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Channel Entrance Flow

by

Rem M. Sadri

Graduate program in Engineering Science


Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Submitted in partial fdfilment


of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy

hculty of Graduate Studies


The University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
Septernber 1997

@ &a M. Sadri 1997


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Abstract
The charader of the flow in the i d e t region of a straight channel is investigated
nurnerically using the complete set of governing equations. The diaiculties associ-
ated with choosing the proper upstream boundary conditions at the entrmce zone
are resolved using the far-field asymptotic solution. The flow fields upstream and
d o w n s t r m of the chamel inlet are determined simultaneously using a compact 4 t h
order finitedifference algorithm. Coordinate transformations aze employed in di&-
ent regions of the domain to enhance the accuracy of the results in the vicinity of the
inlet and to Save some computationd time. Uncertainty aasociated with the corner
singularity is avoided by incorporating the appropriate a n a l y t i d solution around the
corner and matching it with a numerical solution away from the corner. ILesults aie
obtained for Reynolds numbers O < Re < 2200 with accuracy no worse than 0.1% at
the largest value of Re.
It is found that the effect of upstream fiow processes on the behaviour of the flow
in the interior of the Channel becomes more important at low Reynolds numbers.
The streamwise velocity component has a non-monotonie distribution in the entrmce
zone, with its maximumoccurring off the center line. The velocity of the inviscid core,
which is lower than the maximum velocity, inaeases in the streamwise direction, until
a M y developed flow is obtained. The flow separation phenomenon in the entrance
zone is observed and is described in detail. An entrance pressure &op is produced at
the inlet cross section of the cha.nnel. The location of the maximum local pressure drop
moves downstream of the chaanel entry with increasing Reynolds number. Entrance
loss cofficient is determined for O < Re < 2200.
The spatial evolution of the difference between the actual flow and the M y de-
veloped flow solution in the region far downstream of the channd entry is studied
in detail. The exponential spatial decrease of this difference in the inlet region of a
channel is verified using the available numerical data obtained in solving the prob-
lem of channe1 entrasce flow. This analysis led to an appropriately defined entrance
length.
To obtain the proper location of the inflow boundary conditions, the spatial evolu-
tion of the small stationary perturbations of the JefFery-Hamel flow in the upstream
...
ll1
region of the channel entry is investigated. The theoretid rate of the decay of
disturbances in the upstream region is determined solving an eigendue problem.
The results, which were confirmed using the a d a b l e numerical data, show that the
Jeffery-Hamel flow provides sufEciently good approximation at a distame r = 10
upstream of the channe1 entraam. This distance increases for a decreaaing Re, and
for an asymmetric entry. For Re > 50, the Jeffery-Hamel flow can be replaced by
potentid sink solution without loss of accuracy.

Keywords: fluid mechanics, computationd fluid dynaxnics, Jdery-Hmel flow,Poiseuille


flow.
To the memory of my father Houshang,
to my mother Nezhat,
and to my brother Amir
Acknowledgements
1 would like to express my gratitude to Dr. J. M. Floryan for his miitfid advice,
guidasce and continued interest over the Yeats of this study. 1have enjoyed working
with him and benefitted from his encouragement and deep knowledge in the area of
fluid mechanics.
1would also like to express my appreciôtion to Drs R. Martinuzzi, T. E. Base, R.
Corless and D. W. Zingg members of the examining board for reviewing this work.
1would like to thank Drs J. Rokidci and J. Szumbarski for many creative discus-
sions on the subject of this work.
This work would not be completed without the support of my family. Their
encouragement through the past several years are greatly appreciated.
Table of Contents

CERTIFICATE OF EXAMINATION ii

ABSTRACT iii

DEDICATION v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

LIST OF TABLES x

LIST OF FIGURES xii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 2 ProbIem Formulation 10


2.1 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 3 Jeffery-Hamel Flow 13
3.1 Formulation . .......... ........ . .. ... ..... .. 13

Chapter 4 Numerical Algorit hm 16


4.1 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ... ...... 16
4.1.1 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . ...... .. .. .. .... 18
4.2 Discretization of the Field Equations . ........... .... .. 21
4.3 Discretized Boundôry Formula for Vorticity on Solid W d s ...... 23

vii
4.4 Evaluation of Pressure Field Along the CenterIine ........... 27

Chapter 5 Numerical Solution of the Jeffery-Hamel Flow 30


5.1 F o n d a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 31
5.2 Numerical Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 31

Chapter 6 Grid Selection 37


6.1 Grid Generation Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.2 Transformation functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6.3 Transformations in the y-direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.4 Trassformations in the x-direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.5 Final Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Chapter 7 Numerical Treat ment of the Corner Singularity 58


7.1 Problem Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 59
7.2 Corner Singularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 60
7.3 Numerical Solution with Analytical Description of the Singulazity .. 60

Chapter 8 Description of Flow Field 70

Chapter 9 Pressure Distribution in the Channel 88


9.1 Pressure Field Along the Centerline . .................. 89
9.2 Evaluation of Entrance Pressure Loss ................. 91

Chapter 10 Analysis of Entrance Lengt h 99


10.1 Mathematical Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 100
10.2 Numerical Method to Solve the Eigenvalue Problem . . . . . . .... 102
10.3 Numerical Solution of the Eigenvdue Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.4 Cornparisons with Numerical Data . . . . . . ............. 112
10.5 Entrance Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. 119

Chapter 11 Flow Behaviour at Far Distances Upstream of the Channel Entryl26


11.1 Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
11.2 Numerical Solution of the Eigendue Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
11.3 Cornparison with Numerical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
...
Vlll
Chapter 12 Conclusions and Recommendat ions 143
12.1 Condusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... .... 143
12.2 Recommendations for Future Work . . . . ..... ...... .... 146

Appendix A Analyt i d Solution of Jeffery-Hamel Flow 147

Appendix B Local Analytical Solution of Flow Equations around a Corner152

Appendix C Compact Finite-DifEerence Schemes on Uniform and Non-


Uniform Meshes 158
C. 1 Compaet Schemes for First Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
C.2 Compact Schemes for Second Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
C.3 Compact schemes for Boundary Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
C.3.1 Boundary Relation for the First Derivativs . . . . . . . . . . . 184
C.3.2 Boundary Relation for the Second derivotive . . . . . . . . . . 186

Appendix D Potential Flow in t h e Entrance Region of a Channel 193

Appendix E Small Modifications of Sink Flow

Appendix F Details of Derivation of the Numerical Algorithm

Chapter References

VITA
List of Tables

6.1 Numerical values of t,b and truncation error in Eqs . (6.6) obtained
using transformation function (6.3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Numerical values of & j q 0 and truncation error in Eqs. (6.7) obtained
using transformation function (6.3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Numerical values of Truncation error in Eqs . (6.9) obtained using
trassformation function (6.3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Numerical d u e s of 1,6sqo and truncation error in Eqs . (6.6) obtained
using transformation function (6.10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Numerid values of and truncation error in Eqs . (6.7) obtained
using transformation function (6.10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6 Numerical values of rlsrpand t m c a t i o n error in Eqs. (6.9) obtained
using transformation function (6.10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 Numerical values of t,b sqo and truncation error in Eq . (6.6) obtained
using transformation function (6.15). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8 Numerid values of $6q0 and tnuication error in Eq . (6.7) obtained
using transfomation function (6.15). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9 Numerical values of &qO and truncation error in Eq . (6.9) obtained
using transformation function (6.15). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.10 Grid distribution in y direction using transformation functions intro-
duced in Eqs. (6.18) and (6.19) for é = 1.75, and E = .5. . . . . . . .

7.1 Length of sepmation zone at different step size for (Re = 1000). . ..
7.2 Numerid values of vorticity dong y = -1 for Re = 1000. . . . . ..
7.3 Numerical values of vorticity dong x = O for Re = 1000. . . . . . ..
9.1 Values of kinetic energy at different Reynolds number. . . . . . . . .
9.2 Values of inaemental pressure drop K(oo) reported in the fiterature,
5 < Re < 1700. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 Values of incrementd pressure drop K(oo) reported in the literature,
1800 < Re < 3750. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.1 Eigenvalues of the first cornplex odd mode of Poiseuille flow, Re(X) >
0,OiRe5350. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Rea eigenvalues of the fust and second odd modes of Poiseuille flow,
13 5 Re 5 2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Cornparisons between the numericd and theoretical cdculation of a,
5 5 Re 5 2200. The values of A for Re < 40 are not given because of
limitations of the numerical results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4 Entrance length, Xe, O < Re < 1300, based on criteria (i) and (iv). . .
10.5 Entrance length, Xe, 1400 < Re < 2200, based on aiteria (i) and (iv).
10.6 The behaviour of normalized entraace length k, at high Reynolds
number (criterion i). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.1 Eigenvalues of the first symmetric mode of Jeffery-Hamel flow, %(A) <
O,OsRe<8.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 Eigenvalues of the fist symmetric mode of JefTery-Hamel flow, Re(X) <
0 , 8 . 4 < Re 5 oo. ............ ............ ... . .
11.3 Eigenvalues of the first antisymmetric mode of Jeffery-Hamel flow,
Re(X) < O, O 5 Re _< m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Figures

2.1 Flow pattern in a sharpedged entrace. ................


3.1 Sketch of the Jdery-Hamel flow geometry applicable to the present
study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1 P h y s i d domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Computational domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Sketch of a t y p i d computational molecule in the interior of the solu-
tion domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Sketch of a typical computational molecule on a b o u n d q of the solu-
tion domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Sketch of a t y p i d computational molecule on a v e r t i d wall . . . . .
4.6 Sketch of a t y p i d computational molecule used for evaluation of the
derivotives of u in Eq. (4.42) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.1 Flow in a. channel (physical domain). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


6.2 Computationd domrÿn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Location of transformation functions for the test problem in the y-
direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Location of transformations for x 5 O near the channel entrance. . . .
6.5 Location of transformations in the physical plane . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.1 Sketch of the flow domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


7.2 Grid points around a corner in the p h y s i d plme. . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Streamlines for (Re = O), -- Method A, -Method B . . . . . . . . .
7.4 Streamlines for (Re = 1000), -- Method A, -Method B . . . . . . . .
7.5 Distribution of vorticity (Re = O. y = -1). . .Method A. -Method B . 63
7.6 Distribution of vorticity (Re = 0. x = 0). . . Method A. -Method B .
7.7 Velocity profile at the inlet cross section. (Re = 0. x = 0). - - Method
A. -Method B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8 Distribution of vorticity (Re = 1000. y = -1). -- Method A. -
Method B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9 Distribution of vortiuty (Re = 1000. x = O). -- Method A. -Method
B. .....................................
7.10 Velocity profile at the inlet cross section (Re = 1000. x = 0). --
Method A. -Method B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11 Distribution of vorticity (Re = 1000. y = -1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.12 Distribution of vorticity (Re = 1000. x = 0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.1 Flow pattern in the lower half channel. O < Re < 80 . . . . . . . . . .


8.2 Flow pattern in the lower half channel. 100 < Re < 400 . . . . . . . .
8.3 Flow pattern in the lower half chasnel. 500 < Re < 900. . . . . . . .
8.4 Flow pattern in thelower halfchamel. 1000 < Re < 1300. . . . . . .
8.5 Flow pattem in the lower half chamel. 1400 < Re < 2200. . . . . . .
8.6 Length of sepacation zone as a function of Reynolds number . . . . . .
8.7 Thickness of vena contracta as a function of Reynolds number . . . . .
8.8 Streamwise velocity profile across the channel. Re =O. 10. 20 . . . . . .
8.9 Streamwise velocity profile across the chasnel. Re = 30.40 . . . . . . .
8.10 Streamwise velocity profile across the channel . Re = 50.60 . . . . . . .
8.11 Streamwise velocity profile across the chamel. Re = 90.100 . . . . . .
8.12 Streamwise velocity profile across the channel. Re = 150.200.300 . . .
8.13 Streamwise velocity profile across the chasnel. Re = 400.500,600 . . .
8.14 Streamwise velocity profile across the channel. Re = 700.800.900 . . .
8.15 Streamwise velocity profle across the channel. Re = 1000~1100.1200.
8.16 Streamwise velocity profile across the chamel. Re = 1300~1400.1500.
8.17 Streamwise velocity profile through the channel. Re = 2000.2200 . . .

9.1 Pressure distribution dong the centerline. a) 0.001 < Re 5 100. b)


<
200 Re 5 2200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........
9.2 Nonnalized pressure gradient ( ~ e gdistribution
) dong the centerline. 91
9.3 Control volume around the entrace region of a channel. . . . . . . . 92
9.4 Pressure drop along the centerline of the channel, Re=2200. . . . . . 93
9.5 Distribution of loss codcient along the chamel, a) 10 5 Re 100, b)
<
100 Re 5 500, c) 500 5 Re 5 2200. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
9.6 Loss u>&cint (k(m))and incrementd pressure drop (K(m)) as a
function of Re. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

10.1 Eigenvalues of the first cornplex odd mode of plane Poiseuille flow, Irn(cr). 107
10.2 Eigenvalues of plane Poiseuille flow, Re(a) > 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
10.3 Eigenfunctions û(y) of the first odd mode of Poiseuille flow, O < Re <
2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.4 Eigenfunctions S(y ) of the first odd mode of plane Poiseuille %ow,O <
Re<2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.5 Eigenfunctions $(y) of the fist odd mode of plane Poiseuille flow, 5 <
R e < 8 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
10.6 EigMfunctions $(Y) of the first odd mode of plane Poiseuille flow, O <
Re<2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
10.7 Exponentid decay of the stationary perturbation of Poiseuille flow, a)
15 5 Re 5 100, b ) 100 5 Re 5 500, c) 500 5 Re 5 2200. . . . . . . . 116
10.8 Evaluation of the exponential decay of the stationary perturbation of
Poiseuilleflow based on velocityat the centerline, Re = 500,1000. . . 117
10.9 The flow behaviour in the entrance region of a channel at low Reynolds
number,(-) h = a, 1
(--) h = 80.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10.10Exponential decay of the stationary perturbation of Poiseuille flow at
low Reynolds number, a) R e = 5, b) R e = 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
10.11Entra.nce length as a function of Re, a) O 5 Re 5 80, b ) O 5 Re 5 2200.121
10.12Constant A, as afunctionof Re. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

11.1 Eigenvalues of the first symmetric and antisymmetric modes of J d e r y -


R d flow, Re@) < O, O 5 Re < m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
11.2 Eigenfunctions &(O) of the fbst symmetric mode of Jefkry-Ham4 flow. 133
11.3 Eigenfunctions û(B) of the first sy-etric mode of Jeffery-Rame1 flow. 134

xiv
11.4 Eigenfunctiona $(O) of the first aymmetric mode of J e f k r y - H d flow. 135
11.5 Decay of the stationary perturbation of Jdery-Hamel flow, Re=5, 100. 138
11.6 Demy of the stationary perturbation of J e f F e r y - H d flow, Re=500,
1000.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
11.7 Decay of the stationary perturbation of Jdery-Hamel flow,Re=1500,
2200.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
11.8 Distribution of normalized pressure gradient ( ~ e g dong) the center-
line in the upstream region of the channe1 entry, Re=5, 2200. . . . . . 141
11.9 Radial velocity profile obtained from Jeffery-Harnel %ow, O < R e < 2200.142

D.1 Mapping of the inlet region of a Channel into a straight Channel. . . . 195
Chapter 1

Introduction

The understanding of the hydrodynamic developrnent of laminar flow in the entrance


region of a channel poses a great challenge in fluid mechanics. The intrinsic practical
importance of the entry flow problem together with the desire to comprehend the
fundamental character of flow aasociated with thia geometry, have been the motivation
behind many investigations extending over theoretical, numerical and experimental
methods. However, this clasaicd problem in fluid mechanics remains unsolved since
the pioneering experiment of Reynolds.
As an incompressible viscous fluid flows through a channel, the velocity profile
undergoes a change from its initial entrasce form to the familiar parabolic Poiseuille
flow at an axial location far downstream from the entrance (commonly referred to as
the entrame length). This problem is cumbersome because of the la& of a rational
definition of the form of inflow conditions. If correct information regmding the st atus
of fiow at the entrance is required the d e c t s of inlet conditions need to be identified.
The situation azising in the entrame region is significant in many engineering a p
plications. The entrance conditions for pulsatile flow are important in understanding
blood flow out of the heart and in developing regions at brasches. A true knowledge
of the entrance length allows us to have a correct estimation of heat trassfer param-
eters in ducts of finite length. This information caa be used to enhance the thermal
performance of heat exchangers. The design of flow-intake devices relies on a d i a b l e
analysis of pressure loss in the inlet region of channds.
While the geometry is simple, the correct solution of the flow field requires simul-
taneous determination of the form of incoming flow as w d as the fiow in the interior
of the channel. To account for the effects of incoming flow on the hydrodynamic
flow development in the interior of the channel, one has to specify the appropriate
inlet conditions at a certain distance upstream from the entry. However, most of the
previous works on this subject are characterized by a very ad-hoc treatment of the
approadiing fiow. The earliest efforts in modeling the inlet condition were based on
the aasumption of uniform. p a r d e l flow at the entry. Such approach rnay be used to
sirnulate the situation following a wd-rounded entrante. With this assumption, the
flow development in the channel is completely decoupled from the flow field upstream
of the chamel. h realistic situations, however, the inlet velocity profile is affected
by the flow development in the upstream region. This feature strongly questions the
assumption of uniform flow at the inlet.
Later, to consider the effects of incoming flow, the upstrearn region wrts modeled
as an extension of the channel itself (i.e., same cross section) with condition of zero
shear stress at the boundary. This approach simulates the flow feature in an infinite
cascade of plates located in a uniform flow. Such a model presents a delicate test to
analyze the d e c t of the axid diffusion of vorticity on the velocity profle develop-
ment. Although the axial diffusion of vorticity is only effective in a small distance
upstream, it induces significant changes in the form of the velocity profile near the
inlet. However, this model does not indude the variation of flow cross section and
the converging streamlines which are frequently encountered just upstream of the
inlet. We may note here that at low Reynolds number the idluence of the upstream
flow processes on the velouty profile at the inlet and the subsequent hydrodynamic
development become more important. This is due to the fact that at low Reynolds
number the transport of vorticity in the upstream region affects the character of flow
in the neighbourhood of the entrance.
None of the methods explained so far can represent actual entry condition pre-
sented by any realistic flow through a channel. In the present study, the inflow
boundary conditions have been treated with an entirely different approach. The key
feature of the proposed model is to remove the arbitrary assumptions regarding the
flow conditions at the inlet of the channel, thus, providing a realistic representation
of the entrance flow characteristics. The inlet boundary conditions prescribed here
are baaed on Jeffery-Hamel flow. Jeffery-Hamel flows are a family of exact solutions
of the Navier-Stokes equations for steady two-dimensional flow of an incompressible
viscous fluid fiom a line source or sink at the intersection of two rigid planes. In the
current study, converging flow côused by a sink in a wedge of semi-angle 90 degrees
is of interest. At sufficiently far away from the entrance, the flow is at rest and the
pressure approaches the ambient pressure. On the basis of these conditions, we im-
pose the inlet boundasy conditions using J&q-Hamel solution. That is the fiow is
drawn towards the inlet because of the existence of a si& at the inlet cross section.
Because of nonlinearity of the inertia terms in the goveming equations, the exact
solution of the problem is not possible. Therefore, to determine the feature of flow in
the entrance region of a channel, a variety of approximate analytical and numerical
methods have been employed.
The general solutions presented in the published literature axe:

1. Integral Methods

Schiller (1922) obtained the first m a l y t i d solution for the hydrodynamic entry
length problem for parallel plates using the integral representation of the equations of
motion and continuity. He considered the cross section of the channe1 to be composed
of two regions; a parabolic boundary layer developing near the wall and an inviscid
fluid in the remaining central cross section. Schiller's integral solution on the basis
of a parabolic profile is strongly questionable since such a profile does not ensure
a t t a i m e n t of free-stream conditions at the edge of the boundary-layer (the second
and higher-order derivatives of the streamwise velocity should be zero). This method
provides good results at the entrance, but poor results downstream. Chen (1973)
assumed that the velocity profile consists of a uniform center core and a parabolic
profde in the boundary layer. He considered a uniform velocity profile at the inlet
cross section of a paallel-plate channel and studied the entrance length problem by
induding the axial molecular transport of momentum and the variation of pressure
across the flow. Naito (1975) employed the Karman-Pohlhausen integral method to
analyze the entrance flow. He considered a polynomid velocity profile of the fourth
degree in the boundary layer and solved the continuity and momentum equations.
Williamson (1969) presented an integral method following the approach of Campbell
& Slattery (1963), but with a different assumption for the velocity profile. His solu-
tion resulted in a more rapid flow development compared with Schlichting's (1934).

2. Series Expassions

Schlichting (1934) applied a perturbation method to solve the hydrodynamic en-


try length problem. He considered the entrance region to be divided into two regions.
Neax the entrance a boundary l a y e model is assumed and aa approximate solu-
tion is obtained in terms of perturbation of Blasius' boundary layer solution. Far
downstream of the inlet he wnstmcted another asymptotic expansion by perturbing
the final Poiseuille flow and patching with the fkst series at an intermediate loca-
tion. Collins & Schowalter (1962) modified the solution by considering more terrns in
Schlichting's upstream and downstream series velocity distribution. Th& results are
in good agreement with numerical solution of Bodoia & Osterle (1961). Van Dyke
(1970) reviewed the work and resolved a paradox evisting in Schlichting's work. Li
Schlichting's method, the flow at the cross section consisted of o boundary layer near
the w d s together with a central d o m potential core in which the velocity increasea
downstream to satisfy the continuity equation, but was assumed uniform with parallel
streamlines. Van Dyke showed that the displacement effect of the boundâry layers
changes the form of the potential core ao that the assumption of uaiform core neax
the inlet is not valid. He showed that Schlichting's entire analysis applies only to
conditions far downstream and matches with another expansion ( carried out by Van
Dyke) valid neaz the inlet. Van Dyke wnsidered two form of entry conditions, i)
uniform velocity at x + -00,ii) uniform velocity at x = O. The first condition is
also referred to the entry condition for "a -cade of plates in a uniform oncoming
stream" or simply as "infinite cascade". His results for Re = 112.5 were in excel-
lent agreement with n u m e r i d solutions of Wang & Longwell(1964), Gillis & Brandt
(1966) and Bodoia & Osterle (1961).
Wilson (1971) independently investigated the problem from a mathematical point
of view and complemented Van Dyke's work. He re-examined various inlet conditions,
including irrotationai entry at the inlet and concluded that the most satisfactory
model is that of unifonn flow into an infinite cascade of p a r d e l plates. Wilson also
reported that the earlier work was formally incorrect.
Kapilo et al. (1973) further extended the work of Van Dyke (1970) and Wilson
(1971). They examined the flow in a single channel placed in a uniform s t r e m
starting at x = O. To solve the problem, second-order boundary layer theory waa
employed. The solution provided more insight into the entry fiow problem. Some
new effects of second-order magnitude were discovered.
Li & Ludford (1980) re-examined the entry flow problem analytically to determine
whether the velocity overshoot found from numericd investigations is correct or not.
With the help of secondorder boundary layer theory, they confirmed the existence of
velocity overshoot for entry conditions of types uniform flow at the inlet and irrota-
tiond flow entry.
3. Linearization of the Inertia Terrns

In this method the non-linear tenns in the Navier-Stokes equations are linearized
and a solution for the velocity profile in the form of the Bessell's function is obtained.
Han (1960) employed Langhaar's (1942) linearization method to study the hydre
dynkmic entrance length problem for p a r d e l plates. Sparrow et al. (1964) solved
this problem using the stret ched axial coordinate linearization method. Theh r e
sults for axial development of the velocity and the incremental pressure drop are in
good agreement with the n u m e r i d results of Bodoia & Osterle (1961). Lundgren et
al. (1964) developed a method based on lineaiization of the equations of motion to
predict the incremental pressure drop resulted from the entrance efXects. The main
feôture of their method is the determination of entrance-region pressure efFects with-
out knowledge of the form of development of velocity profile in the entrance region.

4. Numerical Solution of the Governing Equations

Bodoia & Osterle (1961) solved the boundary layer type equotion numerically,
for flow between p a r d e l plates. They used a finite-difference method and obtained
the velocity profile and pressure drop throughout the channel. Wang & Longwell
(1964) were the first investigators to rigorously solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes
equations for the entry flow problem in a pardel-plate channel. These equations
were written in the form of stream function-vorticity formulation and the solution
was obtained for Re = 112.5 using a finite-difference iterative method. Two types of
inlet conditions were studied; i) irrotational flow at the entrance and ii) uniform flow
far upstream of the chagnel entry. Numericd results were presented for the velocity
distribution and pressure drop in the entrance region. W a n g & Longwell (1964)
reported the appearance of concavity in the velocity distribution across the chasnel
in the entrance region. The obtained results showed that the concavity of the velocity
profile corresponding to case (i) is bigger thas case (ii). Wang & Longwell's result
for velocity distribution agree well with Schlichting's at large distances downstream
of the charnel entry and are most different near the inlet. They conduded that the
boundary layer method could not provide the correct velocity distribution or pressure
gradients neaz the inlet. McDonald et al. (1972) dso obtained the numerical solution
of the entry flow problem for two inlet conditions of types, uniform and irrotational
entries. They ernployed a second-order accurate finite-diffaence method to solve the
stream function-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The obtained
numerical data for the evolution of centerhe velocity for d o m entry at Re = 112.5
were compared with those of Brandt & Gillis (1966). They also compared the results
for irrotational entry condition with Wang & Longwell's (1964). It was concluded that
the results of Brandt & GiKs are in excellent agreement with theirs, however, the
results of Wang & Longwell appear to be high. The evolution of centerline velocity
predicted by McDonald et al.'s for unifonn entry condition is higher than values
obtained by Van Dyke's (1970). McDonald et al. (1972) also reported the velocity
overshoots.
Brandt & Gillis (1966) analyzed numerically the fourth-order stream function
formulation, an approach which has been shown to be extrernely in&cient (Pearson
1965). They considered a uniform velocity profile at the inlet. Brandt & Gillis
provided the velocity profiles for Re = 0, 3.75, 15, 37.5, 75, 150, 375. The results
were compared with those of Schlichting and Bodoia & Osterle for Re + oo. The
agreement is shown to be better at large distances form the inlet. The velocity
overshoot was also reported in this work. The velocity profiles obtained in this work
is similar to those of Wang & Longwell (1964).
Morihara & Cheng (1973) obtained the numericd solution of the flow in the en-
trance region of a semi infinite parallel-plate chasuiel for O < Re < 1500 using the
method of quasi-linearization to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes equations
with uniform entry flow condition. The resultant lin- equations were then approx-
imated by finite-difference formulas. The results obtained for the centerline velocity
are in excellent agreement with those of Brandt & Gillis (1966) for x / R e > 0.15; for
s m d x, the agreement is within 2.5%. They also determined the entrance length
for Re = 0,0.75,15,150 and 1500. Cornpariaon of the inlet length obtained from
this work and Brandt & Gillis shows that the agreement is within one percent at
Reynolds number of 15 aad 150. Schlichting's results for entrance length at large
Reynolds number is lower than Morihara & Cheng's. Morihara & Cheng (1973)
noted the existence of an off-centered maximum in the velocity distribution across
the chânnel for all the h p o l d s numbers studied, however, the velocity overshoot
diminishes with increasing Reynolds number.
Narang & Krishnarnoorthy (1976) solved the problem of laminar flow development
in the entrance region of p a r d e l plates numeridy. They lineazized the inertia
tenns in the Navier-Stokes equations and considered a unifonn inlet velocity profile
as boundary condition. The results were obtained for Re ranging from 0.75 to 1500.
Narang & Krishnamoorthy determined the entrance length for the above range of
Reynolds number and found them being within 1.65 percent of those obtained by
Morihara & Cheng (l973), except for a diffaence of 8.1 percent at a Reynolds number
of 300. Rom the obtained results for the entrance length, they conduded that the
resdts based on boundary layer theory does not provide good approximations for
Re c 150.
Schmidt & Zeldin (1969) employed a finite-Merence method to solve the complete
set of governing equations (Stream function-vorticity formulation) for the hydrody-
namic entrame length problem in a pardel-plate channel. They considered the inlet
velocify profile to be uniforrn and the flow irrotationd at the entrance. They reported
the non-dimensional pressure distribution and cross-sectional a r a average ~ ( z for )
Re = 37.5, 187.5, and 3750.
Nguyen & Maclaine-Cross (1988) solved the developing laminar flow in the en-
trknce region of a cascade of pardel horizontal plates with a uniform velocity profile
at upstream x + -00. They obtained the incremental pressure drop number k(oo)
for 15 < Re < 750. Chen (1973) presented a correlation for the entrance length.
He also reported the agreement between the provided values of incremental pressure
drop with those of Bodoia's et al.
Fang & Saber (1987) applied a matching control volume finite-elexnent technique to
solve the entrance flow problem. Their method does not require the initial knowledge
of the entrance length. No data for streamwise velocity profile waa reported.
Ursin et al. (1973) considered the entrance flow problem in a cascade of channels
of finite length. They applied a finite-difference method to solve the governing equa-
tions nurnerically and obtained the solution for 10 < Re < 1000. They assumed a
uniform velocity profile at an infinite distance upstream from the channe1 entrance
and downstream fiom the exit. It was shown that at low Reynolds number and/or
for short channels, conditions downstream of the c h m e l exit would affect upstream
regions within the Channel and aho in the upstream reservoir.
Atkinson et al. (1969) employed a finiteelement method to solve the governing
equations related to the entry flow problem in a channel geometry at the limit Re + 0.
They considered inlet condition of a flat velocity profile at the entrance. Atkinson et
al. presented an equation that related entrance length to Re. The provided formula
is a linear combination of the creeping flow and the boundary layer solution. This
predicts a finite entry length under creeping flow condition.
Abarbanel et al. (1970) derived an analytical solution of flow in the entry region of
channel at Re = O under the condition of unifonn velocity profile at the inlet. Their
investigation showed that the velocity overshoots are a realistic part of the solution.
Chilukuri & Pletcher (1980) studied the entry flow problem in a chânnel using
the governing equations in which the streamwise diffusion terms are neglected in the
streamwise and transverse momentum equations . This reduced system of equations
are the so-cded parabolized Navier-Stokes equations as elliptic iduence is only par-
tially W n a t e d by neglecting the streamwise difision terms. The inlet condition
waa considered as uniform velocity profle at the entrance. They compared their r e
sults with the Navier-Stokes solutions reported by McDonald et al. (1972), Morihara
& Chang (1973) and Brandt k Gillis (1966) for Reynolds numbers ranging from .75
to 11250. The obtained results for streamwise velocity at the centerline at Reynolds
number of 15 and 112.5 is within 5 percent of the Navier-Stokes solution of Mori-
hara & Chang (1973). At Re = 0.75 their predictions are substantidy close to the
Navier-Stokes solution of Morihara et al. (1973) than to the boundary layer solution
of Bodoia & Osterle (1966). However, at higher Reynolds number their prediction
approaches the boundary Iayer solution. The streamwise pressure graidient is in qual-
itative agreement with the results of Morihara & Chang (1973). The Chilukuri &
Pletcher (1980) analysis does not provide accurate results at low Reynolds number
since the streamwise second-derivative of velocity in the goveming equations is n e
glected.
Sparrow & Anderson (1977) considered the developing laminar flow in a parallel-
plate channel, with the flow being drawn from a large upstream space. To consider the
d e c t s of upstream region in the hydrodynamic development of flow in the channel,
the inlet boundary condition was set up at a distance upstream of the c h a n d en-
trance. The goveming equations in the form of stream fuaction-vorticity formulation
was solved numerically for 0.375 < Re < 375 employing a finite-difference technique.
The results for evolution of the velocity profde and the streamwise distribution of
pressure dong the centerline were provided. They reported overshoot in the velocity
profile.

5. Experimental Studies

Experimental works in the literature are limited to the entrmce flow in ducts
with finite aspect ratios. However, results for high aspect ratios can be used as an
approximation for a t d y pardel-plate channel. Sparrow et al. (1967) performed
experiments to study the hydrodynamic development of laminar flow in the entrance
region of rectmgular ducts with aspect ratios of 5:l and 2:l. They found that the
flow development in the 5:l duct is more rapid than on the 2:l duct.
A comprehensive experimental investigation of laminar flow development in rect-
angulas ducts for the range of cross section aspect ratios fkom 1:l (square duct) to
51:l (near approximation to a pardel-plate channel) was performed by Beavers et
al. ( 1970). The Reynolds numbex rknged from 150 to 1125. The pressure field
associated with the hydrodynamic development of the flow was extensively studied
and information for kud pressure distribution and incremental pressure drop due to
flow development were provided.
Eckert & h i n e (1957) experimentally examined the entrance flow problem in a
rectangulax duct with aspect ratio 3:l and reported the M y developed values of the
incremental preasure drop.
h i n e & Wert (1958) compared the values of inaemental pressure &op K with
experimental data for a duct with cross section 3:l. They conduded that the experi-
mental d u e s of K are on the average 15 percent higher than the calculated value.
h the absence of an accurate malysis of channe1 entrance flow, the present study
is kirned at providing a correct description of the flow behaviour in the entrmce region
of a chagnel for a wide range of Reynolds number. Through intuitive understanding of
the difficdties aasociated with this problem and application of an accurate numerical
algorithm we have tried to r e v d more information regarding the character of this
flow. In particular, we have provided d u a b l e data for the hydrodynamic entry length
and the 103s codlicient. These results will be used as a benchmark for engineering
design.
Chapter 2

Problem Formulation

2.1 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions


Consider the flow in the inlet length of a long straight channel, Fig. 2.1, of width 2L,
with U being the maximum velocity at the exit , and v being the kinematic viscosity
of the fluid (ôsaumed constant). The flow in the channe1 is aasumed to be steady,
incompressible and twdimensional. We take (x,y) to be the coordinate system,
with x = O is located at the channel entry, and y = O lying dong the centerline of
the Channel. We introduce the velocity scde as U,the pressure scde as p U2, where
p is the density of fluid, and the length scale as L, so that the w d s are located at
y = hl.
The dimensionless governing equations me in the form of

where u and v are the dimensionless components of the velocity vector in the x and
y directions, respectively, and p is the dimensionless fluid pressure. The Reynolds
number is then defined to be Re = U L l v . At a large distance downstream fÎom the
inlet (x + +oo) the velocity profile approaches the Poiseuille flow distribution

a d the dimensionless pressure gradient approaches


flow
Poiseuille flow

Figure 2.1: Flow pattern in a sharp-edged entrance.

The mass flow rate in the channe1 can be easily obtained on the basis of the Poiseuille
flow at the exit

Upstream fiom the channel inlet (x -+ -m) the flow field approaches the f o m de-
scribed by the Jefkry-Hamel solution. Jeffery-Hamel flows are a family of exact
solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for steady two-dimensional flow of an incom-
pressible viscous fluid from a line source or sink at the intersection of the two rigid
planes.
Equations (2.1)- (2.3) are subject to the following b o u n d q conditions:

Poiseuille flow at x+m, -15~51. (2.9)

Conditions (2.7a-b) show the no-slip and nepenetration boundary conditions at the
w d s . The inflow boundary conditions (2.8) are defined based on the solution of
J&q-Hamel flow and are explkined in detail in Chapter 3. The outflow boundary
condition (Eq. (2.9)) is defined based on the Poiseuille flow (Eq.(2.4)).
The field equations (2.1)-(2.3) subject to boundary conditions (1.7)-(2.9) are
solved numerically. Because of interest in solutions for Reynolds numbers 0(103)
and because of high occuracy requirements, a fourth-order compact finite-difference
algorithm described in Chapter 4 ha3 been used.
Chapter 3

Jeffery-Hamel Flow

J e f f e r y - H d dows present the steady two-dimensional flow of viscous, incompress-


ible fluid within an infinite wedge driven by a line source or sink situated at the
intersection of two rigid planes. They are exactly desuibed by a similarity solution
of the Navier-Stokes equations. Jeffery-Hamel (JH hereafter) flows depend on two
dimensionless parameters: a,the semi-angle between the planes (by convention the
angle between the plmes is taken as 2 4 , and the Reynolds number Re. For this
seemingly simple problem, there is a rich structure of possible flow patterns, with
many possible solutions for each pair of values of a and Re, involving pure i d o w or
outflow, or flows with a combination of i d o w and outfiow. Since they were discov-
ered by Jeffery (1915) and Hamel (1916)) there have been many studies of JH flow,
namely, mathematical and numerical methods.
Although JH flows exist both for convergent and divergent channels, the available
published literature has mainly focused on studying these flows in divergent channels.
A recent review of these investigations have been given by Dennis et al. (1997).
In the present study, we are only concemed with studying the JH flow in a con-
vergent channe1 of s&-angle 90 degrees. This pazticular flow provides a naturd way
of prescribing the upstream boundary conditions for the problem of channel entrance
flow.

3.1 Formulation
Take plane polar coordinates (r,O) and corresponding radial and tangential velocity
components of the fluid as (u,, u e ) We consider a steady flow driven by the presence
of a sink of fluid volume at the point of intersection of two impermeable w d s with
equations O = ~ x / as 2 shown in Fig. 3.1. The dimenaionless goveming equations
Figure 3.1: Sketch of the Jeffery-Hamel flow geometry applicable to
the present study.

expressed in polar coordinates axe given as:


1 1 due
au,
-
dr
+ -u,+ --
r r ae
= 0,

where p is the pressure, and Re denotes the Reynolds number scaled as before. We
look for a solution such that the flow is purely radial (u' = 0) and as a consequace
of the masa conservation equation

where r is the distance from the origin and F(B) is a function. Substitution of this
expression for ur in the equations (3.2)-(3.3), we obtain
and elimination of the pressure then gives

where prime denotes differentiation respect to B. This equation is to be solved subject


to the neslip b o u n d q conditions

The net volume flux (Q) d r i v a into the channel from the sink a t the origin is
g i v a by

LI2 L12
ri2 ~ 1 3
Fdû.
= W d B=

Equation (3.7) can be rtxuraaged and integrated once to give

where c is the constant of integration.


Since the flow is assumed to be symmetric about 19 = O, only half of the sector
( - r / 2 , r / 2 ) need be considered. Then problem (3.10) and conditions (3.8), (3.9)
reduces to

The solution of Eqs. (3.11)-(3.13) corresponds to the type I I I i (pure symmetric


i d o w ) in Fraenkel's (1962) classification. A generd solution of these equations can be
obtained in tenns of elliptic functions. In the present study, the numerical solution of
(3.11)-(3.13) is obtained using the algorithm described in Chapter 5. The analytical
solution of these equations for Re = O and Re -+ m is described in Appendix A.
Chapter 4

Numerical Algorit hm

For purposes of numerid solution we express the governing equations in ternis of


streôm function and vorticity (stream furrction-vorticity formulation). We introduce
the dimensionless stream function 11 and the dimensionless vorticity C, in which the
velocities axe related to the str- function by

and the vorticity is defined by

The governing equations for viscous, incompressible, steady, and two-dimensional


flow are then

where Re denotes the Reynolds number. The two coupled elliptic equations (4.3),
(4.4), together with suitable b o u n d q conditions for the streasi fùnction $ and the
vorticity (', give a complete description of the velocity field for the pïoblem under
conaideration. The configuration of the problem is shown in Fig. 4.1. The flow is
assumed to be symmetric about the line y = O, so that only the lower half of the
channe1 flow need be considered. The coordinate axis used are also defined in the
figure where the flow is from left to right. In order to maintain sufficient accuracy in
the vicinity of the channe1 entry, where high gradients of the flow variables exist , and
Figure 4.1: P h y s i d domain.

Figure 4.2: Computational domain.

also to Save computational time, coordinate transformations are applied to map the
physical domain (x, y) into a computational domain (5,q). The procedure for selec-
tion of the mapping functions suitable for the present study is described in Chapter
6. The trknsformation functions ( = f (x, y),q = g(x, y) define the correspondence
between the reference d e s i a n system (s,y) in the physical domain to the mbitrary,
(e,
cwvilineas, orthogonal coordinate system q ) in the computational domain shown
in Fig. 4.2. W e assume that the functions f and g are sufficiently regular and known
explicitly together with th& derivatives. We dso assume the conditions of invert-
ibility of the mapping, i.e., (f, g, - f, h)# 0 , and orthogonality of the coordinates,
+
i.e., f, g, fy g,, = 0 , are satisfied. Both field equations (4.3), (4.4) expressed in this
cwilinear, orthogonal reference system tkke the generic form

aOa + b@, - QQe - 3@, = R,


where

and subscripts denote respective derivotives. To obtain the vorticity transport equa-
tion (4.3), one should substitute into (4.5)

To obtain the equation goveming the atream function ( 4 4 , the following substitution
is required.

The relations between the components of the velocity field in the physical and the
computational domain are defined as

4.1.1 Boundary Conditions


The main difficulty in solving the system of differentid equations (4.3) and (4.4) is the
specification of suitable boundary conditions. The naturd conditions for the stream
function 11 and its normal derivative 2 on the boundary r are :

where t denotes the ardength coordinate. In the above equations aU the necessary
derivatives of tct(t) and n2(t) exist and are known. The following awciliary boundary
conditions are also considered in the form of
where nl(t) is the same as in (4.12) while nJ(t) can be arbitrary.
The appropriate boundary conditions for the geometry shown in Fig. 4.1 are
formulated as

$, C known from JefTery-Hamel flow (see Chapter 3) at

It should be noted that in the above, x d + m, x , -+ -oo and yu -t -03. Eq.


(4.14) describes the symmetry condition dong the centerline. Far downstream from
the channel entry the boundary conditions are defined as either i) t(> and 6 ase known
from the Poiseuille flow distribution (Eq.(4.15a)) or ii) streamwise derivatives of the
s t r w function and the vorticity are zero (Eq.(4.15b)). Condition (4.15b) is used
for testing of numerical accuracy. The boundary conditions of impermeability asd
of neslip me applied at the solid w d s (Eqa. ( 4 . 6 ) ( . 7 ) j . The far-field boundary
conditions upstream fiom the chasne1 entry for the stream function asd the vorticity
are determined using the JefFery-Hamel flow (Eq. (4.18)).
The form of the boundary conditions (4.14)-(4.18) in the computationd pime are

, known from Jeffery-Hmei flow (see Chapter 3) at


It should be noted that in the above b + oo, 6 + -w and qd -t -00. The
application of these boundary conditions presents a problem. To start the numerical
calculation the size of the computationd domain must be finite and thus explicit
values of b,&, and vu must be selected. The d u e s of these quantities are then
corrected iteratively based on satisfying a certain criterion at distances far away
upstream and downstream of the channe1 eatry. The choice of this criterion is not
unique. In the present study, the behaviour of u aad 3 along the centerline were
carefully investigated and it was found that the latter one to be more sensitive. We
chose therefore the asymptotic value of the pressure gradient aa OUI criterion.
We set up the locations of the inflow and the outflow boundary conditions 6, &,,and
vu where the pressure gradient approaches 99% of the asymptotic value. We note
that fulfilment of this condition guaranteed f i d f h e n t of a similar condition for u,
while the opposite was not true.
For numerical purposes we decouple the stream function and the vorticity tram-
port equations by expressing (4.21)-(4.22) in the form of the Dirichlet boundary
conditions

) ) the vorticity distribution along CD and DE


In the above formulas n&) and ~ ~ ( 1 are
(see figure 4.2) and determined iterativdy so that the boundary conditions (4.21)-
(4.22) are also satisfied.
The main steps in the solution algorithm (regudless of the discretization method
and the type of coordinates) are listed as below:

1. kiitialize the vorticity field C in the flow region R and at the boundary I'.
2. Solve equations (4.5),(4.9) for the stream function with the Dirichlet boundary
condition in (4.12).

3. Calculate first derivatives of the stream function (i.e. velocity) to update the
co&cients @ and d of (4.7).

4. Correct the boundary value of vorticity n&) to sati* the Neumann boundary
condition in (4.12).

5. Solve the PDE for vorticity (4.5), (4.8) with the Dirichlet boundary conditions
(4.13) determined in step 4.
Figure 4.3: Sketch of a typical computational molecule in the interior
of the solution domain.

6. Check for the anvergence of vorticity C and stream fundion. ) t If there is no


convergence proceed to step 2.

Only a few iterations of the discretized vorticity and stream function equations have
to be carried out at eadi step of the extemal iteration procedure described above. In
practical computations, dXerent underrelaxation parameters for the stream function
y5, for the vorticity C, for the derivatives of $, and for the boundary value of vorticity
are applied. Two latter parameters have the biggest stabilizing influence on the
convergence properties of the it eration procedure at high Reynolds nurnbers.

4.2 Discretkation of the Field Equations


We restrict our analysis to the computationd plane as sketched in Fig. 4.2. A uniform
grid of constant step sise h in the and r] directions is chosen. Locations of the grid
points are defmed as

[(z-l)h,(j-l)h], i=l, ..., Ne,


= l . . . , , h = l/(N- l),

where Ne and N, denote the number of grid points in the 6 and r) direction respec-
tively. In the above formula N is the number of grid points a,cross the channel. To
solve the goveming equations numerically, we use the fourth-order compact finite-
difference discretization scheme developed by Rokicki & Floryan (1995) for an or-
thogonal, curvilinear coordinate system (details are given in the Appendix F). The
fourth-order discretization scheme for the generic equation (4.5) has a functional form
a3

-&@O +(dial + * * - +Bo = 0. (4.26)

The numeric subscripts in (4.26) refer to the points in the 9-point computationd
stencil shown in Fig. 4.3. The fkee term Bo in (4.26) is expressed as

Bo = -h2[8Ro +
~ ; a o (- + @o(l - soh/2) +
l qoh/2)
gao(1 + q o w ) +~ & (+l soh/2)]) (4.27)

where = R / a , RI' = Rlb, s = d l b , q = @ / a ,and the subscripts refer again to points


RI

shown in Fig. 4.3. The coacients di in (4.26) are expressed as

do = Dm + ~ O l h ~ ,
d113 = DIOF + a 2 h 2I a 3 h 3 / 2 ,
2 = Dzo T D d + D22h2 rt D23h3/2,
dsle = Dso + (Dsii Dsi2)h/2 f Ds2h2/4,
d ~ / s= Dso - ( D m &2)h/2 D52h2/4,

and the coeificients Doo,. . . ,Ds2 have the form


where b' = & / a , a' = a/b, s' = S/a, q' = @/b. The lower indices É and r ) denote
differentiation in the coaesponding directions knd subscript O on the right hand
side refers to the point O in Fig. 4.3. The specid cape of t$ = f (x) and q = g(y ) is
equident to generation of a non-uniform rectasgular grid in the originai flow domain
(x, y) with a uniform square grid in the computationd domain (c,v ) . All the Ecst and
the second derivatives of coefficients a, b, a', b', s, s', q, q', required in (4.29), can
be dculated using the usual second-order finitedifference formulas. However, the
coefficients &, . .. ,da have to be evaluated with the fourth-order accuracy. This means
that fourth-order formulas for the first derivative of the Stream function are required
to calculate q. and S. in (4.8). This accuracy can be obtained in the following way
by combination of the stream function and the vorticity data. The Taylor expansions
of the strearn function 11 in and rl directions give

where all derivatives are evaluated at point O (see Fig. 4.3). The third-order deriw-
tives of $ with respect to and r) axe d c u l a t e d by taking suitable derivatives of the
strearn function equation (4.5), (4.9), Le.,

where Q = -(f, + f,), S = -(g, + gw). In the above equations, all derivatives are
dculated with the aid of the standard second-order central finite-difference formulas
bksed on the nine-point computationd molecule shown in Fig. 4.3. The system of
linear equations resulting f ~ o m(4.26) can be solved iteratively by the usual Gauss-
Seidel relaxation procedure.

4.3 Discretized Boundary Formula for Vorticity on Solid WalIs


To implement the boundary conditions discussed before in the flow field equations,
boundary conditions of either type (4.21)-(4.22) or type (4.24)-(4.25) have to be
evaluated numerically. Conditions (4.24)-(4.25) result in a Dirichlet problem and
conditions (4.21)-(4.22) are the impermeability and n d i p boundazy conditions at
Figure 4.4: Sketch of a t y p i d computationd molenile on a bound-
ary of the solution domain.

the solid w d s . The numerical implementation of conditions (4.21)-(4.22) consists of


updating (4.24)-(4.25) iteratively, so that (4.21)-(4.22) axe satisfied.
To maintain the o v e r d accuracy of the scheme, we adopt the fourth-order accurate
boundary formula developed by Rokicki & Floryan (1995) for an arbitrary orthoge
na,curvilinear reference system. We begin by considering the case of a boundary
corresponding to a line q~ = const, with the computational domain located above
(A = 1) or below (A = -1) this Iine (as shown in Fig. 4.4 ). The vorticity C a n be
expressed in the coordinate system (6,I ) ) as

where a, b , & i are given by (4.7), with q. = S. I O. Equation (4.32) can be written
in the form of

where A = alb, Q = +/b, and S = -Zi/b. Consider a vicinity of a point on the


boundary (see Fig. 4.4). Using the Taylor expansion of the stream function (I, we
obtain

+
where all derivatives of respect to r) axe d c d a t e d at point O. Higher normal derin-
tives of the stream fimction are eliminated uaing a combination of and r) derivatives
of Z obtained from Eq. (4.33) (one has to c a l d a t e ZE,Z,,Zec, Zcq ,Z,, ,Zcc,, Z,,,,,,)
.
The derivatives of Z are approximated using suitable finitedifference formulas. In
particular Ze ,2, ,Zee,Zcv,2
, are approximated using the usual second-order finite-
difference formulas and Zvvq,ZCcvare approximated with the fmt-order formulas.
Two additional special formulas that me required to preserve the overd fourth-order
accuracy are the second-order formula for 2, and the first-order formula for Z,,,
i.e.,

In the above, the lower n u m e r i d subscripts denote points in the computationd


molecule shown in Fig. 4.4. After rearranging tenns one obtains an equation in the
form

where Zo+,Zo,20-, which are related to the vorticity at the boundary, are considered
unknown. The coefficients p are given by

All the parameters in the above equations me e d u a t e d at the point O. The free term
co&cients P., PA,PB,Pc are related to the stream function and its derivatives and
do not depend on Z or C. These co&cients are defined as
Figure 4.5: Sketch of a t y p i d computational molecule on a v e r t i d wd.

h the above formulas a l 6-derivatives of $ and t,b, are known from the b o u n d q
conditions (4.12). AU other derivatives of <It and of A, Q, S have to be evaluated using
standard finite-difference formulas. Theae formulas must be at hast second-order
accurate for PB and at least first-order accurate for Pc.The second and the third q-
derivatives of A, S, and Q in PB and Pc are evaluated using formulas analogous to
(4.35).
The fourth-order formulas analogous to (4.37), (4.38) valid for the parts of the
boundary corresponding to a fine E = const, with the computationd domain lolocated
at the right (A = 1) or left (A = -1) side of this fine can be obtained with the same
procedure. The co&cients p , P*,PA,PB, and Pc in Eq. (4.36) written for a point
along the vertical line (see Fig. 4.5) are given by
where Z = (lu, B = bla, Q = -glu, and S = -;/a.
Equation (4.36) written for each grid point dong the horizontal and vertical w d s
CD, DE shown in Fig. 4.2 (except corner) result in two systems of linear equations
with a tridiagond matrix of coefficients. These matrices remain diagondy dominant
if (i) 8/23 < alb < 2318 and (ii) the step size h is sufficiently s m d . This property
guarantees existence of the solution of this linear system. The numerical cost of
obtaining the solution of these systems of equations is negligibly s m d in compaziison
with the cost of a single iteration of the disuetized field equations.

4.4 Evduation of Pressure Field Along the Centerline


Having determined the velocity V = (u, v ) in the flow field, the corresponding pressure
field can be obtained using (2.2)-(2.3). In the present study, we are only concenied
with the pressure distribution dong the centerline.
The pressure gradient in the strearnwise direction is govemed by
Figure 4.6: Sketch of a t y p i d computational m o l e d e used for eval-
uation of the derivatives of u in Eq. (4.42) .

The above formula can be simplified dong the centerline using the symmetry condi-
tions

Substituting the above conditions into (4.41) written dong the centerline y = O, we
obtain

In the above formulait is convenient to evaluate the derivatives of u in the x and y


directions in the physical plane. The fbst and second derivatives of u respect to x are
approximated using second-order accurate finitedifference formula on non-uniform
mesh given by

and
d2u
-
as2
where u==d, uZsd denote the third and fourth derivatives of u respect to x at point O,
c is the domina& discretization error and indices are shown in Fig. 4.6. In Eqs. (4.43)-
(4.44), bol, ho& and hls are the grid sizes between points 0,1, 0,3, and 1,5. Because
of the assumption of symmetry along the centerline (4.14), $?jl is evaluated using
a second-order accurate finite-difference formda on unifonn mesh written as

where is the grid size between points O and 4, and the remaining notations are also
shown in Fig. 4.6. Use of (4.43)-(4.45) preserves the second-order accurate evaluation
of the pressure gradient glFo in the physical plane.
The pressure distribution along the centerline is obtained using

where po is the pressure fax upstream of the c h w d entry and p ( z ) is the local
pressure at a point located along the centerline. The above integration is carried out
using the second-order trapezoidal nile on a non-uniform mesh.
Chapter 5

Numerical Solution of the


Jeffery-Hamel Flow

To solve Eqs. (3.11)-(3.13) numerically, we develop a special dass of compact finite-


diffaence formulas to approximate the higher-order derivatives of the unknown func-
tion appearing in a differential equation. It is shown that use of a non-uniform grid
affects the accuracy of compact approximation of derivakives based on three points:
the approximation of the fist derivative has 0 ( h 4 )accuracy and the accuracy of the
approximation of the second d e r i ~ t i v edecreases to 0 ( h 3 ) (see Appendix C). To
preserve the fourth-order accuracy, one has to introduce additiond information into
the compact formulas. For example, one may consider compact formulas including
the function and its second-order derivative using four grid points. However, this
approach may affect the resolution of the numerical scheme in regions where high
gradient of flow variables exists. Here, we consider formulas that utilize a combina-
tion of the function and its higher-order derivatives at three grid points. Our basic
approach is to use the difkential equation as an additional relation which can be
differentiated to eliminate the higher-order derivatives. Inclusion of this information
in the numerical method increaaes the order of accuracy while retaining the compact
stencil defined by a grid point and its two immediate neighbours.
To be consistent with the accuracy of our numerical algorithm (see Chapter 4), we
construct a fourth-order accurate numerical method to solve (3.Il)-@. 13). Because
of the application of different tramformation functions in the upstream region of the
chamel entry, our algorithm is designed to use the non-uniform grid distribution in
the physid plane. This approach is found auccessfid since the necessity of using
interpolations to obtain the stream function and vorticity at the non-uniform grid
points located dong the inlet boundaries are avoided.
The derivation of the compact formulas proceeds similarly to the derivation of the
compact finite-ite-dience schemes desmibed in Appendix C and is briefly explained
here.

5.1 Formulation
Equation (3.11) is a non-linear o r d i n q differential equation and its n u m e r i d SC+
lution requires special attention. W e begin by linearizing this equation using the
Newton-Raphson hearization technique and writing

+~ ~ ~ + 4qj+l
~ j =+ l ~ (5. la)

and

where i denotes the mesh point of a grid defined on (O, r / 2 ) and j is the iteration
index. Substituting (5.lb) into (5.la), we obtain

F~'"+' + F?+' +
( 2R ~ F ~4J) = c + ~e ~ij'.

The above equation is subject to boundary conditions of the form

and mass flow condition

5.2 Numerical Method


W e consider a non-uniform mesh in the interval (0,7r/2). The location of grid points
aze given by

el, .. .,O;, ... ,O N , hi = Bi+l - Bi,


where N denotes the number of grid points in B direction and hi is the length of a
sub-interval (Bi, We assume hi's are of the same order of magnitude, so that we
can define a cornmon measure h and ratios
In Eq. (5.2), c, the function F:+' and its second-order derivative at each grid point
8; aie irnkriown. For the purpose of our study we need to e d u a t e F, F' and F" at
ea,ch grid point. Therefore, the total number of unknowns induding the boundary
points is 3N + 1. To dose this system, we introduce a set of implicit compact formula
containing a Iinear combination of the function F and its first, second and third-order
derivatives at three neighbouring points.
For example, one may m i t e a lin- combination of F , F' and F" at points
+
i - 1 , i , i 1 in the form of

and a linear combination of F, F', and F'" as


1 1
-(atFi+i
h3
+ a2Fi + d ' i - 1 )+ -(biF;+,
h2
+ b& + b3FLl)
+(dlc,fl + 4 F r + QF,Oi1)+ O ( h k )= O , (5.5)
where prime denotes differentiation respect to 8 and O(hk)is the discretization error
of the implicit equation. In the above equation, F'" is eliminated b y differentiating
Eq. (5.1a). We follow the procedure explained in Appendix C to obtain the unknown
c o & ~ i ~ taSl , . . . ,a3, bl, .. .,b3, c l , . . . ,~ 3d ,l , . . . ,d3.
A three-parameter family of solution of (5.4) with the fourth-order accurrtcy may
be derived as
with truncation error given by
7

In Eq. (5.6)) a2, b2 and c2 are free parameters and can be chosen arbitrarily. For a
d o r m mesh, the above truncation error reduces to

For the choice of a2 = 6c2, the truncation error (5.8) becornes zero. In the present
study, the grid distribution is set up in such a way that 7i and 7;-1 are O(1). There-
fore, (5.8) can be used as an approximation of the trurrcation error (5.7). To mimic
the tnincation error (5.8), the iinknown fiee parameters are selected os a2 = -48,
b2 = O and c2 = -8. Based on numerical expriment the above values are found
suitable. It is important to note that the choice of the above free pararnetres is not
unique aad one may d&e different values which results in a different behaviour of
the numerical algorithm.
A two-parameter family of solution of (5.5) with the fourth-order accuracy is
obtained as
where

C = 157i3 - 187i-17i + 77i7i-12 - 7;-1 3


2

The truncation error of the above solution is given by


In Eq. (5.9), b1 = 1 and dl = 0.
The system (5.2), (5.4)-(5.5) are closed with two additional fourth-order boundary
formulas of type

Eqs. (5.2), (5.4)-(5.5), (5.11)-(5.12) form a aystem of equations with a banded matrix
of co&cients. To solve this system, we consider a typical iterative procedure. The
calculation is started with an initial guess for F! and then updating this value until
the convergence criterion 1 F/+' - F/I< 1 x 10-'O is satisfied.
Having determined F, u, is obtained using (3.4). To impose the inlet boundary
conditions (4.18), the stream function t,b dong EF ( s e figure 4.1) is dculated by
writ ing

where v in polar coordinates expressed as

and

Substituting (5.14) into (5.13), we obtain


The above integration is carried out in the physical plane using a fourth-order trape-
zoidal d e with end correction. Evoluation of the streasi function dong A F proceeds
analogously.
To determine the vorticity C along EF and A F (see figure 4.1), we consider the
definition of vorticity given by

The partid derivatives in the above equation is e d u a t e d using

where

Substituting the above relations into the expression defining the vorticity and simpli-
fying, we get

c = - XF sin(9) -
+
y (F' sin(8) F cos(@))
+
(x2 y2)3/2 +
(LE2 y2)3/2
x (F'cos(@) - F si@))
yF COS(^) -
+ (52 +y2)3/2 +
(22 y2)3/2 1

where F and F' are evaluated from numerical solution.


Chapter 6

Grid Selection

The numerical algorithm described in Chapter 4 d o w s us to model the flow in do-


mains with complicated geometries, provided that a grid generation algorithm with
sufEcient occuracy is available. The task of selection of the most &&nt grid distri-
bution for a particular flow domain is crucial and has been given special consideration
in the present study. To control the computationd load, one is interested in using a
minimum number of grid points. However, this approach rnay affect the accuracy of
the numerical algorithm adversely.
In the next section, we first introduce the main ideas and address the important
issues that a i s e fkom selection of a particular grid generation strategy. We then
examine the behaviour and efFects of different grid distribution for a test problem. In
the find section, we present the formulation of the grid distribution for the problem
under investigation.

Grid Generation Strat egies


In problems where the local physical phenornena occur (e.g., boundary layers), gra-
dient of flow variables in one part of the domain may be larger than in the rest of
the domain. This behaviour rnay increase the magnitude of discretization error in
a certain part of the flow domain. To obtain a sufiüent accuracy, one may have
to resort to covering the entire flow field with a fine and uniform mesh. In this ap-
proach the tosk of grid generation is trivid a d a good resolution can be obtained.
However, the cost of associated computations may be significant. To overcome this
difficulty, the grid points can be redistributed (non-unifonn mesh) so that sdcient
accuracy is obtained in the entire flow field using a s m d e r number of grid points.
In this approach, the areaa where high gradient of flow variables exists axe covered
with a large number of grid points while in the rest of the domain the density of grid
points is considerably lower. The main advantage of this method is to Save computa-
tiond time while providing acceptable accuracy in the areaa of interest. However, use
of non-uniform mesh leads to very complicated discretization formulas when using
higher-order methods (see Appendix C). Another approach is to introduce properly
selected transformation functions. In this case one uses a uniform grid in the compu-
tational plane which corresponds to the desired non-unifonn grid distribution in the
physical plane. One has, however, to work with a more cornplex form of the governing
equations. This particular approach is followed in the present study.

6.2 Tkansformation functions


Because of the presence of high order derivatives of the transformation functions
in the expressions defining truncation error, the issue of selection of trassfonnation
functions in higher ôccuracy discretization sdiemes, such as the one used here, is
critid. The proper choice of the transformation is not a trivial issue and one has
to be carefd with the appearance of unrealistic results because of possible singular
behaviour of higher derivatives of transformation functions. By singulatity we mean
that the value of the discretization error becomes unbounded at some locations in
the domain. This indicates that the global behaviour of transformation functions and
their derivatives in the whole domain is an important factor in the accuracy of the
numerical scheme.
The introduction of transformation functions in the critical regions of the domain
(i.e., regions where high gradient of flow variables exist) is an &cient tool to preswe
the desired accuracy in the flow field. This approach results in a more uniform
discretization error distribution in the transfonned domain. However, in areas where
gradient of flow variables is low, application of a dense mesh is not required. Therefore,
in these regions we apply transformation functions to increase the mesh size (to reduce
the number of grid points) and consequently to Save some computational time.
We consider explicit forms of transformation functions in the x and y directions.
Under these transformations a structured mesh is produced where the number of grid
points and the shape of the mesh in the solution domain are fixed and do not change
during the solution process.
In this study an error andysis of the discretization scheme is presented. This
analysis enables us to have a better picture of the behaviour of the numerical scheme
used to solve a set of partial differentid equations. The method is based on the eval-
uation of the truncation error existing in the finite-difference approximations of the
fidd equations. Later we use the obtained results to Gnd a suitable form of trans-
formation functions which controh the value of discretization error in the numerical
scherne.

6.3 Transformations in the y-direction


In the problem under investigation ( s e figure 4.1) the existence of local physical ph*
nomenon and the semi-infinite size of the domain pose a great challenge for obtaining
highly accurate results with a reasonable amount of computational time.
In the region inside the channel close to its entrance and near the wall y = -1,
the gradient of flow variables is high. Therefote, to resolve the cornplex feature of
flow in this region, the application of a dense mesh in the neighbourhood of y =
-1 is required. Since near the centerline y = O, the gradient of flow miables is
relatively s m d , the possibility of using a grid distribution with a fairly large step
size is considered.
Because of a similar behaviour of flow in the region -2 5 y 5 -1 outside the
channe1 and dose to its entrance, we attempt to wver this region with the same type
<
of grid as the one used in -1 5 y O. This approoch was found useful since we also
preserve a symmetric grid distribution about y = -1.
To apply i d o w boundary conditions at large distances away from the Channel
entry y + -00, the region y < -2 is covered with a uniform mesh. Since the
gradient of flow variables in this region is low, we do not expect that the accuracy
of the numerical solution will be aifected. To obtain such grid distribution we use
a linear transformation function. Also, since it is known that the stream function
disturbances decay proportionally to r" where r is the distance from the Channel
entrance (see Chapter Il), the linear transformation results in a more uniform error
distribution in the transformed domain.
The application of a different form of transformations in the y-direction raises
the issue of matching transformations at locations where they overlap. This means
the location of the grid points in the inmediate neighbourhood of the border of two
transformations should be properly adjusted. Otherwise one needs to use interpola-
tion to obtain suitable d u e s of the flow variables at the line of mesh points where
the new kind of transformation is applied.
To show the d e c t s of application of the transformation functions and without
108s of generality, we consider the two dimensional fully developed flow in part of the
Figure 6.1: Flow in a Channel (physical domain).

channe1 dose to the entrante, O < x 5 1,-1 5 y 5 O as shown in Fig. 6.1. The
n d i p boundary conditions along the solid wall and symmetry conditions along the
centerline axe dso applied to close the system of governing equations (2.1)-(2.3). The
study of this simple flow domain d o w s us to focus purely on the hidden properties
of transformation functions which m a y d e c t the solution.
The exact solution of this problem is given by

and the stream function and the vorticity are derived as

The above solution is independent of Reynolds number. Since in the problem under
investigation the solution is only a function of y, we just consider an a r b i t r q cross
section of the Channel and study the &ect of transformation in y-direction.
To select a suitable grid structure in y-direction for the problem shown in Fig. 6.1,
we search for a simple transformation function which i) maps the region -1 5 y O
into the region -1 < q 5 0, and ii) provides a highly dense grid in the area near the
solid w d at the expense of lower grid density in the area around the axis. Because
of the presumed proper behaviour of the sine function, we consider the following
transformation function written in the fonn of
Figure 6.2: Computational domain.

where a is a fiee paxmeter which adjusts the size of the grid (Le., the nurnber of
grid points) in the immediate neighbourhood of the wall y = -1. The application
of the above transfomation produces a non-uniform rectangula grid in the original
flow domain (y) with a unifonn g i d in the computational domain (7).The above
transformation rnap the region -1 5 y 5 O into the region -1 5 r] 5 O as shown in
Fig. (6.2). The transformation function g(y) is designed to increase the mesh concen-
tration dose to the w d (y = -1). This fuaction is sufhiently r e g d a and satisfies
the conditions of invertibility of the mapping and orthogonality of the coordinates
explained in Chapter 4. While this function appears to have the required properties,
the question whether they are acceptable will only be answered by looking at the
discretization error.
Using the transformation functions (6.3)' the exact values of the stream function
and the vorticity in the computational domain are evaluated as

The above formulas d o w us to explicitly evaluate the higher derivatives appearing


in the discretization error of the numerical scheme.
At first we t u m our attention to the compact finite-difference approximation of
Table 6.1: Numerical values of &,fl and truncation error in Eqs.
(6.6) obtained using transformation function (6.3).

the first and second derivative of a function explained in Appendix C. We consider


a uniformly spaced mesh where the nodes are indexed as j. The locations of the
nodes are defined as Q and the values of the stream function at the nodes T/J = $( v ~ )
are given. The fourth-order compact finite-difference approximation tl>' to the fkst
derivative (d<l/dr))oincluding the tmcation error is written as

(6.6a)

(6.6b)

where h is the step size in mmputational domain, e the dominant discretization error,
and the indices are shown in Fig. 4.3. In the above equations +sN denotes the W h
derivative of <I respect to q and is obtained using Eq. (6.4). The numerical values
of the truncation error and at different locations across the chasne1 for the step
siw (h = 0.025) and the free parameter (a = 0.23) are presented in Table 6.1. W e
note that for a < 0.22 the condition of invertibility of mapping is violated. For
a = 0.23, the ratio between the largest and the smallest grid size in the physid
plane is approximately 4. An inaease of a makes the grid distribution more uniform
and is not followed. The analysis of Table 6.1 shows tlsiioapproaches large values
at the region dose to the centerline ( q = O). The existence of such large truncation
error in this region is unacceptable and questions the accuracy of the finite-difference
approximation employed in the numerical algorithm. The discretization error cannot
be reduced unless the step size becomes very s m d . This defeats the purpose of
introduction of the transformation. One may note that the solution in the area around
the axis WU smooth enough in the physical domain (and eaay to resolve numerically).
But the introduction of transformation led to an unaccept able discretization error in
that area.
We now consider the fourth-order compact finite-clifference approximation 11" to
the second d e r i ~ t i v e(dzt,b/dq2)o of the stream function in the fonn of

where the same notation is used. In the above formulas denotes the sixth deriva-
tive of $ respect to 7 and is obtained using Eq. (6.4).
The numerical values of f,b6@ and the tnuication error are presented in Table 6.2.
The results shown in this table indicate that singular behaviour of 7,b6@ deteriorates
the accuracy in the region dose to the centerline (9 = O) while the accurocy neax
the walI (q = -1) is maintained. The above andysis can also be applied to the

'I Y b c a t i o n Error
0.0 0.0 6.28 xlO1' 1.22 x104

Table 6.2: Numerical valu- of ha a d truncation error in Eqs.


(6.7) obtained using transformation function (6.3).

fourth-order approximation of the velocity described in Chapter 4 given by

&O = ($2 - $r)/2h - &qflh2/6 + c, (6.8a)


Table 6.3: Numerid values of h c a t i o n error in Eqs. (6.9) ob-
tained using transformation function (6.3).

where indices are shown in Fig. 4.3. We bypass the error analysis of the above
equation since the truncation error in Eq. (6.8) is the same as Eq. (6.6).
For further analysis we consider the boundary formula (4.34) derived in section
4.3. This equation is written as

where the notation has been explained before. The above equation is used to update
the vorticity at the wall through the iteration procedure. The results of an error
andysis associated with this case are shown in Table 6.3. These results indicate that
the discretization error grows without bounds dose to the centerline. The maximum
discretization error in the vicinity of the wall (i.e., r) = -1) is O(10-'). Since Eq.
(6.7) is only applied at few grid points dose to the w d we do not expect to see the
accuracy of the scheme be affected by the large d u e s of truncation error in the region
dose to the centerliner) = 0.
The introduction of the transformation function given by Eq. (6.3) into the s e
lution domain chmges the d u e s of truncation error of the compact finite-diffaence
approximations at different locations. While the discretization error grows without
bounds dose to ( q = O), the error is limited around q = -1. In overd, the d e
scribed transformation does not show the proper behaviour and m o t be used in
the problem unda investigation.
We now look at another type of transformation which shows a rather different
behaviour. Once again, we search for transformation functions which i) map -1 5
y 5 O into the region -1 5 q 5 O and ii) provide a better distribution of discretization
error compared with the transformation function (6.3). The proposed transformation
is only applied in y-direction and has the form of

where b = $I-, is the ratio between the grid size in the physical asd the cornputa-
tiond plane at y = -1. The above function also satisfies the conditions of invertibility
of the mapping, and orthogonality of the coordinates as described before. Under the
application of the above trknsformation, the stream function and the vorticity in
wmputational domain me derived as

We follow the same approach to evaluate the effect of introduction of such trans-
formation function into the solution domain. The truncation error in equation (6.6)
evaluated n u m e r i d y across the channe1 for the step size ( h = 0.025) and the free p*
rameter (b = 0.2) are presented in Table 6.4. The numerical values of the truncation
error in equation (6.7) are shown in Table 6.5. FinaIly Table 6.6 contains the results
of error dculation for the tnincation error term in equation (6.9). The tnincation
error distribution listed in Tables 6.4-6.6 are bounded and do not exhibit the singular
behaviour seen in the previous tables. This indicates that the new transformation
function defined in Eq. (6.10)preserves the accuracy of the finite-difference approxi-
mations dose to the centerline ( q = O). The cornparison between Tables 6.3 and 6.6
shows, the implementation of the transformation function (6.3) resulted in smaller
disaetization error in Eqs. (6.9) near the solid boundary ( q = -1). We dso note
that the transformation function (6.10) provides a more dense grid distribution near
the wall compared with (6.3).
Table 6.4: Numerid values of (116@ and truncation error in Eqs.
(6.6) obtained using trassformation function (6.10).

One may wish to reduce the numerical d u e s of truncation error appearing in Eq.
(6.9) to the lowest level. To achieve this goal and following our previous approach,
we introduce a polynomid transformation fimction of type y = f ( q ) given by

where â, 8,E and d aze unknowns. The id- behind using such transformation function
is to have the flexibility to control the numerical d u e s of derivatives of the function
at the two boundary points (9 = O aad q = -1). As shown before, the values
of these derivatives play an important factor in the o v e r d behaviour of truncation
error distribution at different regions of the computationai domain. The unknown
parameters in the above equation are determined using the following conditions,

dy known and carefully selected,


-IFo = A,
dv
dy
-lF-l - B, known and carefidy selected, (6.14)
dr)
where A and B are constants selected through the procedure explailied above. The
application of the above conditions results in the following form of transformation
Table 6.5: Numerical values of 11>5+ and truncation error in Eqs.
(6.7) obtained using transformation function (6.10).

function

The form of the stream function and the vorticity in the computationd domain are
given as

A similar mdysia is carried out to show the accuracy of the above equation and
results for ( A = 0.5 and B = 2.45) are presented in the following tables. The results
Table 6.6: Numerical d u e s of &3r10 and truncation error in Eqs.
(6.9) obt ained using transformation function (6.10).

in Tables 6.7-6.9 show the overall performance of the new transformation function
discussed above. The truncation error distribution is bounded and has magnitude in
the acceptable range.
Fùrther reduction in the numerical values of the discretization error shown in Table
6.9 is acquired by applying a new strategy. A ca.reful andysis of Eq. (6.9) reveals that
the application of a unifonn grid adjacent to the w d reduces the truncation error
to zero in the problem sketched in Fig. 6.1. To capture the character of the flow in
the neighbourhood of the solid w d ,we employ a region with fine mesh and constant
step size. This eliminates the appearance of l u g e truncation errors generated by use
of transformation in the region dose to the solid boundary. We consider this method
to finalize the grid structure in the y-direction in the problem under consideration.
The transformation functions in y-direction are formulated as

where 6'6,and d axe iinknowni~and E, and ë are given by


dy 1
-IF-1 = - known and suitobly selected,
dr] ë'
dy
-
d, IFO = E, known and suitably selected.
Table 6.7: Numerical values of and truncation error in Eq. (6.6)
obt ained using transformation function (6.15).

Applying the mapping condition

we obtain

The linear transformation (6.18) introduces a grid distribution with uniform step
size in both physical and computational domains (Ay = const, A T = const). The
polynomid transformation (6.19) is applied at y = -1 +
t which results in a non-
uniform grid structure in the physical plane and a uniform grid distribution in the
computationd domain. The remaining unknown constants in Eq. (6.19) are selected
by matching both tramformations at the border of the application domains. The
matching conditions have the form of

y=yl=-l+nAy, q = q l = -1+nAr], location of QR (6.22a)


Y = y2 = -1 + ( n - l)&, r) = 72 = -1 + (n - l)&, location of NP (6.22b)

where n is the number of grid points in the region with d o r m step size, and is
selected arbitratily. In the above, Ag and A y are the step sizes in computationd and
physical domains, respectively (rree figure (6.3)). Conditions (6.22) define matching
'I Y h c a t i o n Error I
0.0 0.0 -39232.99 -7.66 x IO-'

Table 6.8: Numerical d u e s of and tnincation error in Eq. (6.7)


obtained using transformation function (6.15).

'I Y $ 6 ~ h c a t i o n Error
0.0 0.0 -39232.99 -1.19 x IO-^

Table 6.9: Numerical values of &@ and truncation error in Eq. (6.9)
obtained using t r d o n n a t i o n function (6.15).
Physical domain Computational domain

Figure 6.3: Location of transformation functions for the test problem


in the y-direction.

between the lin- and polynomid trmsfonnation dong line NP. Location of line NP
in the physical plane is determined by the linear transformation. This line corresponds
to line N'PI in the computational plane. To consider line NP to belong to the region
with linear transformation, line QR inside the region with polynomial transformation
has to have the correct location. This location is determined by extending the linear
transformation one grid point above line NP. Therefore, conditions (6.22) present
the formulation for this type of matching. Under this fonn of matching, lines QR
and LM aze located at equal distances from NP. The matching procedure can also be
defined so that NP belongs to the region with polynomid transformation. In this case,
line LM has to have correct location. This location is determined using polynomial
transformation extended one grid point below line NP. In Fig. 6.3 lines QR and LM
in the physical plane correspond to lines Q'R' a d L'MI in the computational plane.
Substituting Eqs. (6.22) into (6.19), we obtain

The mesh distribution resulted from the application of the above transformation
functions are shown in Table 6.10.
Table 6.10: Grid distribution in y direction using transformation
functions introduced in Eqs. (6.18) and (6.19) for C =
1.75, and ë = .5.

6.4 Transformations in the x-direction


We begin by describing the grid distribution in the neighbourhood of x = O (see
figures 4.1 and 6.4). The existence of the solid wall DE in the geometry under study
produces similar efFects in the flow field as the solid boundary DC. One can apply a
similar procedure to aasess the &ect of application of transformation functions in the
x-direction.
To maintain high resolution near the w d DE where the character of flow is com-
plicated, we apply a grid with high density in the neighbourhood of DE. Since the
application of constast step size in such critical axea was proved to be &&nt, we
follow the same approach and consider a uniforrn g i d in -tl 5 x <_ O. As we
move in the upstream direction, the gradient of flow miables decreases slowly. This
feature d o w s us to increase the grid size smoothly without loosing the ôccuracy.
Therefore, a polynomial transformation in the form of (6.19) is used in the region
<
-1 - tl x 5 -tl.
The form of the transformation function~for -1 - tl 5 x 5 O are
Figure 6.4: Location of transformations for x O near the channel entrance.

where -6 is the coordinate in the wmputationd plane corresponds to x = -ti in the


physical plane and A, B are
dx
-
q L-" = A, known and suitably selected,
dx
zIz=-~-t, = B, known and suitably selected,

and C is found by matching the domains with lin- and polynomid


at x = -tl.
To apply the inflow boundary conditions at x -t -m, we cover the region x 5
-1 - ti with a uniform mesh using a lineaz transformation.
To resolve the cornplex character of the flow near x = O and in the interior of
the chamel, we apply the same type of grid a s the one used in -1 - tl 5 x 5
O. Using such a grid dows us to preserve the grid symmetry about x = O. To
obtain accurate information of the charactes of the flow in the region where sepmation
occura, we apply a linear transformation to wver this region. The application of such
transformation maintains a constant step size in this region, thus reducing the values
of the truncation errors.
To apply the downstream boundary conditions, the domain ha3 to be extended
to x + W. Thexfoie, to limit the computational time, we extend the downstream
domain of computation using a logarithmic transformation. Also, since it is known
that disturbasces caused by the presence of an object in a Channel decay exponentidy
with distance (see Chapter IO), logarithmic transformation results in a uniform error
distribution in the trandormed domain. Our investigation shows that if the length
of the region with logarithmic transformation exceeds 50 units, the numerical scheme
becomes unstable. We therefore added a region with uniform mesh to extend the
domah to large distances downstream of the chamel entry.
We may note here that application of different forms of transformation introduces
the issue of matching them at locations where they overlap. This issue haa been
discussed in the previous section.

6.5 Final Grid


We begin by explainhg the grid structure in the y-direction. To maintain suaicient
ôccuracy neaz the solid wall CD, transformation functions of the form (6.18) and
(6.19) a e used for -1 5 y <O. To obtain a symmetric grid distribution about
y = -1, we apply sunila. transformation functions in the region -2 5 y 5 -1.
Because the i d o w boundary conditions have to be applied at large distances fiom
the channel entry (y + -oo), the region y 5 -2 is covered with a uniform mesh
using a lin- transformation function. Therefore, the final form of transformation
functions in y-direction is set up as

where ü, 6 are evaluated by matching conditions (6.22a,b) and E, ë are constants


given by (6.20). In the above, f is determined by matching polynomial and lin-
transformations at y = -2.
The final form of the transformation functions in x-direction are set up as:
-(ti + Li + Lo) 5 x < -(tl + L I ) , (6.27)

where A, B axe constants given by (6.14) and 6,D, Ë and Z are determined by match-
ing transformations at x = -(tl +
L i ) , z = -ti, x = tl, x = ( t l +
LI), + =
+ + + + +
(tl Li Lz),and x = ( t l Ll Lz L3) respectively.
The above transformation functions are defined so:

The region x < -(ti + Li)is covered with a uniform mesh using a lineat
transformation (6.27).

The use of transformation functions in the form of (6.28)-(6.30)produce a region


with high grid density in the vicinity of the inlet.

To maintain sdicient accuracy in the region where separation occurs, the linear
+
transformation (6.31) was introduced at x = t l L i . Therefore, this region is
covered with constant step size and extended to x = t l + LI+ Lz.

O At x = t l + LI + L2 and far away from the entrance where the Poiseuille


flow starts to form, logarithrnic transformation (6.32) was introduced into the
domain. This means the grid gize is smoothly inneased and since the gradients
of flow miables in this region are small, it is not likely that the xcuracy is
degraded. In (6.32), Z is a constant selected for a particular mesh such that
h = h(l + ch), where h is the mesh size.

Because at high Reynolds number the outflow b o u n d q conditions have to be


applied at large distances from the inlet a region with constant step size was
added to the domoin. This is obtained by introducing the linear transformation
+ + +
(6.33) at x 2 (t1 L1 Lz L3).In (6.33), B is determined by mat ching the
+ + +
logarithmic transformation at x = t l Ll La Lg.
-
i :- - :-
C

1 , e 1

- ,-
-ri:- ,
I I I 1

I I I

1 , ,
I I I ,

Figure 6.5: Location of transformations in the physical plane.


Chapter 7

Numerical Treatment of the


Corner Singularity

In the psoblem under investigation, we encouter the flow around a sharp corner at
s = O, y = -1. Mathematically, the vorticity is singular at the corner and special
care is needed to solve the flow field around such a point. The existence of singulaxity
in the geometry complicates the numerical solution and an improper treatment of
singularity may increase the error in a substantial part of the flow field.
The theoretical situation aasociated with flow around the corner is described by
Moffat (1964). However, that analytical solution is only valid in the limit of Re + O
(i.e., Stokes flow). An approach based on mWng a n d y t i d and numerical solutions
around the corner was first proposed by Motz (1946). A semi-analytic technique
d d for small and moderate Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of the corner waa
developed by Gupta et al. (1981). Examples of the limitations of local similarity
solutions rtre described by Moffat & D e (1980). The separation of Stokes flows
are discussed by Michad& O'Neill (1977). In order to n u m e r i d y approximate the
singular behaviour of vorticity at the corner severd methods have been proposed by
R o d e (1976). To remove the uncertainty associated with such flow characteristics
we have tested vaxious methods described by Floryan & Czechowski (1995).
The approach considered here combines a local analytical description of the singu-
larity, which is valid in a s m d neighbourhood of the corner, with a purely numerical
solution at a distance away fiom the corner. However, the applicability of such meth-
ods for nonzero Reynolds number flows (i.e., when convective tenns are present) re-
mains tinknown. Indeed, numerical experiments with method A desczibed by Floryan
& Czechowski (1995) produced quite unacceptable flow features around the corner.
Therefore, the objective of this study is first to present a proper singularity mode1 and
Figure 7.1: Sketch of the flow domain.

then to assess the accuracy of the suggested model by carrying out a grid convergence
study. In this study the assumption regarding the minimal local efFects of the method
on the solution of the entire flow field is also verified. It was found that the method
based on introducing a fictitiov (finite) d u e of vorticity at the corner provides a
better approximation of the flow behaviour in the neighbourhood of the corner. This
method can also be implemented into our numericai scheme with a very little change.
In Section 7.1 we describe our test problem and its numerid solution. The iduence
of the singularity on the n u m e r i d algorithm is reviewed in Section 7.2. Numerid
solutions incorporating an analytical description of the singularity are presented in
Section 7.3. The details cf the theoretical procedure are described in Appendix B.

7.1 Problem Formulation


To e d u a t e the accuracy of the singularity treatment a test problem waa constructed.
The configuration of the test problem is sketched in Fig. 7.1. The appropriate field
equations are the Navier-Stokes equations in the stream function-vorticity formulation
explained in Chapter 4. The problem is subject to the boundary conditions described
in Section 4.1.1. A square grid of size h in the computational plane is used, with
grid lines pmallel to the x and y and such that the grid exôctly fits the geometry
of the channel, with the wall as certain grid lines. The details of the @d structure
around the corner are described in Chapter 6. Under our particulas grid refinement
strategy different mesh lengths h, and h, in the x and y directions were obtained in
the physical plane. The flow field waa solved using the fourth-order compact scheme
described in Chapter 4 by a successive underrelaxation procedure.
Figure 7.2: Grid points around a corner in the p h y s i d plane.

7.2 Corner Singularity


With the grid structure used, the corner point ( x = O, y = -1) is a grid point and
vortiuw is singular there (see figures 7.1 and 7.2). The presence of the singularity in C
at the corner renders the finite-difference approximations to (4.3)-(4.4) invalid at the
grid points (1,2,3,4,5,6and 7) around the corner. To deal with this issue, a method
of incorporating a local analytid solution around the corner into the computational
scheme is constructed. The application of this method allows us to directly e d u a t e
the £iow vaxiables at the above grid points.

7.3 Numerical Solution wit h Analytical Description of the


Singularity
To mode1 the corner singularity in the problern under investigation we have tested
methods A and B described in Appendix B. Application of these methods are ex-
plained with the help of Fig. 7.2. The b is singular and it renders the finite-difference
approximations (4.26) and (4.36) invalid at points 2,3,5,6,7and 1,4 respectively.
The finite difference approximation of (4.30) at points 2 and 3 are also prohibited
due to singularity of b.The utilkation of methods A and B in the numerical proce-
dure can be summerized as follows:
Method A: Evaluate vorticity at points 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7 from expansion (B .9),
converting these points to boundasy points for the vorticity field. Constants Al and
A2 are evaluated by matching (B.ll) with the numerical solution. The matching
method adopted in the current calculation determines Ai and Az fiom the known
vorticity at points 9 and 10 (the values of and CIO have to be updated sequentially
during the iteration procesa). The stream function and velocity at points 2 and 3 are
evaluated using the formulas derived in Appendix B.
Method B: Uae formula (B.30) described in Appendix B to substitute a fictitious
value of vorticity at the corner. This equation is derived for the general case of
non-uniforrn mesh around the corner and is written in the form of

where the indices are explained before. The application of the above equation as-
signa a value for vorticity at the corner CD using the numerical values of the nodal
stream function at points 2 and 3. The substitution of this value into the numerical
procedme, bypasses the effect of singdarity and makes the finite-diffaence approxi-
mations (4.26), (4.30) and (4.36) valid at pointa 1,2,3,4,5,6and 7 around the corner.
Thus, the stream function, vorticity and velocity at such points are directly calculated
without further assumptions.
To compare the &ect of the above methods on the solution of the flow field numer-
ical experiments are carried out for (Re = 0,1000) and the step size (h = 0 .O%). It is
important to note that the presented methods are based on different implementations
of (B.11)and they are not computationally equivalent. Our andysis supports this
fact and Figs. 7.3 and 7.4 exhibit the dinerence in the form of streamlines for the test
problem at different Reynolds number. It is clear from Fig. 7.3 that both methods
provide almost identical results as far as the stream function values are concerned.
The discrepancy in the form of streamlines and in the length of separation region for
Re = 1000 is depicted in Fig. 7.4. However, the results show that these differences
have only a local character and decrease with distance away from the corner. Due to
the large magnitude of convective terma at such high Reynolds number, the accuracy
of the singulasity treatments such as the ones used here is greatly tested.
For further andysis the distribution of vorticity for Re = O dong y = -1 and x = O
and in the vicinity of the corner are shown in Figs. 7.5 and 7.6. While the difference
in the vorticity distribution in the neighbourhood of the corner is considerable, the
effects of using different singulaxity treotments diminish at several grid points away
from the corner. The velocity profile at the inlet croas section of the chasne1 is shown
in Fig. 7.7. The success of the methods A and B in providing the correct velocity
distribution is dearly shown in this figure. The andysis of figure 7.7 dso indicates
that the difierence between provided results by both methods are indistinguished.
I
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5:0 6.0 7.0 8.0

Figure 7.3: Strearnlines for (Re = O), -- Method A, -Method B.

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0

Figure 7.4: Streamlines for (Re = 1000), -- Method A, -Method B.

Figs. 7.8 and 7.9 show the vorticity distribution dong y = -1 and z = O. The
gradient of vorticity in the neighbourhood of the corner is very sharp for both methods
but results are in very good agreement at a distance, x = 0.1 away from the corner.
The failure of method A in providing a reliable description of vorticity around the
corner is dearly indicated in Fig. 7.9. Such behaviour questions the applicability
of method A in our numerical calcdations and further test shows this method is
not apable of providing the correct velocity distribution at the inlet of the channe1
(see figure 7.10). The discontinuity in cdculated velocity profile using method A is
sketched in this figure.
We did not observe the occurrence of sepasation at the corner and the predicted
location of separation zone by both methods was at a small distance downstream of
the channel entry. The results presented so far help us to choose a suitable singularity
treatment for the problem under investigation. Based on o u analysis, method B is
proved to be superior in predicting the correct topologid feature of the flow field
around the corner like, for example, length and location of the separation region.
X
Figure 7.5: Distribution of vorticity (Re = O, y = -1), -- Method A, -Method B.

-16.00 -1200 -8.00 -4.00 0.00


Vorticity
Figure 7.6: Distribution of vorticity (Re = 0, z = O), -- Method A, -Method B.
Figure 7.7: Velocity profile at the inlet a o s s section, (Re = 0, x = O),
-- Method A, -Method B.

Figure 7.8: Distribution of vorticity (Re = 1000, y = -1), --


Method A, -Method B.
-120.00 -80.00 4.00 0.00 40.00
Vorticity
Figure 7.9: Distribution of vorticity (Re = 1000, z = O), -- Method

Figure 7.10: Velocity profile at the inlet cross section (Re = 1000,
x = O), -- Method A, -Method B.
h (physical plane) h (computational plane) Length of separation zone
0.025 0.05 7.3

Table 7.1: Length of separation zone at different step size for (Re = 1000).

Equation (B.30) is only d d in the aaymptotic limit of r + O (i.e., in a suf-


ficiently s m d neighbourhood of the corner). However, the matching always takes
place ôt a finite distance away fiom the corner which questions the reliability of such
method. In the absence of an exact solution, this issue is tested by grid convergence
studies. Numerical experiments were performed for Re = 1000 and the step sizes
(h = 10, &, &, &). Table 7.1 shows the length of separation zone at different step
sizes. The results presented here indicate that the computed values do converge to
an asymptotic value by decreaaing the step size. The results d s o show that good
accuracy is obtained with step size (h = 0.025). It should be mentioned that in such
analysis one h a . to accept certain amount of numerical m o r in dculation. For exam-
ple using step size h = -& results in 3% error in the length of sepazation zone. Further
reduction of step size leads to very time consuming calculations. Table 7.2 asd Fig.
7.11 give the numerical d u e s of vorticity dong y = -1 and x = O resulted from our
grid convergence studies. The analysis of Table 7.2 shows that the numerical values
of vorticity dong y = -1 and upstream of the Channel entry, x < O, tend to values
independent of h at a distance x = -0.075 away from the corner where two digits
accuracy is obtained. While the difference between the n u m e r i d values of vorticity
in the neighbourhood of the corner is substantid, at a distance, for example, x = 0.5
downstream of the charinel entry, the results approach quantities independent of h.
The error in evaluation of the vorticity using this method is largest in the neigh-
bourhood of the corner, but decreases with increasing distance. Qualitative results
obtained dong x = O a,re s h o m in Table 7.3 and Fig. 7.12. This indicates that the
singularity mode1 ha3 a local efTect on the solution of the flow field and as we move
in the downstream direction these d e c t s disappear.
It is concluded on the b a i s of the above results that the structure of the numerical
solution is correct and more accurate results can be obtained by further reduction of
the grid size. The convergence of the method used here is of great advdstage. Present
results indicate that good approximation is obtained for the step size ( h < 0.025).
vorticity vorticity vorticity
vortiuty
h = 0.05 h = 0.025 h = 0.02 h = 0.0125
-0.05 -0.07
-0.37 -
-2.12 -1.11
-10.40 -
-46.37 -109.57
14.70 -
6.07 8.08
4.70 -
3.63 4.79
2.61 3.55
2.09 2.91
1.60 2.36
1.45 2.11
1.36 2.03
Table 7.2: Numericd d u e s of vorticity dong y = -1 for Re = 1000.

This means that for larger h the assumption underlying the algorithm, i.e., that we
are sufficiently dose to the corner, is not satisfied and the implementation of Eq.
(B .3O)into the numerical procedure is not accurate.
vorticity vorticity vorticity
h = 0.025 h = 0.02 h = 0.0125
-14.51
-17.92
-22.06
-30.04
-36.62
-47.22
-68.58
-146.29
-34.84
-11.45
-3.10
-0.81
-0.07
Table 7.3: Numerid values of vorticity dong x = O for Re = 1000.
-aom-
40m-
dom-
-80.00 -
-1 WB0 -
420.00-

-140.00 -

Figure 7.11: Distribution of vorticity (Re= 1000, y = -1).

Figure 7.12: Distribution of vorticity (Re= 1000, x = 0).


Chapter 8

Description of Flow Field

One of the major interests in andysis of the problem of Channel entrance flow is to
describe the spatid evolution of flow in the axial direction through the chasnel. Here,
we present the obtained results from numerical study of entry flow in a chmel.
The flow pattern for flow entering a Channel through a sharpedged entrance at
<
O Re 5 2200 is sketched in Figs. 8.1-8.5. The analysis of the plots indicotes that at
low Reynolds number Re 5 100 flow enters the channe1 very smoothly. As Reynolds
number is increased, the flow structure near the entrance starts to change and a
vena contracta is formed because the duid cannot turn a sharp right-angle corner.
At Re = 137 separation occurs in the entrance region. The region of separation for
Re 2 150 can readily be traced and it is s h o m in the figures. It should be mentioned
that separation does not occur at the corner but rather a s m d distance downstream
from the channel entry. Figure 8.6 depicts the length of separation zone as a function
of Reynolds number. The analysis of this figure shows that the length of separation
region inmeases monotonically with Reynolds number. The maximum thickness of
vena contracta is depicted in Fig. 8.7. The results show that the thidmess of vena
contracta goes to an asymptote by increasing Reynolds number.
A succession of velocity profiles staxting at x = O and proceeding downstream from
<
the channe1 entry axe presented in Figs. 8.8-8.17, for O 5 Re 2200. Consideration
may be given first to the profile at x = O, which displays the form of the velocity
distribution at the inlet cross section of the channel. At Re = 0, the velocity profile
at x = O inneases smoothly fkom a zero value at the wall to a maximum at the
centerline (92 percent of the asymptotic value) and the flow development occurs in
very short distances from the entrance. For example, velocity distribution dong
the centerline at z = 0.42 reaches 98 percent of the asymptotic d u e at the exit
(figure 8.8a). The appearance of such velocity distribution at z = O is of physical
importance and strongly questions the validity of previous numerical analyses based
on the assumption of uniform flow at the entrance. However, the shape of the velocity
profile at the inlet is in better agreement with previous n u m e r i d work where a
uniform velocity upstream of the channel entry is assumed. The centerline velocity
in the downstream direction inmeases monotonically wit h an increase of distance
fiom the channel entrance. Fùrthermore, the centrd portion of the velocifgr profile
generdy developa at a slower rate than the portion of the profile adjacent to the wd.
As Reyn01ds number is increased, the velocity profile at x = O begins to change;
it is approaching a m d y flat profile in the central region of the channel. At Re =
40, the velocity profle at x = O shows to have an off-centered maximum. The
magnitude of the overshoot of velocity profile hcreases in the downstream region until
the velocity distribution bewmes more rounded further downstream and overshoot
phenomenon disappears as is shown in Fig. 8.9b. The magnitude of the overshoot
of the velocity profile at the inlet cross section of the channe1 bewmes larger with
increasing ReynoIds nurnber . The maximum velocity overshoot occurred at Re = 300
(figure 8.12~). For Re > 300, the overshoot phenomenon at the inlet cross section
begins to diminish. At Re = 700, the velocity overshoot at x = O can not be observed
visudy from Fig. 8.14a. However, the velocity overshoot at downstream region of
the channel entry is still observed and is considered to be the characteristic feature
of this type of flow. At Re > 700 , the velocity profle at x = O remains dmost flat
across most of the channel with a large gradient near the wall.
The region of back flow first appears for Re = 137 and extends over a certain
finite distance downstream of the channd entry forming a vena contracta (see figures
8.12a-8.17).
Figure 8.1: Flow pattern in the lower half channei, O < R e < 80 .
100 < Re < 400 .
Figure 8.2: Flow pattern in the lower half chit~l~lel,
Figure 8.3: Flow pattern in the lower half chaanel, 500 < Re < 900.
SIO'O
O-os ,
L'O-
9'0-
Figure 8.5: Flow pattern in the lower half channel, 1400 < Re < 2200.
Figure 8.6: Length of sepazation zone as a function of Reynolds number.

Figure 8.7: Thickness of vena contracta as a. function of Reynolds number.


Figure 8.8: Streamwise velocity profile ocross the Channel, Re =O, 10, 20.
Figure 8.9: Streamwise velocity profile across the chamel, Re = 30,40.
Figure 8.10: Streamwise velocity profile across the channel. Re = 50,60.
Figure 8.11: Streamwise velocity profile across the channel, Re = 90,100.
Re = 300
0.70 0.78 0.m
0.84 O b b 0.66 0.87 0.W O P 2 0- 1.DO
-,--T-T.-r-.-,*-*T*--,-.-,---.-*
I I I I l l 1 I I l
Y -
4.2 -

4.4 -
4.6-

4.8 -

O r

Figure 8.12: Strearnwise velocity profile across the channel, Re = 150,200,300.


Figure 8.13: Streamwise velocity profile ocross the chasinel, Re = 400,500,600.
Figure 8.14: Streamwise velouty profile across the channel, R e = 700,800,900.
Figure 8.15: Streamwise velocity profile across the channel, Re = 1000,1100,1200.
Figure 8.16: Streamwise velocity profile across the chasnel, Re = 1300,1400,1500.
Figure 8.17: Streamwise velocity profile through the channel, Re = 2000,2200.
Chapter 9

Pressure Distribution in the


Channel

The prediction of pressure loss in the entrance region of a channel is important in a


number of engineering applications. For example, a reliable estimate of the size of a
compact heat exchanger depends on a correct evaluation of heat transfer coefEcients
and total pressure drop characteristics through the channel entry (Kays & London
1984). The available numerical data for the pressure field associated with the hydre
dynamic development of the flow in the pardel-plate passage involves various degree
of approximations. Therefore, the present study constitutes a comprehensive numer-
ical investigation of the developing pressure field in the entry region of a charnel.
Information on the developing pressure field is presented in t e m s of axial pressure
distribution. A correct estimate of pressure loss aad inmemental pressure drop due
to the flow development is provided. W y developed values of this quantity, which
correspond to the completion of the flow development process is also given at dif-
ferent Reynolds numbers. The obtained numerical data axe cornpiued with available
andytical and numerical results, thereby providing new insights of the pressure field
in the entrknce region of a channel. Cornparisons are also made with the relevant
experimental information reported in the literature.
A variety of solution methods have been employed in previous studies (Nguyen &
Mdaine-Cross 1988; Schmidt & Zeldin 1969; Collins & Schowalter 1962; Bodoia &
Osterle 1961). The published analysis of the flow development in rectangular ducts of
finite aspect ratio axe those of Eckert & Irvine (1957),Sparrow (1967), Han (1960). An
extensive experimental measurements of the developing pressure field in rectangular
ducts encompassing eight aspect ratios ranging from 1:1 to 51:l were performed by
Beavers et al. (1970). Lundgren et al. (1964) have employed a technique to predict
M y developed values of the incrernental pressure drop for ducts of arbitrary cross
section. A comprehensive review of prior contributions in evaluating incremental
pressure drop for vazious cross sections is given by Shah & London (1978).

9.1 Pressure Field Along the Centerlhe


Consideration may be f i s t given to the determination of pressure field in the problem
under investigation. Then in subsequent subsections we deal with axial variations and
f d y developed values of the incremental pressure &op.
The pressure distribution and (R& dong the centerline are shown in Figs. 9.1
and 9.2. In each figure, the local pressure @(x)) is plotted as a function of the di-
mensionless streamwise coordinate x. At large distance upstream from the channel
entry ( x + -a)), the pressure approaches the ambient pressure and (~eg) reaches
the asymptotic d u e obtained from the Jdery-Hamel solution. An entrance pressure
drop is produced in the upstream region of the channel entry, owing to the combined
effects of the fiuid acceleration towards the entrance cross section and wall shear stress
as is indicated in Fig. 9.1. The appearance of two different flow cha,racteristics for the
specified range of Reynolds number is clearly shown in this figure. At low Reynolds
number the flow through the inlet of the channel is dominated by viscous effects.
The monotonic decrease of pressure inside the channel is the p â r t i c ~ xfeature of this
type of flow (see figure 9.la). At large distances from the chânnel entry the pressure
distribution decreases as a linear function of the streamwise coordinate. As Reynolds
number is increased, inertia efTects change the flow behaviour. A significant local pres-
sure drop appears at the inlet and its magnitude increases with increasing Reynolds
number as is shown in Fig. 9.lb. The location of the maximum l o d pressure drop
moves downstream with increasing Reynolds number. This point corresponds to the
maximum fluid velocity in the channel. The deceleration of the fluid starts at this
location until the Poiseuille flow distribution is attained. During this stage pressure
drop is partially recovered. The sire of the recovery region increases with an increase
of Reynolds number. Downstream fiom the recovery zone, the pressure begins de-
creasing linearly as the Poiseuille flow starts to form. In this region and as x + w,
( ~ e ggradually
) approaches the aaymptotic value at the exit as is shown in Fig. 9.2.
For the cornparison the plot of pressure distribution for inviscid flow is also induded
in Fig. 9.1. The behaviour of this fiow is different from the behaviour of viscous flow.
Following the sudden pressure drop at the entrasce region, pressure approaches its
asymptotic d u e at the exit very rapidly. The pressure drop occurs because of the
Figure 9.1: Pressure distribution dong the centerline, a) 0.001 5
Re 5 10G, b) 200 5 Re 5 2200.

change of kinetic energy (Bernoulli effect). The actual head loss in the entrance is
zero due to absence of viscosity.
.izo ao 40 ao (O ao iro
X

Figure 9.2: Normalized pressure gradient ( ~ e z distribution


) dong the centerline.

9.2 Evaluation of Entrance Pressure Loss


The andysis of pressure loss due to flow devdopment can be performed using the
Bernoulli's equation written between two arbitrary points dong the centerline of the
channel. Such formula may be given as

where p(x) denotes the local pressure, ü is the average velocity and O stands for the
condition upstream of the channe1 entry. In the above relation a(x) is the kinetic
energy correction co&cient, f is the friction factor, x is the distance form the inlet
in the downstream direction, D is the hydraulic diameter asd additiond losses are
denoted by k(x). It is important to note that (9.1) is only valid for one-dimensional
flow and the application of this equation in the neighbourhood of the inlet is not
justified. Therefore, in the present analysis we do not attempt to compute k(x) and
a ( x ) near the inlet. However, far away from the entrance where the flow behaviour
is described by the one dimensional theory, (9.1) can be applied.
The $ is a measure of the kinetic energy of flow upstream of the channe1entry.
Since far upstream üo -t O, it is expected that the amount of kinetic energy of the
fluid at x + -00 is negligible. To verify this rational assumption, the &ect of this
tenn can be easily evaluated using a control volume as shown in figure 9.3. The
- .- .-

Figure 9.3: Control volume around the entrance region of a channel.

kinetic energy of flow entering this control volume is c a l d a t e d using the equation

(9.2)

where m is the mass flow and u is the velocity. At x + -00, the velocity distribution
is prescribed by JefTery-Harnel (Chapter 3). Therefore, (9.2) ckn be written as

The d c u l a t e d values of Ek at different Reynolds nurnbers are given in Table 9.1.


The results preseated here indicate that the kinetic energy of flow entering the inlet
boundary is 0(10-3) and can be neglected. Thus (9.1) can be remanged in the form
of

It is apparent that k(x) could only be obtained by evaluating the a throughout the
entire entrasce region. The above equation indicates that the total local pressure

Table 9.1: Values of kinetic energy at different Reynolds number.


Figure 9.4: Pressure drop along the centerline of the channel, Re=2200.

drop consists of three parts; i) change of kinetic energy, ii) losses represented by a
f U y developed flow starting at x = 0, and iii) additional losses accounted for by k(z).
Figure 9.4 illustrates the associated value with each p u t for Re = 2200. The asalysis
of the plot shows that as x -t CO, a ( z ) approaches the aaymptotic value given by
+O) =8. The losses due to the f d l y developed flow at x = O are zero and they
increase Linearly in the downstream direction. For cornparison, the plot of pressure
drop through the chamel for an inviscid flow is also shown in figure 9.4. For inviscid
flow the associated loss is zero and pressure drop is only due to the change of kinetic
energy. Far away downstream of the channel entry the velocity profile is uniform and
G u i & d = 1. The difference between a(m) and O!iWia&d idcounts for the difference

between kinetic energy of the real fluid and the inviscid fiuid.
The distribution of k ( x ) is shown in figure 9.5. With increasing downstream
distance, k ( x ) rises sharply at first and then tends to level off, reaching ultimately
a constant value; this value characterizes strength of entrance losses. Thus, in the
region of hydrodynamic development, k necessarily increases with increasing x aa
is shown in figure 9.4. This behaviour identifies location where the hydrodynamic
development is complete; there are no further contributions to k and a constant value
is attained.
A plot of the fully developed d u e s of k as a function of Re is illustrated in figure
9.6. At first k(w) demeases sharply as Reynolds number is increased until it attains a
local minimum value at Re = 700. Then k ( m ) starts to inuease as Reynolds number
increases. The results show that for Re _> 1800, k(oo) inueases as a linear function
of Reynolds number.
A cornparison between the present numerical results and the results of other re-
searchers is carried out using a modified form of (9.1) written as

where p; is the pressure at the inlet and K(x) is the incremental pressure drop. Thus,
in accordance with the above equation, d u e s of K ( x ) are determined by subtracting
a linear component, which corresponds to a flow which is fiiUy developed right from
x = O, from the local pressure defect (pi - p(x)) 1 iü2. The M y developed values of
the incremental pressure drop K ( x ) as a fimction of Reynolds number are given in
Tables 9.2-9.3 and Fig. 9.6.
The calculation by Bodoia & Osterle (l96l), who solved the governing equations
using a finitedifierence algorithm, gives a value of 0.676 for K ( m ) at high Reynolds
number. The calculation of Schmidt & Zeldin (1969) for Channel flow based on the
assumption of uniform flow at the entry givea a K-value of 0.669 and 0.748 at Re =
3750 and Re = 37.5. Nguyen & Mdaine-Cross (1988) provided a correlation for
value of K(oo) which approximates the data to within 1 percent. They obtained
a K-value of 0.6779 at large Reynolds number. Han (1960) found the incrementd
pressure drop K(m) = 0.85 compared with K ( w ) = 0.601 given by Sdilichting.
Lundgren et al. (1964) presented 0.686 for K(oo) for the pardel-plate channel.
Shah & London (1978) after detailed consideration of a luge number of approximate
solutions, recornmended 0.674 for K ( m ) at large Reynolds number. The provided
value by Nguyen & Madaine-cross (1988) is 0.58 percent more than the value given
by Shah & London (1978). It should be mentioned that ail the above studies adopted
certain approximation in modeling the inlet boundary conditions. In the present
study, the flow structure in the entrance region is entirely different (due to efTects of
sharpedged entrance). This explains the wide deviation between the present results
and the amilable data in the literature. To understand the differences, the behaviour
of the flow in the downstream of the charrinel entry is carefully investigated in Chapter
10.
Experimentd analysis are generally performed for duct flows of different aspect
ratios. Therefore, the available experimental data for ducts with high aspect ratios
are used for cornparisons with the present results. The provided results of Beavers
et al. (1970) are lower thas the numerical data obtained during the present study.
Mx)

Mx)

Figure 9.5: Distribution of loss coeflicient dong the channel, a) 10 5


Re 5 100, b) 100 s Re 2 500, c) 500 5 Re 5 2200.
Figure 9.6: Loss meaicint ( k ( w ) ) and incremental pressure drop
(K(co))as a fimction of Re.

These authors obtained a K-value 0.61 for duct with aspect ratio 51 at high Reynolds
number. On the b a i s of Fig. 9.6, it is conduded that K(oo) first incrûases s h q l y
for Re 5 150 until it attains the maximum value of 0.77. It then starrts to decrease
gradudy as Reynolds number is increased. The provided results indicate that K ( m )
approachea an asymptote at high Reynolds number.
Nguyen & Schmidt & Bodoia
present work Maclaine-cross Zeldin & Osterle
(1988) (1969) (1961)

0.7954

0.7329
0.7224 0.748

0.7

0.6828

0.6817

2
Table 9.2: Values of incremental pressure drop K ( w ) reported in
the literature, 5 < Re < 1700.
- --

Schmidt & Bodoia


present work Zeldin & Osterle
(1969) (1961)

Table 9.3: Values of incremental pressure drop K(oo) reported in


the literature, 1800 < Re < 3750.
Chapter 10

Analysis of Entrance Length

In analysis of the formation of the Poiseuille flow in the entrance region of a channel,
a problem of interest is to predict the behaviour of flow in the area downstream of
the chanael entry. It is lcnown that flow far downstream of the channel entrance
approaches asymptotically the Poiseuille flow. In such cases, the ksymptotic solution
of the Navier-S tokes equations are considered as the exit boundary conditions, thus
reducing the size of the domain of amputation and saving some computationd tirne.
In the present study we confine our attention to the twdimensional problem
of channel entrance flow, and in a region where the flow is slightly perturbed fiom
the Poiseuille flow, the asymptotic solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is sought.
These stationary perturbations to the flow field may be produced in a variety of
ways. The mechanism considered here is through the effect of sharp-edged entrance
which could trigger disturbances. Close to the entrknce disturbances are large, but
further away in the downstream region disturbances are expected to decay, leaving
just Poiseuille flow. Here we assume that the distance from the source of the distortion
is sufnciently large (i.e., disturbances have decayed enough),so that the perturbations
axe s m d .
The decay of a s m d stationaty perturbation from the Poiseuille flow in the down-
Stream direction is govemed by a differentid eigenvalue equation similar to the Orr-
Sommerfeld equation. In the past, the solution of this equation has b e n widely
atudied, both a n d y t i d y and numericdly. The numerical solution of the differential
eigenvalue equation hm been attempted using different methods, namely, an initial-
value type method or spectral method. The previous related works indude Bramely
& Dennis (1982), and Bramely (1984) who used a Chebyshev polynomid representa-
tion of the eigensolutions as the basis for their studies. An initial-value type method
was used by Bramely & Dennis (1984). The problem can also be tackled analytically
using asymptotic methods valid for s m d and large Reynolds numbers, following Wi-
son (1969). A recent review related to the n u m e r i d and analytical solution of the
differential eigenvalue equation is presented by Stocker & Duck (1995).
Bramely & Dennis (1982) cornpared th& results with a previous numerical solu-
tion for flow in a c h 4 with a step change in width presented by Deanis & Smith
(1980). They reporteci d i f E i d t y in obtaining an accurate check on the asymptotic
nature of the flow in the downstream region by using the provided numerical data.
Horgan & Wheeler (1978) have found an estimate for spatial decay of the flow
development at low Reynolds number in a cylindrical pipe of arbitrary cross-section.
They considered the exponential decay with axid distance of quadratic energy integral
thus providing a quantitative description of the iow development in the problem of
mtry flow.
In the present study the spatial evolution of the difference between the actual flow
and the fully developed flow solution at a large distance from the channel entry is
studied in detail. The exponential spatial decay of the flow development in the inlet
region of a channe1 is verified using the available n u m e r i d data obtained in solving
the problem of channe1 entrance flow. The goal of our analysis is to reveal more
information regarding the formation of Poiseuille flow at large distances downstream
of the channel entry. Indeed, our results indicate some wmplex features of the flow
at low Reynolds number. This aalysis leads to an appropriately defined entrônce
length.

10.1 Mathematical Formulation


Consider the steady two-dimensional flow through a long straight channe1 as depicted
in figure 2.1. The non-dimensiond stream function $(x, y) satides the Navier-Stokes
equations in the form of Stream function written as

The above equation is subject to the following boundary conditions on the w d s

The velocity far downstream of the chasnd entry approaches the Poiseuille flow dis-
tribution and so

where u and v are explained before. The above boundary conditions at the exit can
be written for the Stream function $ as

We now seek steady perturbations to the above solution, using the variables of the
form

and

where P is the Poiseuille flow pressure, xo denotea a reference point, and C.C. r e p
resents the cornplex conjugate tenn. The constant a is an eigendue determinhg
the rate of decay of the perturbation, which may be real or complex, and &), û(y ) ,
û(y), and j ( y ) are the associated eigenfunctions. IR the above equations we assume
13: - xol » 1 so the perturbation tenn is relatively s m d compared with the base

solution. Substituting (10.5a) into (10.1) and neglecting nonlinear terms , one obtains
a linear equation for t,$ whose coacients are independent of r and haa the form of

The above equation is subject to the homogeaeous boundasy conditions of imperme


ability and of no slip at the walls, namely
Substituting (20.5b)-(10.5d) into the Navier-Stokes equations in the fonn of primitive
variables (2.1)-(2.3), neglecting nonlineaz terms results in

1
-aUû = -$ +-
Re
( d û + û") ,

where prime denotes differentiation respect to y. The above system of equations are
subject to the boundary conditions in the form of

Equation (10.7) represents aa eigenvalueproblem for a similar to the Orr-Sommerfeld


equation. In general, the solution of (10.7) and (10.8) results to cornplex eigendues.
Values of &(a) > O correspond to decaying modes and represent the disturbances in
downstrem direction. It shouid be mentioned that the systems (10.9)-(10.10) and
(10.7)-(10.8) are equivalent and produce identical results. The solution of either one
requirea a n u m e r i d approach, and we conaider the numerical scheme explained in
the following section. There is in fact an infinite sequence of eigenvalues for each
h e d Re. The problem of finding the eigenvalue with smallest real part is of physical
interest since this eigendue corresponds to the mode that persists furthest (decays
slowest) downstream.

10.2 Numerical Method to Solve the Eigenvalue Problem


The problem is to find all the eigenvalues cr for a given Reynolds number Re. Here,
we present the numerid solution of the system (10.9)-(10.10). This system can be
treated in the fonn of a boundary value problem. Eq. (10.9) is then re-manged as a
set of differential equations with the boundary conditions are prescribed at the two
points. Using the parameters

(10.9) t h the following form


and boundary conditions with the assumption of symmetry at the centerline axe

The system (10.11) together with the imposed b o u n d q conditions (10.12) create a
homogeneoua boundary value problem which cas be solved n u m e r i d y . However, the
solution for arbitrary combinations of the parameters a,and Re is a trivial solution.
To avoid this, there must be a special relationship between the parameters. If a value
specified for one of the paramet ers, a nontrivial solution for 5,8, jj will exist only if the
second parameter has a special value or values. To calculate the nontrivial solutions,
we impose a new boundary condition for M4 to create a nonhomogeneous b o u n d q
value problem. The new form of boundary conditions are written as

where Mc = 1 is an a r b i t r q condition which defines nomialization constant.


We search for a so that the condition (M3 = O at y = O) is satisfied. The system
of equations (10.11) and (10.13) is then solved nurnMcally using a variable order,
variable step size finite-difference method with defered corrections available from the
IMSL library. Having solved the above eigenvalue problem based on the prescribed
nonnalization condition, we find û, 6, and 3 such that $(O) = 1.

10.3 Numerical Solution of the Eigenvalue Problem


Using the numerical method described in previous section we have obtained accurate
results for the eigendues of the stationary perturbation of the Poiseuille flow for a
Reynolds numbers O 5 Re 5 2200.
This particuls problem has been studied in the past and the comprehensiveresults
provided by Bramley & Dennis (1982, 1984) and Stocker & Duck (1995) are useful
benchmarks for our numerid results. The symmetric nature of the Poiseuille flow
results in two distinct types of eigenfunction, narmely, odd and even eigenfunctions
Eigenvalues
3.56303 + 1.393293
3.39772 + 1.375003
+
3.25184 1.336203
3.12415 + 1.281733
3.01328 + 1.21507i
2.80082 + 1.007363'
+
2.66876 0.73614i
+
3.37037 0.516923'
+
3.10623 0.791473
+
2.75945 0.654403
+
3.15980 0.202873
+
2.97010 0.584382
+
2.80083 0.554883
+
3.01075 0.30970i
+
2.81839 0.472433'
2.82446 + 0.404123'
2.86060 + 0.308393
2.70015 + 0.269583'
2.76492 + 0.315413'
+
2.78739 0.175063

Table 10.1: Eigenvalues of the fist complex odd mode of Poiseuille


flow, &(A) > O, O 5 Re 5 350.

about y = 0. In generd the eigenvalues are complex, however, in al1 cases it is the red
part of the eigendue which defines the rate of decay of the associated disturbancea.
In the piesent study we only focus on the odd eigenvaluea with positive r d part
(Re(a)> O) since the disturbance correspondhg this eigenvalue decaya exponentially
in the downstream direction.
The numerid results for the eigenvaluea of different odd modes are presented
in Tàblea 10.1-10.2. At low Reynolds number a l l the eigendues are complex ond
the disturbances acisociated with these eigendues decay in an oscillatory behaviour.
<
The plots of the first complex mode; k n ( c ~ )for 1 Re 5 350 are shown in figure 10.1.
As the Reynolds number is increased, the eigendues generally undergo a number of
Real Eil
(fkst mode) (second mode)
2.36558
L.91010
1A0204
1.12062
0.93490
O.70266
0.56285
0.28199
0.18807
0.14107
0.09406
0.07054
0.05644
O .O3762
0.02822
0.01881
0.01411
0.01282

Table 10.2: Real eigenvalues of the first and second odd modes of
Poiseuille flow, 13 5 Re 5 2200.
brilllching processes switching between being cornplex and real (and vice versa). As
Re -t m, for &(a) > O there exists one real O(1/ Re) eigenvalue family, together
with one cornplex eigendue o(R~-'''). At high Reynolds number the disturbances
associated with the eigenvalues o(R~''') axe darnped out rapidly and the eigenvalues
O(1/ Re) become dominaat.
Figure 10.2 illustrates the r d part of eigenvalues as a function of Reynolds num-
ber. Andysis of this figure shows that the eigenvalues of the first and second real
mode tend to asymptotes with increasing Reynolds number. Physicdy, we are inter-
ested in the eigendues which correspond to the mode that persists furthest (decays
slowest) downstream. For Re < 13 the f?mt complex mode is dominant and the dis-
turbances associated with the complex eigenvalues decay in an oscillatory nature. For
Re 2 13 there exist a spectnun of real and complex modes where the real modes are
dominant as is shown in figure 10.2. The eigenvalue aasouated with the first real odd
mode is in the form of

9 (10.14)

and the eigendue corresponding the second r d odd mode is given by

(10.15)

The numerical results presented here agree with the asymptotic and numerical results
of Wilson (1969) and Stocker & Duck (1995).
Figures 10.3-10.6 illustrate the corresponding eigenfimctions û(y ) ,û(y), and $(y)
to the fkst dominant mode at different Reynolds number. The analysis of these
figures show that û and 6 are even and odd functions of y respectively, indicating the
symmetric nature of the disturbances. Figure 10.3 shows that Im(û(y) ) approaches
to zero as Re + 13, indicating the existence of a pure real dominant eigendue at
Re 2 13. Figs. 10.5-10.6 show that Re(p(y)) and kn@(y)) are odd functions of
y. As Reynolds number is increased, ReUj(y)) -t 1 approaching the characteristic
behaviour of an inviscid flow.
Figure 10.1: Eigenduea of the b s t complex odd mode of plane
Poiseuille flow, Im(a).

100.00
- thlrd complex odd mode

second complex odd mods


10.00
<-. \

first complw odd mode '-, .\

fimt mal odd mode

second ml odd mode ,

Figure 10.2: Eigenvalues of plane Poiseuille flow, Re(a) > 0.


-1 .O0 4.50 0.00 0.50 1.O0
Y
Figure 10.3: Eigenfunctions û(y) of the first odd mode of Poiseuille
flow, O < Re < 2200.
Figure 10.4: Eigenfunctions Û(y) of the first odd mode of plaae
Poiseuille flow,O < Re < 2200.
Figure 10.5: Eigenfùnctions $(y) of the f i s t odd mode of plane
Poiseuille flow, 5 < Re < 80.
Figure 10.6: Eigenfunctions $(y) of the fkst odd mode of plane
Poiseuille flow, O < Re < 2200.
10.4 Cornparisons wit h Numerical Data

It is known that far enough downstream of the channel entry as x + oo, the chor-
acter of the flow is defined by two parts, including the Poiseuille flow and the s m d
stationary perturbation of the Poiseuille flow which decays exponentidy away from
the channel exit. To verify the spatial evolution of s m d stationary perturbation of
the Poiseuille flow, the behaviour of a flow quantity fax downstream of the cha.nnel
entry should be investigated. We chose the pressure gradient distribution (21,~) as
a quantitative description of the flow development in the problem of channel entrance
flow. This quantity also provides a delicate test to assess the accuracy of the available
numerid data. Far away kom the c h u e l entry, 2 can be approximated by

where

c.c = -1A-* p (y) exp(-a*(x


A*
- xo)). (10.16b)
2
In the above, a is assumed tobe the srndest r d positive eigenvalue, j(y) is the
conesponding eigenfunctions and A is a complex constant.
The above equation may be used in eonjunction with the numerical results pre-
sented in Chapter 9 to obtain estimates of a h m the flow downstream. Obviously,
(10.16a) ca,n be applied at any cross section of the dianne1 but the lower wall, where
$ + oo, n the inlet. Therefore, the centerline was chosen as the proper location
to test the obtained results. Substituting (10.16b) into (10.16a) and simpliSing, we
derive

where A = -A a and A* = -A* ' a is the correspondhg cornplex conjugate. Writ-


ing (10.17) dong the centerline aad applying the normalization condition @(O) =
For purely real eigenvalues = O and Eq. (10.18) is simplified t o

In the above equation xo is an arbitrazy location. We select xo = O and therefore,


(10.6) can be written as

For compIex eigendues, w e select x = zo. Since in (10.18), (2+ &) 1 O, goes
to zero as x -t ai, we obtain Ar = 0,

The velocity and pressure perturbations axe found as

Cornparisons between the numerical solution of the eigendue problem and the
asymptotic results (10.18) can be made by estimating a dong the centerline using
the ovailable numerical data for 2.
For r d eigenvalues, (1 0.19) reduces to

For cornplex eigendues, (10.21) reduces to


&+A
ln & Re = In (Ai) - ar X .
sin [ai ( X - ZO)]
u=o
In (10.23), the A, and a, cao be calculateci by writing (10.23) at two locations dong
the centerline forming a system of linear equations with two unknowns. The Ai can
be found with a similu approach from (10.24).
In the region where exponential decay occura, la 12+ decreases lin-ly as
a function of x, and -a, is the slope of the line. The theoretical and numerical values
of cr, and computed values of A are given in Table 10.3.
A
(numerical)

0.0100
0.0120
0.0125
0.0122
0.0115
0.0109
0.00865
0.00630
O.00474
0.00392
0.00192
0.00120
0.000805
0.000688

Table 10.3: Cornparisons between the numerical and theoretical cal-


d a t i o n of a, 5 5 Re 5 2200. The values of A for
Re < 40 aze not given because of limitations of the nu-
merical results.
The exponential decay of the flow qukntity (8) at high Reynolds number is shown
in figures 10.7(*c). As Reynolds number is increased, the magnitude of the dominant
eigesvaluea demeases. Disturbmces correspondhg to these eigendues decay slowly
(i.e., exponentid decay occurs in long distances before reaching the limit of the accu-
racy of the resulti). Therefore, we are able to isolate the region where disturbances
decky accordhg to (10.23). This region is shown in the form of a straight line with
the dope (-+) in figure8 10.7(*c). The a, is the dominant eigendue and can be
dculated as cr, = tair(8). As a firrther test and to darifjr the previous results figure
10.8 exhibits the exponential decay of the velocity disturbances dong the centerline.
The straight line shown in figure 10.8 corresponds to the region where exponential
decay occurs. Baaed on the presented results we condude that the linearized theory
(10.23) is able to predict the flow behaviour far downstrekm of the chasne1 entry.
Figure 10.9 shows the flow behaviour in the entrance region of the channel at low
Reynolds number. While the flow entera the chagnel and dose to the entrance region
< O mtil h 18+ &l ôpproaches a local minimum. The location of the local
minimum moves further downstream of the Channel entry by increaaing Reynolds
number. In this region the charactes of the flow is dected by the existence of sharp
edged entrknce and non-linear effects are dominant. Furthet downstream non-linear
effects disappear and exponential decay of the difference between the actud flow and
the Poiseuille flow begins. The dominant eigendues at low Reynolds number are
O(1) asid thus the associated disturbances damp rapidly. Therefore, we approach the
limit of the numerical accuracy of the scherne in short distances downstream of the
charme1 entry. In reality to be able to observe the exponential spatid evolution of the
flow development in the Channel, the results with very high accuracy are required.
This is shown in figure 10.9 where the data are obtained for Re = 15 using the step
sizes (h = &, and h = k). Due to increaae of the accuracy of the reaults for Re = 15
with the step size h = & we are able to observe the region where exponentid decay
occurs (i.e., the lin* decrease of ln 1 $ + & 1 as a function of s shown in figure 10.9)
before approaching the limit of the accuracy of the results.
For Re < 13 the dominant eigendue is complex and disturbances decay in an
oscillatory mamer. Figures lO.lO(a,b) exhibit the decay of disturbances for Re =
5,lO. In Eq. (10.24) xo corresponds to the local minimum point (i.e., the location
where 1% + 21-t O) as shown in figure 10.9.
Our numericd results agree very well with the theoretical values of c*. given in
'Iàble 10.3. The agreement of the numerical results and the obtained numerical values
of ar is of great advastage and indicates that our numerid scherne provides highly
Figure 10.7: Exponential decay of the stationaxy perturbation of
<
Poiseuille flow, a) 15 Re 5 100, b) 100 Re 5 500, c)
500 5 Re 5 2200.
Figure 10.8: Evaluation of the exponential decay of the stationary per-
turbation of Poiseuille flow based on velocity at the cen-
tedine, Re = 500,1000.

Figure 10.9: The flowbehaviour in the entrance region of a chasne1


at low Reynolds number, (-) h = &, (--) h = &.
Figure 10.10: Exponential decay of the stationary perturbation of
Poiseuille flow at low RRyno1ds number, a) Re = 5 , b)
Re = 10.
accurate r d t s .

The obtained numerical results r e v d valuable information regarding physical aspects


of the entry length. The study of spatial decay of s m d stationary perturbations of
the Poiseuille flow necemitates to evaluate the previous definitions of entry length
and to introduce new and appropriate criteria. Baped on available numerical data an
appropriate entrance length may be defined as:

i. The distance fkom the inlet cross section to the point where centerline velocity
reaches 99% of the asymptotic d e .

ii. The distance from the inlet cross section to the point where centerline velocity
reaches 99.5% of the asymptotic d u e .

iii. The distance fiom the inlet cross section to the point where centerline velocity
reaches 99.9% of the asymptotic value.

iv. The distance fiom the Channel entry to the point where
12 + klFo = exp(-~~).

v. The diatmce fiom the channe1 entry to the point where


12+ & - R ~XP(-CG lFo X) =~ ( i o - ~ ) .
vi. The distance from the channe1 entry to the point where (Re 9 lF0) attains 99%
of the asymptotic value.

vü. The distance required K ( x ) to approach to 95% of the M y developed value.

It is important to note that seledion of any of the above criteria results in a different
wiation of entrance length as a fundion of Reynolds number, Le., entrance length
is definition dependent.
The results of the dculated hydrodynamic entrance length based on the above cri-
teria are shown in Tbbles 10.4-10.5 and Fig. 10.11. Criterion (i) haa been extensively
used in the fiterature as a measure of attaining the Poiseuille flow in downatream of
the cha1111e.Iinlet (Chen (1973); Morihara & Cheng (1973); Naraztg & Krishnamoor-
thy (1976); Atkinson et d (1969); Williamson (1969)). However, experimental works
on lamina flow development in tubes asid redaggdar ducta use a criterion based on
the asymptotic value of the presaure gradient dfat the exit of the channe1 (Emery &
Chen 1968; Sparrow 1967).
Beavers et d. (1970) and Nguyen & MadaineCross (1988) defined the entry
length in tenns of the distance where K ( z ) attains a preassigned percentage of its
f d y developed value. The results of these authors are based on 95% and 99% of
the asymptotic value of K(x) respectively. To reveal more p h y s i d properties of the
flow, we have introduced the criteria (ii) and (iii). These criteria result in longer
entry length as is shown in Fig. 10.11. Definitions (iv) and (v) ace directly resulted
fiom the study of the evolution of flow development in long distances downstream of
the charnel entry. Critesion (v) is an estimation of the negleded non-linear terma in
(lO.16a). Criterion (vi) is defined to determine the behaviour of entry length using
the asymptotic value of Re$ at the exit.
The analysis of figure 10.11 indicates that the flow shows a rather different be-
haviour at low and high Reynolds number. Foi Re < 13, the entry length increases
very alowly with an increaae of Reynolds number (criteria i, ii, iii, and iv). This
behaviour can be explained with the help of eigenvalue analysis shown in figures 10.1
and 10.2. In this range of Reynolds number all the modes are complex and the be-
haviour of the flow in downstream of the channel entry is governed by the eigendues
associated with the k s t complex mode. The r d part of the dominant eigendues
are of O(1) and decreaae siowly with increa~ingReynolds number. Therefore, the
stationary perturbation of the Poiseuille flow decay rapidly, resulting to the fast flow
development and short entry length. The charader of flow at low Reynolds number
does not allow us to compute a unique entry length based on criteria (iv) and (v) (see
figure 10.9). It ahould be added that if the criterion (iv) is defined based on, e.g.,
1% + j&o2 = exp(-8), the entrance length for Re > 2000 is completely insensitive
to this definition.
For Re 2 13, the character of flow starts to change. This is shown in figure 10.11a
as the region where the entry length changes rapidly. For Re 2 13, there &st families
of complex and real modes where eigesvalues aasociated with the f i s t r d mode start
to dominate the dow. As Reynolds number increases, the r d eigendues decrease
very rapidly (i.e., a s m d incxease of the Reynolds number leads to a sudden decrease
of the eigenvalues) resulting a non-linear behaviour of the entry length aa a function of
Reynolds number. Due to the complex nature of flow at 13 5 Re $35 we are not able
to predict the behaviour of entrance length. For Re 2 35 and as Reynolds number
is increased, the dominant eigendue of the first real mode decreases and therdore
the spatial exponentid evolution of the difference between the actual flow and the
Figue 10.11: Entrknce length as a function of Re, a) O 5 Re 80, b)
O 2 R e < 2200.
O < Re < 1300, based on criteria (i) and (iv).
'hble 10.4: Entraace length, Xe,
I
present present Morihara &
work work Cheng (1973)
(il (4 (il
0.50 1.00
0.51 1.12 1.302
0.54 1.29
0.56 1.34
0.63 1.37
0.80 1.48 2.237
0.95 1.67
1.53 2-47
2.48 4.49
2.77 4.97
3.96 6.69
5.09 8.37
6.75 10.85
9.54 15.00
15.06 23.31 18.06
20.58 31.75
31.45 48.10
39.68 60.00
42.36 64.30
53.05 81.97
64.34 96.79
74-92 113.01
79-86 121.48
85.50 129.94
106.07 160.45
116.51 176.39
126.40 191.77
136-29 206.00
'hble 10.5: Entrace leagth, Xe,1400 < Re < 2200, based on criteria (i) and (iv
-- -

present present Morihara &


work work Cheng (1973)
6) (vil (il
146.17 221.98
155.51 237.36
164.85 252.74
173.64 268.13
182.43 281.31
190.67 296.14
199.46 312.08
206.85 329.65
214.29 343.10

fully developed solution occus in a slowes rate. The behaviour of the computed entry
length based on criteria (iv-v) at high Reynolds number is a result of the nature of
the dominant eigenvalues. For Re 2 35 the entrance Iength based on criterion (i-iii,
and vi) inmeases linearly. However, the rate of increae of the entry length start to
change at high Reynolds number .
The behaviour of the entry length at high Reynolds number can be deacribed
using (10.19) and re-arranging in the form of

Substituting (10.14) into the above equation and simplifying, we have

If the entry length is defined based on criterion (vi), we have

-- 1 0.02 Xe
hl-
56.442 ArRe=2Re9
where Xeis the computed entry length. To fkid the asymptotic behaviour of &, the
behaviour of the coeflicient A, ae a function of Reynolds number is depicted in Fig.
10.12. Analysis of this figure indicates that for the range of Reynolds number studied
present Morihara
work and Cheng
(il (1973)
0.0518
0.0515
0.0511
0.0507
0.0502
O.0499
0.0493
0.0487

Tàble 10.6: The behaviour of normalized entrame length


Reynclds number (criterion i).
*, at high

in this work there is no asymptote for Ar. Therefore, we are not able to provide an
explicit asymptote for 2. However, it is possible to fkd a correlation for the d u e s
of A, in the form of

Further asalysis of figure 10.11 indicates that criterion (iii) gives an upper bound
for the computed entrmce length at high Reynolds number. While at low Reynolds
nwnber criteria (iv and v) give the upper bound for the entrance length.
Tables 10.4-10.5 &es the computed entrame length from the present study and
other researchers. The present predictions are s e e n to be lower than the results
provided by Morihara & Cheng (1973), Narang & Krishnamoorthy (1976),and Chen
(1973). The reason for this behaviour is: these authors have assumed a d o r m
velocity as the inlet boundary condition for the chanael. This treatment of inlet
conditione is far from reality since a correct prediction of flow behaviour in the chaamel
requires a simulta~ieouasolution of flow upstream and downstream of the inlet. The
assumption of uniform velocity at the inlet obviously decouples the upstream and
downstream region of the c h a d entry, resulting in a simplified form of flow which
cannot provide a correct resolution of the problem. At low Reynolds number, the
Figure 10.12: Constant as a function of Re.

difhsion of vorticity in the upstream region is sipificant and plays an important role
in the flow development. The assumption of uniform velocity at the inlet neglects
such d e c t s and fails to give a reliable description of the flow.The resulta provided by
the boundary layer theory (Schlichting 1934) are not accurate because its simplified
aasumptions me not valid in the vicinity of the inlet. The m e n t approach allows
us to determine a correct behaviour of flow in the channel. In the present study part
of the flow development occurs in the upstream region and before the fluid enters
the chamel. Thus, the predicted entry length is lower than the results provided by
others. At high Reynolds number the d e c t of upstream flow development becomes
leas important but the formation of a vena contracta at the inlet leads to the higher
acceleration of flow in the inviscid wre of the channel and faater flow development.
Therefore, sharp-edged entrance is considerd as a method to reduce the entry length.
These results are in agreement with Emery & Chen (1968). A cornparison of the
present resulta for & (baaed on criterion i) with Morihara & Cheng (1973) at high
Reynolds number is given in lbble 10.6. The d y s i s of this table shows the existence
of a sharpedged entrance lekds to 10.35% decrease in the computed entry length at
Re = 1500 compared with the results provided by (Morihaza & Cheng 1973). Our
results &O indicate that the percentage of decrease of the entry length increases with
increasing Reynolds number .
Chapter 11

Flow Behaviour at Far Distances


Upstream of the Channel Entry

In the problem under investigation, the i d o w bounditry conditions are determined


from the far-field asymptotic solution of the Navier-Stokes equations (JefEéry-Hamel
solution). To obtain information regarding the location where this solution is d d ,
we s h d investigate the spatial development of steady ~mallperturbations of a JH
flow as r -t oo (figure 3.1). This problem is govemed by a differential eigendue
equation. The solution of this equation for divergent flows has been widely atudied,
both analyticdy and numericdy (Dean (1934); Banks et al. (1988)).
In the present study the apatial decôy of the diffkrence between the &al fiow
aad the JE flow in the upstream region of the chasnd entry is investigated. It is
ahown that disturbances decay proportionally to r" where r is the distance from the
entrance and X is an eigenvalue which determines the rate of decay.

11.1 Formulation
Various perturbations of the JH solutions have been studied, but here we s h d study
the spatial development of such steady flows and their steady perturbations ofter
Banks et al. (1988) and Dennis et al. (1997); on writing
and taking normal modes of the form

where P(r, O ) , Ur(r,8) and P(r, 0) denote the stream fundion, radid velocity and the
pressure field of the basic symmetric JH flow respedively.
Substituting (1l.h-d) into (3.1)-(3.3), lineazizing the system for s m d perturba-
tion, and eliminating the pressure we obtain

The above equation is to be solved subject to

Equation (11.4) repreaents an eigenvalue problem for A. In general, solution of (11.3)


and (11.4) results in complex eigenvalues. The family of odd eigenfimctions Û cor-
responds to the symmetric nature of JH flow in the current study. Here, we only
identify the relevant eigenduea (&(A) < O) because these eigenvalues correspond to
decaying modes as r increasea.
To determine X and V in terma of Re, the eigenvalue problem (11.3)-(11.4) is solved
directly by the numerical method explkined in Chapter IO.

11.2 Numerical Solution of the Eigenvalue Problem


The eigenaolutions may be of two types depending û is an even or odd eigenfunction.
Banks et al. (1988) presented the kndytical expressions for two families of eigen-
functions and the correspondhg eigenvalues when Re = O. This caee is w d knom
because it reduces to the solution of the bihitrmonic equation and represents prob-
lems of plane elasticity as well as Stokes flow in a wedge. Banks et al. (1988) dso
anticipated the similar occurrence of families of even and odd eig&ctions when
Re # O dthough their qualitative detaila diffa from thoae when Re = 0.
The numerical results for the eigenvalue~of the symmetric and antisymmetnc
modes axe presented in Tables 11.1-11.3 and Fig. 11.1. For Re < 0.8 the dominant
eigenvalues of the first symmetric mode are r d . As RRp01ds number is increaaed,
eigenvalues awitch to cornplex and then r d numbers, indicating the cornplex chatac-
ter of flow for Re < 10. The andysis of Fig. 11.1 shows that eigenvalues of the first
symmetric and antisymmetric modes tend to asymptotes at high Reynolds nurnber.
The asymptotic d u e s are obtained by studying the steady s m d perturbations of a
sink flow described in Appendix E. As RRynofds number is increased, the eigenduea
conesponding to the first aatisymmetric mode approadi the asymptotic value X = -1
very rapidly. In general disturbances aasociated with the antisymmetric mode decay
with alower rate compared with the symmetric mode. AB Re -+ 0, the magnitude
of the dominant eigenvalue demeases indicating the slower rate of the decay of the
disturbances. At Re = 0, the disturbances aasociated with the antisymmetric mode
dways present in the flow field. This behaviour indicates that if one is interested to
solve the fidl flow field without applying the symmetry conditions at the centerline,
the aasumption of Jeffery-Hamel fiow at far distances upstrearn of the chknnel entry
c a ~ o be
t completely justified.
Eigenfunctions û(9), û(B) and $(O) of the first symmetric mode axe shown in Figs.
11.2-11.4.
Table 11.1: Eigenvalues of the first symmetric mode of J d q - H - e l
flow, &(A) < O, O 5 Re 2 8.3.
Table 11.2: Eigendues of the &st aymmetric mode of Jeffery-Hamel
flow, &(A) < O, 8.4 5 Re 5 00.
Table 11.3: Eigendua of the firat antisymmetric mode of J d q -
Hamelflow, Re@) < 0, O 5 Re 5 m.
First real
antisymmetric mode

symmetric mode

mode of siak Eiow

Figure 11.1: Eigesdues of the first symrnetric and antisymmetric


modes of J&q-Hamel flow, Re(X) < O, O 5 Re < m.
;
Re=80
Re=500 ,
1
s~~~flowB
Figure 11.2: Eigenfunctions û(8) of the first symmetric mode of J & e r y - H d flow.
Figure 11.3: Eigenfiuictions û(0) of the &st symmetric mode of JefFery-Hamel flow.
Figure 11.4: Eigenfunctions @(O) of the fvst symmetric mode of JefE'ery-Hamel flow.
11.3 Cornparison wit h Numerical Data
It is known that far enough upstream of the chamel entry as x + -00, the character
of flow is d&ed as the summation of two pazts; basic symmetric JH flow and the
s m d stationary perturbation of the JH flow which decay proportiondy to rA.To ver-
iS, the rate of decay obtained in previous section, the eigenvalue A rnay be c d d a t e d
using the available numerical data for pressure gradient dong the centesline
Taking the d e r i ~ t i v of
e (11.2) in the radial direction r, we obtkin

The above equation represents the form of perturbations of pressure gradient for JB
flow. Eq. (11.5) may then be written in the form of

where is the pressure gradient of the actual flow and (g) J H represents the
pressure gradient of the JH flow (Eq. (3.5)). Fàr upstream of the channel entry, the
s m d stationary perturbations of the pressure gradient are approximated according
to Eq. (11.6), where X denotes the dominant e i g m d u e and $ is the corresponding
eigenfundion.
Figs. 11.5-11.7 exhibit the plots of Eq. (11.6) at Re =IO, 100, 500, 1000, 2200
using the available numerical data. For comparison the theoretical rate of decay is
dso 8hown in these figures. One may observe that as r increases, 1 (g) (2)
A - JH 1
approa,ches zero and the theoretid rate of decôy is attained. Based on such andysis
we mndude that the upstream boundary conditions are applied at proper location. As
a further test, Fig. 11.8 illustrates the behaviour of Reg dong the centerline obtained
fkom solution of the Navier-Stokes equations and J d q - H a m e l flow (Eq.(3.5)). One
may observe that as x + -m, the difference between these two solutions approaches
zero.
Compkiison between the dominant eigenvalues of Jdq-Hamel flow and sink
flow given in Table 11.2 indiates that for Re > 50, the behaviour of Jeffery-Hamel
flow approaches the sink. The plot of velocity profile of the J e - H a m e l flow for
O < Re < 2200 ia shown in figure 11.9. The andyeis of this figure indicates that with
increaaing Reynolds number the velocity profile exhibits d the well-known chara*;
teristics of boundary layers near the wd, asid an approlcirnately constant velocity
across the r a t of the chmel. Since the thickness of the boundary layer decreases
with increming the Reynolds number, it is expected that the approximation of the
Jdezy-Hamel flow at the inlet boundaay with a model based on a sink has negligible
d e c t s on the %owfield inside the channel. To vetify this assumption we have d m -
lated the flow field in the entrance region of the c h a n d with inlet conditions of a
sink for Re = 50. The results for velocity profile and the stream function were com-
paed with those obtained based on the assumption of Jdery-Hamel flow as the inlet
boundary conditions. The results were identical up to three decimal places as far as
the stream fundion values are concerneci. The clifference in the velocity profiles across
the channe1 could not be visua.lized graphically and are not shown here. Sparrow and
Anderson (1977) solved the hydrodynamic entry flow problem based on using a sink
to presaibe the inlet boundaq conditions for 0.375 < Re < 375. Table 11.1-11.2
shows that for Re < 50 the eigendues are siknificantly different from the asymptotic
value obtaiaed fiom a sink flow. Therefore, th& model based on the assumption of
a simple sink flow at low Reynolds number casnot present a correct description of
the flow in the upstream region. Furthermore, for Re < 3.75, these authors applied
the inlet boundary conditions at a location r = 4 upstream of the channd entry. As
Re + 0, the dominant eigenvalue approachea -1 and the rate of the decay of small
stationary perturbations of the JH fiow decreaaea. Therehe, the application of a
sink flow at r = 4 for modeling entrance fiow problem caa be questioned. At high
Reynolds number these authors applied the inlet boundary conditions at r = 80. The
study of Tàble 11.2 shows that the dominant eigenvalues of the first symmetric mode
of the Jeffery-Hamel flow approaches -2 by increaaing Reynolds number. Therefore,
the rate of decay of the diaturbances becomes constant. Based on such behaviour one
can conclude that the application of the inlet boundary conditions at r = 80 is not
necessary and increases the computational load significantly.
Figure 11.5: Decay of the stationary perturbation of JefFery-Hamel flow,Re=5,100.
Figure 11.6: Decay of the stationary perturbation of JefEery-Hamel
flow,Re=500, 1000.
Figure 11.7: Decay of the stationilry perturbation of J&q-Hamel
fiow, Re=1500, 2200.
Re = 2200
Jcffery-&me1 aoW
- Navier-Stokes solrition

Figure 11.8: Distribution of norrnalized pressure gradient ( ~ e g )


dong the centerlinein the upstream region of the chamel
entry, Re=5, 2200.
Figure 11.9: Radial velocity profile obtained from JefTery-Hamel flow,
O < Re < 2200.
Chapter 12

Conclusions and Recommendations

12.1 Conclusions
The channe1 entrance flow problem for a Newtonian fluid flow was solved numeri-
cally using the complete set of governing equations and the newly proposed inflow
boundary conditions. The key feature of the proposed mode1 is to remove the arbi-
trary assumptiona regarding the atatus of flow at the inlet, thus, providing a realiatic
representation of the entrante flow characteriatics. The inlet boundary wnditions pre-
scribed here are based on Jdery-Hamel flow. A 4 t h order compact finitediffaence
algorithm is used to aolve the flow fields upatream and downstream of the chasne1
entry sirnultaaeously. To enhance the accuracy of the results in the areas where high
gradient of flow variables exist and to save some computational tirne, the coordinate
transformations are applied. To control the error characteristics of the truncation er-
ror appearing in the numerical dgorithm, the behaviour of trassformation functions
in Mixent regions was cazefully studied.
Reaults are obtained for Reynolds numbers O < Re < 2200 with accuracy no
worse than 0.1% at the laxgest value of Re. The re8ult8 show that at Iow Reynolds
number flow enters the charnel very smoothly. As Reynolds number is increased, the
flow structure near the entrance at&s to change. A region of bôdt flow fkst appears
at Re = 137 and extends over a certain finite distance downstream of the chamel
entry forming a vena contracta. The length of separation zone increases monotoni-
cally by increasing Reynolds number. The thickness of vena contracta a p p r o d e s an
asymptote as Reynolds number is increased.
At Re = 0, the vdocity profile at z = O inaeases smoothly h m a zero value at
the wall to a maximum at the centerline and the flow development occurs in very
short distances from the entrame. The appearance of such velocity distribution at
x = O strongly questions the validity of previous n u m e r i d analyses based on the
assumption of uniform flow at the entrance. As Reynolds number ie increased, the
velocity profile at x = O begins to change; it is approaching a mainly flat profile
in the central region of the Channel. At Re = 40, the velocity profile a t the inlet
cross section shows to have an off-centered maximuxn The magnitude of the velocifiy
overshoot at the entrance increases with increasing Reynolds number until it obtains
a maximum value at Re = 300. For Re > 300, the overahoot phenornenon at the
inlet uosa section begins to diminish untd it disappears at Re = 700.
Information on the developing pressure field is presented in terms of axial pressure
distribution. An entrance pressure &op is observed in the upstream region of the
channel d r y , owing to the combined effects of the fluid acceleration towards the
eatrance cross section and wdl sheaz stress. At low Reynolds nurnber the pressure
inside the channel decreases monotonicdy. Downstream fkom the chasne1 entry, the
preasure begins decreasing linearly as the Poiseuille flow starts to form. As Reynolds
number is increased, a signifiant l o d pressure drop appears at the inlet due to
increaae of inertia efFects. The location of the maximum local pressure drop moves
downstream with increasing Reynolds nurnber. The deceleration of the fluid starts at
this point until the Poiseuille flow distribution is attained. During this stage pressure
drop is pattially recovered. The size of the recovery region increases with as increaae
of Reynolds number. The results show that the entrance loss k ( z ) fises sharply with
increaaing downstream distance, and then tends to level off, reaching ultimately a
constant value; this value characterizes strength of entraace losses. As Reynolds
number is increased, the fully developed d u e s of k decreases sharply until it attains
a minimum value at Re = 700. It then starts to inuease with inaeasing Reynolds
number. The deviation between the present results and the amilable data in the
literature is due to the particular type of flow structure aasociated with the existence
of the sharpedged entraace. The losses near the entrarrce, which aze not considered
in other studies, d e c t the overall pressure drop significantly, thus, changing the
behaviour of the entrance losa.
To verify the accuracy of the obtained results and to con- the location of inflow
and outfiow boundary conditions, the evolution of the s m d stationary perturbations
of the flow in the downstream aad upstream of the chânnel entry were studied solving
two differential eigenvalue problems.
At low Reynolds number the eigendues of the stationary perturbation of the
Poiseuille flow in the region far downstream of the channd entry are complex and
the aasociated disturbmces decay in an oscillatory nature, indicating the complex
charader of the flow. As Reynolds number is increaaed, the eigenwdues genetdy
undergo a number of branching processes switching beheen being cornplex and real
(and vice versa). As Re + m, for &(a) > O there exista one dominant real eigenvahe
O(l/Re). The eigenvalues of the fmt and second real mode tend to asymptotes with
inaeaaing Reynolds number. Physically, we are interested in the eigenvalues which
correspond to the mode that persists furthest (decays slowest) downstream. The
exponentid decay of the disturbances of the pressure gradient distribution almg the
centerline is confirmed using the a d a b l e numerical data. This andysis led to an
appropriately dehed entrace length. It waa shown in this study that the existence
of the vena contracta reduces the hydrodynamic entry length compared with the
available data in the literature for the solution of the flow field between two p d e l
plates. Based on the provided data we were able to predict the behaviour of the
hydrodynamic entrance length at high RRynoIds number.
In the present study the spatial decay of the difference between the actual flow and
the J&kq-Hamel0ow in the upstream region of the diasne1 entry is investigated. It
is shown that disturbances decay proportionally to rAwhere r is the distance fiom the
entrance and X is an eigendue which determines the rate of decay. The n u m e r i d
results for eigendues of the first symmetnc and antisymmetric modes ate presented.
For Re < 0.8 the dominant eigendua of the first symmetric mode are r d . As
Reynolds number is increased, eigendues switch to complex and then r d numbers,
indicating the complex character of flow for Re < 8.4. At high Reyn01ds number
eigendues of the first symmetric and antisymmetric modes tend to asymptotes,
which are obtained by studying the steady s m d perturbations of a sink flow. Based
on this andysis we condude that at hi& Reynolds number the Jeffery-Hamel flow
provides a sufticiently accurate mode1 at a distance r = 10 upstream of the channel
entrance. Thii distance inaeases as Re + O because the magnitude of the first
dominant eigenvalue decreases and therefore, disturbances decay with slower rate.
Our analysis indicate that for Re > 50, the behaviour of the Jeffery-Hmel flow
approaches the sink. The results show that disturbaacea aasociated with the first
antisymmetric mode decay with slower rate wmpared with the symmetnc mode. At
Re = O, disturbances ôssociated with the antisymmetric mode always present in the
flow field and the aasumption of Jdery-Hamel flow at far distances upstream of the
chamel entry is not just3ed.
In final it should be mentioned that the present work provides the first comprehen-
sive set of data dealing with prediction of hydrodynamic entry length and entrance
100s in channe1 entry flow. These results avoid uncertainties associated with the ex-
iating data in the literature and provide a good benchmark for engineering design.

12.2 Recommendations for Future Work


Future research in the area should investigate the flow behaviour at higher Reynolds
numbers. Such a study may allow us to determine the asymptotic behaviour (if it
exists) of the length of separation mne and thickness of vena contracta as a function
of Reynolds number.
Fùture research rnay be &O aimed at providing a more accurate sesolution of the
problem for a wd-rounded entrance using the proposed i d o w boundary condition.
This analysis will reveal the effects of inlet geometry on the flow development inside
the channel.
F'urther study is required to solve the fidl flow field at very low Reynolds number
and without the assumption of symmetry at the centerline. Under such condition the
aasumption of the Jedfery-Hamel flow at far distances upstream of the channe1 entry
is questionable.
Appendix A

Analytical Solution of
Jeffery-Hamel Flow

We s h d now seek the analytid solution of Eq. (3.11) subject to conditions (3.12a)-
(3.13) at s m d and high Reynolds number. To obtain the function F, we introduce
f in the following form

Function F attkins its maximum value , F at O = 0, then, f = 1 at 0 = O. R e


writing Eqs. (3.11)-(3.13) irr terms o f f , we obtain

where cl = F-c. If ReF- + O, then we have

The solution of the above differential equation subject to the prescribed boundôry
conditions is

Rom the definition of the v01umetx-i~flow rate, we obtain

(1 + cos 28) de = --3F-2'


aad the final form of the fundion F is derived as

The second special case is when ReF- + m. This problem is introduced in


the fomi of a singular perturbation problem and we use the method of matdied
asymptotic expansions to determine the approxirnate expression for f . The existence
a
of s boundary layer at 8 = requires to malyze the behaviour of the fundion f
inside and outside the boundary layer. At fmt we find an approximation for f in the
region outside the boundasy layer (Le, outer solution). W e define d G = f , and
then, c + O when RF,, + m. Equationa (A.l)-(1.2b) can be written in tenns of
the new parameter a

d f" + fa + 42f = Zci, (A.9)


f = 0, 6 = r/2,
f' = O, 8 = o. (A. 10)

We assume an outer expansion for f and an asymptotic expansion for e2c1 in the
following fonns

(A. 11)
(A.12)

Substituting for f and e2c1, into the governing equations (A.9)-(A.lO) and equating
coefncients of like powers of r, we have

(A.13)
(A. 14)

(A. 15)
(A. 16)

(A. 17)
The three problems defmed here could be solved in succession. The fkst term outer
expansion is obtained fiom equation (A.13) in the form of

Equation (A.15) goverm the second term outer expansion and the solution is found
as

and h d y the solution for the third terrn outer expansion can be obtained from
equation (A.17)as

Substitution of the above expressions into equation (A.11) gives the outer solution
for f as

f = 1 +op), (A.22)

and cl is

Substitution of cl into equation (A.9) gives

2f"+ fa + 42f = 1 + 42 + 0 ( r 3 ) (A.24)

The above equation can be multiplied by f' and integrated once to give

with the b o u n d q conditions

Fkom (A.25) and (A.26)we have

(A. 27)

hence equation (A.25)can be written in the fonn of

(A. 28)
To find the solution inside the boundary layer (Le., inner solution), we introduce
the variable t = 7r/2 - 6 , and the stretdiing t r d o r m a t i o n z = aZ into the above
equation. Under this transformation, the governing equation becomes

W e assume as inner solution for f in the form of

Substituting (A.31) into (A.29) and equating co&cients of like powers of E, we derive

The solutions of the above problems are found successively. The first term inner
expansion is derived as:

and the second term inner expansion is obtained as:

Substitution of these expressions into (A.31) gives the inner solution for f in the
following form
The above solution must match the outer solution at a distance fiom the wd. We
can construd a composite expknsion on the basis of having inner and outer solution,
which is d o d y valid in the entire region. This can e a d y be done by summation of
the inner and outer expansions which is corrected by subtrôcting the part they have
in cornmon. The common part is dehed as the b e r limit of the outer expansion.
The composite expasion is found to be

(A.40)

Substitution of the above equation into the volumetric flow condition gives

(A.41)

(A.42)
Appendix B

Local Analytical Solution of Flow


Equations around a Corner

The analytieal description of flow âround a corner is best given by Gupta (1981). The
solutions to (4.3)-(4.4) in the vicinity of corners in terms of power series in Re are
represented as

where Re denotes the Reynolds nurnber. Substituting the above equations into (4.3)
and (4.4) knd comparing the powers of Re on both sida, we get

k-l

where

The solution of (B.3) expressed in polar coordinates, centered at the corner with
r = 0, asid with the line B = O taken dong the interna bisector of the corner angle
gr (Fig.7.2) is given in the form of
where the A,, are the constants of superposition,)@t is the stream fiindion d u e on
the boundary, Re denotes the real part of a cornplex expression, and the constants An
correspond to eigendues of the appropriate boundary d u e problem for fn(B). The
details of such derivation is given by Shen & Floryan (1985) and here we present the
final form of expression for the functions fn(B)

cos[(A, - 2)(3n/4)] cos(Xn6)- cos[An(37r/4)]ms[(X, - 2)81 ,

The first two values of An aie A1 = 1.5444837, A2 = 1.9085292. The expression for
vorticity is obtained from (B.5)in the form of

<(O) (r, 9) = Re ( C~ ~(8) ), r ~ ~ -

where the functions gn(8) are given by

(B. 10)

To provide suaicient accuracy compatible with the numerid scheme only a finite
number of tenns in the summation (B.7)knd (B.9) need be retained. In this analysis
the first two terms a e retained which represent the symmetric and antisymmetric
parte of the flow around 8 = 0.
The a n d y t i d solution of vorticity is written as

where constants Al and A2 are deternilned fIom matching with the solution away
from the corner. The application of the above equation into the numerid procedure
is explained with the help of Fig. 7.2. The CD value is singuias and it renders the
finitedifference approximations (4.26) and (4.36) invalid at points 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7.
The values of vorticity at these points are, therefore, evaluated from (B. 11) convert-
h g points 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7 into boundiuy points for the vorticity field. Various
matching methods can be strmmarized as foUowe:
Method A: Determine Al and A2 from the known vorticity value at points 9 and 10
(the values of ('a and Clo have to be updated sequentidy during the iteration process).
It should be mentioned that due to application of a specific stencil in dculation of
vorticity in boundary formula (see figure 7.2) the mat ching haa to be applied at points
9 and 10. The following formulations are &ed out in the p h y s i d plane where a
carteaian grid with diffesent mesh length in the x and y directions is used (see figure
7.2). From figure 7.2, the cartesian grid points 9 and 10 have polar coordinates
(PQ,-3s/4), (rio, 3~14).Therefore, the constants Ai and Al are determined as

Al =
+ A2 -2
<gr10 ) (B. 12)
4@1 - 1) - ~ ( 3 r / 4 h ) cos(3/47r(X1 - 2)) (r,4 - 2 rlo
Al-2 + ,J;-2
rgAl -2 )'
A2 =
or;'-^ + (B.13)
4(A2 - 1) sin(3n/4X2)sh(3/4r(A2 - 2)) (r,As-2 rlo
A l -2 + ,J;-2
rsAl-2
where r g = 2 h, and rio = 2 h, axe the distances of points 9 and 10 from the corner.
The expression for the stream function has the form of

(B. 14)
Substituting (B.12) and (B.13) into (B.14) ,we get

which provides the numerical values of nodal stream function at points 2 and 3.
The velocities u(z, y) and u(x, y) in the x and y directions are related to i> by the
relations

(B.17)
Subetituting (B.15) into (B.16)-(B.17), we have
A2-2
u = i(rQ Cio+r:~-2~Q)rA1-1
(8in(A2û)sin(3/4(X2 - 2 ) ~ -
) sin((X2 - 2)e) sin(3/4A2n)(X2- 2))
[(A, - 1) sin(3/4A2n)sin(3/4(X2 - 2)n) (r,A2-2 A l -2
rlo + ,.$2
rsAi-2 )]-l 9

(B.19)
where the indices are explained before. The above formulas are utilimd to provide
the numerid d u e s of the componenta of the velocity in the x and y directions. The
above procedure bypasses the stream function and velocity caldations at points 2
and 3 from the numerical algorithm.
Method B: To resolve the difEdties associated with singularity treatment, an
expression is constnicted in such a way that corner vorticity is approximated using the
higher derivatives of vorticity at the immediate point away fiom the corner (r = 0).
We note that in Eq. (B.ll) the vorticity is dominated by the term

for small r . This indicates that the vorticity grows without limit ks the corner is
approached. The constant Al can be dculated fiom the stream function expansion
(B.14)and nodal stream function values at points 2 and 3 in the neighbourhood of
the corner. The stream function 1/>1 and ?,b3 are written as

whidi may be solved for Al and A2 in the fom of


(B.24)

Substituting (B.23)into (B.20),we have

where the fadoi is obtained fiom (B.8)and (B.10) at B = fv/4.

Substituting the above expression in (B.25),we obtain

which shows the value of vorticity approaches to infinity as r + O near the corner.
The exprasion for the fictitious value of vorticity at the corner is derived with the
help of the central finite-difference approximation of written at point 3. Such
approximation then needs the estirnates of the vorticity derivatives that should take
account of the corner singulasity. The following formula is utilized in the form of

The above approximation haa no mathematical justification since the vorticity at the
corner r = O is not defined. Eq. (B.27)can be reazraaged in the form of

(B.28)
Higher derivatives of vorticity are derived using Eq. (B .26)

Substituting the above equations into Eq. (B.28),we get


which approximates a value for vorticity at the corner baaed on nodal due8 of stream
fuadion at points 2 and 3.
The above relation gives the correct limiting corner vorticity of the first order
approximation in the limit of sdciently s m d step size h. The concept of aasigning a
finite value of vorticity at the corner can be easily incorporated into our computational
scheme. The d u e of corner vorticity is calculated as part of the boundaiy vorticity
value.
Appendix C

Compact Finite-Difference
Schemes on Uniform and
Non-Uniform Meshes

The current engineering interests in simulation of cornplex physical phenornena, tu-


bulent fluid flows and aeroacoustics being cornmon examples, necessitates the devel-
opment of fast and high accurate numericd dgorithms. Su& problems contain a
wide range of space and time scales which should be properly represented in the nu-
merical model. These requirements have led to the development of spectral methods.
However, the application of spectral methoda ia limited to flows in simple domains
and simple boundary conditions. To overcome such difEiculties alternative numerid
representations may be employed. For example, in recent years a renewed interest
in uaing high-order compact fmite-difference schemes in numerid solution of partial
differentid equations arising in modeling wmplex flows has grown.
Although there appear to be a vaziety of fonns and implementations, the a p
proaches do share some broad characteristica. They represent a daas of collocation
techniques where treat both the functional values and certain derivatives as unknowns
at the collocation points. Compared to traditional finitedifference approximation
these schemea provide tremendous p r a c t i d advastages in terms of diminishing the
required number of computational points (storage). F'urthermore, the truncation enor
in discretization of the derivatives is smaller than the error of damical highly accurate
finitediffaence schemes of the same order. These features bring them doser to spec-
tral methods, while the &dom in choosing the mesh geometry md the boundary
conditions is maintained
The high-order compact diffaence methods can be derived from appropriate %y-
lor series expansions (Hermite) or polynomid interpolation (spline). In the former
côtegory we have the Padé approximation of Kreiss or stxalled compact scheme
(Collatz 1960), the formulation of E s h (1975) and Hermitian finite-Merence de-
velopments of Adam (1975). In the latter group axe the plin ne collocation methods
deacribed by Rubin & Khosla (1976, 1977).
The method as originally proposed, and mentioned in Orszag & I s r d (1974), was
conceiveci to be of use in hyperbolic problems. DifEerent forms of compact schemes
have been used in simulation of aeroacoudics problems (Casper & A t h (1993);
Casper (1994); Yu (1994)). However, Hirsh (lW5), Adam (l975), and Ciment (1978)
have studied the possibility of solving parabolic partid differentid equation by Her-
mitian compact techniques, and have shown s e v d adwmtages.
The numerical characteristics of these achemes depends strongly on the chosen
d u e s of the computationd parameters. The accuracy of the compact schemes is
determined by choosing the number of collocation points used to approximate the
spatial derivatives. Higher-order accurate methods can be derived by increasing the
stencil a& and thereby providing more information for the scheme at any grid point.
Both the resolution and the truncôtion error of a compact scheme determine the
overall error characteristics of its finite-difference approximation in actual computa-
tions. Lele (1992) presented various forma of compact difierence schemes for applica-
tion such as interpolation, filtering, and evaluating high-order derivatives on uniform
meah. In the design of the scheme in addition to the hi& order of truncation, the high
resolution of the scheme h a been emphasized because it will determine the number of
grid points per wavelength required to resolve the shortest length s d e . To enhance
the pedormance of a compact iinitedifference scheme, the error behaviour can be
optimized to obtain maximum resolution characteristics (Tarn & Webb (1993); Kim
& Lee (1996); Zingg et d (1996)).
A method of obtaining finite-difference approximation of fourth-order accuracy to
operators of Navier-Stokes type is presented by Demis & Hudson (1975) and Chen
(1993).
The present work focuses on the development of compact finite-diffaence schemes
on n o n - d o m meahes, which make them particularly usefùl in problems with sharp
boundary layes8 (Adam (1975); Rubin & Khosla (1977); Goedheer & Potters (1985)).
In the present study, high-order collocation procedures for the first and second deri*
tivea resulting in tridiagond systems are derived by Bermitian (Ta.ylor series) finite-
difference disaetization. The similarities and s p e d features of these different devel-
opments me presented. Various boundary formulas of the first and second d e r i ~ t i v e s
are &O obtained.

C.1 Compact Schemes for First Derivative


The basic idea behind development of compact achemes is that the spatid derivative
of the fiuidion is expressed as a linear combination of the given function values on a
set of nodes. Consider a mesh with nodal points xi such that o = x, < xi < <
IN < x ~ + 1= b. A BU^ interval ( x i , z ~ +is~defined
) by its length, hi = x i + l - xi, for a
n o n - d o r m mesh hi # const, but we assume that the hi's are of the same order of
magnitudes, so we can define a cornmon measure h and ratios 7i = 9= O(1).
Consider a fundion f ( x ) such that at the mesh points s i , we speWfy f ( x i ) =
fi. The finite-difference approximation f to the fkst derivative (df/&) ( x i ) at the
node i depends on the fundion d u e s at nodes near i . For second- and fourth-
order central differences the approximation f ri depends on the sets (fi-1, fi, fi+l) and
(fi-2, fi-1, fi, fi+l2 fi+>), respectively. h the spectral methods, however, the d u e of
fi depends on all the nodal values. The Padé or compact fiaite-difference schemes
mimic this global dependence.
The generd fonn of an implicit hitedifference relation between a fuaction and

where k denotes the order of accuracy of the approximation. The relations between
the coefficients ai, bà,ci,4, e,li, m i , ni, pi, qi, r i , and si are derived by expanding the
function and its first derivative in terms of the Taylor series and equating coefkients
of like powers of h in (C.1). The first unrnatched coefficient determines the fonnal
truncation error of the approximation (C. 1). These relations aie:
Lele (1992) has presented the above system of equations for uniform mesh (hi = h). In
the discuseion below at least the first four of the constraints (C.2)-(C.5) are imposed.
Thus ail the schemes desaibed have at lead a third-order forma acctnacy. In the
present section we proceed in the traditional way to daasûy the differencing schemes
generated by (C.l)in tenns of the formal truncation error and the computational
stencil required. If the schemes aze restricted to ai = e; = O a variety of tridiagonal
schemes are obtained. For ai & ei# O pentadiagonal schemes are generated. In the
present study only tridiagonal schemes are described. These are generated by ai =
ei = O. If further choices Li = mi = r; = si = O are made, a two-parameter f d y of
third-order tridiagonal schemes is obtained aolving (C.2)-(C. 5). For t hese schernes

di=- (7i ' ~ à - 1 pi + 7;-1 - 27i a)7i-1


(7i-1 + 7i12
and the truncation error is given by

For a choice of pi = O, a one-parameter (ci) fa.mily of third-order tridiagond schemes


is obtained. For these schemes the co&cients are given by

and the truncation error is derived as

For 7; = ri-1 = 1 a fourth-order equation for d o m mesh is recovered. The


corresponding coefIicients of this scheme are given by

A one-parameter family of fourth-order tridiagond schemes is obtained in the form


of

(C.14)

with the truncation error

(C.15)

The above formulas are derived by Adam (1975). By choosing 7i = 7i-1 = 1 the
famous fourth-order Padé scheme is recovered.

(C.16)
With a; = = li = si = O a tweparameter family of fifth-order tridiagonal schemes
is obtained aa:
and the truncation error is given by
For mi = O a oneparameter family of f%h-order scheme is found to be:

(C.19)
and the truncation error is

of sixthorder formal accuracy are given by

ri = -ri-L 2
7i
2
Ci (ri f 7à+l ) /(Tb2 2
(7-1 + 1-2)

( r i - i f Yi-. + 7i )2 ( r i - 1 + 'Yi-2 + 7 i + i + Ti))


with the truncation error written in the form of
-- 1 Yi-1 2 7i2 ci (7i7i-1 7i+l Ti-1 7i-27i
+ + + 7i+i Ti-2 )
5040

For a d o r m mesh, the above family of solution reduces tu

with the truncation error written as


C.2 Compact Schemes for Second Derivat ive
The derivation of compact approximations for the second d e r i ~ t i v eproceeds anal-
ogously to the fust derivative. Once again the starting point is a relation of the
form

where f" represents the finite-difference approximation to the second derivative at


node i. The relations between the meflicieats ai,bitci,di,ei, Zi, mi, ni,pi, q;, ri, and si
are derived by matching the Taylor series coefficients of various orders. The first
unmatched coefficient determines the forma truncation error of the approximation
(C.25). These constraints are:
The forrn of these constraints is very close to those derived for the fkst derivotive
approximations. In the following discussion at least the first five of these constraints
n e imposed resuiting in schemea with at least a third-order fornid accuracy. By
choosing a; = e; = O and li = mi = ri = and si = O a one-parameter family of
third-order schemes is generated. This fiLmiIy is given in the form of

For a uniform mesh the famouz fourth-order tridiagonal Padé scheme is recovered.

with the truncation error

With ai = e; = O and li = si = O a two-parameter family of fourth-order tridiagonal


schemes is obtained as
where

and the tnincation error is given by


For a iiniform mesh we have

and the tmcation error is obtained as

A one-parameter family of fXth-order tridiagond scheme is derived as:


where

For a uniform mesh we have


12 ri =
3 51 12
q , p ; = -- q , qi = -ci, 4 = -ci, 2 mi =
2 bi = -ci,
44 22 11 11 11
(C.43)

C.3 Compact schemes for Boundary Points


The system of equations of type (C. 1) cannot be used at the boundary points. There-
fore additional bouadary formulas are required to close the above system of equations.
These relations are, of necessity, non-central or one-aided. A vaziety of formulas can
be obtained by induding the nodal d u e s of the function, first, second, and higher
derivatives of the fundion at the pointa near the boundary, that preserves to some
extent the high accuracy of the method. In this section we introduce diffetent ap-
proximations for the first and second derivktives for the near boundary nodes.

C.3.1 Boundary Relation for the First Derivative

A general form of relation to approximate the first derivative at the b o u n d q à = 1


can be written as

coupled to the relations (Cl) applied for the interior nodes. This relation dows us
to use the boundary s h e with a tridiagonal interior scheme without increasing the
bandwidth. The relations between the coefficients ai, Pi, ai, bi, ci, and di are derived
as:

Scheme of third-order accuracy may be derived as


and the truncation error of this schemc is given by
1 2
- z7i(~i+i2ai- 7i+i Pi f 27i+i 7i ÿ

The coefficients of fourth-order scheme are formulated by

with the truncation error of the form


-( 7i2+ 2 7i 7i+1 + 7i+i + 7i 7i+2 + 7i+i7i+2) 7i2
1 2

120
(C.55)

C.3.2 Boundary Relation for the Second derivative


The general compact relation appropriate for near boundary nodes between the nodal
values of a function and its second derivative may be written as

The relations between the coeflicients a;,Pi, a;,b;, î,di, and e i may be found by the
method explained before. These relations are:

Schemes of third-order accuracy is fonnulated aa


with truncation error of the form

Scheme of fourth-orderaccuracy is obtained as


and the tmcation m o r s is given by
Appendix D

Potential Flow in the Entrance


Region of a Channel

As Re -t m, the &ect of viscosity becomes negligible and the behaviour of flow


approaches an inviscid flow. If the flow is also irrotational, then the flow behaviour
is governed by potential flow theory.
+
In analyzing an inviscid, irrotational flow in the zy, or z ( z = x iy), plane, where
i stands for imaginary unit, it is simpler to consider a correspondhg flow in the uu,
or w (w = u + iy), plane. Then, if @ is a velocity potential and 9 a stream function
+
for the flow in the uu plane, the complex potential, = 8 iQ, in the transfomed
plane h a the fonn

a = Aw.
The complex velocity at a point in the physical plane is given by

where the constant A is determined from the known flow condition.


Consider an inviscid, incompressible, irrotational, steady, two dimensional flow in
the inlet region of a straight channd as shown in Fig. D. la. To obtkin the solution of
this potential flow problem, we construct a transformation of the Schwarz-Christoffei
type desaibed by Floryan (1985), to map the channe1 in the p h y s i d plane into a
straight chamel in the computational plane. The form of this trknsformation is given
by
with

In the above fonnula R is a complex constant and is determined using the masa flow
condition (2.6),

Substituting for R in (D.3), we have

and after simplifying

Integrating (D .4), we get

where

k=

The non-dimensional fluid pressure p satides the Bernoulli's equation:


1
p + ?V2= constant,

where V is the average velocity and given as

In the above relation the bar denotes complex conjugate and A = 1 (Eq. (D.1)).
Along the centerline v = O and the above expression is simplified to

where Re represents real part.


z - Plane w - Plane
(Cbmputational)

Figure D.1: Mapping of the inlet region of a Channel into a straight channel.

The application of the Bernoulli equation written between two points along the
centerline, gives

where subscript O denotes condition at a point located far away from the channel
entry ( x -t - 0 0 ) and p ( x ) , u ( x ) are the pressure a d velocity a t an arbitrary point
along along the axis of the channe1 (y = 0).
Taking the limit of (D.5)and (D.8)for large w , it can be shown that

The above expression indicates that at large w, the velocity approaches the velocity
obtained fiom a sink.
Appendix E

Small Modifications of Sink Flow

The strearn function tl, for a sink corresponding the geometry shown in Fig. 3.1
satisfies the Laplace's equation expressed in polar coordinates as

and the boundary conditions

Substitution of the product $ = R(r)H(O) into the above equation yields the following
conditions on R and H:

where k is an arbitrary constant. Conditions (E.2)-(E.3) give

Substituting (E.8) into (E.4), we obtain

For k = 0, the solution of (E.5)subject to conditions (E.6)-(E.7) is derived as

(E.10)
and fiom (E.3), we obtain

Hence, the stream fuiiction of the bosic sink flow is given by

(E.
12)

We now consider the s m d steady perturbations of the stream function in the


form

t,b = + 1'. (E.13)

Substituting (E.13) into (E.l), we obtain

(E.14)
The above equation is subject to boundary conditions

Substitution of the product ~,6' = Rl (r)Hl ( 9 ) into (E.14)-(E.l5), gives

(E.16)
(E. 17)

ruid boundazy conditions

(E.18)

Rl(r) = O. (E. 19)

Condition (E.19) is not of interest. Equation (E.17)and condition (E.18)form an


eigenvalue problem, where k is the e i g e n d u e and H is the eigenfunction given as

Hi ( 8 ) = CI sin&@)+ c2 COS (kû), (E. 20)

where cl and c2 aze constants.


The even eigenfunctions are obtained for k = f1, f3, ... , and ci = O. The odd
eigenfunctions are obtained for 6 = 0, f2, f4, . . . , and y = 0.
Equation (E.16) is an Euler ordinary differentid equation and its solution is given
in the form of r X where X is unknown. Substitution of rAinto (E.16) aad simplifying,
we obtain

X = Ik. (E.21)
In the present study, X < O is of physical interest because disturbances corresponding
these eigenvalues decay as r + W. We note that X = -1 and X = -2 correspond to
the first antisymmetric and symmetric modes respectively. The disturbance of sink
flow mrresponding the first antisymmetric mode is obtained as

and the disturbance corresponding the first symmetric mode is given by


Appendix F

Details of Derivation of the


Numerical Algorit hm

This appendix describes the derivation of the fourth-order finite-difference formula of


Section 4.2. Consider a lin-, elliptic, partial differential equation of the form

To obtain fourth-or der discretization scheme, we represent (F.1) aa an equivalent


system of two "single-direction" differentid equations

where

Combining (F.6) and (F.3), we get


and combining (F.7)and (F.4), we obtain

+
Note that (F.3)a (F.4)b gives the original equation (F.1).
One method of obtaining the required discretization is to use the fourth-order for-
mula developed for second-order, ordinaq differential equations by Demis & Hudson
(1989). Its application in case of Eqs. (F.3) aad (F.4) results in

(F. 10)
(F.11)
where h denotes grid size (the same in both directions) and

4 = 2 + (q; - 2 ~ & 1 ) h ~ / 6 , (F. 12)


4 = 2+(s;-2slio)h2/6, (F. 13)
Cl13 = 1 f %hl2 f ($ - 2q<o)h2/12f (qoq~o- qtm)h3/24, (F. 14)
4 = 1F soh/2 + (s; - 2sno)h2/12f (sosrp - s,,0)h3/24, (F.15)
Co = -(rieo - qor;o)h4/12 + 0(h6), (F. 16)
C: = -(r;@ - sor$)h4/12 + 0(h6). (F.17)

Function r' is eliminated by substituting (F.9) into (F.6)and (F.6)into (F.16). Sim-
ilarly, function r" is elimiaated by substituting (F.8)into (F.7) and (F.7) into (F.17).
A l l derivatives of @ appeoring in the resulting formulas for Ca,Co'axe discretized
using h2-accurate central-difference expressions (cp. (All-A14) in Demis & Hudson
(1989)). Findy, (F.1O)a + (F.11)b leads, &er re-arranging tenns and simplifications,
to the desired fourth-order discretization of (F.1)) described by (4.26)-(4.29).
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