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causes a decrease in the generator output

Design of Induction Heating Coils voltage. In this case it is desirable to add

capacitance to keep the generator output
for Cylindrical Magnetic Loads voltage up to a value near its rating.
Usually, the number of coil turns is so
selected that with rated generator termi­
nal voltage the maximum power absorp­
tion during the heat is equal to the genera­
tor output rating. However, in cases
where the power at the end of the heat is
'Synopsis: Equations are presented whereby by assuming a constant permeability. considerably less than the peak during the
the authors' previous paper1 is extended to However, unless some means is given of heat for a given coil voltage, fewer coil
the design of coils for heating magnetic
loads, where the load remains in a fixed posi­ determining the value of permeability to turns may be used, resulting in a maxi­
tion relative to the coil during the heat. use, the results are ambiguous. Baker 2 mum power absorption equal to generator
In heating magnetic materials, there is con­ has shown that a value output rating with a voltage less than the
siderable variation in impedance of the coil generator rating. In this case the genera­
circuit as the load temperature changes. μ = 1.8ΒΜ/ΗΜ
The present paper first develops certain tor output voltage is reduced by operat­
general principles by which a variable im­ where BM is the maximum flux density ing with a lagging power factor while the
pedance circuit may be designed to absorb a (taken in Baker's paper as 18,000 lines load is below the critical point. Then the
predetermined maximum power, on the generator output voltage is increased by
basis of constants determining the maxi­ per square centimeter) and HM is the peak
mum and minimum impedance. Methods magnetic intensity at the outside of the addition of capacitance after passing the
then are given by which these constants load may be used , to calculate the critical point. By this means it is some­
may be calculated for carbon steel loads of power input to thin moving steel times possible to realize a higher average
types SAE 1015 to SAE 1045, or their strip. Kinn 3 proposes an almost identical power during the heat and hence reduce
equivalent. In practice, these methods ap­ heating time compared to that which
ply to most through heating and some sur­ formula for permeability for use with
face heating applications. The accuracy of loads of various shapes. His value for would be obtained with a coil designed to
calculations is substantiated experimentally. BMi however, is 16,000 lines per square absorb a maximum power output equal
centimeter. Kinn's paper is confined to generator rating at rated voltage.
mainly to practical applications and,

W ITH the advent of considerable ap­

plication of magnetic induction in
heating steel for forging, it becomes more
therefore, does not give theoretical deriva­
tion or experimental confirmation of the
formulas supplied.
Changes as Load Heats
In the definitions which follow, A} B,
essential that the designer is able to pre- The conventional induction heating C, D, E, F, and G are defined implicitly
calculate the power, kilovolt-amperes, and circuit used with rotating generators is to save space. For example, RP = N2 A
efficiency variations during the heat in or­ shown in Figure 1. TJie purpose of the is equivalent to A = RP/N2.
der to determine the required coil turns, capacitor is to adjust the power factor
capacitor values, and heating rates. It N—number of turns
at the generator terminals. In heating Rp = N2A — resistance of inductor coil it­
is the purpose of the present paper to out­ operations where the load remains in fixed self (ohms)
line methods by which these variations position during the heat, the capacitor RS — N2B — resistance of load as reflected in
may be calculated and coil turns and ca­ usually is adjusted to give a power factor inductor coil (ohms)
pacitor values determined. at generator terminals in the range of R = N2(A +B) = N2F=resistance of inductor
Numerous attempts have been made to unity to 0.9 leading while the load is in coil with load (ohms)
adapt the theory of the induction heating the magnetic state. As the load tempera­ XP — N2C—reactance caused by flux be­
of nonmagnetic loads to magnetic loads ture rises above the Curie or critical tween inside and outside radius of
point, there is an increase in current and inductor coil (ohms)
Xs — N2D = reactance caused by flux within
lagging kilovolt-amperes to the induction
the load as reflected in inductor coil
heating coil. (ohms)
These may be compared to Pi of Figures If the generator voltage output is held X0 = N2E =reactance caused by flux in air
9 and 10. constant by means of a regulator, usually gap between coil and load (ohms)
the power output will decrease, but the X = iV 2 (C+D+£)=iV 2 G=reactance of in­
increase in lagging kilovolt-amperes to ductor coil with load (ohms)
References the induction heating coil may cause an EL = voltage across inductor coil terminals
1. THREE-PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT SYNCHRONOUS increase in generator output current to a AA (volts)
MACHINES—V, R. E. Doherty, C. A. Nickle. A I E E value above its rating. In this case it is IL = current through inductor coil (amperes)
TRANSACTIONS, volume 49, 1930, pages 700-14. PL = power input to inductor coil and load
necessary to add capacitance in order to
SYNCHRONOUS-MACHINE REACTANCES BY T E S T , keep the generator output current within Ps = power dissipated in load (watts)
C. Concordia, F. J. Maginniss. A I E E TRANSAC­ its rating. In typical applications the
TIONS, volume 64, 1945, June section, pages 288-94.
power output after the load temperature
H . C. Stanley. AIEE TRANSACTIONS, volume 57, passes critical may decrease to as low as 30 Paper 46-124, recommended by the AIEE subcom­
1938, pages 751-5 per cent of the peak output occurring dur­ mittee on induction and dielectric heating for près"
entation at the AIEE summer convention, De­
4. Discussion by C. Concordia of TRANSIENT PER­ ing the heat. troit, Mich., June 24-28, 1946. Manuscript sub­
FORMANCE OF INDUCTION MOTORS. A I E E TRANS­ mitted April 15, 1946; made available for printing
ACTIONS, F. J. Maginniss, N. R. Schultz, volume 63 If there is no voltage regulator on the May 9, 1946.
1944, pages 1457-8.
generator, as the load temperature rises J. T. VAUGHAN is a research and development
5. P E R - U N I T IMPEDANCES OF SYNCHRONOUS M A ­ above the critical point the resulting lag­ manager and J. W. WILLIAMSON is a research
CHINES—II, A. W. Rankin. AIEE TRANSACTIONS, engineer, both of the Tocco division of The Ohio
volume 64, 1945, December section, pages 839-41. ging power factor load on the generator Crankshaft Company, Cleveland, Ohio.

1946, VOLUME 65 Vaughan, Williamson—Induction Heating Coils 887

-*ii- change greatly during the heating opera­ and E, and for the calculation of the load
tion. However, if the air gap reactance resistance and reactance coefficients B
is small, the magnitude of this current and D at the end of the heating opera­

ö a
may change sufficiently so that maximum tion, if the load is in the nonmagnetic
power to the coil occurs when the imped­ state. The same limitations as given pre­
L 0 A D
ance is less than the maximum value. viously apply in the use of these formu­
With the impedance locus shown in Fig­ las. These equations for resistance and
ure 3, maximum power occurs when IL is reactance coefficients for nonmagnetic
represented by Oh, where Q is the center loads may be applied with reasonable ac­
Figure 1 . Conventional induction heating of the current locus and QI4 is parallel to curacy to SAE 1010 to 1045 steel above
circuit using motor generator set EL. By plane geometry 04 = ZQUO, 1,600 degrees Fahrenheit. For conven­
and 90 ° + « = Z QUO+ Z QOh=2 Z QUO. ience, curves of resistivity versus tempera­
Therefore, ture for SAE 1010 and SAE 1045 steels
The required number of turns for any
given total power to the coil and for any are given in Figure 4.
04 = 45° + a:/2 (1)
given terminal voltage may be calculated For the load in the magnetic state and
by means of equation 2. The angle which 0 P 4 makes with EL at the temperature for maximum imped­
In analyzing the changes which occur may be determined, therefore, by plotting ance, B and D may be calculated by
in a variable impedance circuit, it is con­ P2P3 and measuring the angle a which /3.14MTA ..
venient to represent the variation of re­ this line makes with EL. The intersec­ B=l -^—jVfKrXlO-* ' (5)
actance with resistance by a plot in rec­ tion P 4 of OP4 with P2P3 gives the values
tangular co-ordinates. Referring to Fig­ of R and X for maximum power to the D = 0MB (6)
ure 2, the total resistance R and reactance coil. If 04 as defined by equation 1 is less
K7 is plotted against Ps/(3.14a<£) V/>
X of an induction heating coil with its than 02 or greater than 03, the intersection
the watts per square inch of cylindrical
load at room temperature are represented of OP4 with P2P3 extended does not repre­
surface of load within coil divided by the
by the co-ordinates of point Pi. Since sent an impedance which actually occurs
square root of frequency, in Figure 5.
Rp, Xv, and X0 are nearly constant, the during the heating operation. If 04, or
The ranges of extrapolation are indicated
principal changes which occur in R and X 45° + a/2, is less than 02, as in Figure 2,
by dotted lines. For convenience the
as the load heats are caused by variations maximum power corresponds to maximum
in the load resistance and reactance, Rs impedance. If 04 should be greater than
and X8. When the power first is applied, 03, maximum power would occur at the K6 = v? K7 (7)
Rs and Xs increase because of the increas­ end of the heating operation where the
impedance is minimum. is given as a function of P s /3.14 a0L for
ing resistivity of the load with rising tem­
/ = 10,000, 3,000, and 1,000 cycles per
perature. The load impedance, there­ Since F and G are proportional to the
second in Figure 6. To determine B and
fore, follows a locus such as PiP 2 . total resistance and reactance of the coil
D, it is first necessary to find Ps. The
After a portion of the load reaches the (R = i W a n d X = N*G), P2P3 in Figures
portion of the total coil power input ab­
critical temperature, R and X drop off 2 and 3 represents not only the locus of X
sorbed by the load is B/F = B/(A + B).
rapidly. Let P 3 represent the impedance versus R but, to a different scale, the locus
Therefore, the power to the load is
calculated by taking the entire load to be of F versus G. The values of F and G
above the critical temperature and non­ used to determine the number of turns
magnetic with resistivity corresponding
to final conditions. The assumption will
usually are based on conditions for maxi­
mum power to the coil. For 02 > 4 5 ° +
'-(Ä> (8)

be made that after the point of maximum a/2 (Figure 2), maximum power to the
impedance is reached R and X follow the load corresponds to maximum impedance,
straight line locus P2PS. This assumption or the values of F and G plotted at P 2 .
has been checked experimentally and For 02 < 45° + a/2 (Figure 3), maximum
found to be reasonably accurate. power to the load occurs when F and G
Suppose ELj the inductor coil terminal are determined by the co-ordinates of P 4 .
voltage, is held constant as the load heats.
The locus of inductor coil current IL cor­
responding to impedance locus P2P3 is the Circuit Equations and
circular arc / 2 Ι 3 . 4 The center of the circle Their Limitations
0/2/3 lies on the line OQ, which makes the
same angle a with the vertical as P2P3 For any given total power PL to the
makes with the horizontal. The power coil and coil terminal voltage ELf the re­ > ROR f-

factor angle 0 is equal to the angle OP quired number of turns is

makes with EL. With conditions as
shown in Figure 2, maximum power to the N=EL^j (2)
coil occurs at the point of maximum im­
pedance, represented by P 2 , since the By definition,
component of inductor current that is in
phase with EL is greatest at this point. F=A+B (3)
The current locus of Figure 2 would re­ G=C+D+E (4)
sult from a relatively large air gap react­
ance X0. Under this condition the cur­ Formulas are given in the authors' pre­ Figure 2. Impedance and current changes as
rent through the inductor coil does not vious paper 1 for the calculation of A, C, load heats

888 Vaughan, Williamson—Induction Heating Coils AIEE TRANSACTIONS

B a n d F c a n n o t b e determined until to the inside diameter of the coil, and prob­
ably the ratio
P8 is known. However, t h e r a t i o B/F 50
usually lies within t h e r a n g e 0.80 t o 0.95. y/Ra*+Xa%/X0 = VB*+D*/E
P8, therefore, m a y be calculated first from
equation 8 on t h e basis of a n y reasonable
of impedance associated with flux in the / /f
load to impedance associated with flux in /
value of this ratio. An a p p r o x i m a t e value the air gap. If this ratio is of the order of SAE 1045
for \/f Ki or K6 t h e n can be obtained, magnitude of 1.0 or greater, the flux through Y
SAE 1010
which m a y be s u b s t i t u t e d into equation 5 the load is appreciable in relation to the
flux in the air gap, and the total flux is
t o obtain a first approximation for B.
therefore considerably greater than the flux
Actually, a three per cent error in estimat­ through the air gap alone. Consequently, a
ing Ps results in only a one per cent error larger number of ampere turns is required to
in B, so t h a t this first approximation is overcome the flux reluctance drop in the 5> l0

often sufficiently accurate for practical

purposes. However, if greater accuracy
portion of the magnetic circuit external to
the coil, or for any given number of ampere
turns the magnetic intensity inside the coil
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000
is desired, t h e first approximation for B is less than would result with a nonmagnetic TEMPERATURE-DEG F
load of the same dimensions. However, in
the majority of applications in which a steel Figure 4. Resistivity versus temperature for
load is heated with a multiturn coil the ef­ S A E 1 0 1 0 and S A E 1045 steel
fect of coil shortness is so small t h a t it is
believed t h a t the equations given may be
used with reasonable accuracy. The con­
/ = f r e q u e n c y (cycles per second)
stant Ki, by which the actual ampere turns
per inch must be multiplied to obtain the ω=2ττ/
ampere turns per inch which would produce L = length of coil (centimeters)
the same average power density if the coil JV=number of turns
were infinitely long, is derived (for non­
magnetic loads) in the authors' previous T h e t o t a l flux within a circle of radius
paper. 1 r is, b y definition,

φ=2ττ£,\βά,γ (10)
Derivation of
Expressions for B and D B y O h m ' s law, w i t h positive directions
as indicated in F i g u r e 7,
T h e e q u a t i o n s for B a n d D given
in t h e foregoing t e x t a r e based on 2πΥρι ·-
experimental d a t a a n d relations derived òt
a n d checked experimentally u n d e r " M o r e Providing, as will b e assumed, t h a t t h e
E x a c t D e r i v a t i o n s , " b y m e a n s of which radius of t h e load is sufficiently great so
these d a t a m a y be extended t o other t h a t r is nearly equal t o t h e outside radius
frequencies. T h e " A p p r o x i m a t e T h e o r y " over t h e region in which β a n d i are a p ­
is included t o provide a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g preciable, equation 10 m a y b e w r i t t e n
Figure 3. Impedance and current changes as of certain physical principles in t h e induc­ Φ=πα0£,Τ ßdr \
load heats tion heating of magnetic materials a n d t o ao/2
^7ra0fs ßd5 ) (12)
establish limitations for small diameters
a n d wall thicknesses. T h e assumption where δ = a0/2 — r is t h e distance from t h e
m a d e in t h e l a t t e r section does n o t limit outside of t h e load. E q u a t i o n 11 m a y b e
m a y be used t o obtain a m o r e a c c u r a t e t h e generality of t h e remainder of t h i s written
value of B/(A + B) a n d t h e foregoing paper.
process repeated. ρπα0ί = άφ/ òt (13)
Consider only coils a n d loads of large
Subscript o refer to outside of load
Subscript M denote maximum values length t o d i a m e t e r ratios. T h e n , as in
δ = distance from outside of load (centi­ t h e induction heating of n o n m a g n e t i c
1. Taking the resistivity of the load as
4 0 X 1 0 - 6 ohm-inch at the temperature for meters) materials, t h e magnetic i n t e n s i t y is equal
maximum impedance, the maximum depth a0 = outside diameter of load (centimeters)
which magnetic flux and current penetrate r = distance from axis of load (centimeters)
into the load, or the depth of zone in which ^ = instantaneous current density in load
energy is induced (from equation 34) is (abamperes per square centimeter) -„^
Iins = instantaneous current in coil (ab­
(inches) (9) amperes)
jT = rms current in coil (abamperes)
φ = instantaneous magnetic flux within pJJ
If the load is hollow, its wall thickness 0.005
should be at least* as great as δΜ for the radius r (maxwells)
given equations to apply. e = instantaneous voltage per turn to bring
2. For an accuracy of plus or minus ten about time rate-of-change of flux
per cent, the ratio α0/δΜ should be a t least within ΙοΛά = άφο/dt (abvolts)
8.0. β — magnetic flux density (maxwells per 0.001
0.005 0.01 0.05
3. The correction for coil shortness square centimeter) i Ps(*w)
should depend on the ratio of inside diameter H — magnetic intensity \ff Tfa 0 L(SQIN.)
of the induction heating coil to its length, p = resistivity (abohms per centimeter)
the ratio of the outside diameter of the load / = time (seconds) Figure 5. Load resistance coefficient K7

1946, VOLUME 65 Vaughan, Williamson—Induction Heating Coils 889

Equation 15 shows that at any instant the Substituting equations 23 and 21 for i

current density in the load varies with and equation 22 for δ+
s δ only where the flux density β is chang­
ing with time. By assumption, β can eMz sin ω/(1 — cos œt) (26)
^ ^ ,^Ω 'πLL
^ have only three values: βΜ, — βΜί and N 2ττ2ρα02βΜω
^π>^ rT4JJ
zero. At any given time, i can change e = 0 at œt = T. Therefore, from equa­
Γ>°[ Τ"*"' *■> 1 Mil only where β is going from one to another tions 17 and 13, άφ/ά1 = 0 and the cur­
iti ^ of these values. rent density i is zero; i was also zero
The magnetic intensity at the outside at t = 0. The conditions at ωΙ = τ, there­
0.1 of the load is fore, are identical (except for directions)
0.5 1.0
PS(KW) Ho = MN/L)Iins with the conditions assumed at / = 0.
TTa 0 L(SQ IN.) During the remaining half cycle a wave
Consequently, at the instant / = 0 at of negative magnetization enters the
Figure 6 . Load resistance coefficient K6 which the current in the coil becomes posi­ load. The phenomena of the first half
tive, the direction of magnetization at cycle are repeated with changes in polar­
to 4π times the total current per unit the outside of the load also becomes posi­ ity, as shown in Figure 9. The maximum
axial length outside the given radius. tive. Denote the depth of positive mag­ depth of penetration of electrical energy
The current per unit axial length in the netization by δ+. The total flux within is obtained by substituting ωί=π into
coil is (N/L) Iins. Therefore, the load is equation 22.
Φο=πα0[δ+βΜ+(δΜ-δ+)(-βΜ)] = ÒM — ^M^oßu^ (27)
H=±^Iins-f0lidò\ (14) ττα0βΜ{2δ+-δΜ) (20)
Equation 26 applies only t o the in­
The minus sign before the integral re­ Integrating equation 17 and substituting tervals during which e is positive. From
sults from the choice of positive direction equation 18 for e, equations 18 and 26, the instantaneous
for i (Figure 7). Differentiating equation input per turn to the load during the first
13 with respect to δ and substituting Φο — Jo edt+constant half cycle is
— —(eM/u>) cos oit+constant (21)
equation 12 for φ, —~~
ài laß elins =ΤτΊΓΙ—To—
N 2π2ρα 2β ω "^1 ~ cos ω
^ (28)
0 Μ
The average power per turn to the load
^I|NSe obtained from equation 28 is
Approximate Theory ~© Θ Θ Θ~
L eMz
Most induction heating applications ►Ρ,Η,Φ *-'»- N 4π2ρα02βΜω
require inductor coil current densities
such as to produce high saturations near From equation 26 the rms coil current
: ^Ρ,Η,φ
the outside of the load. Therefore, in the © Θ © Θ during the first half cycle, which is equal
present section assume the ß—H curve to the rms coil current, is found to be
shown in Figure 8, in which 0 = =±=/3M or
zero. Positive directions are indicated Figure 7 . Current and flux directions- ^ 7. ilk <* (30)
in Figure 7. Take the instant / = 0 when positive \ 8 N 2ττ2ρα02βΜω
the current in the inductor coil is zero Comparing equations 29, 18, and 30, the
after having been negative. Assume that ratio of abwatts t o abvolt-amperes or
at this instant the flux density ß is watts to volt-amperes is
Combining equations 20 and 21, and
negative (or to the left) between δ = 0
noting that δ+ = 0 at t=0t
and δ=δΜ, where δΜ is the maximum = Λ/0.8 = 0.895 (31)
depth of penetration t o be determined δ+=(βΜ/2ττα0βΜω)(1- cos ωή (22)
later. Thefluxthrough the load at / = 0 is Solving equation 30 for CM and substitut­
δ+ is plotted against time in Figure 9. ing into equation 29, the power to the load
φ0[ί = ο = —πα0δΜβΜ; (16) The time rate-of-change of flux οφ/òt is per turn is
The portion of the voltage per turn uti­ independent of position for δ<δ+, and
lized in bringing about a time rate-of- zero for δ>δ+. Therefore, from equation N (32)
change of flux within the load is 13, w^S.maoVpßMwylj'I ·*" 1

1 άφ0 or the total power to the load is

i= - - p f o r δ<δ+
(17) ρπα0 dt (23)
' dt
= 0 for δ>δ+
Nw = 7Ma0J^.(Niy·* - (33)
Since φ0 is negatively maximum at t = 0,
e is zero at 2 = 0, but positive after this The total current per unit length in the
instant. Therefore, assuming this volt­ load is Table 1
age varies sinusoidally with time, which Λαο/2ίάδ=ίδ (24)
is the case at least if the voltage applied Ratio (Watts
Kilowatts Per Divided By
to the coil is sinusoidal and the air gap β is zero for δ > δΜ by assumption. There­ Square Inch x Volt-Amp er es)
between the coil and load is sufficiently fore, His also zero. Substituting δ = a0/2 to Load to Load
small, into equation 14, therefore, gives
Calculated 0.244 . , . 0.895
e — βΜ sin œt (18) Ιίη8 = (Σ/Ν)ΐδ+ (25) 0.802

890 Vaughan, Williamson—Induction Heating Coils AIEE TRANSACTIONS

taken as 4 0 X 1 0 - 6 ohm-inch, and K% in
P = PM
equation 34 is obtained from Figure 6. 111 » a 1
2. The power density is approximately
proportional to the 1.5 power of current. V\ Vi­
This relation was observed by Rosen­ ert Λ-β-
1 * ' V {*
berg. 5 · 6 ' 7 As noted by Baker, 2 however, V \V I
Rosenberg's explanation is not very satis­ \Aif
3. I t frequently has been assumed t h a t the
M λ

resistance and reactance of an induction

/ 7\\
heating coil with a magnetic load could be
calculated by assuming "some" constant
/ /

P = -PM
Figure 8. ß—H
curve assumed in
value of permeability. This is not strictly
true,since any constant value of permeability
would result in a ratio of watts to volt- 0.001
approximate theory amperes to the load of 0.707 a t sufficiently 500
high frequencies. KiNI

4. With power densities as used in induc­

M a k i n g use of equations 27, 30, 33, 5, tion heating practice and with δΜ small Figure 10. Plot of experimental data
and 7 and converting all quantities t o t h e compared to the load diameter, the load
ohm-inch system, it can b e shown t h a t power caused by hysteresis is usually Θ—Coil 1, 10,000 cycles\
negligible. For instance, considering a +—Coil 2, 10,000 cycles I
1-inch diameter load of SAE 1020 steel χ—Coil 3, 3,000 cycles/
δΜ = 1.595 Χ 1 0 3 ΐ τ (34) with a power density of 500 watts per square
inch of load surface at 10,000 cycles, the
For a given density of power t o t h e load, power caused by hysteresis would be less
than 22 watts per square inch of load surface, M a k i n g use of equation 35,
the m a x i m u m d e p t h of penetration should
or four per cent of the total power. This is ÒH
be nearly independent of t h e air gap. based on an assumed maximum flux density
Ο2#_4ΤΓ , ÒH
μ {Η) (37)
Therefore, t h e expression used for K6 in of 100,000 lines per square inch and a άδ* ~ p at
deriving equation 34 was obtained b y hysteresis energy of 0.05 joule per cubic
inch per cycle, 10 which is from data,with the where μ\Η)
p u t t i n g Ki = 1 in equation 5. is t h e differential permeability
steel a t room temperature. Further data defined b y
T a b l e I gives a comparison of experi­ indicate a decrease in hysteresis loss as
m e n t a l results with theoretical calcula­ temperature is increased, the hysteresis loss f_dB_
tions, t h e latter based on t h e approxi­ approaching zero as the critical temperature ~dH "* (38)
m a t e theory. An S A E 1015 steel load is approached. 9
Since for a n y given distance ò from t h e
was heated t o 210 degrees Fahrenheit b y
outside of t h e load a n d time, there exists
means of a closely fitting coil. T h e fre­ More Exact Derivations
one a n d only one value of H:
quency was 10,000 cycles per second.
T h e measured coil current was such as t o T h e saturation flux densities of carbon (39)
Η=Ψ(δ, t)
produce 486 ampere t u r n s (rms) per inch steels usually t r e a t e d b y induction heat­
axial length of coil. I n t h e theoretical ing are known a t present only at room As φ(δ, t) is a solution of equation 37, it
calculation, t h e resistivity of S A E 1015 t e m p e r a t u r e . I n order t o design coils for can b e shown t h a t H' = \l/(ks} k*t) is also a
steel a t 210 degrees Fahrenheit a n d t h e heating above t h e critical point, however, solution. At t h e outside of t h e load
flux density ßM were t a k e n respectively t h e values of t h e load resistance a n d re­ Ψ(δ, ι) = Ψ(ο, t) a n d φ^δ, Μ)=Ψ(ο, kH). Sup­
a s 6.75 X 10~ 6 ohm-inches a n d 18,500 actance coefficients B and D m u s t be de­ pose for a given p e a k magnetic intensity
lines per square centimeter. termined a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of m a x i m u m H0M a t t h e outside of t h e load a n d a
impedance, a b o u t 1,200 degrees F a h r e n ­ given frequency fu H is represented b y
T h e following conclusions m a y b e heit. T h e present section provides a \f/(st t). T h e n for t h e same m a g n e t i c in­
d r a w n from t h e analysis so far presented : m e a n s of accomplishing this, a n d a t t h e tensity H0M a t t h e outside of t h e load
same time affords a more a c c u r a t e t h e o r y a n d a frequency k2fi, t h e m a g n e t i c in­
1. The total depth of penetration of elec­
trical energy in the magnetic state is usually which avoids t h e assumption t h a t β = =*= t e n s i t y is represented b y ψ^δ, k*t).
small. Table I I gives values of δΜ corre­ constant. Use is m a d e of experimental W i t h a frequency fi,
sponding to two kilowatts per square inch information which is readily obtainable.
to the load and the temperature for maxi­ β=Φ(Η)==Φ(^(δ, 0 ) = Ω ( δ , t) (40)
mum impedance with constant current ; p is Again consider loads of sufficient radius
so t h a t t h e distance from t h e axis m a y be W i t h t h e same p e a k m a g n e t i c intensity a t
t a k e n as t h e outside radius a 0 /2 a t all t h e outside of t h e load a n d a frequency
points for wThich t h e magnetic intensity k2fi,
/ / , t h e flux density β, a n d t h e current
density i are appreciable. Neglect hys­ β = Φ(Η') =Φ{φ{αδ, uh) =Ω(*δ,Λ*ί) (41)

teresis. T h e n for a n y given value of H Since t h e flux density is assumed negli-

there exists one a n d only one value of β
or, mathematically,
Table II
■£■=*(*) (35)

Differentiating equation 14 twice with Frequency in Depth of

respect t o δ a n d s u b s t i t u t i n g i n t o equation Cycles Per Penetration
Figure 9. Inductor Second in Inches
current and depth of
penetration versus 10 000 0.066
» * - £ . * (36) 3,000 0.145
time Ò52 p at

1946, VOLUME 65 Vaughan, Williamson—Induction Heating Coils 891

gible except for very small values of δ, The power to the load was obtained by Table I V . Description of Loads
the upper limit in equation 12 may be subtracting the calculated coil copper
taken as infinity. Therefore, loss.1 After making a slight correction Load 1 Load 2 Load 3
for conductor wall thinness at 3,000 cy­
Φο^ππαοΜ ° ° ^ δ (42) cles per second (no correction was re­ Outside diameter, inches.. . 2 . 5 1 . . . 2 . 5 0 . . . 2.50
Type steel, SAE n u m b e r . . . .1015. . . .1020.. ..1045
quired at 10,000 cycles per second), the
Substituting equations 40 and 41 into maximum ratio of calculated coil PR loss
equation 42, with a frequency fu to generator output was 0.04. Capacitor
But PRS is the power to the load in watts.
= and bus losses between the wattmeter
^ ^ 0 Χ α Ώ ( δ , t)dò (43) Since wi is expressed in kilowatts per
and coil terminals were negligible. The
square inch, PRs = TaoLwiXl03. There­
or, with a frequency &2/i, voltage at the terminals of the induction
heating coil was measured by a voltmeter
<j>'0=Tra0J0 Q(h8,k*t')d8 connected at AA. It was assumed that xa o L^iX10 3
5 =
=ira0/kJ0 ü(s, icH')dh (44) the reactive volt-amperes to the coil could (NI)2
be determined from the watts and volt-
At corresponding times, kH' in equation amperes by the usual method. Experi­ V/#7X10-3 (48)
44 is equal to t in equation 43. Therefore, ence indicates that, after making allow­
the total flux in the load is proportional ance for the reactance of the bus, the re­ where
to 1/k or 1/VT". The load impedance active volt-amperes so calculated agree
is proportional to the product of the mag­ closely with the volt-amperes of capaci­ wiX10Vv7
K7 = (49)
nitude of this flux multiplied by fre­ (KiNI/L)2
tance required to balance to unity power
quency, or factor at the generator terminals, even From equation 45 Wi/y/f is a function
though the wave form of the current of Ki(NI/L9 or KiNI/L is a function of
(i/VT)f=Vf through the inductor coil is not truly sinu­ Wi/\/f. Therefore, K7 is also a function of
Let soidal. The reactances associated with Wi/Vj"· Similarly, it may be shown that
the time rate-of-change of flux in the coil
Wi = kilowatts per square inch to the load
copper and air gap are, respectively,
Vi = reactive kilovolt-amperes per square inch
to the load N2C and N2E. The reactive volt-am­
KiNI/L = effective ampere turns per inch peres to the load were obtained by sub­ where
(rais) tracting PN2(C+E) from the reactive
_ _ViX10«/Vr
volt-amperes to the coil. The watts per 8
Then from the foregoing reasoning, Wi square inch and vars per square inch t o
and vi may be written in the form the load then were found by dividing the is a function of ΚχΝΙ/L or w\/ y/f. How­
power and reactive volt-amperes by the ever, Figure 10 indicates that within the
w^VfFiiK.NI/L) (45)
load surface within the coil wa0L. range of K\NI/L covered by experiments,
v^VfFi&NI/L) - (46) the ratio of reactive volt-amperes to
With a frequency of 9,600 cycles only,
the foregoing experiments were repeated watts is nearly constant and equal t o
where the functions Fi and F2 are inde­
with SAE 1020 and SAE 1045 loads. No 0.65. Therefore, it is sufficiently accurate
pendent of frequency. To determine
significant differences could be detected at the load temperature for maximum
these functions for SAE 1015 steel at the
load temperature for maximum imped­ from the results with SAE 1015 steel. At impedance to determine D from B by
ance and to show experimentally that 1200 degrees Fahrenheit, the difference in means of equation 6.
Wi/ V / and v\l y/J are independent of fre­ resistivities between SAE 1015 and SAE
quency for any given ΚχΝΙ/L, data were 1045 steels is about three per cent. Ac­ References
taken at 10,000, 9,600, and 3,000 cycles cording to equation 33, if the magnetic 1. DESIGN OF INDUCTION-HEATING COILS FOR
per second. The results are' shown in properties of the two steels were identical, J. W. Williamson. AIEE TRANSACTIONS, volume
Figure 10. The variations in Wi/y/f and the load resistances should differ by 64, 1945, August section, pages 587-92.
vi/y/f between 9,600 and 10,000 cycles about two per cent. This variation 2. INDUCTION HEATING OF MOVING MAGNETIC
per second w7ere negligible for a given would be negligible in most induction 64, 1945, April section, pages 184-9.
KiNI/L. Dimensions of coils and loads heating calculations. 3. VACUUM-TUBE RADIO-FREQUENCY GENERATOR
are given in Tables I I I and IV. In each By definition, TION-HEATING PROBLEMS, T. P . Kinn. AIEE
reading the current through the induction TRANSACTIONS, 1944, volume 63, pages 1290-1303.
B= RS/N2=PRS/(NI)2 (47)
heating coil was held constant by varying 4. ELEMENTARY ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY
(book), Richard H. Frazier. McGraw-Hill Book
the voltage. This current was measured Company, Inc., New York, N . Y. 1945, pages
through a current transformer by a dyna­ 246-9.
Table III. Description of Induction Heating
mometer type ammeter. Readings were Coils
berg. Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift (Berlin, Ger­
taken at the instant of maximum coil many), May 31, 1923, pages 513-18.
terminal voltage. The power to the coil Coil 1 Coil 2 6. EDDY CURRENTS IN IRON MASSES, E. Rosen­
also was found to be maximum at this berg. The Electrician (London, England), August
24, 1923, pages 188-91.
instant. To measure this power as ac­ Total turns, N , 35 . .19 7. PROPERTIES AND TESTING OF MAGNETIC M A ­
curately as possible, the capacitor at BB Inside diameter, inches 3.29 . . 3.20 TERIALS (book), Thomas Spooner. McGraw-Hill
Length over turns, L, inches 14.62 . . 7.05 Book Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1927, pages
(Figure 1) was adjusted for approxi­ Conductor: 98-103.
mately unity power factor at the generator Dimension parallel to^ axis of
8. Reference 7, pages 138-9.
coil, inches 0.375. . 0.297
terminals CC for the instant readings were Dimension perpendicular to 9. Reference 7, pages 174-6.
taken. The generator output was meas­ axis of coil, inches 0.25 . . 0.25 10. ELECTRO-MAGNETIC DEVICES (book), H . C.
Wall thickness, inches 0.045. . 0.048 Roters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,
ured by a wattmeter connected at CC. Resistivity, microhm inches 0.73 . . 0.73
N . Y., 1941, page 57.

892 Vaughan, Williamson—Induction Heating Coils AIEE TRANSACTIONS