Explain briefly why. [1]

3 A particle is travelling along a straight line with constant acceleration. P, O and Q are points on the line, as

illustrated in Fig. 4. The distance from P to O is 5 m and the distance from O to Q is 30 m.

5m 30 m

P O Q

Fig. 4

Initially the particle is at O. After 10 s, it is at Q and its velocity is 9 m s−1 in the direction OQ.

(i) Find the initial velocity and the acceleration of the particle. [4]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1 A train consists of a locomotive pulling 17 identical trucks.

The mass of the locomotive is 120 tonnes and the mass of each truck is 40 tonnes. The locomotive gives a

driving force of 121 000 N.

The resistance to motion on each truck is R N and the resistance on the locomotive is 5R N.

Initially the train is travelling on a straight horizontal track and its acceleration is 0.11 m s−2.

The train now comes to a place where the track goes up a straight, uniform slope at an angle α with the

1

horizontal, where sin α = 80 .

The driving force and the resistance forces remain the same as before.

(iii) Find the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of the train. [4]

The train then comes to a straight uniform downward slope at an angle β to the horizontal.

The driver of the train reduces the driving force to zero and the resistance forces remain the same as before.

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

2 A box of mass 8 kg slides on a horizontal table against a constant resistance of 11.2 N.

(i) What horizontal force is applied to the box if it is sliding with acceleration of magnitude 2 m s−2 ?

[3]

Fig. 7 shows the box of mass 8 kg on a long, rough, horizontal table. A sphere of mass 6 kg is attached

to the box by means of a light inextensible string that passes over a smooth pulley. The section of the

string between the pulley and the box is parallel to the table. The constant frictional force of 11.2 N

opposes the motion of the box. A force of 105 N parallel to the table acts on the box in the direction

shown, and the acceleration of the system is in that direction.

8 kg 105 N

6 kg

Fig. 7

(ii) What information in the question indicates that while the string is taut the box and sphere have

the same acceleration? [1]

(iii) Draw two separate diagrams, one showing all the horizontal forces acting on the box and the

other showing all the forces acting on the sphere. [2]

(iv) Show that the magnitude of the acceleration of the system is 2.5 m s−2 and find the tension in the

string. [7]

The system is stationary when the sphere is at point P. When the sphere is 1.8 m above P the string

breaks, leaving the sphere moving upwards at a speed of 3 m s−1 .

(v) (A) Write down the value of the acceleration of the sphere after the string breaks. [1]

(B) The sphere passes through P again at time T seconds after the string breaks. Show that T is

the positive root of the equation 4.9T 2 − 3T − 1.8 = 0. [2]

(C ) Using part (B), or otherwise, calculate the total time that elapses after the sphere moves

from P before the sphere again passes through P. [4]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1

B

A

a C b

8 kg

Fig. 7.1

A box of mass 8 kg is supported by a continuous light string ACB that is fixed at A and at B and passes

through a smooth ring on the box at C, as shown in Fig. 7.1. The box is in equilibrium and the tension

in the string section AC is 60 N.

(i) What information in the question indicates that the tension in the string section CB is also 60 N?

[2]

(ii) Show that the string sections AC and CB are equally inclined to the horizontal (so that α = β in

Fig. 7.1). [2]

(iii) Calculate the angle of the string sections AC and CB to the horizontal. [5]

In a different situation the same box is supported by two separate light strings, PC and QC, that are

tied to the box at C. There is also a horizontal force of 10 N acting at C. This force and the angles

between these strings and the horizontal are shown in Fig. 7.2. The box is in equilibrium.

P Q

45° C 25°

10 N

8 kg

Fig. 7.2

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

2 Robin is driving a car of mass 800 kg along a straight horizontal road at a speed of 40 m s–1.

Robin applies the brakes and the car decelerates uniformly; it comes to rest after travelling a distance of

125 m.

(i) Show that the resistance force on the car when the brakes are applied is 5120 N. [4]

(ii) Find the time the car takes to come to rest. [2]

For the rest of this question, assume that when Robin applies the brakes there is a constant resistance force

of 5120 N on the car.

The car returns to its speed of 40 m s–1 and the road remains straight and horizontal.

Robin sees a red light 155 m ahead, takes a short time to react and then applies the brakes.

(iii) Show that Robin’s reaction time is less than 0.75 s. [2]

The ‘stopping distance’ is the total distance travelled while a driver reacts and then applies the brakes to

bring the car to rest. For the rest of this question, assume that Robin is still driving the car described above

and has a reaction time of 0.675 s. (This is the figure used in calculating the stopping distances given in the

Highway Code.)

(iv) Calculate the stopping distance when Robin is driving at 20 m s–1 on a horizontal road. [3]

The car then travels down a hill which has a slope of 5° to the horizontal.

(v) Find the stopping distance when Robin is driving at 20 m s–1 down this hill. [6]

(vi) By what percentage is the stopping distance increased by the fact that the car is going down the hill?

Give your answer to the nearest 1%. [1]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

3 A trolley C of mass 8 kg with rusty axle bearings is initially at rest on a horizontal floor.

The trolley stays at rest when it is pulled by a horizontal string with tension 25 N, as shown in Fig. 8.1.

string

25 N

C

8 kg

Fig. 8.1

(i) State the magnitude of the horizontal resistance opposing the pull. [1]

The string now has tension 50 N, and is at an angle of 25◦ to the horizontal, as shown in Fig. 8.2. The

two trolleys stay at rest.

50 N string

25°

D rod C

10 kg 8 kg

Fig. 8.2

(ii) Calculate the magnitude of the total horizontal resistance acting on the two trolleys opposing the

pull. [2]

The axle bearings of the trolleys are oiled and the total horizontal resistance to the motion of the two

trolleys is now 20 N. The two trolleys are still pulled by the string with tension 50 N, as shown in

Fig. 8.2.

In a new situation, the trolleys are on a slope at 5◦ to the horizontal and are initially travelling down

the slope at 3 m s−1 . The resistances are 15 N to the motion of D and 5 N to the motion of C. There is

no string attached. The rod connecting the trolleys is parallel to the slope. This situation is shown in

Fig. 8.3.

1

initial speed 3 m s

rod C

D 8 kg

10 kg

5°

Fig. 8.3

(v) Calculate the speed of the trolleys after 2 seconds and also the force in the rod connecting the

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

trolleys, stating whether this rod is in tension or thrust (compression). [9]

M3 Dynamics - Variable forces PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1. A particle P of mass m is above the surface of the Earth at distance x from the centre of the

Earth. The Earth exerts a gravitational force on P. The magnitude of this force is inversely

proportional to x2.

At the surface of the Earth the acceleration due to gravity is g. The Earth is modelled as a sphere

of radius R.

mgR 2

(a) Prove that the magnitude of the gravitational force on P is .

x2

(3)

A particle is fired vertically upwards from the surface of the Earth with initial speed 3U. At a

height R above the surface of the Earth the speed of the particle is U.

(7)

(Total 10 marks)

2. A rocket is fired vertically upwards with speed U from a point on the Earth's surface. The rocket

is modelled as a particle P of constant mass m, and the Earth as a fixed sphere of radius R. At a

distance x from the centre of the Earth, the speed of P is v. The only force acting on P is

cm

directed towards the centre of the Earth and has magnitude 2 , where c is a constant.

x

1 1

(a) Show that v 2 = U 2 + 2c − .

x R

(5)

(3)

(Total 8 marks)

M3 Dynamics - Variable forces PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1

3. A particle P of mass 3

kg moves along the positive x-axis under the action of a single force.

k N, where OP = x metres

( x + 1)2

and k is a constant. Initially P is moving away from O. At x = 1 the speed of P is 4 m s–1, and at

x = 8 the speed of P is √2 m s–1.

(10)

(b) Find the distance of P from O when P first comes to instantaneous rest.

(4)

(Total 14 marks)

4. A particle P of mass m kg slides from rest down a smooth plane inclined at 30° to the

horizontal. When P has moved a distance x metres down the plane, the resistance to the motion

of P from non-gravitational forces has magnitude mx2 newtons.

Find

(7)

(b) the distance P has moved when it comes to rest for the first time.

(3)

(Total 10 marks)

5. Above the earth’s surface, the magnitude of the force on a particle due to the earth’s gravity is

inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the particle from the centre of the earth.

Assuming that the earth is a sphere of radius R, and taking g as the acceleration due to gravity at

the surface of the earth,

(a) prove that the magnitude of the gravitational force on a particle of mass m when it is a

mgR 2

distance x (x ≥ R) from the centre of the earth is .

x2

(3)

M3 Dynamics - Variable forces PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

A particle is fired vertically upwards from the surface of the earth with initial speed u, where

u2 = 23 gR. Ignoring air resistance,

(b) find, in terms of g and R, the speed of the particle when it is at a height 2R above the

surface of the earth.

(7)

(Total 10 marks)

6. A toy car of mass 0.2 kg is travelling in a straight line on a horizontal floor. The car is modelled

as a particle. At time t = 0 the car passes through a fixed point O. After t seconds the speed of

the car is v m s–1 and the car is at a point P with OP = x metres. The resultant force on the car is

modelled as 101 x(4 – 3x) N in the direction OP. The car comes to instantaneous rest when x = 6.

Find

(7)

(2)

(Total 9 marks)

7. A car of mass 800 kg moves along a horizontal straight road. At time t seconds, the resultant

48 000

force acting on the car has magnitude newtons, acting in the direction of motion of

(t + 2) 2

the car. When t = 0, the car is at rest.

(a) Show that the speed of the car approaches a limiting value as t increases and find this

value.

(6)

(b) Find the distance moved by the car in the first 6 s of its motion.

(6)

(Total 12 marks)

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

61 A car of mass 700 kg is travelling up a hill which is inclined at a constant angle of 5◦ to the horizontal.

At a certain point P on the hill the car’s speed is 20 m s−1 . The point Q is 400 m further up the hill

from P, and at Q the car’s speed is 15 m s−1 .

A(i) Calculate

uniform the has

rod AB work done 20

weight byNthe

andcar’s engine

length 3 m. as theend

The carAmoves from

is freely P totoQa, point

hinged assuming

on a that any

vertical

wall. resistances

The rod istoheld

the horizontally

car’s motionandmayinbeequilibrium

neglected. by a light inextensible string. One end of the [4]

string is attached to the rod at B. The other end of the string is attached to a point C, which is 1 m

Assumeabove

directly insteadAthat

(seethe resistance

diagram). to the car’s

Calculate themotion

tensionbetween P and Q is a constant force of magnitude

in the string. [4]

200 N.

2 A(ii) Given

golfer hitsthat the acceleration

a ball from a pointof Othe

on car at Q is ground

horizontal zero, show

withthat the power

a velocity of of m s−1

50 the engine

at anas the car

angle of

◦ passes through Q is 12.0 kW, correct to 3 significant figures. [3]

25 above the horizontal. The ball first hits the ground at a point A. Assuming that there is no air

resistance, calculate

(iii) Given that the power of the car’s engine at P is the same as at Q, calculate the car’s retardation

(i) the

at Ptime

. taken for the ball to travel from O to A, [3]

[3]

(ii) the distance OA. (Q6, June 2005)

[2]

4729/S05 [Turn over

32 A box of mass 50 kg is dragged along a horizontal floor by a constant force of magnitude 400 N acting

at an angle of α above the horizontal. The total resistance to the motion of the box has magnitude

300 N. The box starts from rest at the point O, and passes the point P, 25 m from O, with a speed of

2 m s−1 .

(a) the increase in kinetic energy of the box, [1]

(b) the work done against the resistance to motion of the box. [1]

(Q3, Jan 2006)

4

73 Marco is riding his bicycle at a constant speed of 12 m s−1 along a horizontal road, working at a

constant rate of 300 W. Marco and his bicycle have a combined mass of 75 kg.

(i) Calculate the wind resistance acting on Marco and his bicycle. [2]

Nicolas is riding his bicycle at the same speed as Marco and directly behind him. Nicolas experiences

30% less wind resistance than Marco.

The two cyclists arrive at the bottom of a hill which is at an angle of 1◦ to the horizontal. Marco

increases his power output to 500 W.

(iii) Assuming Marco’s wind resistance is unchanged, calculate his instantaneous acceleration

immediately after starting to climb the hill. [5]

Marco reaches the top of the hill at a speed4729/Jan06

◦

200 m which is at a constant angle of 10 to the horizontal. He experiences a constant wind resistance

of 120 N.

physicsandmathstutor.com

(Q7, Jan 2006)

2

14 A child of mass 35 kg runs up a flight of stairs in 10 seconds. The vertical distance climbed is 4 m.

Assuming that the child’s speed is constant, calculate the power output. [4]

(Q1, June 2006)

3

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

45 A car of mass 900 kg is travelling at a constant speed of 30 m s−1 on a level road. The total resistance

physicsandmathstutor.com

to motion is 450 N.

2

(i) Calculate the power output of the car’s engine. [1]

1 A uniform solid cylinder has height 20 cm and diameter 12 cm. It is placed with its axis vertical

A

on roof box horizontal

a rough of mass 50plane.

kg is mounted

The planeonis the rooftilted

slowly of theuntil

car.the

The total resistance

cylinder to motion

topples when of the

the angle of

inclination is α . Find α .

vehicle increases to 500 N. [3]

(ii) The car’s engine continues to work at the same rate. Calculate the maximum speed of the car on

2 Two the levelspheres

smooth road. A and B, of equal radius and of masses 0.2 kg and 0.1 kg respectively, are free[2] to

−1

move on a smooth horizontal table. A is moving with speed 4 m s when it collides directly with B,

The

which power output ofThe

is stationary. the collision

car’s engine increaseselastic.

is perfectly to 15 000 W. Thethe

Calculate resistance

speed oftoAmotion ofimpact.

after the the car, with

[4]

roof box, remains 500 N.

3 (iii) Calculate

A small sphere the instantaneous

of mass acceleration

0.2 kg is projected of the car

vertically on the level

downwards withroad when

speed itss−1

21 m speed

fromisa25 m s−1

point at. a

height of 40 m above horizontal ground. It hits the ground and rebounds vertically upwards, coming [3]

to instantaneous rest at its initial point of projection. ◦Ignoring air resistance, calculate

(iv) The car climbs a hill which is at an angle of 5 to the horizontal. Calculate the instantaneous

the coefficient

(i) retardation of restitution

of the car when itsbetween

speed is m s−1 .and the ground,

the26sphere [6]

[3]

(ii) the magnitude of the impulse which the ground exerts on the sphere. (Q4, June 2006)

[2]

5

4

6 A skier of mass 80 kg is pulled up a slope which makes an angle of 20◦ with the horizontal. The

skier is subject to a constant frictional force of magnitude 70 N. The speed of the skier increases from

2 m s−1 at the point A to 5 m s−1 at the point B, and the distance AB is 25 m.

(i) By modelling the skier as a small object, calculate the work done by the pulling force as the skier

moves from A to B. [5]

(ii)

A uniform lamina ABCDE consists of a square and an isosceles triangle. The square has sides of

18 cm and BC = CD = 15 cm (see diagram).

(i) Taking x- and y-axes along AE and AB respectively, find the coordinates of the centre of mass of

the

It islamina. [7]

given that the pulling force has constant magnitude P N, and that it acts at a constant angle

◦

of 30 above the slope (see diagram). Calculate P. [3]

(ii) The lamina is freely suspended from B. Calculate the angle that BD makes with the vertical.

physicsandmathstutor.com (Q4, Jan 2007)

[2]

3

5

7 A model train has mass 100 kg. When the train is moving with speed v m s−1 the resistance to its

3000

motion is 3v2 N and the power output of the train is W.

v

(i) Show that the driving force acting on the train is 120 N at an instant when the train is moving

with speed 5 m s−1 . [2]

(ii) Find the acceleration of the train at an instant when it is moving horizontally with speed 5 m s−1 .

4729/S06 [2]

[Turn over

The train moves with constant speed up a straight hill inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where

sin α = 98

1

.

© OCR 2007 4729/01 Jan07

(iii) Calculate the speed of the train. (Q5, Jan 2007) [5]

ans−1 m ◦s−1

2

attached

the to the

rocket’s sack.

speed The rope

increases makes

from 100 m angle of 35

to 150 with

in athe horizontal

time and the tension in the rope

t seconds.

is 40 N. Calculate the work done in moving the sack 100 m. PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

[3]

8

1 A man drags a sack at constant speed in a straight line along horizontal ground by means of a rope

(i) Calculate the value of t . ◦ [4]

attached to the sack. The rope makes an angle of 35 with the horizontal and the tension in the rope

m s−1

is 40 N. Calculate the work done in moving the sack 100 m. [3]

2 Calculate the range

(ii) Calculate on a horizontal

the acceleration of theplane ofata the

rocket small stonewhen

instant projected from

its speed is a120

point on. the plane with

[4]

speed 12 m s−1 at an angle of elevation of 27◦ . (Q1, June 2007)

[4]

2 Calculate the range on a horizontal plane of a small stone projected from a point on the plane with

physicsandmathstutor.com

−1

4 A

speed 12 m s at an angle of elevationonofthe

ball is projected from a point O 27◦edge of a vertical cliff. The horizontal and vertically

m s−1inand s−1 respectively.

. [4]

93 A rocketcomponents

upward of mass 250ofkgthe is moving in a straight

initial velocity are 2 7 line space.21 mThere is no resistance to motion,

At time and

t seconds

the mass

after of the rocket

projection the ballisisassumed

at the point to be(xconstant.

, y) referred With to its motor working

horizontal at a constant

and vertically upward rate

axesof through

450 kW

−1 −1 −1 ◦

1

3 O

the

A .ball

Air

rocket resistance

rocket’s

is mass may

speed

projected

of 250with bespeed

increases

kg neglected.

is from12 100

moving mins ma at toangle

sstraight

an 150 linemof sinelevation

in a time

space. oft seconds.

There 55is above the horizontal.

no resistance to motion, At and

the

instant when the ball reaches its greatest height,

the mass of the rocket is assumed to be constant. With its motor working it hits a vertical wall, which is perpendicular

at a constant rate of 450 kW to the

Calculate x the value t.from

of of

y in terms t,100 −1 show −1y = − 101 2

[4]

the Express

(i)rocket’s

ball’s path. The and

speed coefficient

increases of andmhence

restitution sbetween

to 150the mthatsball a3xtime

inand the txseconds.

wall. is 0.65. Calculate the speed[5] of

the ball

(ii)

The Calculate

(i) ball the

hits thethe

Calculate sea acceleration

at a of

value point of the isrocket

t. which 25 m at the instant

below the level whenof O its. speed is 120 m s−1 . [4]

[4]

(i) immediately before its impact with the wall, [2]

(Q3, June 2007)

Find the horizontal

(ii) immediately

(ii) Calculate theafter itsdistance

accelerationimpact ofbetween the the

the rocket

with wall.atcliff and thewhen

the instant point itswhere speed theisball m s−1

120hits the. sea. [3]

[4]

[2]

4 A ball is projected from a point O on the edge of a vertical cliff. The horizontal and vertically

upward components of the initial velocity are 7 m s−1 and 21 m s−1 respectively. At time t seconds

102

5

4 A cyclist

after is and

projection

ball her

thebicycle

projected ballkgisishave

mfrom at theapoint

a projected

point O on (directly

combined y) mass

x, the up of

referred

edge 70

to

aofrough kg. The cliff.

a horizontal

vertical cyclist ascends

and avertically

The m s−1

a5straight

ofupward

horizontal . hill

axes

and AB

through

verticallyof

−1

A particle of mass plane with speed The plane

O . Air an resistance ◦ −1 −1

constant

upward

makes slope,

components ofmay

anglestarting be

from

30ofwiththe neglected.

initial

the A and reaching

resthorizontal

atvelocity andarethe asspeed

7 mcoefficient andof214ofm mfriction

ss at Bis. The

0.2. level

respectively. At

Calculate B is

of time 6t m

the above

seconds

distance

the level

afterparticle

the of

projectionA . For

theup

travels the

ball cyclist’s

theis plane motion

at the before

point (xcoming

, y) referred

from A to B , find

to horizontal

instantaneously and vertically upward axes through

to rest. [6]

of t, and hence show that y = 3x − 10

physicsandmathstutor.com 1 2

(i)

O(i)

. AirExpress x andmay

resistance y inbe terms

neglected. x . [5]

the increase in kinetic energy, [2]

2

3 The

(ii) ball

the hits the

increase sea

in at a point

gravitational which is

potential

(i) Express x and y in terms of t, and hence show that 25 m below

energy. y = 3of

the level x −O10 1. 2

x . [2]

[5]

1 A ball is projected with speed 12 m s at an angle of elevation of 55◦ above the horizontal. At the

−1

instant Find

(ii) ball

During

The when

the the the

ascent

hits the ball

theatreaches

horizontal

sea point its

a distance

resistance togreatest

which is 25height,

between

motion the cliffit and

is constant

m below hits

theand aB vertical

the point

has

level .wall, the

Owhere

ofmagnitude which N.isThe

60ball perpendicular

hits the sea.

work done by to the

[3]

ball’s path.

cyclist The coefficient

in moving from A toof B restitution

is 8000 J. between the ball and the wall is 0.65. Calculate the speed of

the

(ii)ball

Find the horizontal distance between the cliff and the point where the ball hits the sea. [3]

5 (iii)cyclist

A and her

Calculate the bicycle

distancehave AB. a combined mass of 70 kg. The cyclist ascends a straight hill AB[4] of

(i) immediately before its impact with the wall, −1 [2]

constant slope, starting from rest at A and reaching a speed of 4 m s at B. The level of B isJune

(Q5, 6 m above

2007)

5 the

A level

cyclist

(ii) of A. her

and

immediately Forafter

the cyclist’s

bicycle its have

impact motion

a combined

with the from A to B

mass

wall. of, find

70 kg. The cyclist ascends a straight hill AB[2] of

−1

constant slope, starting from rest at A and reaching a speed of 4 m s at B. The level of B is 6 m above

(i) the increase in kinetic energy, 60°B, find80° [2]

the level of A. For the cyclist’s motion fromAA to

112 A(ii)particle of mass

the increase in m kg is projected

gravitational directly

potential energy.up a rough plane with a speed of 5 m s−1 . The plane [2]

(i) the increase in kinetic ◦ energy, [2]

makes an angle of 30 with the horizontal and the coefficient

A uniform rod AB, of weight 25 N and length 1.6 m, rests in equilibrium in a vertical plane with the of friction is 0.2. Calculate the distance

the

(ii)particle

During

end inthe

Athe travels

ascent

increase

contact up

inthe

with the plane

resistance

gravitational

rough before

topotential

motion

horizontal coming energy.

ground instantaneously

is constant

and theand endhas to rest.against

B magnitude

resting 60 N.a The work

smooth done

wall [6]

by the

which [2]

is

cyclist in moving◦ from A to B is 8000 J. ◦

inclined at 80 to the horizontal. The rod is inclined at 60 to the horizontal (see diagram). Calculate

(Q2, Jan 2008)

During

the the ascent

magnitude theforce

of the resistance

actingtoon motion

the rod is at

constant

B. and has magnitude 60 N. The work done by the [6]

3 (iii) Calculate

cyclist in moving thefrom A toAB

distance . 8000 J.

B is [4]

B

124 carCalculate

(iii)

A of mass 1200 kg has aAB

the distance .

maximum speed of 30 m s−1 when travelling on a horizontal road. The

[4]

−1

car experiences a resistance of kv N, where v m s is the speed of the car and k is a constant. The

maximum power of the car’s engine is 45 000 W.

© OCR 2007 4729/01 Jun07

the

° car when

80°

it is travelling at 20 m s−1 on a horizontal

A

road. [3]

A uniform

(iii) The carrod AB, of

climbs weight

a hill, 25 N

which and length

is inclined at an1.6angle

m, rests in◦ equilibrium

of 10 in a vertical

to the horizontal, plane speed

at a constant with the

of

−1

end A15inmcontact with rough horizontal ground and the end B resting against a smooth wall which[3] is

s . Calculate the power of the car’s engine.

inclined at 80◦ to the horizontal. The rod is inclined at 60◦ to the horizontal (see diagram). Calculate

(Q4, Jan 2008)

the magnitude of the force acting on the rod at B. [6]

5 A particle P of mass 2m is moving on a smooth

© OCR 2007 2 Jun07horizontal surface with speed u when it collides

4729/01

directly with a particle Q of mass km whose speed is 3u in the opposite direction. As a result of the

−1

A car

car is

ofpulled

mass 1200 kg has a maximum ◦

4OCR 2007

13©1 collision,

A the directions of speed

at constant motionalong a speed

of both ofJun07

particles

horizontal

4729/01 30straight

−1

m sreversed

are when

road andtravelling

by athe on200

speed

force of aofhorizontal

PNisinclinedroad.

halved. at 35The

to

car experiences a resistance of kv N, where v m s is the speed of the car and

the horizontal. Given that the work done by the force is 5000 J, calculate the distance moved by the k is a constant. The

maximum

(i) Find, power

car. in termsof of

theucar’s

and engine is 45 000

k, the speed of QW.after the collision. Hence write down the range[3] of

possible values of k. [4]

(i) Show that k = 50. (Q1, June 2008) [2]

(ii) Calculate the magnitude of the impulse which Q exerts on P . [2]

it is travelling at 20 m s−1 on a horizontal

2 A bullet of mass 9 grams passes horizontally through a fixed vertical board of thickness 3 cm. The

(ii) Find the maximum possible acceleration −1 of the car when −1

speed of the bullet is1 reduced from 250 m s to 150 m s as it passes through the board. The board

road. [3]

the horizontal. Given that the work done by the force is 5000 J, calculate the distance moved by the

car. PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

[3]

142 A bullet of mass 9 grams passes horizontally through a fixed vertical board of thickness 3 cm. The

speed of the bullet is reduced from 250 m s−1 to 150 m s−1 as it passes through the board. The board

2 A bullet

exerts of mass resistive

a constant 9 grams force

passesonhorizontally through athe

the bullet. Calculate fixed vertical of

magnitude board

this of thickness

resistive 3 cm. The

force. [4]

−1 −1

speed of the bullet is reduced from 250 m s to 150 m s as it passes through the board. The board

exerts a constant resistive force on the bullet. Calculate the magnitude of this resistive (Q2, June 2008)

force. [4]

−1

3 The resistance to the motion of a car of mass 600 kg is kv N, where v m s is the car’s speed and k is

a constant. The car ascends a hill of inclination α , where sin α = 10 1

. The power exerted by the car’s

−1

153 The resistance toW

theand

motion of has

a car of massspeed

600 kg s−1N,

20ismkv . where1 v m s is the car’s speed and k is

a constant. The car ascends a hill of inclination α , where sin α = 10 . The power exerted by the car’s

engine is 12 000 the car constant

engine is 12that

(i) Show 000kW and the car has constant speed 20 m s−1 .

= 0.6. [3]

Show that

(i) power

The k = by

exerted 0.6.the car’s engine is increased to 16 000 W. [3]

The

(ii) power exerted

Calculate by the car’s

the maximum engine

speed is increased

of the car whiletoascending

16 000 W.the hill. [3]

Calculate

(ii) car

The the maximum

now travels speedground

on horizontal of the and

car while ascending

the power the16

remains hill.

000 W. [3]

The

(iii) car now travels

Calculate on horizontal

the acceleration ground

of the and

car at anthe power

instant remains

when 16 000

its speed W.m s−1 .

is 32 [3]

(iii) Calculate the acceleration of the car at an instant when its speed is 32 m s−1 . [3]

4 on horizontal ground with a velocity of 35 m s−1 at an angle of θ

A golfer hits a ball from a point Ophysicsandmathstutor.com

(Q3, June 2008)

above the horizontal. The horizontal range of the ball is R metres and the time of flight is t seconds.

4 A golfer hits a ball from a point O on horizontal 3 ground with a velocity of 35 m s−1 at an angle of θ

(i) Express

above t in terms

the horizontal. The θ , and hence

of horizontal show

range of that R = is

the ball 125

R sin 2θ . and the time of flight is t seconds.

metres [5]

164 A car of mass 800 kg experiences a resistance of magnitude kv2 N, where k is a constant and v m s−1

The

is thegolfer

(i) car’s hits

Express speed.theterms

t in The θ ,engine

ball car’s

so

of that it lands

and 110

is working

hence show at aRO

m from

that =. 125 sin

constant 2θ of

rate . P W. At an instant when the car[5] is

travelling on a horizontal road with speed 20 m s−1 its acceleration is 0.75 m s−2 . At an instant when

Calculate

(ii)car

The golfer hits the

the two

ball possible

so of itvalues

thatconstant of t.m12

lands slope

110 ◦

from O. horizontal with speed 10 m s−1 its acceleration [5]

the is ascending a hill to the

−2

is 0.25 m s .

(ii) Calculate the two possible values of t. [5]

(i) Show that k = 0.900, correct to 3 decimal places, and find P. [7]

(ii) Calculate the maximum steady speed of the car on a horizontal road. [3]

physicsandmathstutor.com (Q4, Jan 2009)

5 2

physicsandmathstutor.com

A

171 A boy on a sledge slides down a straight track2of length 180 m which descends a vertical distance

of 40 m. The combined mass of the boy and the sledge is 75 kg. The initial speed is 3 m s−1 and the

A boy on aissledge −1

1 final speed 12 m sslides down

. The a straight

magnitude, track

R N, of length

of the 180 to

resistance m motion

which descends a vertical

is constant. distance

By considering

−1

of 40 m. The combined mass of

the change in energy, calculate R. the boy and the sledge is 75 kg. The initial speed is 3 m s and the

[5]

−1 0.4 m

final speed is 12 m s . The magnitude, R N, of the resistance to motion is constant. (Q1, By considering

June 2009)

the change in energy, calculate R. [5]

2 A car of mass 1100 kg has maximum power of 44 000 W. The resistive forces have constant magnitude

1400 N. 8 rad s–1

182 A car of mass 1100 kg has maximumP power of 44 000 W. The resistive forces have constant magnitude

(i) Calculate

1400 N. the maximum steady speed 0.24

ofmthe car on the level. [2]

0.2 kg

The

(i) car

© OCR 2008

is moving

Calculate the on a hill ofsteady

maximum constant inclination

speed of4729/01 α to

the Jun08

car onthe

thehorizontal,

level. where sin α = 0.05. [2]

0.3 m

Calculate

(ii) car

The the maximum

is moving on a hill ofsteady speed

constant of the car

inclination α when

to the ascending

horizontal,the hill. sin α = 0.05.

where [3]

© OCR 2008 4729/01 Jun08

B

(ii) Calculate the acceleration

(iii) of thespeed

maximum steady car when it is

of the cardescending the hillthe

when ascending at ahill. [3]

at half the maximum power. [3]

(iii) Calculate the acceleration of the car when it is descending the hill at a speed of 10 m s−1 working

A particle P of mass 0.2 kg is attached to one end of each of two light inextensible strings, one of

length 0.4 m and one of length 0.3 m. The other end of the longer string is attached to a fixed point

at half the maximum power. [3]

3 A, and the other end of the shorter string is attached to a fixed point B, which is vertically below A.

The particle moves in a horizontal circle of radius m m at a constant angular speed (Q2,

2.80.24 of 8 rad s−12009)

June (see

diagram). Both strings are C tension in AP is S N and the tension in BP

A taut, the B is T N.

3 0.5 m

2.8 m

2

A uniform piece of wire, ABC, forms a semicircular O is the mid-point of

arc of radius 6 cm.PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

AC (see Fig. 1). Show that the distance from O to the centre of mass of the wire is 3.82 cm,

1

19 Find correct

the average

to 3 power exerted

significant by a climber of mass 75 kg when climbing a vertical distance of 40[2]

figures. m

in 2 minutes. [3]

(ii) physicsandmathstutor.com (Q1, Jan 2010)

A

2 A small sphere of mass 0.2 kg is dropped from rest 3 at a height of 3 m above horizontal ground. It falls

vertically, hits the ground and rebounds vertically upwards, coming to instantaneous rest at a height

204 of

A 1.8

car m

of above the ground.

mass 700 kg is moving along a horizontal road against a constant resistance to motion of

400 N. At an instant when the car is travelling at 12 m s−1 its acceleration is 0.5 m s−2 .

B

(i) Calculate the magnitude of the impulse which the ground exerts on the sphere. [5]

(i) Find the driving force of the car at this instant. [2]

(ii) Calculate the coefficient of restitution between the sphere and the D ground. [2]

3 grams

(ii) Find the power at this instant. [2]

5 grams

3

0.3 m 0.7 m

(iii) Find the maximum power of the car. C [2]

The car now moves at maximum power against the same resistance up a slope of constant angle θ ◦ to

Fig. 2

the horizontal. The maximum steady speed up the slope is 12 m s−1 .

Two semicircular pieces of wire, physicsandmathstutor.com

ABC and ADC , are joined together at their ends to form a

0.8 m

circular

(iv) Find θ . hoop of radius 6 cm. The mass of ABC is 3 grams and the mass of ADC is 5 grams. The [4]

4

hoop is freely suspended from A (see Fig. 2). Calculate the angle which the diameter AC makes

(Q4, Jan 2010)

with the vertical, giving your answer correct to the nearest degree. [5]

6 A particle A of mass 2m is moving with speed u on a smooth horizontal surface when it collides with

5 Two spheres of the same radius with masses 2 kg and 3 kg are moving directly towards each other

on a smooth horizontal plane with speeds 8 m s−1 and 4 m s−1 respectively. The spheres collide and

a stationary particle B of mass m. After the collision the speed of A is v, the speed of B is 3v and the

213 particles

Thekinetic move

maximum in the

power same direction.

0.2

bykg 0.3 akgsmall

the energy lostproduced the engine

is 81 J. Calculate of

the speed aeroplane

and direction of of mass of

motion 2 tonnes is 128after

each sphere kW. Air

the

resistance opposes the motion directly and the lift force is perpendicular to the direction of motion.

collision. [12]

Find v in terms Fig. 1

(i) magnitude

The of theofairu.resistance is proportional to the square of the speed and the maximum steady [3]

−1

speed in level flight is 80 m s .

6 Show that

A(ii)uniform the coefficient

conical shell has mass of restitution between

0.2 kg, height 0.3 Am and is 45 .diameter 0.8 m. A uniform hollow

andBbase [2]

cylinder has massthe0.3 kg, length of0.7

themair

and diameterwhen 0.8 m.the The conical m s−is1 .attached to the cylinder,

sshell

–1

(i) Calculate magnitude resistance speed 30ism60 [5]

B subsequently

with hits a vertical

the circumference wallcoinciding

of its base which is perpendicular

with one end to of the direction of motion.

cylinder (see Fig. 1). As a result of

angle of 2◦ to the horizontal.

3

the

Theimpact, B loses

aeroplane 4 of its at

is climbing kinetic energy.

a constant

P object from 40 m s–1

(i) Show that the distance of the centre of mass of the combined the vertex of the conical

(iii) Show

shell that

is 0.47the

m. speed of B after hitting the wall is 3

u . −1 [4]

(ii) Find the maximum acceleration at an instant when 5 the speed of the aeroplane is 60 m s . [4]

(iv) B then hits A. Calculate the speeds of A and B, in terms of u, after this collision(Q3, June their

and state 2010)

V1

directions of motion. [8]

© OCR 2010 4729 Jun10

80° 250 m

7

22

B

!1

5m 5m

O A

with 30° a point O on horizontal

A C

ground. When P is vertically above a point A on the ground its height is 250 m and its velocity

components are 40 m s−1 horizontally and 30 m sFig.

−1 2

vertically upwards (see diagram).

The

(i) combined V1 = 86.0

Show that object is freely 1 = 62.3 , correct to 3 significant figures.

and θsuspended ◦

from its vertex and is held with its axis horizontal. This[5] is

achieved by means of a wire attached to a point on the circumference of the base of the conical shell.

At the

The instant

wire makeswhenan angle 80◦ withabove

P isofvertically A, edge

the slant a second conicalQshell

of theparticle is projected from O with speed

(see Fig. 2).

−1

A small ball of mass 0.2 kg is projected with speed 11 m s−1 up a line of greatest slope of a roof from

V2 m s at an angle of elevation θ2 . P and Q hit the ground at the same time and at the same place.

(ii) Calculate the tension in the wire. [4]

a(ii)

point A at thethe

Calculate bottom of theofroof.

total time flightThe

of Pball

andremains

the totalintime

contact withof

of flight theQroof

. and moves up the line

[4]

of greatest slope to the top of the roof at B. The roof is rough and the coefficient of friction is 12 . The

distance

© OCR 2010 AB is 5the

(iii) Calculate and AB

m range of is

theinclined

particles 30◦ 4729

at and to the

henceJan10horizontal (see diagram).

calculate V and θ . [8]

2 2

(i) Show that the speed of the ball when it reaches B is 5.44 m s−1 , correct to 2 decimal places. [6]

(Q7, June 2010)

The ball leaves the roof at B and moves freely under gravity. The point C is at the lower edge of the

(ii) Calculate the speed of the centre of mass of the open frame. [2]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

The resistance to the motion of a car is kv N, where v m s−1 is the car’s speed and k is a constant.

3

232 2

The power exerted by the car’s engine is 15 000 W, and the car has constant speed 25 m s−1 along a

horizontal road.

With the engine operating at a much lower power, the car descends a hill of inclination α , where

sin α = 15

1 . At an instant when the speed of the car is 16 m s−1 , its acceleration is 0.3 m s−2 .

(ii) Given that the mass of the car is 700 kg, calculate the power of the engine. [5]

physicsandmathstutor.com (Q2, Jan 2011)

3

3

A

244 A block of mass 25 kg is dragged 30 m up a slope inclined at 5◦ to the horizontal by a rope inclined

at 20◦ to the slope. The tension in the rope30is° 100 N and the resistance to the motion of the block is

70 N. The block is initially at rest. Calculate

(i) the work done by the tension in the rope, [2]

0.5 m

(ii) the change in the potential energy of the block, [2]

B

(iii) the speed of the block after it has moved° 30 m up the slope. [4]

60

physicsandmathstutor.com (Q4, Jan 2011)

5 A uniform solid is made of a hemisphere with2 centre O and P radius 0.6 m, and a cylinder of radius

0.6 m and height 0.6 m. The planephysicsandmathstutor.com

face of the hemisphere and a plane face of the cylinder coincide.

1 (The formula for the volume of a sphere is 34 π r3 .)

25 A particle P of mass 0.4 kg is attached to one end

2 of each of two light inextensible strings which are

both taut. The other end of the longer string is attached to a fixed point A, and the other end of the

(i) Show that the distance of the centre of mass of the solid from O is 0.09 m. [5]

1 shorter string is attached to a fixed point B, which is vertically below A. The string AP makes an angle

of 30◦ with the vertical and is 0.5 m long. The string BP makes an angle of 60◦ with the vertical. P

(ii)

moves with constant angular speed in a horizontal circle with centre vertically 2 Nbelow B (see diagram).

The tension in the string AP is twice the tension in the string BP. Calculate

(i) the tension in each string, [4]

(ii) the angular speed of P. [4]

A sledge with its load has mass 70 kg. It moves down a slope and the resistance to the motion of the

sledge is 90 N. The speed of the 0.6sledge

m is controlled by the constant tension in a light rope, which is

© OCR 2011 4729 Jan11

attached

A sledge with its load has mass 70 kg. It slope

to the sledge and parallel to the moves (see

down diagram).

a slope While

and thetravelling

resistance20tomthe

down the slope,

motion of the

−1 −1

the speed of the sledge decreases from 2.1 m s

sledge is 90 N. The speed of the sledge is controlled to 1.4 m

by s

the and it descends

constant tension a vertical

in a distance

light rope, of 3 m.

which is

O

attached to the sledge and parallel to the slope (see diagram). While travelling 20 m down the slope,

Calculate

(i)speed

the of thethe change

sledge in energy

decreases fromof2.1

them s−1 toand

sledge 1.4 m −1

itssload.

and it descends a vertical distance of 3 [4]m.

0.6 m

(i) Calculate

(ii) Calculate the

the tension in energy

change in the rope.

of the sledge and its load. [3]

[4]

45° (Q1, June 2011)

(ii) Calculate the tension in the rope. [3]

2 A car of mass 1250 kg travels along a straight road inclined at 2◦ to the horizontal. The resistance to

the motion of the

The solid is car is kvwith

placed N, where v m s−1surface

the curved is the speed the car and konis aa rough

of theofhemisphere constant. The car surface

horizontal travels

−1 ◦ ◦

2

26 at

A acarconstant

and the speed

of mass axis

1250 ofkg25travels

inclined m sat 45 up the

along aslope

to the and road

the engine

horizontal.

straight of the

at 2car

The equilibrium

inclined toworks at asolid

constant

of horizontal.

the the isTherate of 21 by

maintained

resistancekW.

toa

horizontal force of 2 N applied to −1 highest point on the circumference of its plane face (see

the

the motion of the car is kv N, where v m s is the speed of the car and k is a constant. The car travels

at(i) Calculate

diagram).

a constant the value

Calculate

speed of 25 m of sk−.1 up the slope and the engine of the car works at a constant rate of 21 kW. [4]

Calculate of the solid,

the value

constant [4]

(ii)

(i) Calculate the of kspeed

. of the car on a horizontal road. [3]

[4]

(b) the set of possible values of the coefficient of friction between the surface and the solid.

(ii) Calculate the constant speed of the car on a horizontal road. [3]

3 A uniform lamina ABCDE consists of a square ACDE and an equilateral triangle ABC which are

joined along their common edge AC to form a pentagon whose sides are each 8 cm in(Q2, June 2011)

length.

3 A uniform lamina ABCDE consists of a square ACDE and an equilateral triangle ABC which are

(i) Calculate

joined the common

along their distance of theAC

edge centre of mass

to form of the lamina

a pentagon sidesAC

whosefrom are. each 8 cm in length. [5]

(i) Calculate theisdistance

freely suspended from

of the centre of Amass

and of

hangs from AC.Calculate the angle that AC

in equilibrium.

the lamina [5]

makes with the vertical. [2]

[Questionsfrom

(ii) The lamina is freely suspended 6 andA 7and

arehangs

printed overleaf.] Calculate the angle that AC

in equilibrium.

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

275 A car of mass 1500 kg travels up a line of greatest slope of a straight road inclined at 5° to the horizontal.

physicsandmathstutor.com

The power of the car’s engine is constant and equal to 25 kW and the resistance to the motion of the car is

constant and equal to 750 N. The car passes through point A with speed 10 m s−1.

2

particle, acceleration

of mass of the car

0.8 kg, moves at A.

along [5]

a smooth horizontal surface. It hits a vertical wall, which is at right

angles to the direction of motion of the particle, and rebounds.

−1 The speed of the particle as it hits the wall is

4The −1 later passes through a point B with speed 20 m s . The car takes 28 s to travel from A to B.

m scarand the coefficient of restitution between the particle and the wall is 0.3. Find

(ii) Findimpulse

(i) the the distance AB.wall exerts on the particle,

that the [7]

[3]

(Q5, Jan 2012)

(ii) the kinetic energy lost in the impact. [2]

[Questions 6 and 7 are printed overleaf.]

282 A car of mass 1600 kg moves along a straight horizontal road. The resistance to the motion of the car has

constant magnitude 800 N and the car’s engine is working at a constant rate of 20 kW.

(i) Find the acceleration of the car at an instant when the car’s speed is 20 m s−1. [4]

The car now moves up a hill inclined at 4° to the horizontal. The car’s engine continues to work at 20 kW

and the magnitude of the resistance to motion remains at 800 N.

© OCR 2012

physicsandmathstutor.com

4729 Jan12 Turn over

(ii) Find the greatest steady speed at which the car can move up the hill. [4]

3

(Q2, June 2012)

5 physicsandmathstutor.com

3

2 B

physicsandmathstutor.com

291 A block is being pushed in a straight line along horizontal 1.5 ground

m by a force of 18 N inclined at 15° below

2

the horizontal. The block moves a distance of 6 m in 5 s with constant speed. Find

1 A block is being pushed in a straight line along horizontal ground by a force of 18 N inclined at 15° below

(i) horizontal.

the the work done by themoves

The block force, a distance of 6 m 4inm5 s with constant

P speed. Find [3]

Q

(ii) the work

(i) the powerdone

withby

which theAforce is working.

the force,

B [2]

[3]

2.5 m (Q1, Jan 2013)

(ii) the power with which the force is working.

30° a straight [2]

2 A car of mass 1500 kg travels along 1.5 m horizontal road. The resistance to the motion of the car is

1

kv 2 N, where v m s–1 is the speed P of the car and k is a constant. At the instant when the engine produces a

302 power

A car of of mass

15 0001500

W, the

kg car has speed

travels along 15 m s–1 and

a straight is accelerating

horizontal m s–2. to the motion of the car is

at 0.4resistance

road. The

1

kv 2 N, where v m s–1 is the speed of the car and 60° k is a constant. At the instant when the engine produces a

(i)

A uniform

power Find the value

of 15beam

000 W, of

ABthe k.

of mass

car has15speed A

kg and15length –1

m s 4andm isis freely hingedatto0.4

accelerating m s–2. wall at A. The beam is held[4]

a vertical in

equilibrium in a horizontal position by a light rod PQ of length 1.5 m. P is fixed to the wall vertically below

It is

A(i)

and given thatvalue

PQ the

makes theangreatest

angle steady

of 30° speed ofvertical

the car (see

on this road is 30 mforces–1. exerted on the beam at Q by the

A Find

uniform rod AB, of

ofk.mass 3 kgwith

andthe

length 4 m, is indiagram).

limitingTheequilibrium with A on rough horizontal[4]

rod is in the direction PQ. Find

ground. The rod is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal and is supported by a small smooth peg P, such that

(ii) given

It Find the

theisdistance thatgreatest

APthe

power

greatest

is 2.5 m (see

that the

steady engine

speed

diagram).

can

of the

Find carproduce.

on this road is 30 m s–1. [3]

(i) the magnitude of the force exerted on the beam at Q, [3]

(ii)

(i) Find the greatest

the force acting on power thatatthe

the rod P, engine can produce. [3]

[3]

3 A(ii)particle A is released

the magnitude from restoffrom

and direction the top

the force of a smooth

exerted plane,atwhich

on the beam A. makes an angle of 30° with the

[6]

horizontal. The particle A collides 2 s later with a particle B, which is moving up a line of greatest (Q2, Jan 2013)

slope of

(ii) the coefficient of friction between the ground and the rod. [5]

3 the plane. The coefficient

A particle A is released of restitution between the particles is 0.4 and the speed of B immediately

from rest from the top of a smooth plane, which makes an angle of 30° with the before

the collision is 2 m s–1. B has velocity 1 m s–1 down the plane immediately after the collision. Find

horizontal. The particle A collides 2 s later with a particle B, which is moving up a line of greatest slope of

316 the plane. of

A particle The coefficient

mass 0.5 kg isofheld

restitution

at rest atbetween thewhich

a point P, particles

is atisthe

0.4bottom

and theofspeed of B immediately

an inclined before

plane. The particle

(i) collision

the the speedis of

2 mAs–1

immediately

. B has after 1the

velocity m collision,

s–1 down the plane immediately after the collision. Find [4]

is given an impulse of 1.8 N s directed up a line of greatest slope of the plane.

(ii)

(i) the speed

(i) the

distance

of A

A moves

Find the speed

up the planethe

immediately

at which the after

after the collision.

collision,

particle starts to move.

[2]

[4]

[2]

The

(ii) masses of A and

the distance B are up

A moves 0.5the

kg and

planem kg, respectively.

The particle subsequently moves up the after

planethe

to collision.

a point Q, which is 0.3 m above the level of P. [2]

(iii) masses

The Find theofvalue

Athe ofBm.

andplane

areis0.5 kg andfind

m kg, [3]

(ii) Given that smooth, therespectively.

speed of the particle at Q. [4]

(iii)

cont

It Find the

on next

is given value of m.

pagethat

instead [3]

the plane is rough. The particle is now projected up the plane from P with initial

4 –1

speed 3 m s , and comes to rest at a point R which is 0.2 m above the level of P.

© OCR 2012

D 6 cm

4729 Jun12

C

(ii) Given that the plane is smooth, find the speed of the particle at Q. [4]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

It is given instead that the plane is rough. The particle is now projected up the plane from P with initial

speed 3 m s–1, and comes to rest at a point R which is 0.2 m above the level of P.

(iii) Given that the plane is inclined at 30° to the horizontal, find the magnitude of the frictional force on the

particle. [4]

(Q6, Jan 2013)

2

321 A and B are two points on a line of greatest slope 2of a smooth inclined plane, with B a vertical distance of

8 m below the level of A. A particle of mass 0.75 kg is projected down the plane from A with a speed of

1 A2 mands−1B. Find

are two points on a line of greatest slope of a smooth inclined plane, with B a vertical distance of

8 m below the level of A. A particle of mass 0.75 kg is projected down the plane from A with a speed of

2m (i) s−the

1 loss in potential energy of the particle as it moves from A to B,

. Find [2]

(i) the speedin of the particle

potential when

energy it reaches

of the particleB.as it moves from A to B, [4]

[2]

(Q1, June 2013)

(ii) the speed of the particle when it reaches B. [4]

2 The power developed by the engine of a car as it travels at a constant speed of 32 m s−1 on a horizontal road

is 20 kW.

2

33 The power developed by the engine of a car as 4729/01

it travels at a constant speed of 32 m s−1 on a horizontal road

Turn over

is (i)

© OCR 2013

Calculate the resistance to the motion of the car.

20 kW.

Jan13

[3]

The

(i) car, of mass

Calculate the1500 kg, nowtotravels

resistance downofa the

the motion straight

car. road inclined at 2° to the horizontal. The resistance[3]

to

the motion of the car is unchanged.

The car, of mass 1500 kg, now travels down a straight road inclined at 2° to the horizontal. The resistance to

(ii) motion

the Find the

of power

the car produced

is by the engine of the car when the car has speed 32 m s−1 and is accelerating at

unchanged.

0.1 m s−2. [4]

(ii) Find the power produced by the engine of the car when the car has speed 32 m s−1 and is accelerating at

0.1 m s−2. [4]

3

A (Q2, June 2013)

3 C

A

θ°

C

θ°

4c

m

PN

4c

m

PN

B

A uniform semicircular arc ACB is freely pivoted at A. B The arc has mass 0.3 kg and is held in equilibrium by

a force of magnitude P N applied at B. The line of action of this force lies in the same plane as the arc, and is

perpendicular to AB. The diameter AB has length 4 cm and makes an angle of i ° with the downward vertical

A uniform semicircular arc ACB is freely pivoted at A. The arc has mass 0.3 kg and is held in equilibrium by

(see diagram).

a force of magnitude P N applied at B. The line of action of this force lies in the same plane as the arc, and is

perpendicular to AB. The diameter AB has length 4 cm and makes an angle of i ° with the downward vertical

(i) Given that i = 0 , find the magnitude of the force acting on the arc at A. [6]

(see diagram).

(ii) Given instead that i = 30 , find the value of P. [4]

(i) Given that i = 0 , find the magnitude of the force acting on the arc at A. [6]

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1. A car of mass 750 kg is moving up a straight road inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal,

1

where sin θ = . The resistance to motion of the car from non-gravitational forces has

15

constant magnitude R newtons. The power developed by the car’s engine is 15 kW and the car

is moving at a constant speed of 20 m s–1.

(4)

The power developed by the car’s engine is now increased to 18 kW. The magnitude of the

resistance to motion from non-gravitational forces remains at 260 N. At the instant when the car

is moving up the road at 20 m s–1 the car’s acceleration is a m s–2.

(4)

(Total 8 marks)

2. A cyclist and her bicycle have a total mass of 70 kg. She cycles along a straight horizontal road

with constant speed 3.5 ms–1. She is working at a constant rate of 490 W.

(4)

The cyclist now cycles down a straight road which is inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal,

1

where sin θ = , at a constant speed U ms–1. The magnitude of the non-gravitational

14

resistance to motion is modelled as 40U newtons. She is now working at a constant rate of 24

W.

(7)

(Total 11 marks)

3. A truck of mass of 300 kg moves along a straight horizontal road with a constant speed of

10 m s–1. The resistance to motion of the truck has magnitude 120 N.

(a) Find the rate at which the engine of the truck is working.

(2)

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

On another occasion the truck moves at a constant speed up a hill inclined at θ to the horizontal,

1

where sin θ = . The resistance to motion of the truck from non-gravitational forces remains

14

of magnitude 120 N. The rate at which the engine works is the same as in part (a).

(4)

(Total 6 marks)

4. A car of mass 1500 kg is moving up a straight road, which is inclined at an angle θ to the

1

horizontal, where sin θ = . The resistance to the motion of the car from non-gravitational

14

forces is constant and is modelled as a single constant force of magnitude 650 N. The car’s

engine is working at a rate of 30 kW.

Find the acceleration of the car at the instant when its speed is 15 m s–1.

(Total 5 marks)

5. A lorry of mass 2000 kg is moving down a straight road inclined at angle α to the horizontal,

1

where sin α = . The resistance to motion is modelled as a constant force of magnitude

25

1600 N. The lorry is moving at a constant speed of 14 m s–1.

(Total 6 marks)

6. A car of mass 1200 kg moves along a straight horizontal road with a constant speed of 24 m s–1.

The resistance to motion of the car has magnitude 600 N.

(a) Find, in kW, the rate at which the engine of the car is working.

(2)

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

1

The car now moves up a hill inclined at α to the horizontal, where sin α = The resistance to

28

motion of the car from non-gravitational forces remains of magnitude 600 N. The engine of the

car now works at a rate of 30 kW.

(b) Find the acceleration of the car when its speed is 20 m s–1.

(4)

(Total 6 marks)

7. A car of mass 1000 kg is moving along a straight horizontal road. The resistance to motion is

modelled as a constant force of magnitude R newtons. The engine of the car is working at a rate

of 12 kW. When the car is moving with speed 15 m s –1, the acceleration of the car is 0.2 m s–2.

(4)

The car now moves with constant speed U m s–1 downhill on a straight road inclined at θ to the

horizontal, where sin θ = 401 . The engine of the car is now working at a rate of 7 kW. The

resistance to motion from non-gravitational forces remains of magnitude R newtons.

(5)

(Total 9 marks)

8. A car of mass 1200 kg moves along a straight horizontal road. The resistance to motion of the

car from non-gravitational forces is of constant magnitude 600 N. The car moves with constant

speed and the engine of the car is working at a rate of 21 kW.

(3)

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

The car moves up a hill inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where sin α = 1

14 .

The car’s engine continues to work at 21 kW and the resistance to motion from

non-gravitational forces remains of magnitude 600 N.

(b) Find the constant speed at which the car can move up the hill.

(4)

(Total 7 marks)

9. A car of mass 1000 kg is towing a trailer of mass 1500 kg along a straight horizontal road. The

tow-bar joining the car to the trailer is modelled as a light rod parallel to the road. The total

resistance to motion of the car is modelled as having constant magnitude 750 N. The total

resistance to motion of the trailer is modelled as of magnitude R newtons, where R is a constant.

When the engine of the car is working at a rate of 50 kW, the car and the trailer travel at a

constant speed of 25 m s–1.

(3)

When travelling at 25 m s–1 the driver of the car disengages the engine and applies the brakes.

The brakes provide a constant braking force of magnitude 1500 N to the car. The resisting

forces of magnitude 750 N and 1250 N are assumed to remain unchanged. Calculate

(3)

(2)

(d) the work done, in kJ, by the braking force in bringing the car and the trailer to rest.

(4)

(e) Suggest how the modelling assumption that the resistances to motion are constant could

be refined to be more realistic.

(1)

(Total 13 marks)

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

10. A lorry of mass 1500 kg moves along a straight horizontal road. The resistance to the motion of

the lorry has magnitude 750 N and the lorry’s engine is working at a rate of 36 kW.

(a) Find the acceleration of the lorry when its speed is 20 m s–1.

(4)

The lorry comes to a hill inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where sin α = 1

10

. The

magnitude of the resistance to motion from non-gravitational forces remains 750 N.

(b) Find the rate at which the lorry's engine is now working.

(3)

(Total 7 marks)

11. A car of mass 400 kg is moving up a straight road inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal, where

sin θ = 141 . The resistance to motion of the car from non-gravitational forces is modelled as a

constant force of magnitude R newtons. When the car is moving at a constant speed of

20 m s–1, the power developed by the car’s engine is 10 kW.

(Total 5 marks)

12. A girl and her bicycle have a combined mass of 64 kg. She cycles up a straight stretch of road

which is inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where sin α = 141 . She cycles at a constant

speed of 5 m s−1. When she is cycling at this speed, the resistance to motion from

non-gravitational forces has magnitude 20 N.

(4)

She now turns round and comes down the same road. Her initial speed is 5 m s −1 , and the

resistance to motion is modelled as remaining constant with magnitude 20 N. She free-wheels

down the road for a distance of 80 m. Using this model,

M2 Work and energy – Power PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

(b) find the speed of the cyclist when she has travelled a distance of 80 m.

(5)

The cyclist again moves down the same road, but this time she pedals down the road. The

resistance is now modelled as having magnitude proportional to the speed of the cyclist. Her

initial speed is again 5 m s−1 when the resistance to motion has magnitude 20 N.

(c) Find the magnitude of the resistance to motion when the speed of the cyclist is 8 m s −1 .

(1)

(4)

(Total 14 marks)

13. A car of mass 1000 kg is moving along a straight horizontal road with a constant acceleration

of f m s–2. The resistance to motion is modelled as a constant force of magnitude 1200 N. When

the car is travelling at 12 m s–1, the power generated by the engine of the car is 24 kW.

(4)

When the car is travelling at 14 m s−1, the engine is switched off and the car comes to rest,

without braking, in a distance of d metres. Assuming the same model for resistance,

(3)

(c) Give a reason why the model used for the resistance to motion may not be realistic.

(1)

(Total 8 marks)

14. The resistance to the motion of a cyclist is modelled as kv2 N, where k is a constant and

v m s–1 is the speed of the cyclist. The total mass of the cyclist and his bicycle is 100 kg.

The cyclist freewheels down a slope inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, where

sin α = 201

, at a constant speed of 3.5 m s−1.

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