Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 42

Political Science 10.

1
GOVERNANCE DEFINED (From the verb Govern)
to rule by right of authority
To exercise the function of government
SOURCE: Random House Webster’s Dictionary, p. 310.
To exercise sovereign authority
SOURCE: Merriam-Webster Thesaurus and Dictionary

NOTE:
to rule -------------------------------------- to exercise
by the
Right of Authority Functions of Government
Sovereign Authority
DE JURE • A government which has been
established in accordance with its
constitution and enjoys the general
support of the people
DE FACTO • A government which is not
established in accordance with the
Constitution of the State and is
maintained against the rightful and
legitimate government.
1. In a proper legal sense, a government that gets possession and control of, or
usurps (seize, take) by force or by the voice of the majority, the rightful legal
government and maintains itself against the will of the latter

2. A government which is established and maintained by military forces who


invade and occupy a territory of the enemy in the course of war, which is
denominated a government of paramount force.
3. A government that is established as an independent government by the
inhabitants of a country who rise in insurrection against a parent state.
Where control of the Where the government has
national and local affairs is two sets of organs, one
exercised by the central organ takes care of the
government. local affairs while the other
takes care of the national
affairs.
•Where the President in the head • Where the President is the head
of state as well as head of of state who holds a position of
government and the executive is :no responsibility” while the Prime
independent from the legislative Minister is head of government,
as well and has pre-eminence over and where the executive is under
the two co-equal and coordinate the legislative chosen by the
branches, the legislative and the legislative.
judiciary.
CONSTITUENT (SERVING) OR COMPULSORY FUNCTIONS
• Keeping of order and providing for the protection of persons and property.
• Fixing of the legal relations between man and wife and between parents
and children.
• Regulation of property and determination of its liabilities for debts or for
crime.
• Determination of contract rights;
• Definition and punishment of crimes:
• Administration of justice in civil cases;
• Determination of political duties, privileges, and relations of citizens;
• Dealings of the State with foreign powers;
• Preservation of the State from external danger or encroachment
• Advancement of its international interests.
MINSTRANT (GIVING SERVICE OR AID) OR OPTIONAL FUNCTIONS
• Public works
• Public education
• Public charity
• Water supply and sewerage system
• Health and safety regulations
• Regulations of trade and industry

The government should perform those functions


which can not be undertaken by the private sector of society
where these are needed for the welfare and interest of the country.
AS TO LEGITIMACY DE JURE

AS TO EXTENT OF UNITARY
POWERS EXERCISED BY - ALTHOUGH THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE
CENTRAL OR NATIONAL EXISTS AND SOME NATIONAL POWERS HAVE
GOVERNMENT BEEN DEVOLVED

AS TO THE RELATIONSHIP PRESIDENTIAL


BETWEEN THE EXECUTIVE
AND THE LEGISLATIVE - ALTHOUGH IT BECAME PARLIAMENTARY FOR
BRANCHES OF A TIME AND THERE ARE ATTEMPTS OF
GOVERNMENT MAKING IT PARLIAMENTARY AGAIN
•National: President, Vice President,
Cabinet Secretaries and Department
Peoples
• Local: Governors, Vice Governors,
Mayors and Vice Mayors, Local
Government Units
•Senate
• Congress
• Supreme Court
• Court of Appeals
• Lower Courts
• Special Courts
ERA YEAR GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT FEATURES
TYPE

Pre- - • De facto? • Barangay as the geo-


Spanish 1521 • Elected? political unit.
• Small villages
• Existence of Code of
Kalantiaw
• Ruled by a datu
Spanish 1521 – • Colonization • Ruled by Spanish
1896 • De facto government but friars were
very powerful
• Cortes (Spanish court)
ERA YEAR GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT FEATURES
TYPE
Philippine 1896 – • Revolutionary • Success of Philippine revolution
Republic 1898 • De facto against Spain
• Unitary • Philippine Constitution 1898
• Presidential • Emilio Aguinaldo as President
American 1898 – • Colonization • Philippine Constitution of 1935
1942 • De facto • American Congress as head.
• Commonwealth government
under Manuel Quezon

Japanese 1942 – • De facto • Japanese military puppet


Occupation 1945 • Puppet government
Government • No Constitution
ERA YEAR GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT FEATURES

Post War 1945 – • De jure • Presidents included Garcia,


to Marcos 1972 • Presidential Macapagal, Magsaysay, and Marcos
Era • Unitary • Duly elected based on the 1935
Constitution
Martial law 1972 to • De facto • Philippine Constitution of 1973 by a
Years 1986 • Dictatorship Constitutional Convention picked by
• Presidential/ Marcos
Parliamentary • Military rule/ Suppression of Rights
• Unitary • No elections except for the 1978
Parliamentary system elections and
the 1986 Presidential election
Cory Era 1986 - • De facto • Revolutionary in nature
1992 (revolutionary) • Changes in political leaderships
• Unitary •Philippine Constitution of 1986
• Presidential • Local elections
ERA YEAR GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT FEATURES

Post War 1945 – • De jure • Presidents included Garcia,


to Marcos 1972 • Presidential Macapagal, Magsaysay, and Marcos
Era • Unitary • Duly elected based on the 1935
Constitution
Martial law 1972 to • De facto • Philippine Constitution of 1973 by a
Years 1986 • Dictatorship Constitutional Convention picked by
• Presidential/ Marcos
Parliamentary • Military rule/ Suppression of Rights
• Unitary • No elections except for the 1978
Parliamentary system elections and
the 1986 Presidential election
Cory Era 1986 - • De facto • Revolutionary in nature
1992 (revolutionary) • Changes in political leaderships
• Unitary •Philippine Constitution of 1986
• Presidential • Local elections
ERA YEAR GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT FEATURES

Ramos 1992 - • De jure • Philippine Constitution of 1986


Presidency 1998 • Unitary • Economic prosperity until Asian
• Presidential crisis
Erap 1998 - • De jure • Based Philippine Constitution of
Presidency 2001 • Unitary 1986
• Charges of corruption
•Term abruptly ended due to
People Power 2 in January 2001
GMA 2001 – • De facto? • Into power due to People Power
Presidency 2004? • Unitary 2.
• Presidential
GMA 2001 – • De jure? • Into power due to legitimate
Presidency 2004? • Unitary elections?
• Presidential
• Filipino society is collectivist, family-
oriented, and person-oriented

• Personal connections influences political


configurations.

•Political relationship is equated with


personal relationship.
• Customary to vote for one’s relative or
even acquaintance.

• Family plays an important role.

• Political clans are prominent in


Philippine politics
• A good politician is a good friend
• Talks to politicians about personal
matters as well.
• Filipinos are sensitive to shows of
ATTENTION.
• Shaking of hands, touching, is perceived
as personal closeness
•Visibility is most important
• Sharing humor is perceived as personal
• Saying no is an offense.

Personalan and Tampuhan


Results in turncoatism
No loyalty to principles.
• Hiya works best with a good
leaders. People will feel shame of
doing bad.
• Hiya can also make people
compromise or do special favors
for certain groups.
• Hiya obliges people to take care
of their leader’s expenses.
• Delicadeza makes one honor
his/ her word.
• Takes place when a person does
something beyond the call of duty.

• Usually when one is invited to


run in a party or is given resources.

Pressures public officials to give in


to politically connected people
• Implies that a politician tries
to avoid being different so as
not to risk social ostracism
• Could push politicians to
remain neutral

•Leads to payback, special


favors, position in
government, facilitation of
papers.
Influence peddlers, padrinos,
palakasan, and other abuse of
power specially in requests.
•Channeling power through
personal relationships
• Power of connections like
producing a calling card in a traffic
violation
• No legitimate merit but socially
accepted.
Manifested in the widespread use of
guns and goons
Male politicians can have mistresses
without being censured
• Government is still run by males and
many political practices are male
centered.
• Women politicians are frequently
derided as knowing nothing.
Dependent on patronage politics
Politicians can stay in power by
making people dependent on them
continuously
People try to avoid responsibility
• Filipinos sense of dependency and
helplessness specially the extreme
poor
• Politicians provide temporary relief
• People in government mere wait to
follow orders rather than take
initiative
EXECUTIVE

Headed by the President who


appoints the Cabinet who
works with the Bureaucracy

Who implements laws and policies


through government programs
Legislative

Senators and
Representatives in
Congress

Who makes the laws of the


land
Judicial

Headed by the Chief


Justice as appointed by the
President as head of the
Supreme Court and the
courts

Who decides on legalities of


actions based on the laws of
the land
For what For
purpose? whom?
•For economic •Taxpayers
• To make the
laws? development? only?
• To implement •For the • The rich?
the laws? welfare of the • The poor?
• To safeguard people? • One’s
the laws? political
•For social
justice? party?
• Religious
groups?

POWER SERVICE
THE
PEOPLE
HOW?
- Enable citizens through education? Health
services? Training?
- Protect citizens from lawless elements?
- Provide citizens with resources? Welfare?
- WHAT ABOUT CITIZEN’S RIGHTS?
ABUSE OF:

• Information

• Resources

• Benefits (to one self or a few


leading to corruption)

• Decision-making (autocratic)

To think of Sovereign Authority as Power Alone can lead to…


LACK OF:

• Transparency

• Accountability

• Equity and effective


poverty alleviation programs

•Civic Participation
•)

To think of Sovereign Authority as Power Alone can lead to…


• Waste of resources

• Resource depletion

• Routinary delivery
•)

To think of Sovereign Authority as Service Alone can lead to…


LACK OF:

• Efficiency and
effectiveness

• Sustainability

• Innovativeness
•)

To think of Sovereign Authority as Service Alone can lead to…


Alone can lead to…
From Mere Governance To Good Governance Principles

ABUSE OF: • Transparency


• Information • Accountability
• Resources • Equity and
• Benefits (to one effective poverty
self or a few) alleviation programs
• Decision-making •Civic Participation

• Waste of resources • Efficiency &


• Resource depletion Effectivity
• Routinary delivery • Sustainability
• Innovativeness