by
Rem M. Sadri
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CERTIFICATE OF EXAMINATION ii
ABSTRACT iii
DEDICATION v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES x
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
vii
4.4 Evaluation of Pressure Field Along the CenterIine ........... 27
Chapter References
VITA
List of Tables
6.1 Numerical values of t,b and truncation error in Eqs . (6.6) obtained
using transformation function (6.3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Numerical values of & j q 0 and truncation error in Eqs. (6.7) obtained
using transformation function (6.3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Numerical values of Truncation error in Eqs . (6.9) obtained using
trassformation function (6.3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Numerical d u e s of 1,6sqo and truncation error in Eqs . (6.6) obtained
using transformation function (6.10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Numerid values of and truncation error in Eqs . (6.7) obtained
using transformation function (6.10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6 Numerical values of rlsrpand t m c a t i o n error in Eqs. (6.9) obtained
using transformation function (6.10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 Numerical values of t,b sqo and truncation error in Eq . (6.6) obtained
using transformation function (6.15). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8 Numerid values of $6q0 and tnuication error in Eq . (6.7) obtained
using transfomation function (6.15). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9 Numerical values of &qO and truncation error in Eq . (6.9) obtained
using transformation function (6.15). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.10 Grid distribution in y direction using transformation functions intro
duced in Eqs. (6.18) and (6.19) for é = 1.75, and E = .5. . . . . . . .
7.1 Length of sepmation zone at different step size for (Re = 1000). . ..
7.2 Numerid values of vorticity dong y = 1 for Re = 1000. . . . . ..
7.3 Numerical values of vorticity dong x = O for Re = 1000. . . . . . ..
9.1 Values of kinetic energy at different Reynolds number. . . . . . . . .
9.2 Values of inaemental pressure drop K(oo) reported in the fiterature,
5 < Re < 1700. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 Values of incrementd pressure drop K(oo) reported in the literature,
1800 < Re < 3750. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1 Eigenvalues of the first cornplex odd mode of Poiseuille flow, Re(X) >
0,OiRe5350. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Rea eigenvalues of the fust and second odd modes of Poiseuille flow,
13 5 Re 5 2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Cornparisons between the numericd and theoretical cdculation of a,
5 5 Re 5 2200. The values of A for Re < 40 are not given because of
limitations of the numerical results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4 Entrance length, Xe, O < Re < 1300, based on criteria (i) and (iv). . .
10.5 Entrance length, Xe, 1400 < Re < 2200, based on aiteria (i) and (iv).
10.6 The behaviour of normalized entraace length k, at high Reynolds
number (criterion i). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1 Eigenvalues of the first symmetric mode of JefferyHamel flow, %(A) <
O,OsRe<8.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 Eigenvalues of the fist symmetric mode of JefTeryHamel flow, Re(X) <
0 , 8 . 4 < Re 5 oo. ............ ............ ... . .
11.3 Eigenvalues of the first antisymmetric mode of JefferyHamel flow,
Re(X) < O, O 5 Re _< m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Figures
4.1 P h y s i d domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Computational domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Sketch of a t y p i d computational molecule in the interior of the solu
tion domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Sketch of a typical computational molecule on a b o u n d q of the solu
tion domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Sketch of a t y p i d computational molecule on a v e r t i d wall . . . . .
4.6 Sketch of a t y p i d computational molecule used for evaluation of the
derivotives of u in Eq. (4.42) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1 Eigenvalues of the first cornplex odd mode of plane Poiseuille flow, Irn(cr). 107
10.2 Eigenvalues of plane Poiseuille flow, Re(a) > 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
10.3 Eigenfunctions û(y) of the first odd mode of Poiseuille flow, O < Re <
2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.4 Eigenfunctions S(y ) of the first odd mode of plane Poiseuille %ow,O <
Re<2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.5 Eigenfunctions $(y) of the fist odd mode of plane Poiseuille flow, 5 <
R e < 8 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
10.6 EigMfunctions $(Y) of the first odd mode of plane Poiseuille flow, O <
Re<2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
10.7 Exponentid decay of the stationary perturbation of Poiseuille flow, a)
15 5 Re 5 100, b ) 100 5 Re 5 500, c) 500 5 Re 5 2200. . . . . . . . 116
10.8 Evaluation of the exponential decay of the stationary perturbation of
Poiseuilleflow based on velocityat the centerline, Re = 500,1000. . . 117
10.9 The flow behaviour in the entrance region of a channel at low Reynolds
number,() h = a, 1
() h = 80.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10.10Exponential decay of the stationary perturbation of Poiseuille flow at
low Reynolds number, a) R e = 5, b) R e = 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
10.11Entra.nce length as a function of Re, a) O 5 Re 5 80, b ) O 5 Re 5 2200.121
10.12Constant A, as afunctionof Re. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
xiv
11.4 Eigenfunctiona $(O) of the first aymmetric mode of J e f k r y  H d flow. 135
11.5 Decay of the stationary perturbation of JderyHamel flow, Re=5, 100. 138
11.6 Demy of the stationary perturbation of J e f F e r y  H d flow, Re=500,
1000.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
11.7 Decay of the stationary perturbation of JderyHamel flow,Re=1500,
2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
11.8 Distribution of normalized pressure gradient ( ~ e g dong) the center
line in the upstream region of the channe1 entry, Re=5, 2200. . . . . . 141
11.9 Radial velocity profile obtained from JefferyHarnel %ow, O < R e < 2200.142
D.1 Mapping of the inlet region of a Channel into a straight Channel. . . . 195
Chapter 1
Introduction
1. Integral Methods
Schiller (1922) obtained the first m a l y t i d solution for the hydrodynamic entry
length problem for parallel plates using the integral representation of the equations of
motion and continuity. He considered the cross section of the channe1 to be composed
of two regions; a parabolic boundary layer developing near the wall and an inviscid
fluid in the remaining central cross section. Schiller's integral solution on the basis
of a parabolic profile is strongly questionable since such a profile does not ensure
a t t a i m e n t of freestream conditions at the edge of the boundarylayer (the second
and higherorder derivatives of the streamwise velocity should be zero). This method
provides good results at the entrance, but poor results downstream. Chen (1973)
assumed that the velocity profile consists of a uniform center core and a parabolic
profde in the boundary layer. He considered a uniform velocity profile at the inlet
cross section of a paallelplate channel and studied the entrance length problem by
induding the axial molecular transport of momentum and the variation of pressure
across the flow. Naito (1975) employed the KarmanPohlhausen integral method to
analyze the entrance flow. He considered a polynomid velocity profile of the fourth
degree in the boundary layer and solved the continuity and momentum equations.
Williamson (1969) presented an integral method following the approach of Campbell
& Slattery (1963), but with a different assumption for the velocity profile. His solu
tion resulted in a more rapid flow development compared with Schlichting's (1934).
2. Series Expassions
In this method the nonlinear tenns in the NavierStokes equations are linearized
and a solution for the velocity profile in the form of the Bessell's function is obtained.
Han (1960) employed Langhaar's (1942) linearization method to study the hydre
dynkmic entrance length problem for p a r d e l plates. Sparrow et al. (1964) solved
this problem using the stret ched axial coordinate linearization method. Theh r e
sults for axial development of the velocity and the incremental pressure drop are in
good agreement with the n u m e r i d results of Bodoia & Osterle (1961). Lundgren et
al. (1964) developed a method based on lineaiization of the equations of motion to
predict the incremental pressure drop resulted from the entrance efXects. The main
feôture of their method is the determination of entranceregion pressure efFects with
out knowledge of the form of development of velocity profile in the entrance region.
Bodoia & Osterle (1961) solved the boundary layer type equotion numerically,
for flow between p a r d e l plates. They used a finitedifference method and obtained
the velocity profile and pressure drop throughout the channel. Wang & Longwell
(1964) were the first investigators to rigorously solve the complete set of NavierStokes
equations for the entry flow problem in a pardelplate channel. These equations
were written in the form of stream functionvorticity formulation and the solution
was obtained for Re = 112.5 using a finitedifference iterative method. Two types of
inlet conditions were studied; i) irrotational flow at the entrance and ii) uniform flow
far upstream of the chagnel entry. Numericd results were presented for the velocity
distribution and pressure drop in the entrance region. W a n g & Longwell (1964)
reported the appearance of concavity in the velocity distribution across the chasnel
in the entrance region. The obtained results showed that the concavity of the velocity
profile corresponding to case (i) is bigger thas case (ii). Wang & Longwell's result
for velocity distribution agree well with Schlichting's at large distances downstream
of the charnel entry and are most different near the inlet. They conduded that the
boundary layer method could not provide the correct velocity distribution or pressure
gradients neaz the inlet. McDonald et al. (1972) dso obtained the numerical solution
of the entry flow problem for two inlet conditions of types, uniform and irrotational
entries. They ernployed a secondorder accurate finitediffaence method to solve the
stream functionvorticity formulation of the NavierStokes equations. The obtained
numerical data for the evolution of centerhe velocity for d o m entry at Re = 112.5
were compared with those of Brandt & Gillis (1966). They also compared the results
for irrotational entry condition with Wang & Longwell's (1964). It was concluded that
the results of Brandt & GiKs are in excellent agreement with theirs, however, the
results of Wang & Longwell appear to be high. The evolution of centerline velocity
predicted by McDonald et al.'s for unifonn entry condition is higher than values
obtained by Van Dyke's (1970). McDonald et al. (1972) also reported the velocity
overshoots.
Brandt & Gillis (1966) analyzed numerically the fourthorder stream function
formulation, an approach which has been shown to be extrernely in&cient (Pearson
1965). They considered a uniform velocity profile at the inlet. Brandt & Gillis
provided the velocity profiles for Re = 0, 3.75, 15, 37.5, 75, 150, 375. The results
were compared with those of Schlichting and Bodoia & Osterle for Re + oo. The
agreement is shown to be better at large distances form the inlet. The velocity
overshoot was also reported in this work. The velocity profiles obtained in this work
is similar to those of Wang & Longwell (1964).
Morihara & Cheng (1973) obtained the numericd solution of the flow in the en
trance region of a semi infinite parallelplate chasuiel for O < Re < 1500 using the
method of quasilinearization to solve the complete set of NavierStokes equations
with uniform entry flow condition. The resultant lin equations were then approx
imated by finitedifference formulas. The results obtained for the centerline velocity
are in excellent agreement with those of Brandt & Gillis (1966) for x / R e > 0.15; for
s m d x, the agreement is within 2.5%. They also determined the entrance length
for Re = 0,0.75,15,150 and 1500. Cornpariaon of the inlet length obtained from
this work and Brandt & Gillis shows that the agreement is within one percent at
Reynolds number of 15 aad 150. Schlichting's results for entrance length at large
Reynolds number is lower than Morihara & Cheng's. Morihara & Cheng (1973)
noted the existence of an offcentered maximum in the velocity distribution across
the chânnel for all the h p o l d s numbers studied, however, the velocity overshoot
diminishes with increasing Reynolds number.
Narang & Krishnarnoorthy (1976) solved the problem of laminar flow development
in the entrance region of p a r d e l plates numeridy. They lineazized the inertia
tenns in the NavierStokes equations and considered a unifonn inlet velocity profile
as boundary condition. The results were obtained for Re ranging from 0.75 to 1500.
Narang & Krishnamoorthy determined the entrance length for the above range of
Reynolds number and found them being within 1.65 percent of those obtained by
Morihara & Cheng (l973), except for a diffaence of 8.1 percent at a Reynolds number
of 300. Rom the obtained results for the entrance length, they conduded that the
resdts based on boundary layer theory does not provide good approximations for
Re c 150.
Schmidt & Zeldin (1969) employed a finiteMerence method to solve the complete
set of governing equations (Stream functionvorticity formulation) for the hydrody
namic entrame length problem in a pardelplate channel. They considered the inlet
velocify profile to be uniforrn and the flow irrotationd at the entrance. They reported
the nondimensional pressure distribution and crosssectional a r a average ~ ( z for )
Re = 37.5, 187.5, and 3750.
Nguyen & MaclaineCross (1988) solved the developing laminar flow in the en
trknce region of a cascade of pardel horizontal plates with a uniform velocity profile
at upstream x + 00. They obtained the incremental pressure drop number k(oo)
for 15 < Re < 750. Chen (1973) presented a correlation for the entrance length.
He also reported the agreement between the provided values of incremental pressure
drop with those of Bodoia's et al.
Fang & Saber (1987) applied a matching control volume finiteelexnent technique to
solve the entrance flow problem. Their method does not require the initial knowledge
of the entrance length. No data for streamwise velocity profile waa reported.
Ursin et al. (1973) considered the entrance flow problem in a cascade of channels
of finite length. They applied a finitedifference method to solve the governing equa
tions nurnerically and obtained the solution for 10 < Re < 1000. They assumed a
uniform velocity profile at an infinite distance upstream from the channe1 entrance
and downstream fiom the exit. It was shown that at low Reynolds number and/or
for short channels, conditions downstream of the c h m e l exit would affect upstream
regions within the Channel and aho in the upstream reservoir.
Atkinson et al. (1969) employed a finiteelement method to solve the governing
equations related to the entry flow problem in a channel geometry at the limit Re + 0.
They considered inlet condition of a flat velocity profile at the entrance. Atkinson et
al. presented an equation that related entrance length to Re. The provided formula
is a linear combination of the creeping flow and the boundary layer solution. This
predicts a finite entry length under creeping flow condition.
Abarbanel et al. (1970) derived an analytical solution of flow in the entry region of
channel at Re = O under the condition of unifonn velocity profile at the inlet. Their
investigation showed that the velocity overshoots are a realistic part of the solution.
Chilukuri & Pletcher (1980) studied the entry flow problem in a chânnel using
the governing equations in which the streamwise diffusion terms are neglected in the
streamwise and transverse momentum equations . This reduced system of equations
are the socded parabolized NavierStokes equations as elliptic iduence is only par
tially W n a t e d by neglecting the streamwise difision terms. The inlet condition
waa considered as uniform velocity profle at the entrance. They compared their r e
sults with the NavierStokes solutions reported by McDonald et al. (1972), Morihara
& Chang (1973) and Brandt k Gillis (1966) for Reynolds numbers ranging from .75
to 11250. The obtained results for streamwise velocity at the centerline at Reynolds
number of 15 and 112.5 is within 5 percent of the NavierStokes solution of Mori
hara & Chang (1973). At Re = 0.75 their predictions are substantidy close to the
NavierStokes solution of Morihara et al. (1973) than to the boundary layer solution
of Bodoia & Osterle (1966). However, at higher Reynolds number their prediction
approaches the boundary Iayer solution. The streamwise pressure graidient is in qual
itative agreement with the results of Morihara & Chang (1973). The Chilukuri &
Pletcher (1980) analysis does not provide accurate results at low Reynolds number
since the streamwise secondderivative of velocity in the goveming equations is n e
glected.
Sparrow & Anderson (1977) considered the developing laminar flow in a parallel
plate channel, with the flow being drawn from a large upstream space. To consider the
d e c t s of upstream region in the hydrodynamic development of flow in the channel,
the inlet boundary condition was set up at a distance upstream of the c h a n d en
trance. The goveming equations in the form of stream fuactionvorticity formulation
was solved numerically for 0.375 < Re < 375 employing a finitedifference technique.
The results for evolution of the velocity profde and the streamwise distribution of
pressure dong the centerline were provided. They reported overshoot in the velocity
profile.
5. Experimental Studies
Experimental works in the literature are limited to the entrmce flow in ducts
with finite aspect ratios. However, results for high aspect ratios can be used as an
approximation for a t d y pardelplate channel. Sparrow et al. (1967) performed
experiments to study the hydrodynamic development of laminar flow in the entrance
region of rectmgular ducts with aspect ratios of 5:l and 2:l. They found that the
flow development in the 5:l duct is more rapid than on the 2:l duct.
A comprehensive experimental investigation of laminar flow development in rect
angulas ducts for the range of cross section aspect ratios fkom 1:l (square duct) to
51:l (near approximation to a pardelplate channel) was performed by Beavers et
al. ( 1970). The Reynolds numbex rknged from 150 to 1125. The pressure field
associated with the hydrodynamic development of the flow was extensively studied
and information for kud pressure distribution and incremental pressure drop due to
flow development were provided.
Eckert & h i n e (1957) experimentally examined the entrance flow problem in a
rectangulax duct with aspect ratio 3:l and reported the M y developed values of the
incremental preasure drop.
h i n e & Wert (1958) compared the values of inaemental pressure &op K with
experimental data for a duct with cross section 3:l. They conduded that the experi
mental d u e s of K are on the average 15 percent higher than the calculated value.
h the absence of an accurate malysis of channe1 entrance flow, the present study
is kirned at providing a correct description of the flow behaviour in the entrmce region
of a chagnel for a wide range of Reynolds number. Through intuitive understanding of
the difficdties aasociated with this problem and application of an accurate numerical
algorithm we have tried to r e v d more information regarding the character of this
flow. In particular, we have provided d u a b l e data for the hydrodynamic entry length
and the 103s codlicient. These results will be used as a benchmark for engineering
design.
Chapter 2
Problem Formulation
where u and v are the dimensionless components of the velocity vector in the x and
y directions, respectively, and p is the dimensionless fluid pressure. The Reynolds
number is then defined to be Re = U L l v . At a large distance downstream fÎom the
inlet (x + +oo) the velocity profile approaches the Poiseuille flow distribution
The mass flow rate in the channe1 can be easily obtained on the basis of the Poiseuille
flow at the exit
Upstream fiom the channel inlet (x + m) the flow field approaches the f o m de
scribed by the JefkryHamel solution. JefferyHamel flows are a family of exact
solutions of the NavierStokes equations for steady twodimensional flow of an incom
pressible viscous fluid from a line source or sink at the intersection of the two rigid
planes.
Equations (2.1) (2.3) are subject to the following b o u n d q conditions:
Conditions (2.7ab) show the noslip and nepenetration boundary conditions at the
w d s . The inflow boundary conditions (2.8) are defined based on the solution of
J&qHamel flow and are explkined in detail in Chapter 3. The outflow boundary
condition (Eq. (2.9)) is defined based on the Poiseuille flow (Eq.(2.4)).
The field equations (2.1)(2.3) subject to boundary conditions (1.7)(2.9) are
solved numerically. Because of interest in solutions for Reynolds numbers 0(103)
and because of high occuracy requirements, a fourthorder compact finitedifference
algorithm described in Chapter 4 ha3 been used.
Chapter 3
JefferyHamel Flow
3.1 Formulation
Take plane polar coordinates (r,O) and corresponding radial and tangential velocity
components of the fluid as (u,, u e ) We consider a steady flow driven by the presence
of a sink of fluid volume at the point of intersection of two impermeable w d s with
equations O = ~ x / as 2 shown in Fig. 3.1. The dimenaionless goveming equations
Figure 3.1: Sketch of the JefferyHamel flow geometry applicable to
the present study.
where p is the pressure, and Re denotes the Reynolds number scaled as before. We
look for a solution such that the flow is purely radial (u' = 0) and as a consequace
of the masa conservation equation
where r is the distance from the origin and F(B) is a function. Substitution of this
expression for ur in the equations (3.2)(3.3), we obtain
and elimination of the pressure then gives
The net volume flux (Q) d r i v a into the channel from the sink a t the origin is
g i v a by
LI2 L12
ri2 ~ 1 3
Fdû.
= W d B=
Numerical Algorit hm
where Re denotes the Reynolds number. The two coupled elliptic equations (4.3),
(4.4), together with suitable b o u n d q conditions for the streasi fùnction $ and the
vorticity (', give a complete description of the velocity field for the pïoblem under
conaideration. The configuration of the problem is shown in Fig. 4.1. The flow is
assumed to be symmetric about the line y = O, so that only the lower half of the
channe1 flow need be considered. The coordinate axis used are also defined in the
figure where the flow is from left to right. In order to maintain sufficient accuracy in
the vicinity of the channe1 entry, where high gradients of the flow variables exist , and
Figure 4.1: P h y s i d domain.
also to Save computational time, coordinate transformations are applied to map the
physical domain (x, y) into a computational domain (5,q). The procedure for selec
tion of the mapping functions suitable for the present study is described in Chapter
6. The trknsformation functions ( = f (x, y),q = g(x, y) define the correspondence
between the reference d e s i a n system (s,y) in the physical domain to the mbitrary,
(e,
cwvilineas, orthogonal coordinate system q ) in the computational domain shown
in Fig. 4.2. W e assume that the functions f and g are sufficiently regular and known
explicitly together with th& derivatives. We dso assume the conditions of invert
ibility of the mapping, i.e., (f, g,  f, h)# 0 , and orthogonality of the coordinates,
+
i.e., f, g, fy g,, = 0 , are satisfied. Both field equations (4.3), (4.4) expressed in this
cwilinear, orthogonal reference system tkke the generic form
and subscripts denote respective derivotives. To obtain the vorticity transport equa
tion (4.3), one should substitute into (4.5)
To obtain the equation goveming the atream function ( 4 4 , the following substitution
is required.
The relations between the components of the velocity field in the physical and the
computational domain are defined as
where t denotes the ardength coordinate. In the above equations aU the necessary
derivatives of tct(t) and n2(t) exist and are known. The following awciliary boundary
conditions are also considered in the form of
where nl(t) is the same as in (4.12) while nJ(t) can be arbitrary.
The appropriate boundary conditions for the geometry shown in Fig. 4.1 are
formulated as
1. kiitialize the vorticity field C in the flow region R and at the boundary I'.
2. Solve equations (4.5),(4.9) for the stream function with the Dirichlet boundary
condition in (4.12).
3. Calculate first derivatives of the stream function (i.e. velocity) to update the
co&cients @ and d of (4.7).
4. Correct the boundary value of vorticity n&) to sati* the Neumann boundary
condition in (4.12).
5. Solve the PDE for vorticity (4.5), (4.8) with the Dirichlet boundary conditions
(4.13) determined in step 4.
Figure 4.3: Sketch of a typical computational molecule in the interior
of the solution domain.
Only a few iterations of the discretized vorticity and stream function equations have
to be carried out at eadi step of the extemal iteration procedure described above. In
practical computations, dXerent underrelaxation parameters for the stream function
y5, for the vorticity C, for the derivatives of $, and for the boundary value of vorticity
are applied. Two latter parameters have the biggest stabilizing influence on the
convergence properties of the it eration procedure at high Reynolds nurnbers.
where Ne and N, denote the number of grid points in the 6 and r) direction respec
tively. In the above formula N is the number of grid points a,cross the channel. To
solve the goveming equations numerically, we use the fourthorder compact finite
difference discretization scheme developed by Rokicki & Floryan (1995) for an or
thogonal, curvilinear coordinate system (details are given in the Appendix F). The
fourthorder discretization scheme for the generic equation (4.5) has a functional form
a3
The numeric subscripts in (4.26) refer to the points in the 9point computationd
stencil shown in Fig. 4.3. The fkee term Bo in (4.26) is expressed as
Bo = h2[8Ro +
~ ; a o ( + @o(l  soh/2) +
l qoh/2)
gao(1 + q o w ) +~ & (+l soh/2)]) (4.27)
do = Dm + ~ O l h ~ ,
d113 = DIOF + a 2 h 2I a 3 h 3 / 2 ,
2 = Dzo T D d + D22h2 rt D23h3/2,
dsle = Dso + (Dsii Dsi2)h/2 f Ds2h2/4,
d ~ / s= Dso  ( D m &2)h/2 D52h2/4,
where all derivatives are evaluated at point O (see Fig. 4.3). The thirdorder deriw
tives of $ with respect to and r) axe d c u l a t e d by taking suitable derivatives of the
strearn function equation (4.5), (4.9), Le.,
where Q = (f, + f,), S = (g, + gw). In the above equations, all derivatives are
dculated with the aid of the standard secondorder central finitedifference formulas
bksed on the ninepoint computationd molecule shown in Fig. 4.3. The system of
linear equations resulting f ~ o m(4.26) can be solved iteratively by the usual Gauss
Seidel relaxation procedure.
where a, b , & i are given by (4.7), with q. = S. I O. Equation (4.32) can be written
in the form of
+
where all derivatives of respect to r) axe d c d a t e d at point O. Higher normal derin
tives of the stream fimction are eliminated uaing a combination of and r) derivatives
of Z obtained from Eq. (4.33) (one has to c a l d a t e ZE,Z,,Zec, Zcq ,Z,, ,Zcc,, Z,,,,,,)
.
The derivatives of Z are approximated using suitable finitedifference formulas. In
particular Ze ,2, ,Zee,Zcv,2
, are approximated using the usual secondorder finite
difference formulas and Zvvq,ZCcvare approximated with the fmtorder formulas.
Two additional special formulas that me required to preserve the overd fourthorder
accuracy are the secondorder formula for 2, and the firstorder formula for Z,,,
i.e.,
where Zo+,Zo,20, which are related to the vorticity at the boundary, are considered
unknown. The coefficients p are given by
All the parameters in the above equations me e d u a t e d at the point O. The free term
co&cients P., PA,PB,Pc are related to the stream function and its derivatives and
do not depend on Z or C. These co&cients are defined as
Figure 4.5: Sketch of a t y p i d computational molecule on a v e r t i d wd.
h the above formulas a l 6derivatives of $ and t,b, are known from the b o u n d q
conditions (4.12). AU other derivatives of <It and of A, Q, S have to be evaluated using
standard finitedifference formulas. Theae formulas must be at hast secondorder
accurate for PB and at least firstorder accurate for Pc.The second and the third q
derivatives of A, S, and Q in PB and Pc are evaluated using formulas analogous to
(4.35).
The fourthorder formulas analogous to (4.37), (4.38) valid for the parts of the
boundary corresponding to a fine E = const, with the computationd domain lolocated
at the right (A = 1) or left (A = 1) side of this fine can be obtained with the same
procedure. The co&cients p , P*,PA,PB, and Pc in Eq. (4.36) written for a point
along the vertical line (see Fig. 4.5) are given by
where Z = (lu, B = bla, Q = glu, and S = ;/a.
Equation (4.36) written for each grid point dong the horizontal and vertical w d s
CD, DE shown in Fig. 4.2 (except corner) result in two systems of linear equations
with a tridiagond matrix of coefficients. These matrices remain diagondy dominant
if (i) 8/23 < alb < 2318 and (ii) the step size h is sufficiently s m d . This property
guarantees existence of the solution of this linear system. The numerical cost of
obtaining the solution of these systems of equations is negligibly s m d in compaziison
with the cost of a single iteration of the disuetized field equations.
The above formula can be simplified dong the centerline using the symmetry condi
tions
Substituting the above conditions into (4.41) written dong the centerline y = O, we
obtain
and
d2u

as2
where u==d, uZsd denote the third and fourth derivatives of u respect to x at point O,
c is the domina& discretization error and indices are shown in Fig. 4.6. In Eqs. (4.43)
(4.44), bol, ho& and hls are the grid sizes between points 0,1, 0,3, and 1,5. Because
of the assumption of symmetry along the centerline (4.14), $?jl is evaluated using
a secondorder accurate finitedifference formda on unifonn mesh written as
where is the grid size between points O and 4, and the remaining notations are also
shown in Fig. 4.6. Use of (4.43)(4.45) preserves the secondorder accurate evaluation
of the pressure gradient glFo in the physical plane.
The pressure distribution along the centerline is obtained using
where po is the pressure fax upstream of the c h w d entry and p ( z ) is the local
pressure at a point located along the centerline. The above integration is carried out
using the secondorder trapezoidal nile on a nonuniform mesh.
Chapter 5
5.1 Formulation
Equation (3.11) is a nonlinear o r d i n q differential equation and its n u m e r i d SC+
lution requires special attention. W e begin by linearizing this equation using the
NewtonRaphson hearization technique and writing
+~ ~ ~ + 4qj+l
~ j =+ l ~ (5. la)
and
where i denotes the mesh point of a grid defined on (O, r / 2 ) and j is the iteration
index. Substituting (5.lb) into (5.la), we obtain
F~'"+' + F?+' +
( 2R ~ F ~4J) = c + ~e ~ij'.
In Eq. (5.6)) a2, b2 and c2 are free parameters and can be chosen arbitrarily. For a
d o r m mesh, the above truncation error reduces to
For the choice of a2 = 6c2, the truncation error (5.8) becornes zero. In the present
study, the grid distribution is set up in such a way that 7i and 7;1 are O(1). There
fore, (5.8) can be used as an approximation of the trurrcation error (5.7). To mimic
the tnincation error (5.8), the iinknown fiee parameters are selected os a2 = 48,
b2 = O and c2 = 8. Based on numerical expriment the above values are found
suitable. It is important to note that the choice of the above free pararnetres is not
unique aad one may d&e different values which results in a different behaviour of
the numerical algorithm.
A twoparameter family of solution of (5.5) with the fourthorder accuracy is
obtained as
where
Eqs. (5.2), (5.4)(5.5), (5.11)(5.12) form a aystem of equations with a banded matrix
of co&cients. To solve this system, we consider a typical iterative procedure. The
calculation is started with an initial guess for F! and then updating this value until
the convergence criterion 1 F/+'  F/I< 1 x 10'O is satisfied.
Having determined F, u, is obtained using (3.4). To impose the inlet boundary
conditions (4.18), the stream function t,b dong EF ( s e figure 4.1) is dculated by
writ ing
and
where
Substituting the above relations into the expression defining the vorticity and simpli
fying, we get
c =  XF sin(9) 
+
y (F' sin(8) F cos(@))
+
(x2 y2)3/2 +
(LE2 y2)3/2
x (F'cos(@)  F si@))
yF COS(^) 
+ (52 +y2)3/2 +
(22 y2)3/2 1
Grid Selection
channe1 dose to the entrante, O < x 5 1,1 5 y 5 O as shown in Fig. 6.1. The
n d i p boundary conditions along the solid wall and symmetry conditions along the
centerline axe dso applied to close the system of governing equations (2.1)(2.3). The
study of this simple flow domain d o w s us to focus purely on the hidden properties
of transformation functions which m a y d e c t the solution.
The exact solution of this problem is given by
The above solution is independent of Reynolds number. Since in the problem under
investigation the solution is only a function of y, we just consider an a r b i t r q cross
section of the Channel and study the &ect of transformation in ydirection.
To select a suitable grid structure in ydirection for the problem shown in Fig. 6.1,
we search for a simple transformation function which i) maps the region 1 5 y O
into the region 1 < q 5 0, and ii) provides a highly dense grid in the area near the
solid w d at the expense of lower grid density in the area around the axis. Because
of the presumed proper behaviour of the sine function, we consider the following
transformation function written in the fonn of
Figure 6.2: Computational domain.
where a is a fiee paxmeter which adjusts the size of the grid (Le., the nurnber of
grid points) in the immediate neighbourhood of the wall y = 1. The application
of the above transfomation produces a nonuniform rectangula grid in the original
flow domain (y) with a unifonn g i d in the computational domain (7).The above
transformation rnap the region 1 5 y 5 O into the region 1 5 r] 5 O as shown in
Fig. (6.2). The transformation function g(y) is designed to increase the mesh concen
tration dose to the w d (y = 1). This fuaction is sufhiently r e g d a and satisfies
the conditions of invertibility of the mapping and orthogonality of the coordinates
explained in Chapter 4. While this function appears to have the required properties,
the question whether they are acceptable will only be answered by looking at the
discretization error.
Using the transformation functions (6.3)' the exact values of the stream function
and the vorticity in the computational domain are evaluated as
(6.6a)
(6.6b)
where h is the step size in mmputational domain, e the dominant discretization error,
and the indices are shown in Fig. 4.3. In the above equations +sN denotes the W h
derivative of <I respect to q and is obtained using Eq. (6.4). The numerical values
of the truncation error and at different locations across the chasne1 for the step
siw (h = 0.025) and the free parameter (a = 0.23) are presented in Table 6.1. W e
note that for a < 0.22 the condition of invertibility of mapping is violated. For
a = 0.23, the ratio between the largest and the smallest grid size in the physid
plane is approximately 4. An inaease of a makes the grid distribution more uniform
and is not followed. The analysis of Table 6.1 shows tlsiioapproaches large values
at the region dose to the centerline ( q = O). The existence of such large truncation
error in this region is unacceptable and questions the accuracy of the finitedifference
approximation employed in the numerical algorithm. The discretization error cannot
be reduced unless the step size becomes very s m d . This defeats the purpose of
introduction of the transformation. One may note that the solution in the area around
the axis WU smooth enough in the physical domain (and eaay to resolve numerically).
But the introduction of transformation led to an unaccept able discretization error in
that area.
We now consider the fourthorder compact finiteclifference approximation 11" to
the second d e r i ~ t i v e(dzt,b/dq2)o of the stream function in the fonn of
where the same notation is used. In the above formulas denotes the sixth deriva
tive of $ respect to 7 and is obtained using Eq. (6.4).
The numerical values of f,b6@ and the tnuication error are presented in Table 6.2.
The results shown in this table indicate that singular behaviour of 7,b6@ deteriorates
the accuracy in the region dose to the centerline (9 = O) while the accurocy neax
the walI (q = 1) is maintained. The above andysis can also be applied to the
'I Y b c a t i o n Error
0.0 0.0 6.28 xlO1' 1.22 x104
where indices are shown in Fig. 4.3. We bypass the error analysis of the above
equation since the truncation error in Eq. (6.8) is the same as Eq. (6.6).
For further analysis we consider the boundary formula (4.34) derived in section
4.3. This equation is written as
where the notation has been explained before. The above equation is used to update
the vorticity at the wall through the iteration procedure. The results of an error
andysis associated with this case are shown in Table 6.3. These results indicate that
the discretization error grows without bounds dose to the centerline. The maximum
discretization error in the vicinity of the wall (i.e., r) = 1) is O(10'). Since Eq.
(6.7) is only applied at few grid points dose to the w d we do not expect to see the
accuracy of the scheme be affected by the large d u e s of truncation error in the region
dose to the centerliner) = 0.
The introduction of the transformation function given by Eq. (6.3) into the s e
lution domain chmges the d u e s of truncation error of the compact finitediffaence
approximations at different locations. While the discretization error grows without
bounds dose to ( q = O), the error is limited around q = 1. In overd, the d e
scribed transformation does not show the proper behaviour and m o t be used in
the problem unda investigation.
We now look at another type of transformation which shows a rather different
behaviour. Once again, we search for transformation functions which i) map 1 5
y 5 O into the region 1 5 q 5 O and ii) provide a better distribution of discretization
error compared with the transformation function (6.3). The proposed transformation
is only applied in ydirection and has the form of
where b = $I, is the ratio between the grid size in the physical asd the cornputa
tiond plane at y = 1. The above function also satisfies the conditions of invertibility
of the mapping, and orthogonality of the coordinates as described before. Under the
application of the above trknsformation, the stream function and the vorticity in
wmputational domain me derived as
We follow the same approach to evaluate the effect of introduction of such trans
formation function into the solution domain. The truncation error in equation (6.6)
evaluated n u m e r i d y across the channe1 for the step size ( h = 0.025) and the free p*
rameter (b = 0.2) are presented in Table 6.4. The numerical values of the truncation
error in equation (6.7) are shown in Table 6.5. FinaIly Table 6.6 contains the results
of error dculation for the tnincation error term in equation (6.9). The tnincation
error distribution listed in Tables 6.46.6 are bounded and do not exhibit the singular
behaviour seen in the previous tables. This indicates that the new transformation
function defined in Eq. (6.10)preserves the accuracy of the finitedifference approxi
mations dose to the centerline ( q = O). The cornparison between Tables 6.3 and 6.6
shows, the implementation of the transformation function (6.3) resulted in smaller
disaetization error in Eqs. (6.9) near the solid boundary ( q = 1). We dso note
that the transformation function (6.10) provides a more dense grid distribution near
the wall compared with (6.3).
Table 6.4: Numerid values of (116@ and truncation error in Eqs.
(6.6) obtained using trassformation function (6.10).
One may wish to reduce the numerical d u e s of truncation error appearing in Eq.
(6.9) to the lowest level. To achieve this goal and following our previous approach,
we introduce a polynomid transformation fimction of type y = f ( q ) given by
where â, 8,E and d aze unknowns. The id behind using such transformation function
is to have the flexibility to control the numerical d u e s of derivatives of the function
at the two boundary points (9 = O aad q = 1). As shown before, the values
of these derivatives play an important factor in the o v e r d behaviour of truncation
error distribution at different regions of the computationai domain. The unknown
parameters in the above equation are determined using the following conditions,
function
The form of the stream function and the vorticity in the computationd domain are
given as
A similar mdysia is carried out to show the accuracy of the above equation and
results for ( A = 0.5 and B = 2.45) are presented in the following tables. The results
Table 6.6: Numerical d u e s of &3r10 and truncation error in Eqs.
(6.9) obt ained using transformation function (6.10).
in Tables 6.76.9 show the overall performance of the new transformation function
discussed above. The truncation error distribution is bounded and has magnitude in
the acceptable range.
Fùrther reduction in the numerical values of the discretization error shown in Table
6.9 is acquired by applying a new strategy. A ca.reful andysis of Eq. (6.9) reveals that
the application of a unifonn grid adjacent to the w d reduces the truncation error
to zero in the problem sketched in Fig. 6.1. To capture the character of the flow in
the neighbourhood of the solid w d ,we employ a region with fine mesh and constant
step size. This eliminates the appearance of l u g e truncation errors generated by use
of transformation in the region dose to the solid boundary. We consider this method
to finalize the grid structure in the ydirection in the problem under consideration.
The transformation functions in ydirection are formulated as
we obtain
The linear transformation (6.18) introduces a grid distribution with uniform step
size in both physical and computational domains (Ay = const, A T = const). The
polynomid transformation (6.19) is applied at y = 1 +
t which results in a non
uniform grid structure in the physical plane and a uniform grid distribution in the
computationd domain. The remaining unknown constants in Eq. (6.19) are selected
by matching both tramformations at the border of the application domains. The
matching conditions have the form of
where n is the number of grid points in the region with d o r m step size, and is
selected arbitratily. In the above, Ag and A y are the step sizes in computationd and
physical domains, respectively (rree figure (6.3)). Conditions (6.22) define matching
'I Y h c a t i o n Error I
0.0 0.0 39232.99 7.66 x IO'
'I Y $ 6 ~ h c a t i o n Error
0.0 0.0 39232.99 1.19 x IO^
Table 6.9: Numerical values of &@ and truncation error in Eq. (6.9)
obtained using t r d o n n a t i o n function (6.15).
Physical domain Computational domain
between the lin and polynomid trmsfonnation dong line NP. Location of line NP
in the physical plane is determined by the linear transformation. This line corresponds
to line N'PI in the computational plane. To consider line NP to belong to the region
with linear transformation, line QR inside the region with polynomial transformation
has to have the correct location. This location is determined by extending the linear
transformation one grid point above line NP. Therefore, conditions (6.22) present
the formulation for this type of matching. Under this fonn of matching, lines QR
and LM aze located at equal distances from NP. The matching procedure can also be
defined so that NP belongs to the region with polynomid transformation. In this case,
line LM has to have correct location. This location is determined using polynomial
transformation extended one grid point below line NP. In Fig. 6.3 lines QR and LM
in the physical plane correspond to lines Q'R' a d L'MI in the computational plane.
Substituting Eqs. (6.22) into (6.19), we obtain
The mesh distribution resulted from the application of the above transformation
functions are shown in Table 6.10.
Table 6.10: Grid distribution in y direction using transformation
functions introduced in Eqs. (6.18) and (6.19) for C =
1.75, and ë = .5.
where A, B axe constants given by (6.14) and 6,D, Ë and Z are determined by match
ing transformations at x = (tl +
L i ) , z = ti, x = tl, x = ( t l +
LI), + =
+ + + + +
(tl Li Lz),and x = ( t l Ll Lz L3) respectively.
The above transformation functions are defined so:
The region x < (ti + Li)is covered with a uniform mesh using a lineat
transformation (6.27).
To maintain sdicient accuracy in the region where separation occurs, the linear
+
transformation (6.31) was introduced at x = t l L i . Therefore, this region is
covered with constant step size and extended to x = t l + LI+ Lz.
1 , e 1
 ,
ri: ,
I I I 1
I I I
1 , ,
I I I ,
In the psoblem under investigation, we encouter the flow around a sharp corner at
s = O, y = 1. Mathematically, the vorticity is singular at the corner and special
care is needed to solve the flow field around such a point. The existence of singulaxity
in the geometry complicates the numerical solution and an improper treatment of
singularity may increase the error in a substantial part of the flow field.
The theoretical situation aasociated with flow around the corner is described by
Moffat (1964). However, that analytical solution is only valid in the limit of Re + O
(i.e., Stokes flow). An approach based on mWng a n d y t i d and numerical solutions
around the corner was first proposed by Motz (1946). A semianalytic technique
d d for small and moderate Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of the corner waa
developed by Gupta et al. (1981). Examples of the limitations of local similarity
solutions rtre described by Moffat & D e (1980). The separation of Stokes flows
are discussed by Michad& O'Neill (1977). In order to n u m e r i d y approximate the
singular behaviour of vorticity at the corner severd methods have been proposed by
R o d e (1976). To remove the uncertainty associated with such flow characteristics
we have tested vaxious methods described by Floryan & Czechowski (1995).
The approach considered here combines a local analytical description of the singu
larity, which is valid in a s m d neighbourhood of the corner, with a purely numerical
solution at a distance away fiom the corner. However, the applicability of such meth
ods for nonzero Reynolds number flows (i.e., when convective tenns are present) re
mains tinknown. Indeed, numerical experiments with method A desczibed by Floryan
& Czechowski (1995) produced quite unacceptable flow features around the corner.
Therefore, the objective of this study is first to present a proper singularity mode1 and
Figure 7.1: Sketch of the flow domain.
then to assess the accuracy of the suggested model by carrying out a grid convergence
study. In this study the assumption regarding the minimal local efFects of the method
on the solution of the entire flow field is also verified. It was found that the method
based on introducing a fictitiov (finite) d u e of vorticity at the corner provides a
better approximation of the flow behaviour in the neighbourhood of the corner. This
method can also be implemented into our numericai scheme with a very little change.
In Section 7.1 we describe our test problem and its numerid solution. The iduence
of the singularity on the n u m e r i d algorithm is reviewed in Section 7.2. Numerid
solutions incorporating an analytical description of the singularity are presented in
Section 7.3. The details cf the theoretical procedure are described in Appendix B.
where the indices are explained before. The application of the above equation as
signa a value for vorticity at the corner CD using the numerical values of the nodal
stream function at points 2 and 3. The substitution of this value into the numerical
procedme, bypasses the effect of singdarity and makes the finitediffaence approxi
mations (4.26), (4.30) and (4.36) valid at pointa 1,2,3,4,5,6and 7 around the corner.
Thus, the stream function, vorticity and velocity at such points are directly calculated
without further assumptions.
To compare the &ect of the above methods on the solution of the flow field numer
ical experiments are carried out for (Re = 0,1000) and the step size (h = 0 .O%). It is
important to note that the presented methods are based on different implementations
of (B.11)and they are not computationally equivalent. Our andysis supports this
fact and Figs. 7.3 and 7.4 exhibit the dinerence in the form of streamlines for the test
problem at different Reynolds number. It is clear from Fig. 7.3 that both methods
provide almost identical results as far as the stream function values are concerned.
The discrepancy in the form of streamlines and in the length of separation region for
Re = 1000 is depicted in Fig. 7.4. However, the results show that these differences
have only a local character and decrease with distance away from the corner. Due to
the large magnitude of convective terma at such high Reynolds number, the accuracy
of the singulasity treatments such as the ones used here is greatly tested.
For further andysis the distribution of vorticity for Re = O dong y = 1 and x = O
and in the vicinity of the corner are shown in Figs. 7.5 and 7.6. While the difference
in the vorticity distribution in the neighbourhood of the corner is considerable, the
effects of using different singulaxity treotments diminish at several grid points away
from the corner. The velocity profile at the inlet croas section of the chasne1 is shown
in Fig. 7.7. The success of the methods A and B in providing the correct velocity
distribution is dearly shown in this figure. The andysis of figure 7.7 dso indicates
that the difierence between provided results by both methods are indistinguished.
I
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5:0 6.0 7.0 8.0
Figs. 7.8 and 7.9 show the vorticity distribution dong y = 1 and z = O. The
gradient of vorticity in the neighbourhood of the corner is very sharp for both methods
but results are in very good agreement at a distance, x = 0.1 away from the corner.
The failure of method A in providing a reliable description of vorticity around the
corner is dearly indicated in Fig. 7.9. Such behaviour questions the applicability
of method A in our numerical calcdations and further test shows this method is
not apable of providing the correct velocity distribution at the inlet of the channe1
(see figure 7.10). The discontinuity in cdculated velocity profile using method A is
sketched in this figure.
We did not observe the occurrence of sepasation at the corner and the predicted
location of separation zone by both methods was at a small distance downstream of
the channel entry. The results presented so far help us to choose a suitable singularity
treatment for the problem under investigation. Based on o u analysis, method B is
proved to be superior in predicting the correct topologid feature of the flow field
around the corner like, for example, length and location of the separation region.
X
Figure 7.5: Distribution of vorticity (Re = O, y = 1),  Method A, Method B.
Figure 7.10: Velocity profile at the inlet cross section (Re = 1000,
x = O),  Method A, Method B.
h (physical plane) h (computational plane) Length of separation zone
0.025 0.05 7.3
Table 7.1: Length of separation zone at different step size for (Re = 1000).
This means that for larger h the assumption underlying the algorithm, i.e., that we
are sufficiently dose to the corner, is not satisfied and the implementation of Eq.
(B .3O)into the numerical procedure is not accurate.
vorticity vorticity vorticity
h = 0.025 h = 0.02 h = 0.0125
14.51
17.92
22.06
30.04
36.62
47.22
68.58
146.29
34.84
11.45
3.10
0.81
0.07
Table 7.3: Numerid values of vorticity dong x = O for Re = 1000.
aom
40m
dom
80.00 
1 WB0 
420.00
140.00 
One of the major interests in andysis of the problem of Channel entrance flow is to
describe the spatid evolution of flow in the axial direction through the chasnel. Here,
we present the obtained results from numerical study of entry flow in a chmel.
The flow pattern for flow entering a Channel through a sharpedged entrance at
<
O Re 5 2200 is sketched in Figs. 8.18.5. The analysis of the plots indicotes that at
low Reynolds number Re 5 100 flow enters the channe1 very smoothly. As Reynolds
number is increased, the flow structure near the entrance starts to change and a
vena contracta is formed because the duid cannot turn a sharp rightangle corner.
At Re = 137 separation occurs in the entrance region. The region of separation for
Re 2 150 can readily be traced and it is s h o m in the figures. It should be mentioned
that separation does not occur at the corner but rather a s m d distance downstream
from the channel entry. Figure 8.6 depicts the length of separation zone as a function
of Reynolds number. The analysis of this figure shows that the length of separation
region inmeases monotonically with Reynolds number. The maximum thickness of
vena contracta is depicted in Fig. 8.7. The results show that the thidmess of vena
contracta goes to an asymptote by increasing Reynolds number.
A succession of velocity profiles staxting at x = O and proceeding downstream from
<
the channe1 entry axe presented in Figs. 8.88.17, for O 5 Re 2200. Consideration
may be given first to the profile at x = O, which displays the form of the velocity
distribution at the inlet cross section of the channel. At Re = 0, the velocity profile
at x = O inneases smoothly fkom a zero value at the wall to a maximum at the
centerline (92 percent of the asymptotic value) and the flow development occurs in
very short distances from the entrance. For example, velocity distribution dong
the centerline at z = 0.42 reaches 98 percent of the asymptotic d u e at the exit
(figure 8.8a). The appearance of such velocity distribution at z = O is of physical
importance and strongly questions the validity of previous numerical analyses based
on the assumption of uniform flow at the entrance. However, the shape of the velocity
profile at the inlet is in better agreement with previous n u m e r i d work where a
uniform velocity upstream of the channel entry is assumed. The centerline velocity
in the downstream direction inmeases monotonically wit h an increase of distance
fiom the channel entrance. Fùrthermore, the centrd portion of the velocifgr profile
generdy developa at a slower rate than the portion of the profile adjacent to the wd.
As Reyn01ds number is increased, the velocity profile at x = O begins to change;
it is approaching a m d y flat profile in the central region of the channel. At Re =
40, the velocity profle at x = O shows to have an offcentered maximum. The
magnitude of the overshoot of velocity profile hcreases in the downstream region until
the velocity distribution bewmes more rounded further downstream and overshoot
phenomenon disappears as is shown in Fig. 8.9b. The magnitude of the overshoot
of the velocity profile at the inlet cross section of the channe1 bewmes larger with
increasing ReynoIds nurnber . The maximum velocity overshoot occurred at Re = 300
(figure 8.12~). For Re > 300, the overshoot phenomenon at the inlet cross section
begins to diminish. At Re = 700, the velocity overshoot at x = O can not be observed
visudy from Fig. 8.14a. However, the velocity overshoot at downstream region of
the channel entry is still observed and is considered to be the characteristic feature
of this type of flow. At Re > 700 , the velocity profle at x = O remains dmost flat
across most of the channel with a large gradient near the wall.
The region of back flow first appears for Re = 137 and extends over a certain
finite distance downstream of the channd entry forming a vena contracta (see figures
8.12a8.17).
Figure 8.1: Flow pattern in the lower half channei, O < R e < 80 .
100 < Re < 400 .
Figure 8.2: Flow pattern in the lower half chit~l~lel,
Figure 8.3: Flow pattern in the lower half chaanel, 500 < Re < 900.
SIO'O
Oos ,
L'O
9'0
Figure 8.5: Flow pattern in the lower half channel, 1400 < Re < 2200.
Figure 8.6: Length of sepazation zone as a function of Reynolds number.
4.4 
4.6
4.8 
O r
change of kinetic energy (Bernoulli effect). The actual head loss in the entrance is
zero due to absence of viscosity.
.izo ao 40 ao (O ao iro
X
where p(x) denotes the local pressure, ü is the average velocity and O stands for the
condition upstream of the channe1 entry. In the above relation a(x) is the kinetic
energy correction co&cient, f is the friction factor, x is the distance form the inlet
in the downstream direction, D is the hydraulic diameter asd additiond losses are
denoted by k(x). It is important to note that (9.1) is only valid for onedimensional
flow and the application of this equation in the neighbourhood of the inlet is not
justified. Therefore, in the present analysis we do not attempt to compute k(x) and
a ( x ) near the inlet. However, far away from the entrance where the flow behaviour
is described by the one dimensional theory, (9.1) can be applied.
The $ is a measure of the kinetic energy of flow upstream of the channe1entry.
Since far upstream üo t O, it is expected that the amount of kinetic energy of the
fluid at x + 00 is negligible. To verify this rational assumption, the &ect of this
tenn can be easily evaluated using a control volume as shown in figure 9.3. The
 . .
kinetic energy of flow entering this control volume is c a l d a t e d using the equation
(9.2)
where m is the mass flow and u is the velocity. At x + 00, the velocity distribution
is prescribed by JefTeryHarnel (Chapter 3). Therefore, (9.2) ckn be written as
It is apparent that k(x) could only be obtained by evaluating the a throughout the
entire entrasce region. The above equation indicates that the total local pressure
drop consists of three parts; i) change of kinetic energy, ii) losses represented by a
f U y developed flow starting at x = 0, and iii) additional losses accounted for by k(z).
Figure 9.4 illustrates the associated value with each p u t for Re = 2200. The asalysis
of the plot shows that as x t CO, a ( z ) approaches the aaymptotic value given by
+O) =8. The losses due to the f d l y developed flow at x = O are zero and they
increase Linearly in the downstream direction. For cornparison, the plot of pressure
drop through the chamel for an inviscid flow is also shown in figure 9.4. For inviscid
flow the associated loss is zero and pressure drop is only due to the change of kinetic
energy. Far away downstream of the channel entry the velocity profile is uniform and
G u i & d = 1. The difference between a(m) and O!iWia&d idcounts for the difference
between kinetic energy of the real fluid and the inviscid fiuid.
The distribution of k ( x ) is shown in figure 9.5. With increasing downstream
distance, k ( x ) rises sharply at first and then tends to level off, reaching ultimately
a constant value; this value characterizes strength of entrance losses. Thus, in the
region of hydrodynamic development, k necessarily increases with increasing x aa
is shown in figure 9.4. This behaviour identifies location where the hydrodynamic
development is complete; there are no further contributions to k and a constant value
is attained.
A plot of the fully developed d u e s of k as a function of Re is illustrated in figure
9.6. At first k(w) demeases sharply as Reynolds number is increased until it attains a
local minimum value at Re = 700. Then k ( m ) starts to inuease as Reynolds number
increases. The results show that for Re _> 1800, k(oo) inueases as a linear function
of Reynolds number.
A cornparison between the present numerical results and the results of other re
searchers is carried out using a modified form of (9.1) written as
where p; is the pressure at the inlet and K(x) is the incremental pressure drop. Thus,
in accordance with the above equation, d u e s of K ( x ) are determined by subtracting
a linear component, which corresponds to a flow which is fiiUy developed right from
x = O, from the local pressure defect (pi  p(x)) 1 iü2. The M y developed values of
the incremental pressure drop K ( x ) as a fimction of Reynolds number are given in
Tables 9.29.3 and Fig. 9.6.
The calculation by Bodoia & Osterle (l96l), who solved the governing equations
using a finitedifierence algorithm, gives a value of 0.676 for K ( m ) at high Reynolds
number. The calculation of Schmidt & Zeldin (1969) for Channel flow based on the
assumption of uniform flow at the entry givea a Kvalue of 0.669 and 0.748 at Re =
3750 and Re = 37.5. Nguyen & MdaineCross (1988) provided a correlation for
value of K(oo) which approximates the data to within 1 percent. They obtained
a Kvalue of 0.6779 at large Reynolds number. Han (1960) found the incrementd
pressure drop K(m) = 0.85 compared with K ( w ) = 0.601 given by Sdilichting.
Lundgren et al. (1964) presented 0.686 for K(oo) for the pardelplate channel.
Shah & London (1978) after detailed consideration of a luge number of approximate
solutions, recornmended 0.674 for K ( m ) at large Reynolds number. The provided
value by Nguyen & Madainecross (1988) is 0.58 percent more than the value given
by Shah & London (1978). It should be mentioned that ail the above studies adopted
certain approximation in modeling the inlet boundary conditions. In the present
study, the flow structure in the entrance region is entirely different (due to efTects of
sharpedged entrance). This explains the wide deviation between the present results
and the amilable data in the literature. To understand the differences, the behaviour
of the flow in the downstream of the charrinel entry is carefully investigated in Chapter
10.
Experimentd analysis are generally performed for duct flows of different aspect
ratios. Therefore, the available experimental data for ducts with high aspect ratios
are used for cornparisons with the present results. The provided results of Beavers
et al. (1970) are lower thas the numerical data obtained during the present study.
Mx)
Mx)
These authors obtained a Kvalue 0.61 for duct with aspect ratio 51 at high Reynolds
number. On the b a i s of Fig. 9.6, it is conduded that K(oo) first incrûases s h q l y
for Re 5 150 until it attains the maximum value of 0.77. It then starrts to decrease
gradudy as Reynolds number is increased. The provided results indicate that K ( m )
approachea an asymptote at high Reynolds number.
Nguyen & Schmidt & Bodoia
present work Maclainecross Zeldin & Osterle
(1988) (1969) (1961)
0.7954
0.7329
0.7224 0.748
0.7
0.6828
0.6817
2
Table 9.2: Values of incremental pressure drop K ( w ) reported in
the literature, 5 < Re < 1700.
 
In analysis of the formation of the Poiseuille flow in the entrance region of a channel,
a problem of interest is to predict the behaviour of flow in the area downstream of
the chanael entry. It is lcnown that flow far downstream of the channel entrance
approaches asymptotically the Poiseuille flow. In such cases, the ksymptotic solution
of the NavierS tokes equations are considered as the exit boundary conditions, thus
reducing the size of the domain of amputation and saving some computationd tirne.
In the present study we confine our attention to the twdimensional problem
of channel entrance flow, and in a region where the flow is slightly perturbed fiom
the Poiseuille flow, the asymptotic solution of the NavierStokes equations is sought.
These stationary perturbations to the flow field may be produced in a variety of
ways. The mechanism considered here is through the effect of sharpedged entrance
which could trigger disturbances. Close to the entrknce disturbances are large, but
further away in the downstream region disturbances are expected to decay, leaving
just Poiseuille flow. Here we assume that the distance from the source of the distortion
is sufnciently large (i.e., disturbances have decayed enough),so that the perturbations
axe s m d .
The decay of a s m d stationaty perturbation from the Poiseuille flow in the down
Stream direction is govemed by a differentid eigenvalue equation similar to the Orr
Sommerfeld equation. In the past, the solution of this equation has b e n widely
atudied, both a n d y t i d y and numericdly. The numerical solution of the differential
eigenvalue equation hm been attempted using different methods, namely, an initial
value type method or spectral method. The previous related works indude Bramely
& Dennis (1982), and Bramely (1984) who used a Chebyshev polynomid representa
tion of the eigensolutions as the basis for their studies. An initialvalue type method
was used by Bramely & Dennis (1984). The problem can also be tackled analytically
using asymptotic methods valid for s m d and large Reynolds numbers, following Wi
son (1969). A recent review related to the n u m e r i d and analytical solution of the
differential eigenvalue equation is presented by Stocker & Duck (1995).
Bramely & Dennis (1982) cornpared th& results with a previous numerical solu
tion for flow in a c h 4 with a step change in width presented by Deanis & Smith
(1980). They reporteci d i f E i d t y in obtaining an accurate check on the asymptotic
nature of the flow in the downstream region by using the provided numerical data.
Horgan & Wheeler (1978) have found an estimate for spatial decay of the flow
development at low Reynolds number in a cylindrical pipe of arbitrary crosssection.
They considered the exponential decay with axid distance of quadratic energy integral
thus providing a quantitative description of the iow development in the problem of
mtry flow.
In the present study the spatial evolution of the difference between the actual flow
and the fully developed flow solution at a large distance from the channel entry is
studied in detail. The exponential spatial decay of the flow development in the inlet
region of a channe1 is verified using the available n u m e r i d data obtained in solving
the problem of channe1 entrance flow. The goal of our analysis is to reveal more
information regarding the formation of Poiseuille flow at large distances downstream
of the channel entry. Indeed, our results indicate some wmplex features of the flow
at low Reynolds number. This aalysis leads to an appropriately defined entrônce
length.
The velocity far downstream of the chasnd entry approaches the Poiseuille flow dis
tribution and so
where u and v are explained before. The above boundary conditions at the exit can
be written for the Stream function $ as
We now seek steady perturbations to the above solution, using the variables of the
form
and
where P is the Poiseuille flow pressure, xo denotea a reference point, and C.C. r e p
resents the cornplex conjugate tenn. The constant a is an eigendue determinhg
the rate of decay of the perturbation, which may be real or complex, and &), û(y ) ,
û(y), and j ( y ) are the associated eigenfunctions. IR the above equations we assume
13:  xol » 1 so the perturbation tenn is relatively s m d compared with the base
solution. Substituting (10.5a) into (10.1) and neglecting nonlinear terms , one obtains
a linear equation for t,$ whose coacients are independent of r and haa the form of
1
aUû = $ +
Re
( d û + û") ,
where prime denotes differentiation respect to y. The above system of equations are
subject to the boundary conditions in the form of
The system (10.11) together with the imposed b o u n d q conditions (10.12) create a
homogeneoua boundary value problem which cas be solved n u m e r i d y . However, the
solution for arbitrary combinations of the parameters a,and Re is a trivial solution.
To avoid this, there must be a special relationship between the parameters. If a value
specified for one of the paramet ers, a nontrivial solution for 5,8, jj will exist only if the
second parameter has a special value or values. To calculate the nontrivial solutions,
we impose a new boundary condition for M4 to create a nonhomogeneous b o u n d q
value problem. The new form of boundary conditions are written as
about y = 0. In generd the eigenvalues are complex, however, in al1 cases it is the red
part of the eigendue which defines the rate of decay of the associated disturbancea.
In the piesent study we only focus on the odd eigenvaluea with positive r d part
(Re(a)> O) since the disturbance correspondhg this eigenvalue decaya exponentially
in the downstream direction.
The numerid results for the eigenvaluea of different odd modes are presented
in Tàblea 10.110.2. At low Reynolds number a l l the eigendues are complex ond
the disturbances acisociated with these eigendues decay in an oscillatory behaviour.
<
The plots of the first complex mode; k n ( c ~ )for 1 Re 5 350 are shown in figure 10.1.
As the Reynolds number is increased, the eigendues generally undergo a number of
Real Eil
(fkst mode) (second mode)
2.36558
L.91010
1A0204
1.12062
0.93490
O.70266
0.56285
0.28199
0.18807
0.14107
0.09406
0.07054
0.05644
O .O3762
0.02822
0.01881
0.01411
0.01282
Table 10.2: Real eigenvalues of the first and second odd modes of
Poiseuille flow, 13 5 Re 5 2200.
brilllching processes switching between being cornplex and real (and vice versa). As
Re t m, for &(a) > O there exists one real O(1/ Re) eigenvalue family, together
with one cornplex eigendue o(R~'''). At high Reynolds number the disturbances
associated with the eigenvalues o(R~''') axe darnped out rapidly and the eigenvalues
O(1/ Re) become dominaat.
Figure 10.2 illustrates the r d part of eigenvalues as a function of Reynolds num
ber. Andysis of this figure shows that the eigenvalues of the first and second real
mode tend to asymptotes with increasing Reynolds number. Physicdy, we are inter
ested in the eigendues which correspond to the mode that persists furthest (decays
slowest) downstream. For Re < 13 the f?mt complex mode is dominant and the dis
turbances associated with the complex eigenvalues decay in an oscillatory nature. For
Re 2 13 there exist a spectnun of real and complex modes where the real modes are
dominant as is shown in figure 10.2. The eigenvalue aasouated with the first real odd
mode is in the form of
9 (10.14)
(10.15)
The numerical results presented here agree with the asymptotic and numerical results
of Wilson (1969) and Stocker & Duck (1995).
Figures 10.310.6 illustrate the corresponding eigenfimctions û(y ) ,û(y), and $(y)
to the fkst dominant mode at different Reynolds number. The analysis of these
figures show that û and 6 are even and odd functions of y respectively, indicating the
symmetric nature of the disturbances. Figure 10.3 shows that Im(û(y) ) approaches
to zero as Re + 13, indicating the existence of a pure real dominant eigendue at
Re 2 13. Figs. 10.510.6 show that Re(p(y)) and kn@(y)) are odd functions of
y. As Reynolds number is increased, ReUj(y)) t 1 approaching the characteristic
behaviour of an inviscid flow.
Figure 10.1: Eigenduea of the b s t complex odd mode of plane
Poiseuille flow, Im(a).
100.00
 thlrd complex odd mode
It is known that far enough downstream of the channel entry as x + oo, the chor
acter of the flow is defined by two parts, including the Poiseuille flow and the s m d
stationary perturbation of the Poiseuille flow which decays exponentidy away from
the channel exit. To verify the spatial evolution of s m d stationary perturbation of
the Poiseuille flow, the behaviour of a flow quantity fax downstream of the cha.nnel
entry should be investigated. We chose the pressure gradient distribution (21,~) as
a quantitative description of the flow development in the problem of channel entrance
flow. This quantity also provides a delicate test to assess the accuracy of the available
numerid data. Far away kom the c h u e l entry, 2 can be approximated by
where
For compIex eigendues, w e select x = zo. Since in (10.18), (2+ &) 1 O, goes
to zero as x t ai, we obtain Ar = 0,
Cornparisons between the numerical solution of the eigendue problem and the
asymptotic results (10.18) can be made by estimating a dong the centerline using
the ovailable numerical data for 2.
For r d eigenvalues, (1 0.19) reduces to
0.0100
0.0120
0.0125
0.0122
0.0115
0.0109
0.00865
0.00630
O.00474
0.00392
0.00192
0.00120
0.000805
0.000688
i. The distance fkom the inlet cross section to the point where centerline velocity
reaches 99% of the asymptotic d e .
ii. The distance from the inlet cross section to the point where centerline velocity
reaches 99.5% of the asymptotic d u e .
iii. The distance fiom the inlet cross section to the point where centerline velocity
reaches 99.9% of the asymptotic value.
iv. The distance fiom the Channel entry to the point where
12 + klFo = exp(~~).
It is important to note that seledion of any of the above criteria results in a different
wiation of entrance length as a fundion of Reynolds number, Le., entrance length
is definition dependent.
The results of the dculated hydrodynamic entrance length based on the above cri
teria are shown in Tbbles 10.410.5 and Fig. 10.11. Criterion (i) haa been extensively
used in the fiterature as a measure of attaining the Poiseuille flow in downatream of
the cha1111e.Iinlet (Chen (1973); Morihara & Cheng (1973); Naraztg & Krishnamoor
thy (1976); Atkinson et d (1969); Williamson (1969)). However, experimental works
on lamina flow development in tubes asid redaggdar ducta use a criterion based on
the asymptotic value of the presaure gradient dfat the exit of the channe1 (Emery &
Chen 1968; Sparrow 1967).
Beavers et d. (1970) and Nguyen & MadaineCross (1988) defined the entry
length in tenns of the distance where K ( z ) attains a preassigned percentage of its
f d y developed value. The results of these authors are based on 95% and 99% of
the asymptotic value of K(x) respectively. To reveal more p h y s i d properties of the
flow, we have introduced the criteria (ii) and (iii). These criteria result in longer
entry length as is shown in Fig. 10.11. Definitions (iv) and (v) ace directly resulted
fiom the study of the evolution of flow development in long distances downstream of
the charnel entry. Critesion (v) is an estimation of the negleded nonlinear terma in
(lO.16a). Criterion (vi) is defined to determine the behaviour of entry length using
the asymptotic value of Re$ at the exit.
The analysis of figure 10.11 indicates that the flow shows a rather different be
haviour at low and high Reynolds number. Foi Re < 13, the entry length increases
very alowly with an increaae of Reynolds number (criteria i, ii, iii, and iv). This
behaviour can be explained with the help of eigenvalue analysis shown in figures 10.1
and 10.2. In this range of Reynolds number all the modes are complex and the be
haviour of the flow in downstream of the channel entry is governed by the eigendues
associated with the k s t complex mode. The r d part of the dominant eigendues
are of O(1) and decreaae siowly with increa~ingReynolds number. Therefore, the
stationary perturbation of the Poiseuille flow decay rapidly, resulting to the fast flow
development and short entry length. The charader of flow at low Reynolds number
does not allow us to compute a unique entry length based on criteria (iv) and (v) (see
figure 10.9). It ahould be added that if the criterion (iv) is defined based on, e.g.,
1% + j&o2 = exp(8), the entrance length for Re > 2000 is completely insensitive
to this definition.
For Re 2 13, the character of flow starts to change. This is shown in figure 10.11a
as the region where the entry length changes rapidly. For Re 2 13, there &st families
of complex and real modes where eigesvalues aasociated with the f i s t r d mode start
to dominate the dow. As Reynolds number increases, the r d eigendues decrease
very rapidly (i.e., a s m d incxease of the Reynolds number leads to a sudden decrease
of the eigenvalues) resulting a nonlinear behaviour of the entry length aa a function of
Reynolds number. Due to the complex nature of flow at 13 5 Re $35 we are not able
to predict the behaviour of entrance length. For Re 2 35 and as Reynolds number
is increased, the dominant eigendue of the first real mode decreases and therdore
the spatial exponentid evolution of the difference between the actual flow and the
Figue 10.11: Entrknce length as a function of Re, a) O 5 Re 80, b)
O 2 R e < 2200.
O < Re < 1300, based on criteria (i) and (iv).
'hble 10.4: Entraace length, Xe,
I
present present Morihara &
work work Cheng (1973)
(il (4 (il
0.50 1.00
0.51 1.12 1.302
0.54 1.29
0.56 1.34
0.63 1.37
0.80 1.48 2.237
0.95 1.67
1.53 247
2.48 4.49
2.77 4.97
3.96 6.69
5.09 8.37
6.75 10.85
9.54 15.00
15.06 23.31 18.06
20.58 31.75
31.45 48.10
39.68 60.00
42.36 64.30
53.05 81.97
64.34 96.79
7492 113.01
7986 121.48
85.50 129.94
106.07 160.45
116.51 176.39
126.40 191.77
13629 206.00
'hble 10.5: Entrace leagth, Xe,1400 < Re < 2200, based on criteria (i) and (iv
 
fully developed solution occus in a slowes rate. The behaviour of the computed entry
length based on criteria (ivv) at high Reynolds number is a result of the nature of
the dominant eigenvalues. For Re 2 35 the entrance Iength based on criterion (iiii,
and vi) inmeases linearly. However, the rate of increae of the entry length start to
change at high Reynolds number .
The behaviour of the entry length at high Reynolds number can be deacribed
using (10.19) and rearranging in the form of
 1 0.02 Xe
hl
56.442 ArRe=2Re9
where Xeis the computed entry length. To fkid the asymptotic behaviour of &, the
behaviour of the coeflicient A, ae a function of Reynolds number is depicted in Fig.
10.12. Analysis of this figure indicates that for the range of Reynolds number studied
present Morihara
work and Cheng
(il (1973)
0.0518
0.0515
0.0511
0.0507
0.0502
O.0499
0.0493
0.0487
in this work there is no asymptote for Ar. Therefore, we are not able to provide an
explicit asymptote for 2. However, it is possible to fkd a correlation for the d u e s
of A, in the form of
Further asalysis of figure 10.11 indicates that criterion (iii) gives an upper bound
for the computed entrmce length at high Reynolds number. While at low Reynolds
nwnber criteria (iv and v) give the upper bound for the entrance length.
Tables 10.410.5 &es the computed entrame length from the present study and
other researchers. The present predictions are s e e n to be lower than the results
provided by Morihara & Cheng (1973), Narang & Krishnamoorthy (1976),and Chen
(1973). The reason for this behaviour is: these authors have assumed a d o r m
velocity as the inlet boundary condition for the chanael. This treatment of inlet
conditione is far from reality since a correct prediction of flow behaviour in the chaamel
requires a simulta~ieouasolution of flow upstream and downstream of the inlet. The
assumption of uniform velocity at the inlet obviously decouples the upstream and
downstream region of the c h a d entry, resulting in a simplified form of flow which
cannot provide a correct resolution of the problem. At low Reynolds number, the
Figure 10.12: Constant as a function of Re.
difhsion of vorticity in the upstream region is sipificant and plays an important role
in the flow development. The assumption of uniform velocity at the inlet neglects
such d e c t s and fails to give a reliable description of the flow.The resulta provided by
the boundary layer theory (Schlichting 1934) are not accurate because its simplified
aasumptions me not valid in the vicinity of the inlet. The m e n t approach allows
us to determine a correct behaviour of flow in the channel. In the present study part
of the flow development occurs in the upstream region and before the fluid enters
the chamel. Thus, the predicted entry length is lower than the results provided by
others. At high Reynolds number the d e c t of upstream flow development becomes
leas important but the formation of a vena contracta at the inlet leads to the higher
acceleration of flow in the inviscid wre of the channel and faater flow development.
Therefore, sharpedged entrance is considerd as a method to reduce the entry length.
These results are in agreement with Emery & Chen (1968). A cornparison of the
present resulta for & (baaed on criterion i) with Morihara & Cheng (1973) at high
Reynolds number is given in lbble 10.6. The d y s i s of this table shows the existence
of a sharpedged entrance lekds to 10.35% decrease in the computed entry length at
Re = 1500 compared with the results provided by (Morihaza & Cheng 1973). Our
results &O indicate that the percentage of decrease of the entry length increases with
increasing Reynolds number .
Chapter 11
11.1 Formulation
Various perturbations of the JH solutions have been studied, but here we s h d study
the spatial development of such steady flows and their steady perturbations ofter
Banks et al. (1988) and Dennis et al. (1997); on writing
and taking normal modes of the form
where P(r, O ) , Ur(r,8) and P(r, 0) denote the stream fundion, radid velocity and the
pressure field of the basic symmetric JH flow respedively.
Substituting (1l.hd) into (3.1)(3.3), lineazizing the system for s m d perturba
tion, and eliminating the pressure we obtain
symmetric mode
The above equation represents the form of perturbations of pressure gradient for JB
flow. Eq. (11.5) may then be written in the form of
where is the pressure gradient of the actual flow and (g) J H represents the
pressure gradient of the JH flow (Eq. (3.5)). Fàr upstream of the channel entry, the
s m d stationary perturbations of the pressure gradient are approximated according
to Eq. (11.6), where X denotes the dominant e i g m d u e and $ is the corresponding
eigenfundion.
Figs. 11.511.7 exhibit the plots of Eq. (11.6) at Re =IO, 100, 500, 1000, 2200
using the available numerical data. For comparison the theoretical rate of decay is
dso 8hown in these figures. One may observe that as r increases, 1 (g) (2)
A  JH 1
approa,ches zero and the theoretid rate of decôy is attained. Based on such andysis
we mndude that the upstream boundary conditions are applied at proper location. As
a further test, Fig. 11.8 illustrates the behaviour of Reg dong the centerline obtained
fkom solution of the NavierStokes equations and J d q  H a m e l flow (Eq.(3.5)). One
may observe that as x + m, the difference between these two solutions approaches
zero.
Compkiison between the dominant eigenvalues of JdqHamel flow and sink
flow given in Table 11.2 indiates that for Re > 50, the behaviour of JefferyHamel
flow approaches the sink. The plot of velocity profile of the J e  H a m e l flow for
O < Re < 2200 ia shown in figure 11.9. The andyeis of this figure indicates that with
increaaing Reynolds number the velocity profile exhibits d the wellknown chara*;
teristics of boundary layers near the wd, asid an approlcirnately constant velocity
across the r a t of the chmel. Since the thickness of the boundary layer decreases
with increming the Reynolds number, it is expected that the approximation of the
JdezyHamel flow at the inlet boundaay with a model based on a sink has negligible
d e c t s on the %owfield inside the channel. To vetify this assumption we have d m 
lated the flow field in the entrance region of the c h a n d with inlet conditions of a
sink for Re = 50. The results for velocity profile and the stream function were com
paed with those obtained based on the assumption of JderyHamel flow as the inlet
boundary conditions. The results were identical up to three decimal places as far as
the stream fundion values are concerneci. The clifference in the velocity profiles across
the channe1 could not be visua.lized graphically and are not shown here. Sparrow and
Anderson (1977) solved the hydrodynamic entry flow problem based on using a sink
to presaibe the inlet boundaq conditions for 0.375 < Re < 375. Table 11.111.2
shows that for Re < 50 the eigendues are siknificantly different from the asymptotic
value obtaiaed fiom a sink flow. Therefore, th& model based on the assumption of
a simple sink flow at low Reynolds number casnot present a correct description of
the flow in the upstream region. Furthermore, for Re < 3.75, these authors applied
the inlet boundary conditions at a location r = 4 upstream of the channd entry. As
Re + 0, the dominant eigenvalue approachea 1 and the rate of the decay of small
stationary perturbations of the JH fiow decreaaea. Therehe, the application of a
sink flow at r = 4 for modeling entrance fiow problem caa be questioned. At high
Reynolds number these authors applied the inlet boundary conditions at r = 80. The
study of Tàble 11.2 shows that the dominant eigenvalues of the first symmetric mode
of the JefferyHamel flow approaches 2 by increaaing Reynolds number. Therefore,
the rate of decay of the diaturbances becomes constant. Based on such behaviour one
can conclude that the application of the inlet boundary conditions at r = 80 is not
necessary and increases the computational load significantly.
Figure 11.5: Decay of the stationary perturbation of JefFeryHamel flow,Re=5,100.
Figure 11.6: Decay of the stationary perturbation of JefEeryHamel
flow,Re=500, 1000.
Figure 11.7: Decay of the stationilry perturbation of J&qHamel
fiow, Re=1500, 2200.
Re = 2200
Jcffery&me1 aoW
 NavierStokes solrition
12.1 Conclusions
The channe1 entrance flow problem for a Newtonian fluid flow was solved numeri
cally using the complete set of governing equations and the newly proposed inflow
boundary conditions. The key feature of the proposed mode1 is to remove the arbi
trary assumptiona regarding the atatus of flow at the inlet, thus, providing a realiatic
representation of the entrante flow characteriatics. The inlet boundary wnditions pre
scribed here are based on JderyHamel flow. A 4 t h order compact finitediffaence
algorithm is used to aolve the flow fields upatream and downstream of the chasne1
entry sirnultaaeously. To enhance the accuracy of the results in the areas where high
gradient of flow variables exist and to save some computational tirne, the coordinate
transformations are applied. To control the error characteristics of the truncation er
ror appearing in the numerical dgorithm, the behaviour of trassformation functions
in Mixent regions was cazefully studied.
Reaults are obtained for Reynolds numbers O < Re < 2200 with accuracy no
worse than 0.1% at the laxgest value of Re. The re8ult8 show that at Iow Reynolds
number flow enters the charnel very smoothly. As Reynolds number is increased, the
flow structure near the entrance at&s to change. A region of bôdt flow fkst appears
at Re = 137 and extends over a certain finite distance downstream of the chamel
entry forming a vena contracta. The length of separation zone increases monotoni
cally by increasing Reynolds number. The thickness of vena contracta a p p r o d e s an
asymptote as Reynolds number is increased.
At Re = 0, the vdocity profile at z = O inaeases smoothly h m a zero value at
the wall to a maximum at the centerline and the flow development occurs in very
short distances from the entrame. The appearance of such velocity distribution at
x = O strongly questions the validity of previous n u m e r i d analyses based on the
assumption of uniform flow at the entrance. As Reynolds number ie increased, the
velocity profile at x = O begins to change; it is approaching a mainly flat profile
in the central region of the Channel. At Re = 40, the velocity profile a t the inlet
cross section shows to have an offcentered maximuxn The magnitude of the velocifiy
overshoot at the entrance increases with increasing Reynolds number until it obtains
a maximum value at Re = 300. For Re > 300, the overahoot phenornenon at the
inlet uosa section begins to diminish untd it disappears at Re = 700.
Information on the developing pressure field is presented in terms of axial pressure
distribution. An entrance pressure &op is observed in the upstream region of the
channel d r y , owing to the combined effects of the fluid acceleration towards the
eatrance cross section and wdl sheaz stress. At low Reynolds nurnber the pressure
inside the channel decreases monotonicdy. Downstream fkom the chasne1 entry, the
preasure begins decreasing linearly as the Poiseuille flow starts to form. As Reynolds
number is increased, a signifiant l o d pressure drop appears at the inlet due to
increaae of inertia efFects. The location of the maximum local pressure drop moves
downstream with increasing Reynolds nurnber. The deceleration of the fluid starts at
this point until the Poiseuille flow distribution is attained. During this stage pressure
drop is pattially recovered. The size of the recovery region increases with as increaae
of Reynolds number. The results show that the entrance loss k ( z ) fises sharply with
increaaing downstream distance, and then tends to level off, reaching ultimately a
constant value; this value characterizes strength of entraace losses. As Reynolds
number is increased, the fully developed d u e s of k decreases sharply until it attains
a minimum value at Re = 700. It then starts to inuease with inaeasing Reynolds
number. The deviation between the present results and the amilable data in the
literature is due to the particular type of flow structure aasociated with the existence
of the sharpedged entraace. The losses near the entrarrce, which aze not considered
in other studies, d e c t the overall pressure drop significantly, thus, changing the
behaviour of the entrance losa.
To verify the accuracy of the obtained results and to con the location of inflow
and outfiow boundary conditions, the evolution of the s m d stationary perturbations
of the flow in the downstream aad upstream of the chânnel entry were studied solving
two differential eigenvalue problems.
At low Reynolds number the eigendues of the stationary perturbation of the
Poiseuille flow in the region far downstream of the channd entry are complex and
the aasociated disturbmces decay in an oscillatory nature, indicating the complex
charader of the flow. As Reynolds number is increaaed, the eigenwdues genetdy
undergo a number of branching processes switching beheen being cornplex and real
(and vice versa). As Re + m, for &(a) > O there exista one dominant real eigenvahe
O(l/Re). The eigenvalues of the fmt and second real mode tend to asymptotes with
inaeaaing Reynolds number. Physically, we are interested in the eigenvalues which
correspond to the mode that persists furthest (decays slowest) downstream. The
exponentid decay of the disturbances of the pressure gradient distribution almg the
centerline is confirmed using the a d a b l e numerical data. This andysis led to an
appropriately dehed entrace length. It waa shown in this study that the existence
of the vena contracta reduces the hydrodynamic entry length compared with the
available data in the literature for the solution of the flow field between two p d e l
plates. Based on the provided data we were able to predict the behaviour of the
hydrodynamic entrance length at high RRynoIds number.
In the present study the spatial decay of the difference between the actual flow and
the J&kqHamel0ow in the upstream region of the diasne1 entry is investigated. It
is shown that disturbances decay proportionally to rAwhere r is the distance fiom the
entrance and X is an eigendue which determines the rate of decay. The n u m e r i d
results for eigendues of the first symmetnc and antisymmetric modes ate presented.
For Re < 0.8 the dominant eigendua of the first symmetric mode are r d . As
Reynolds number is increased, eigendues switch to complex and then r d numbers,
indicating the complex character of flow for Re < 8.4. At high Reyn01ds number
eigendues of the first symmetric and antisymmetric modes tend to asymptotes,
which are obtained by studying the steady s m d perturbations of a sink flow. Based
on this andysis we condude that at hi& Reynolds number the JefferyHamel flow
provides a sufticiently accurate mode1 at a distance r = 10 upstream of the channel
entrance. Thii distance inaeases as Re + O because the magnitude of the first
dominant eigenvalue decreases and therefore, disturbances decay with slower rate.
Our analysis indicate that for Re > 50, the behaviour of the JefferyHmel flow
approaches the sink. The results show that disturbaacea aasociated with the first
antisymmetric mode decay with slower rate wmpared with the symmetnc mode. At
Re = O, disturbances ôssociated with the antisymmetric mode always present in the
flow field and the aasumption of JderyHamel flow at far distances upstream of the
chamel entry is not just3ed.
In final it should be mentioned that the present work provides the first comprehen
sive set of data dealing with prediction of hydrodynamic entry length and entrance
100s in channe1 entry flow. These results avoid uncertainties associated with the ex
iating data in the literature and provide a good benchmark for engineering design.
Analytical Solution of
JefferyHamel Flow
We s h d now seek the analytid solution of Eq. (3.11) subject to conditions (3.12a)
(3.13) at s m d and high Reynolds number. To obtain the function F, we introduce
f in the following form
The solution of the above differential equation subject to the prescribed boundôry
conditions is
We assume an outer expansion for f and an asymptotic expansion for e2c1 in the
following fonns
(A. 11)
(A.12)
Substituting for f and e2c1, into the governing equations (A.9)(A.lO) and equating
coefncients of like powers of r, we have
(A.13)
(A. 14)
(A. 15)
(A. 16)
(A. 17)
The three problems defmed here could be solved in succession. The fkst term outer
expansion is obtained fiom equation (A.13) in the form of
Equation (A.15) goverm the second term outer expansion and the solution is found
as
and h d y the solution for the third terrn outer expansion can be obtained from
equation (A.17)as
Substitution of the above expressions into equation (A.11) gives the outer solution
for f as
f = 1 +op), (A.22)
and cl is
The above equation can be multiplied by f' and integrated once to give
(A. 27)
(A. 28)
To find the solution inside the boundary layer (Le., inner solution), we introduce
the variable t = 7r/2  6 , and the stretdiing t r d o r m a t i o n z = aZ into the above
equation. Under this transformation, the governing equation becomes
Substituting (A.31) into (A.29) and equating co&cients of like powers of E, we derive
The solutions of the above problems are found successively. The first term inner
expansion is derived as:
Substitution of these expressions into (A.31) gives the inner solution for f in the
following form
The above solution must match the outer solution at a distance fiom the wd. We
can construd a composite expknsion on the basis of having inner and outer solution,
which is d o d y valid in the entire region. This can e a d y be done by summation of
the inner and outer expansions which is corrected by subtrôcting the part they have
in cornmon. The common part is dehed as the b e r limit of the outer expansion.
The composite expasion is found to be
(A.40)
Substitution of the above equation into the volumetric flow condition gives
(A.41)
(A.42)
Appendix B
The analytieal description of flow âround a corner is best given by Gupta (1981). The
solutions to (4.3)(4.4) in the vicinity of corners in terms of power series in Re are
represented as
where Re denotes the Reynolds nurnber. Substituting the above equations into (4.3)
and (4.4) knd comparing the powers of Re on both sida, we get
kl
where
The solution of (B.3) expressed in polar coordinates, centered at the corner with
r = 0, asid with the line B = O taken dong the interna bisector of the corner angle
gr (Fig.7.2) is given in the form of
where the A,, are the constants of superposition,)@t is the stream fiindion d u e on
the boundary, Re denotes the real part of a cornplex expression, and the constants An
correspond to eigendues of the appropriate boundary d u e problem for fn(B). The
details of such derivation is given by Shen & Floryan (1985) and here we present the
final form of expression for the functions fn(B)
The first two values of An aie A1 = 1.5444837, A2 = 1.9085292. The expression for
vorticity is obtained from (B.5)in the form of
(B. 10)
To provide suaicient accuracy compatible with the numerid scheme only a finite
number of tenns in the summation (B.7)knd (B.9) need be retained. In this analysis
the first two terms a e retained which represent the symmetric and antisymmetric
parte of the flow around 8 = 0.
The a n d y t i d solution of vorticity is written as
where constants Al and A2 are deternilned fIom matching with the solution away
from the corner. The application of the above equation into the numerid procedure
is explained with the help of Fig. 7.2. The CD value is singuias and it renders the
finitedifference approximations (4.26) and (4.36) invalid at points 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7.
The values of vorticity at these points are, therefore, evaluated from (B. 11) convert
h g points 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7 into boundiuy points for the vorticity field. Various
matching methods can be strmmarized as foUowe:
Method A: Determine Al and A2 from the known vorticity value at points 9 and 10
(the values of ('a and Clo have to be updated sequentidy during the iteration process).
It should be mentioned that due to application of a specific stencil in dculation of
vorticity in boundary formula (see figure 7.2) the mat ching haa to be applied at points
9 and 10. The following formulations are &ed out in the p h y s i d plane where a
carteaian grid with diffesent mesh length in the x and y directions is used (see figure
7.2). From figure 7.2, the cartesian grid points 9 and 10 have polar coordinates
(PQ,3s/4), (rio, 3~14).Therefore, the constants Ai and Al are determined as
Al =
+ A2 2
<gr10 ) (B. 12)
4@1  1)  ~ ( 3 r / 4 h ) cos(3/47r(X1  2)) (r,4  2 rlo
Al2 + ,J;2
rgAl 2 )'
A2 =
or;'^ + (B.13)
4(A2  1) sin(3n/4X2)sh(3/4r(A2  2)) (r,As2 rlo
A l 2 + ,J;2
rsAl2
where r g = 2 h, and rio = 2 h, axe the distances of points 9 and 10 from the corner.
The expression for the stream function has the form of
(B. 14)
Substituting (B.12) and (B.13) into (B.14) ,we get
which provides the numerical values of nodal stream function at points 2 and 3.
The velocities u(z, y) and u(x, y) in the x and y directions are related to i> by the
relations
(B.17)
Subetituting (B.15) into (B.16)(B.17), we have
A22
u = i(rQ Cio+r:~2~Q)rA11
(8in(A2û)sin(3/4(X2  2 ) ~ 
) sin((X2  2)e) sin(3/4A2n)(X2 2))
[(A,  1) sin(3/4A2n)sin(3/4(X2  2)n) (r,A22 A l 2
rlo + ,.$2
rsAi2 )]l 9
(B.19)
where the indices are explained before. The above formulas are utilimd to provide
the numerid d u e s of the componenta of the velocity in the x and y directions. The
above procedure bypasses the stream function and velocity caldations at points 2
and 3 from the numerical algorithm.
Method B: To resolve the difEdties associated with singularity treatment, an
expression is constnicted in such a way that corner vorticity is approximated using the
higher derivatives of vorticity at the immediate point away fiom the corner (r = 0).
We note that in Eq. (B.ll) the vorticity is dominated by the term
for small r . This indicates that the vorticity grows without limit ks the corner is
approached. The constant Al can be dculated fiom the stream function expansion
(B.14)and nodal stream function values at points 2 and 3 in the neighbourhood of
the corner. The stream function 1/>1 and ?,b3 are written as
which shows the value of vorticity approaches to infinity as r + O near the corner.
The exprasion for the fictitious value of vorticity at the corner is derived with the
help of the central finitedifference approximation of written at point 3. Such
approximation then needs the estirnates of the vorticity derivatives that should take
account of the corner singulasity. The following formula is utilized in the form of
The above approximation haa no mathematical justification since the vorticity at the
corner r = O is not defined. Eq. (B.27)can be reazraaged in the form of
(B.28)
Higher derivatives of vorticity are derived using Eq. (B .26)
Compact FiniteDifference
Schemes on Uniform and
NonUniform Meshes
where k denotes the order of accuracy of the approximation. The relations between
the coefficients ai, bà,ci,4, e,li, m i , ni, pi, qi, r i , and si are derived by expanding the
function and its first derivative in terms of the Taylor series and equating coefkients
of like powers of h in (C.1). The first unrnatched coefficient determines the fonnal
truncation error of the approximation (C. 1). These relations aie:
Lele (1992) has presented the above system of equations for uniform mesh (hi = h). In
the discuseion below at least the first four of the constraints (C.2)(C.5) are imposed.
Thus ail the schemes desaibed have at lead a thirdorder forma acctnacy. In the
present section we proceed in the traditional way to daasûy the differencing schemes
generated by (C.l)in tenns of the formal truncation error and the computational
stencil required. If the schemes aze restricted to ai = e; = O a variety of tridiagonal
schemes are obtained. For ai & ei# O pentadiagonal schemes are generated. In the
present study only tridiagonal schemes are described. These are generated by ai =
ei = O. If further choices Li = mi = r; = si = O are made, a twoparameter f d y of
thirdorder tridiagonal schemes is obtained aolving (C.2)(C. 5). For t hese schernes
(C.14)
(C.15)
The above formulas are derived by Adam (1975). By choosing 7i = 7i1 = 1 the
famous fourthorder Padé scheme is recovered.
(C.16)
With a; = = li = si = O a tweparameter family of fifthorder tridiagonal schemes
is obtained aa:
and the truncation error is given by
For mi = O a oneparameter family of f%horder scheme is found to be:
(C.19)
and the truncation error is
ri = riL 2
7i
2
Ci (ri f 7à+l ) /(Tb2 2
(71 + 12)
For a uniform mesh the famouz fourthorder tridiagonal Padé scheme is recovered.
coupled to the relations (Cl) applied for the interior nodes. This relation dows us
to use the boundary s h e with a tridiagonal interior scheme without increasing the
bandwidth. The relations between the coefficients ai, Pi, ai, bi, ci, and di are derived
as:
120
(C.55)
The relations between the coeflicients a;,Pi, a;,b;, î,di, and e i may be found by the
method explained before. These relations are:
a = Aw.
The complex velocity at a point in the physical plane is given by
In the above fonnula R is a complex constant and is determined using the masa flow
condition (2.6),
where
k=
In the above relation the bar denotes complex conjugate and A = 1 (Eq. (D.1)).
Along the centerline v = O and the above expression is simplified to
Figure D.1: Mapping of the inlet region of a Channel into a straight channel.
The application of the Bernoulli equation written between two points along the
centerline, gives
where subscript O denotes condition at a point located far away from the channel
entry ( x t  0 0 ) and p ( x ) , u ( x ) are the pressure a d velocity a t an arbitrary point
along along the axis of the channe1 (y = 0).
Taking the limit of (D.5)and (D.8)for large w , it can be shown that
The above expression indicates that at large w, the velocity approaches the velocity
obtained fiom a sink.
Appendix E
The strearn function tl, for a sink corresponding the geometry shown in Fig. 3.1
satisfies the Laplace's equation expressed in polar coordinates as
Substitution of the product $ = R(r)H(O) into the above equation yields the following
conditions on R and H:
(E.10)
and fiom (E.3), we obtain
(E.
12)
(E.14)
The above equation is subject to boundary conditions
(E.16)
(E. 17)
(E.18)
X = Ik. (E.21)
In the present study, X < O is of physical interest because disturbances corresponding
these eigenvalues decay as r + W. We note that X = 1 and X = 2 correspond to
the first antisymmetric and symmetric modes respectively. The disturbance of sink
flow mrresponding the first antisymmetric mode is obtained as
where
+
Note that (F.3)a (F.4)b gives the original equation (F.1).
One method of obtaining the required discretization is to use the fourthorder for
mula developed for secondorder, ordinaq differential equations by Demis & Hudson
(1989). Its application in case of Eqs. (F.3) aad (F.4) results in
(F. 10)
(F.11)
where h denotes grid size (the same in both directions) and
Function r' is eliminated by substituting (F.9) into (F.6)and (F.6)into (F.16). Sim
ilarly, function r" is elimiaated by substituting (F.8)into (F.7) and (F.7) into (F.17).
A l l derivatives of @ appeoring in the resulting formulas for Ca,Co'axe discretized
using h2accurate centraldifference expressions (cp. (AllA14) in Demis & Hudson
(1989)). Findy, (F.1O)a + (F.11)b leads, &er rearranging tenns and simplifications,
to the desired fourthorder discretization of (F.1)) described by (4.26)(4.29).
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