Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 57

Contents for this Presentation

SDH/DWDM
based
Multi-Service
Transport
Platform

by

Khurram
u a Shahzad
S a ad
Brief
Contents
Description
for thisof
Presentation
the Project

Development of a Unified Transport


Platform facilitating multiple services
like POTS, PDH, SDH, ATM, IP, CATV,
HDTV, B-ISDN, Ethernet and Giga-bit
Ethernet to Residential Areas,
Areas Business
Groups, Enterprise Groups and Internet
Services Centers etc.
Contents
Contents
forfor
this
this
Presentation
Lecture
Optical Communications
and DWDM Systems
 Why Move to DWDM?
 Optical
p Transmission System
y
 DWDM
a. Advantages and Limits
a.
b. Overview
Fiber Characteristics
 Multi-Service
b.
c. Application Transport
Modes
Fiber Propagation Modes Platform
c.
d. Laser Modulation
Optical Modes
Transmitters (LEDs, Lasers)
de. DWDM
d. O ti lComponents
OpticalCReceivers
R i t(Photodiodes,
(Ph t di d Ph
Phototransistors)
t t i t )
e.
f. Network Elements
Optical Devices (OTM, OADM,
(Amplifiers, OLA, REG)
Splitters, Couplers,
f System Engineering
f. Filters and Switches)
Contents
Why for
Move
thistoPresentation
DWDM

The optical fiber is the best medium to be


deployed at backbones of very high data rates.
In order to increase the bandwidth, SDM is
used by laying more and more fibers but mean
while an enormous amount of bandwidth of
fib is
fiber i being
b i wasted.
t d InI order
d tto utilize
tili ththe
maximum bandwidth,, DWDM is the onlyy
solution.
Contents
Optical Transmission
for this Presentation
System

Optical Communication System

Basic principle of light transmission


on Optical Fiber
Contents
Advantages
for this
of Optical
Presentation
System

 Weight and size less than copper cable


 Material cost is almost same
 Huge information capacity
 No Electrical connection
 No Electromagnetic Interference
 More distance between Regenerators
 Better security due to immediate
failure detection
ContentsLimitations
for this Presentation

LLoss d
due tto cable
bl jjoining
i i (1( db
db/joint)
j i )
 Bendingg of fiber should not exceed
the limit
 Optics for transmission only due to
unavailability of optical amplifiers
 Gamma radiation can cause
interference and also it cause to
discolor glass that cause attenuation
Contents for this Presentation
Fiber Propagation Modes
Illustration of different
propagation modes

Typical fiber infrared


absorption spectrum
Contents
Hard for(plastic)
Polymer this Clad
Presentation
(silica) Fiber
Contents
Optical
for this
Devices
Presentation

 Optical
O ti l TTransmitters
itt
 Optical Detectors
 Optical Amplifiers
 Optical Couplers
 Optical Isolators
 Optical
p Cross Connects
 Optical Switches
Contents
Optical Transmitters
for this Presentation
(
(Sources)
)

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)


LASERs (Light Amplification by Stimulated
E i i off R
Emission Radiations)
di ti )

10G Transmitter 40G Transmitter


Contents
Characteristics
for this Presentation
of LEDs
 Low Cost compared
p to Lasers
 Low Power (recently 75mW)
 Relatively wider spectrum produced
typically 50-100 nm
 Incoherent Light
hence not directly coupled to fiber
 Digital Modulation
can operate at speed of up to 300 Mbps
 Analogue Modulation
response
p is linear with current flow
Contents
Characteristics
for this Presentation
of Lasers
 Ideallyy have single
g wavelength
g
 Can be modulated very precisely
pulse length of 0.5 femto seconds
 Can produce relatively high power (up to kWs)
 High %age can be transferred into fiber (50% to 80%)

Disadvantages
 Much expensive than LEDs
 The wavelength produced depends on
characteristics of material used
 Amplitude modulation is difficult
Technical
Contents for
Parameters
this Presentation
of Lasers
 Spectral
p Width ((typically
yp y 6 to 8 nm))
 Line Width (discrete wavelengths in Spectral Width)
 Coherence Length
g and Coherence Time
(typically 15 cm)
Length
g c = c x Timec
 Power (with increase in bit rate power must be increased)
 Operating
p g Wavelengthg
(Laser is chosen according to design)
 Wavelength
g Stabilityy
 Tuning range and Speeds
 Switching
g time and Modulation
Contents
Fabry-Perot
for this Presentation
Laser
Conceptually
p y an LED with a ppair of end mirrors.
Mirrors create right conditions to lasing to occur.
Wavelengths
g produced
p are related to the distance
between mirrors.

Cl = X/2n
Cl – Cavity Length
 - Wavelength required Principle of Fabry-Perot Laser

X - an arbitrary number
N - Refractive index
Contents
Optical Receivers
for this Presentation
(
(Detectors)
)
Parameters of Optical
p Detectors
 Detector Responsivity
(Ratio of Output current to Input Optical Power)
 Spectral Response Range
 Response time
 Noise Characteristics

40G Optical Receiver


Contents
Types of
for
Optical
this Presentation
Detector
 Photoconductors
 Photodiodes
a. Schottky-Barrier Photodiodes
b. Avalanche Photodiodes Practical Photoconductor Detector

 Phototransistors

S h k B i Ph
Schottky-Barrier Photodiode
di d

Bipolar Junction Transistor as Phototansistor


Avalanche Photodiode
Contents
Optical
for this
Amplifiers
Presentation
Advantages
 More reliable (no need of electrical regeneration)
 Flexibility (Independence of code format,
p
Speed increment p
permissible))
 For WDM, electrical regenerators are not
suitable
(indeed Optical Amplifiers made WDM
implementation possible)
 Cost factor (due to simplicity cost is lesser)
Contents
Optical
for this
Amplifiers
Presentation
 EDFA ((Erbium-doped
p Optical
p Fiber
Amplifier)
 Praseodymium (Pr) Doped Fiber
Amplifier
 Neodymium (Nd) Doped Fiber Amplifier
 Plastic Fiber Amplifier
 Semiconductor Optical/Laser Amplifier
(SOA/SLA)
 Raman Effect Amplifier
Contents forFiber
Erbium-Doped this Amplifier
Presentation
(EDFA)

Typical Internal Light path of EDFA


Contents
Advantages
for this of
Presentation
EDFA

 High Gain
G i
 Large Output Power
 Wide Operating Optical Bandwidth
 Polarization Independence
 Low Noise Factor
 Gain Independence to System
Bit Rate and Format
Contents
Characteristics
for this Presentation
of EDFA

 Gain
G i ((ratio
ti off output
t t power over iinputt power))
 Gain Coefficient (small signal gain/pump power)
 Bandwidth
B d idth (over
( which
hi h A
Amplifier
lifi will
ill operate)
t )
 Gain Saturation (point where an increase in input power
ceases to result in increase in output power)
 Very little sensitivity to Polarization states
(polarization sensitivity is difference in gain of an input
signal in one polarization to the orthogonal polarization)
 Adds Noise to signal
Noise = SNR(i)/SNR(o) dB
Contents
Gain Characteristics
for this Presentation
of EDFA
Gain curve of
Typical EDFA

Response of
cascade EDFA
Contents
Optical
for this
Couplers
Presentation
Y Coupler Planar Star Coupler

F
Fused
d Fiber
Fib Star
St Coupler
C l
Contents
Optical
for this
Isolators
Presentation

A Simple Isolator
Operation
Contents
Optical Cross
for this
Connect
Presentation
(
(OXC))

Optical Cross Connect

OXC Outline
O tli Architecture
A hit t
OXC using tunable laser technology
Contents
Optical
for this
Switches
Presentation

A Typical Optical Switch


MEMS Optical Switch Technology being Implemented
Contents
Optical
for this
Filters
Presentation

 Peak wavelength (wavelength at which the


filter attenuation is least )
 Nominal Wavelength (Intended by manufacturer)
 Bandwidth (Distances between edges db)
 Center Wavelength (Mean wavelength between
two edges)
Contents
Couplingfor
of this
LightPresentation
to a Fiber
Wavelength
Contents for
Division
this Presentation
Multiplexing

Multiplexing with larger channel


spacing (even in different windows of
optical
i l fib
fibers)) typically around 50nm

WDM functions schematics


DWDM
Contents
Densefor this Presentation
Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Wavelength Division Multiplexing in the


same window with smaller channel
Spacing (typically less than 1nm)

er
Demultiplexe
Multtiplexer
NT 1 1 NT
nals
k Termin

NT 2 2 NT
Network

NT n-1 n-1 NT
Monitor
Points
NT n n NT

Wavelength Wavelength
C
Converter C
Converter
Contents
Advantages
for thisof
Presentation
DWDM
• Ultra Large Capacity
• Data rate transparency
• Protection of existing investment
during system upgrade
• Flexibility, economy and reliability
of networking
• Compatibility with all optical
switching
Optical
Contents
Spectrum
for thisofPresentation
DWDM Signal
Contents
Application
for Modes
this Presentation
of DWDM

• Open DWDM
No special requirements for multiplex
terminal optical interfaces (ITU-T G.957)
Adopts wavelength conversion technology

• Integrated
I t t d DWDM
Requires optical signal wavelengths to
meet DWDM System specifications
Contents
Fiber for
Modes
thisfor
Presentation
DWDM
DWDM Systems only utilize single mode fiber
as transmission media

ITU-T Standard fibers for DWDM System


• G.652
G 652 (1310nm property optimal, dispersion un-shifted)
• G.653 (1550nm property optimal, dispersion shifted)
• G.654 (cut-off wavelength shifted, reduced attenuation
at 1550nm)
• G.655 (non-zero dispersion shifted, preserves dispersion
near 1550nm)
Contents for this
Laser Modulation Presentation
Modes for DWDM

 Direct
Di t Modulation
M d l ti (Internal
(I t lMModulation)
d l ti )
Light wave intensity is changed by
controlling the injection current using
Laser Diodes

 Indirect Modulation (External Modulation)


Laser is modulated indirectly by adding
an external modulator in its output path
to modulate the light wave
Contents
External
for this
Modulators
Presentation

Constant Light Optical


Source Modulator
Optical Signal
Output

Electric Modulation Signal Input


Contents
Direct for this
Modulation Presentation
vs. Indirect Modulation

Simple Structure Complex Structure


Low Loss High Loss
Low Cost High Cost
High Modulation Chirp Low Modulation Chirp
Transmission
T i i Di Distance
t Transmission
T i i Di Distance
t
< 100Km > 100Km
Data Rate < 2.5G Data Rate > 2.5G
Network
Contents
Element
for thisTypes
Presentation
of DWDM
 Optical Terminal Multiplexer
(OTM)
 Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer
(OADM)
 Optical Line Amplifier
(OLA)
 Regenerators
(REG)
Network
Contents
Element
for thisTypes
Presentation
of DWDM

Source: Bookham Technologies, 2002


Contents
OTMforSignal
this Presentation
Flow

A W A
RI W
P D C
RO A M 1 R
6
S RM S
M
SDH
C TM
C
A System
1 M
A M
A W
W 1 C
B RO 6 T
TO M A
Contents
OADMfor Signal
this Presentation
Flow
WCR WCT

RI
A W MR 4 W
P B TO
RO A M A M
S RM1 TM2 S
S
C TM1
C RM2 C
2
A A
A A RI
W W RO
B MR 4 P
TO M A A
M
WCT WCR
Contents
Remotely for
Configurable
this Presentation
OADMs

Photonic R-OADM Architecture


Marconi Communications
PMA32 R-OADM
DWDM
Contents
Component
for this Presentation
Requirements

 Enough
g multiplexing
p g channels
 Low insertion loss
 Large crosstalk attenuation
 Wide pass band
Contents
OLAforSignal
this Presentation
Flow

A
A W W
RI TO
P B
RO A M A M
S RM1 TM2 S
S
C TM1
C RM2 C
2
A A
A A RI
W W RO
B P
TO M
M A A
Contents
Optical System
for this Engineering
Presentation
 Determining g the width and spacing
p g of
wavebands
 Stabilizing the wavelength of wavelength
sensitive components
 Filter alignment in cascades of filters
 Control of non-linear effects
 Control of dispersion
 Control of cross-talk
 Dynamics of optical amplifiers
 Control of system noise (especially ASE)
DWDM
Contents
Networking
for this Presentation
Parameters

 Dispersion
Di i LiLimited
it d Di
Distance
t
 Power
 Signal to Noise Ratio
Contents
DWDM Protection
for this Presentation
Mechanism

No protection available to the network


at DWDM Layer
y

Reasons for unavailability of protection


 Cost
 Optical Switches
 Conflict
C fli t between
b t protocols
t l off
underlying networks
Contents
4 x 2.5G/DWDM
for this Presentation
Ring
Multi-Service
Contents forTransport
this Presentation
Platform

 Multi-rate
 multi-service
 open
p interfaces
 Flexible bandwidth allocation for
• PCM (Pulse Coded Modulation) digital channels
• ATM ((Asynchronous
y Transfer Mode))
• IP (Internet Protocol)
Contents
Availablefor
Interfaces
this Presentation
for MSTP

 10M Ethernet
Eth t  100M Ethernet
 Gigabit Ethernet  ATM
 STM
STM-1
1  STM
STM-4
4
 STM-16  STM-64
 E1  E3
 POS (Packets over SDH)  PDH
Contents
SDH and
for IP
this
over
Presentation
DWDM

Simplified
Diagram
Di
Showing
SDH and IP
Traffic over
DWDM
System
Simplified
Contents for
Transport
this Presentation
Hierarchy
ContentsLayers
Technology for this Presentation
of Transport Network
An
Contents
Illustration
for this
of Metro
Presentation
Networks
Contents for
Conclusions
this Presentation
 Foreseeingg the ever increasingg bandwidth
demands of the world it is inevitable to use
the fiber and specifically move up to DWDM
System
 To have a unified platform supporting all the
current available services it is unavoidable
to utilize the metro solution
 In the near future we are aiming g to have the
bandwidth of 100Tbps using this DWDM
technology
Contents for this Presentation