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Govt of the Republic of the Philippines-

Under Section 2(1) of the Administrative Code of the
Philippines, the “Government of the Republic of the
Philippines” is defined as “the corporate governmental entity
through which the functions of government are exercised
throughout the Philippines, including, save as the contrary
appears from the context, the various arms through which
political authority is made effective in the Philippines, whether
pertaining to the autonomous regions, the provincial, city,
municipal, or barangay subdivisions, or other forms of local
government.” In other words, it refers to the corporate
institution which acts as an instrument through which the
people exercise their sovereignty. It is composed of the central
or national government and local government units.
The Government Service Insurance System (Filipino:
Paseguruhan ng mga Naglilingkod sa Pamahalaan,
abbreviated as GSIS) is a government-owned and controlled
corporation (GOCC) of the Philippines. Created by
Commonwealth Act No. 186 passed on November 14, 1936,
the GSIS is mandated to provide and administer the following
social security benefits for government employees: compulsory
life insurance, optional life insurance, retirement benefits,
disability benefits for work-related contingencies and death
benefits. In addition, the GSIS is entrusted with the
administration of the General Insurance Fund by virtue of
RA656 of the Property Insurance Law. It provides insurance
coverage to assets and properties which have government
insurable interests.
3. SSS
The Philippine Social Security System (SSS; Filipino:
Paseguruhan ng Kapanatagang Panlipunan) is a state-run,
social insurance program in the Philippines to workers in the
private, professional, and informal sectors. SSS is established
by virtue of Republic Act No.1161, better known as Social
Security Act of 1954. This law was later amended by Republic
Act No. 8282 in 1997.

The Philippine Social Security System (SSS) is a social

insurance program for employees in the Philippines. Founded in 1957,
the SSS is a government agency that provides retirement and health
benefits to all paid up employees in the Philippines. Members of the
SSS can also make ‘salary’ or ‘calamity’ loans. Salary loans depend on
the monthly salary of the employee. Calamity loans are for such times
when there is a calamity that has been so declared by the
government, in the area where the SSS member lives, such as
flooding, earthquake and natural disasters.
he National Labor Relations Commission (Filipino:
Pambansang Komisyon sa Ugnayang Paggawa, abbreviated
NLRC) is a commission organized by the Philippine
government to resolve, investigate and settle disputes between
employees and employers. The NLRC is a subsequent part of
the Department of Labor and Employment where its policies
and programs[1] are coordinated. The commission dates back to
the commonwealth period, when the contract labor law act was
passed in the United States Congress on January 23, 1885, it
was then implemented in the Philippines on June 6, 1899.
5. BOC
The Bureau of Customs (abbreviated BoC or BOC; Filipino:
Kawanihan ng Adwana) is a Philippine government agency
under the Department of Finance. It is responsible for
regulating and facilitating trade, assessment and collecting
import duties and taxes, combating illegal trade and other forms
of customs fraud, and devising and managing customs
management systems for trade facilitation.[1]

ART 10
1. Supervision vs Control
upervision means overseeing or the power or authority
of an officer to see that subordinate officers perform
their duties. If the latter fail or neglect to fulfill them,
the former may take such action or step as prescribed
by law to make them perform their duties. Control, on
the other hand, means the power of an officer to alter or
modify or nullify or set aside what a subordinate officer
ha[s] done in the performance of his duties and to
substitute the judgment of the former for that of the
1. general supervision
General supervision was defined by Soviet writers
on administrative law as meaning supervision by
the procurators over legality in administration.
Procurators were expected to see that the laws
were strictly observed, to oppose their violation by
anyone whatsoever, to protect the citizens, and to
ensure that they fulfilled their duties.
2. government instrumentality
3. Attachment
4. Various Administrative Agency


SEC 1 of ART 6, 8, 10