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Republic of the Philippines

Division of Cebu

Minglanilla Science High School

Poblacion Ward 1, Minglanilla, Cebu

The Comparative Study of Quail Eggshell (Coturnix Coturnix) and Fish Bone as Enhancer

for Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)

Researchers

Julianne Therese Garcia

Roselyn Kaye Singson

Ruen Vincent Narosa

Research Teacher

Mrs. Jade Bacon


I. Rationale

According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, a total of Php22, 561.18 were spent

on buying fertilizers on the year 2018 in Central Visayas. A total of around one million

metric tons of fish bones were wasted during the first quarter of 2018. According to

tokneneng vendors, a total of 200 quail eggshells are wasted in their daily use. Okra

reaches maturity in 50 to 65 days. The plants can produce for 10 to 12 weeks. It grows

and bears seed pods until frost, which quickly turns them black and kills them. The first

harvest of Okra will be ready about two months after planting. The researchers would

like to find which of the two variables, quail eggshell and fish bones, will be more

effective in shortening the period of time in terms of harvesting.

Fish Bone Meal is a marine based alternative to traditional steamed bone meal and is

wonderful for all flowering plants, trees and shrubs. A great source of Phosphorus and

Calcium, Fish Bone Meal also contains a small amount of Nitrogen. The key nutrient in

quail eggshells is calcium, or calcium carbonate. Primary (macro) nutrients needed in

fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. They are the most frequently required

in a crop fertilization program. Also, they are need in the greatest total quantity by plants

as fertilizer. The secondary nutrients are calcium, magnesium, and sulphur.

This study can help decrease the number of quail eggshells and fish bones wasted

daily and money spent on commercial fertilizers. The researchers expect that fish bone

will be more effective than the quail eggshell. Also the researchers expect that there is a

difference in collecting the data of the following: (a) height, (b) harvest, and (c) time.
II. Hypotheses

III. Research Questions

This study aims to determine the potential of the two organic fertilizers; Quail

Eggshells and Fish Bones as an enhancer for Okra.

Particularly, it aims to answer the following questions:

1. What differences are there in using Quail Eggshells and Fish Bones as enhancer

for Okra?

2. How effective is using Quail Eggshells and Fish Bones in shortening the period of

time in growing okra?

3. How many days does it take for okra to grow when added with Quail Eggshells?

With Fish Bones?

IV. Objectives

This study aims to:

A. Prove that quail eggshells and fish bones have the ability to shorten the time

period in growing and harvesting okra plant.

B. Facilitate the collection of okra fruit.

C. Determine which of the quail eggshells and fish bones can be more effective in

shortening the time period in growing and harvesting okra fruit.


V. Engineering Goals

This study aims to know which of the two variables, quail eggshells and fish bones, is

more effective as an enhancer for okra. The researchers want to determine which variable

can be a good kind of fertilizer that can easily affect the growth of the okra and determine

which of the two variables can be used best as alternative fertilizer. The researchers also

aim to produce a cost-friendly and trouble-free technique of fertilizer.

VI. Expected Outcomes

The researchers expect that fish bone will be more effective than the quail eggshell.

Also the researchers expect that there is a difference in collecting the data of the

following: (a) height, (b) harvest, and (c) time.


VII. Methodology

A. Collection of Materials

1. Laboratory Apparatuses

The researchers will need the following laboratory apparatuses: mortar

and pestle for pulverizing quail eggshells and fish bones, and triple beam balance

for precise measuring of pulverized quail eggshells and fish bones. These

laboratory apparatuses will be gathered at Minglanilla Science High School’s

Science Laboratory.

2. Quail Eggshells

The researchers will collect quail eggshells from tokneneng vendors near

Minglanilla Science High School and from a local vendor of quail eggshells in

Purok Ipil-Ipil, Minglanilla, Cebu.

3. Fish Bones

The researchers will collect fish bones from local markets around

Minglanilla, Cebu and from the students of Minglanilla Science High School.

B. Making of the Product

The collected quail eggshells and fish bones will be pulverized by the researchers

using mortar and pestle. The pulverized quail eggshells and fish bones will then be

measured by the researchers using the triple beam balance. After measuring, the
pulverized quail eggshells and fish bones will then be separated into six containers;

two containers containing 15 mL pulverized quail eggshells and 15 mL pulverized

fish bones, the other two containers containing 45 mL pulverized quail eggshells and

45 mL pulverized fish bones and the last two containers containing 75 mL pulverized

quail eggshells and 75 mL pulverized fish bones.

C. Application/Treatments

Concentration No. of Trial No. of Duplicates

15 mL pulverized quail 1 10
eggshells
45 mL pulverized quail 2 10
eggshells
75 mL pulverized quail 3 10
eggshells
15 mL pulverized fish 4 10
bones
45 mL pulverized fish 5 10
bones
75 mL pulverized fish 6 10
bones

D. Testing

Six (6) sets of okra seeds will be planted on the same soil and the same time. The

first set of okra seeds will be added with 15 mL of pulverized quail eggshells, second set

of okra seeds will be added with 45 mL of pulverized quail eggshells, and the third set of

okra seeds will be added with 75 mL of pulverized quail eggshells. The fourth set of okra
seeds will be added with 15 mL of pulverized fish bones, the fifth set of okra seeds will be

added with 45 mL of pulverized fish bones, and the sixth set of okra seeds will be added

with 75 mL of pulverized fish bones. The researchers will then record data starting from

the initial day of planting and after every 10 days.

VIII. Bibliography

http://thepoultryguide.com/uses-for-egg-shell/ (April 25, 2018)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4550075/ (August 7, 2018)

https://www.growveg.com/guides/using-eggshells-in-the-garden/ (April 25, 2018)

https://www.almanac.com/plant/okra (August 7, 2018)

https://draxe.com/okra-nutrition/ (April 27, 2018)

https://www.cogentoa.com/article/10.1080/23311932.2015.1053214 (August 7, 2018)

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.2780050311/ (August 7, 2018)

http://psa.gov.ph/fisheries-situationer (August 7, 2018)

http://psa.gov.ph/content/updates-fertilizer-prices-0 (August 7, 2018)

2. Hincke MT, Nys Y, Gautron J, Mann K, Rodriguez-Navarro AB, McKee MD. The

eggshell: structure, composition and mineralization. Front Biosci. 2012;17:1266–80.

doi: 10.2741/3985 (August 7, 2018)


IX. Review of Related Literature

A. Quail Eggshell

Quail eggshell are not only useful to clear out your drain but there are important

uses of egg shells for the garden as well. Since egg shells are filled with calcium and

many other mineral deposits, therefore they work greatly as fertilizer for the gardens.

And can help in growing of plants more quickly. The organic capacity of the avian

eggshell is to give assurance against mechanical effect, to shape a first line of protection

against microbial disease, to control water and gas trade and to give calcium to the

creating developing life. The shell is shaped in the eggshell organ (uterus) and comprises

to roughly 95 % of calcium carbonate as calcite. The calcified layer is invaded by a

natural lattice comprising of proteins and proteoglycans, which is thought to give a 3-

dimensional system directing and controlling the mineralization procedure. The most

concentrated avian eggshell is that of the chicken, likely on account of business

significance and simple availability. Among the primary recognized chicken eggshell

grid proteins were significant egg white proteins, for example, ovalbumin, lysozyme, and

ovotransferrin. These proteins were appeared by immunohistochemical strategies to be a

piece of the calcified network instead of surface contaminants. Egg white proteins are

delivered and emitted transcendently in the magnum area of the oviduct. Dissolvable

remainders of egg the white gathering may move with the egg into the eggshell organ,

where they are in the long run consolidated into the mineralizing network. Furthermore,

messages for lysozyme and ovotransferrin are likewise present at much lower fixation in

white isthmus. These messages can even be identified in red isthmus and uterus after

broad enhancement. At show it is obscure what level of these egg white proteins found in
the eggshell grid might be contributed by these tissues. Different proteins are delivered

by eggshell organ epithelial cells however evidently not in different segments of the

oviduct and not in other chose tissues investigated. The first of these alleged eggshell-

particular proteins was ovocleidin-17 (OC17), in this way appeared to have a place with

the C-sort lectin-like group of proteins. This was trailed by cloning and portrayal of

ovocleidin-116 (OC116), which was first distinguished by its N-terminal grouping in a

dermatan sulfate proteoglycan readiness from chicken eggshell. It was in this manner

additionally distinguished in chicken bone and is in this manner not entirely eggshell-

particular. Different individuals from this gathering with conceivable eggshell-particular

circulation are ovocalyxin-32 (OCX32), an individual from the latexin group of

carboxypeptidase inhibitors [14], and ovocalyxin-36 (OCX36), an individual from the

BPI/LBP/PLUNC group of hostile to microbial proteins. Different ovocalyxins every so

often specified in productions yet inadequately portrayed are ovocalyxins-25 and −21.

OCX-25 contains protease inhibitor areas and OCX-21 is obviously indistinguishable to

gastrokine-2, a constituent of the gastric secretome. Two other eggshell lattice proteins of

boundless dispersion, osteopontin and glypican-4, are instigated in eggshell organ

epithelia by the mechanical strain endless supply of the egg into the organ. The correct

part of these proteins stays obscure at introduce, yet in vitro contemplates have

demonstrated that uterine liquid and also separated eggshell segments may impact calcite

crystallization in vitro and accordingly may likewise control eggshell mineralization in

vivo. Other network proteins may take part in the egg's hostile to microbial barrier amid

and after egg creation.


B. Fish Bones

Fish bone is any bone of a fish. Fish bone also includes the bony, delicate parts of

the skeleton of bony fish, such as ribs and fin rays, but especially the ossification of

connective tissue lying transversely inclined backwards to the ribs between the muscle

segments and having no contact with the spine. Fish bone has a high calcium (Ca)

content, and Ca and phosphorus (P) comprise about 2% (20 g/kg dry weight) of the whole

fish. The chemical composition of fish bones varies, and in general, oily fish (e.g.

salmon) have higher lipid levels, and lower protein and ash levels compared to lean

species (e.g. cod) [4]. Also the bone structure differs between species since a large

number of teleosts have acellular bone (bone without enclosed osteocytes). Cellular

bones are confined to only a few fish groups, e.g. Salmonidae. There is no consensus for

the functional role of acellular bone, and even though a lower mineral level probably is

correlated to low stiffness, although this has not been verified experimentally [5]. The

crystals in acellular bone are smaller and more easily stained than in cellular bone [6].

This higher surface to volume ratio in acellular fish bone is likely to increase the Ca

availability compared to cellular bone. In support of this, a higher Ca availability in

acellular eel bone compared to the cellular rat bone was described already in 1974 by [7].

Small fresh water fish are often eaten whole, including bones. Ca from such fish has been

shown to have comparable absorption to Ca from skimmed milk both in rats [8] and

humans [9]. In another study by Jung et al. [10], Ca retention was increased and loss of

bone mineral was decreased by fish bone peptide supplementation in ovariectomised rats.

A recent study in growing pigs have shown that Ca from salmon, cod and saithe bones is

absorbed as efficiently as CaCO3 [11]. The study also indicated that fish species and
rinsing method may be of importance both for nutritional content and absorption. Ca-

fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping consumers to meet the

calcium requirements needed to reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

C. Okra

Okra, both a common pod vegetable and nightshade vegetable eaten in the Deep

South, is also called “gumbo” in the U.S. Although when we think of gumbo we usually

think of soups, cajun and creole cuisine, okra has numerous health benefits. An edible

ornamental flowering hibiscus, okra is an annual, erect herb with stems that contain stiff

hairs. The whole plant has an aromatic smell resembling that of cloves and somewhat

resembles the cotton plant, but okra has much larger and rougher leaves and a thicker

stem. It’s best to gather the pods while they are green, tender and at an immature stage.

The okra plant is an annual, requiring warm, humid climates preferably where

temperatures go above 85 degrees F, and is easily injured by frost as reported by the U.S.

Department of Agriculture (USDA). (1) The fruit is a long pod, generally ribbed and

spineless in cultivated varieties; however, pods vary in length, color and smoothness

depending on the variety and grow best in well-drained and manure-rich soil.

The International Knowledge Sharing Platform states that there are many okra

uses, as it’s an economically important vegetable crop of which its fresh leaves, buds,

flowers, pods, stems and seeds have value. (2) As a vegetable, it can be used in salads,

soups and stews, fresh or dried, and fried or boiled. It offers mucilaginous consistency

after cooking. Often, the extract obtained from the fruit is added to different recipes like
stews and sauces as a thickener to increase the consistency, and the leaves have been

known to help reduce disease-causing inflammation.

D. Eggshell as Fertilizer

The calcium from eggshells is also welcome in garden soil, where it moderates

soil acidity while providing nutrients for plants. Eggshells contain such an abundance of

calcium that they can be used almost like lime, though you would need a lot of eggshells

to make a measurable impact. Eggshells consist of a hard outer shell, and a soft inner

white skin. The inner skin contains the organic matter. The organic content can be even

higher than 5% if they are not washed out. This organic matter contains nitrogen in the

form of proteins, which is very useful to plants after it decomposes. Charles C. Mitchell,

Extension Agronomist-Soils at Auburn University, tested crushed eggshells in soil. He

wanted to see if eggshells add calcium to the soil, and if they change the pH of soil. If

they decomposed while in the soil, you should see both changes to the soil. The testing

found that hand crushed eggshells did NOT change the soil pH, and they did NOT

increase the level of calcium in the soil. This is after being in the soil for three weeks.

When the eggshells were ground very fine, they changed the soil pH and they added

calcium to the soil. Composed of calcium carbonate, eggshells are an excellent way to

introduce this mineral into the soil.


E. Fish Bone as Fertilizer

Fish bone meal has many uses: when you plant, when you mix soil and make

compost or use it in potting compost. You can use it as a general fertilizer or as a lawn

fertilizer and so on. Kew Gardens uses fish bone to feed the huge leaves of the Santa

Cruz water lily every week, mixed with loam in a feed 'bom', which is pushed around the

roots. Best is to apply and use fish bone fertilizer and put it on the garden just before

plants start to grow vigorously and produce vegetative growth. Fish bone can also be

used as lawn fertilizer in spring and late summer or early autumn. When using the

fertilizer you have to take into account the time it takes for the fertilizer to reach the roots

and the time it takes for the soil micro organisms to process the fertilizer and make it

ready to be used. Fish Bone Meal is a marine-based alternative to traditional steamed

bone meal and is a great source of organic phosphorus and calcium. As one of the three

big nutrients for plants, phosphorous plays a role in both root and bloom development,

which helps produce high-quality fruit and flowers. Phosphorus helps plants take to new

soil by boosting root development. Strong root development means plants will grow

faster and be healthier because they can absorb more water and nutrients from the soil.

Depending on how the bones were prepared, the NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorous,

Potassium) levels can range from 1-12-0 to 4-21-2. As flowering plants use high amounts

of phosphorous during bloom, you can see how bone meal has the potential to greatly

stimulate production. Besides a great deal of phosphorous, bone meal also provides

smaller amounts of essential nitrogen, potassium and calcium. As the bone meal breaks

down over the season, it will steadily and slowly release these nutrients for plant uptake.

The advantageous aspects of slow release nutrition are that plant roots will not burn, and
that soil vitality is increased for extended periods. If you buy bone meal already pre-made

and packaged for sale, you'll pay a pretty penny for it. On the other hand, homemade

bone meal can be very inexpensive. See, if you're already purchasing meat for the eating,

the bones contained are basically free fertilizer! Although bone meal is abundant with

phosphorous, it can only become available to plants if the soil pH is less than 7. Slightly

acidic soils will have no problems releasing the nutrients within bone meal, but alkaline

soils will lock up the nutrients. Fish Bone Meal is a great source of phosphorus and

calcium (14%), plus a small amount of nitrogen (4%).

F. Soil Fertilizer

Fertilizers make crops grow faster and bigger so that crop yields are increased.

They're minerals, which must first dissolve in water so that plants can absorb them

through their roots. Fertilizers provide plants with the essential chemical elements needed

for growth particularly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Fertilizers increase crop

production by replacing essential elements used by a previous crop or by boosting levels

of such elements. Nitrogen particularly is needed to build plant proteins, thereby

increasing growth. A major problem with the use of fertilizers occurs when they're

washed off the land by rainwater into rivers and lakes. The increase of nitrate or

phosphate in the water encourages algae growth, which forms a bloom over the water

surface. This prevents sunlight reaching other water plants, which then die. Bacteria

break down the dead plants and use up the oxygen in the water so the lake may be left

completely lifeless. Primary (macro) nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

They are the most frequently required in a crop fertilization program. Also, they are need
in the greatest total quantity by plants as fertilizer. The secondary nutrients are calcium,

magnesium, and sulphur. The numbers on the fertilizer label indicate the percentages of

three critical nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. A 10-10-10 is said to be a

“balanced” fertilizer in that it has equal amounts of these three critical nutrients.

G. Soil Testing

Soil testing services examine your soil’s chemical and geotechnical properties,

enabling you to: (a) Determine the suitability of the soil and assess whether it can

accommodate your construction project, (b) Identify the different types of soil on your

site and their location, (c) Test your soil for strength, density, compaction, contamination,

organics and sand content, and assess their impact on your construction project, (d) Gain

the data you need to compile technical and safety data reports to support planning

permissions and license applications, and (e)Get precise results and observe the

development of the soil throughout your construction project for maximum quality and

safety. Soils contain the nutrients, water, and living organisms that help create healthy

and sustainable gardens and landscapes. Recommendations based on the test results will

improve these qualities. A basic soil test that gives readings for soil pH, phosphate,

potassium, and magnesium levels is sufficient for most home gardeners.