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Electronics and Communications in Japan, Vol. 95, No.

10, 2012
Translated from Denki Gakkai Ronbunshi, Vol. l.SI-A, No. 5, May 2011, pp. .32I-.327

Development of an Intelligent Lighting System Using LED Ceiling Lights into an

Actual Office


Ryukoku University, Japan
Doshisha University, Japan
Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd., Japan
Mitsubishi Jisho Sekkei, Inc., Japan

SUMMARY 1. Introduction

As a demonstration, our proposed system has been In office space in Japan, a uniform illuminance and a
introduced into actual offices in Tokyo. It consists of fluo- relative color temperature of daytime white light at 5000 K
rescent lighting fixtures, light control units, microproces- (henceforth referred to as the "color temperature") is com-
sors, illuminance sensors, and distributed optimization mon for a desk surface illuminance of 750 lux. There are
software. The lower control limit of a fluorescent light reports [1-5] that in other countries, individual illuminance
fixture is between 20% and 30%. We measured the relation- control increases intellectual productivity and reduces
ship between the color temperature and the dimming range power consumption. In view of this situation, we developed
for the illuminance. The experimental results showed that an "intelligent lighting system" that provides the desired
the dimming range for the illuminance was narrow. To illuminance and color temperature individually to each
provide each worker's desired illuminance and color tem- worker [7, 8). The intelligent lighting system is composed
perature, an LED ceiling light which can control the lumi- of adjustable lighting, illuminance sensors, and a power
nance between 0% and 100% is preferable. However, LED meter, with each connected to a network. The workers set
ceiling lights for olfice use have not been developed so far. their desired illuminance and color temperature in their
The two leading light equipment makers have prototyped sensors. Lighting with onboard artificial intelligence con-
LED ceiling lights. We developed an intelligent lighting trols the color based on an optimization algoritbm. Any
system using these lights and verified its effectiveness. The illuminance and color temperature can be achieved in any
experimental results showed that the proposed system location. We use an autonomous discrete optimization al-
could provide the required illuminance and color tempera- gorithm for the optimization algorithm, and each lighting
ture, and could achieve an energy savings of 60 to 80%. The unit performs color control autonomously so as to satisfy
intelligent system has a high affinity for LED lights. From the mtiltiple target illuminance levels set in the individual
the point of view of effective utilization of energy, the illuminance sensors.
intelligent lighting system using LED ceiling lights showed The illuminance diminishes as the square of the dis-
good performance. ® 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron tance between the lighting and the illuminance sensor (the
Comm Jpn, 95( 10): 54-63,2012; Published online in Wiley lighting measurement site), and as a result, local control that
Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI achieves the set illuminance in the set location can be
10.1002/ecj.l 0395 performed. In prior research we attempted individual con-
trol of the color temperature, and it was found that precise
control of the color temperature was more difficult than
Key words: LED light; optimization; intelligent; precise control of the illuminance [14, 15]. There are two
lighting system; energy saving; office environment. reasons. The first is that the necessary hue illuminance
meters used to measure the color temperature are very
ConlracI grant sponsor: 2009 funding from the Carbon Dioxide Emission expensive, and as a result setting them up for each worker
Reduction Measure.s Agency. is impractical. The second is that the range of the effects of

© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

color temperature is very difficult to adjust locally, in consumption can thus be reduced as a result of convergence
contrast to illuminance. Consequently, in an intelligent to the target illuminance and precise lighting control. On
lighting system, the sum of the differences in the target the other hand, in fluorescent lighting, the relationship
illuminance set by the illuminance sensors for each worker between intensity when adjusting it downward and power
and the current illuminance level must be minimized by consumption is not linear, and its efficiency is poor. Be-
using an illuminance optimization algorithm, and control cause the minimum intensity lighting forfluore.scentlights
to minimize the power output must be performed. The color is a high value of 20 to 30%, achieving low illuminance
temperature can be controlled by having each worker set values precisely is considered difficult. Further, control of
the color temperature for his or her lighting, resulting in the color temperature of the lighting can be performed by
control by area. varying tbe dimming level by means of fluorescent lights
Thus, in an intelligent lighting system, color tempera- with different color temperatures. However, the limits of
ture control for each lighting unit and illuminance control the color temperature and illuminance that can be achieved
for each sensor is performed, and a lighting pattern that increase because the minimum lighting intensity is high.
satisfies the target illuminance and minimizes power con- Thus, the effectiveness of intelligent lighting systems has
sumption is found. Because a low intensity level is set in an been demonstrated in prior verification experiments, but in
area with a low target illuminance, substantial energy con- addition the problems that occur due to using fluorescent
servation benefits can be expected compared to conven- lighting have been clarified.
tional office lighting that provides a uniformly lit In contrast, LED lighting can be adjusted from 0 to
environment. Improvements in intellectual productivity 100%. Thus, it is a superior light source for controlling
and comfort can also be expected as a result of individual illuminance and color temperature at any level. In prior
setting of the illuminance and color temperature at levels verification experiments, there was no ceiling lighting for
that the workers consider optimal for carrying out their offices that allowed for full dimming. As a consequence,
duties. fluorescent lighting was used. However, the use of LED
In the past, experiments have been performed in lighting can further improve energy conservation and al-
university laboratories [8] and in office work environments lows precise lighting adjustment, and it is expected to
to evaluate tbe performance of intelligent lighting systems. improve performance.
In a university, an experimental environment with 15 fluo- We developed new LED lighfing fixtures for grid
rescent lights and 3 illuminance sensors was created, and a ceilings in cooperation with representative light fixture
performance evaluation was carried out. As an experiment manufacturers (companies A and B) as a part of the devel-
in a real office, with the cooperation of Mitsubishi Estate opment of the "Ecozzeria" next-generation low-carbon
Co., Ltd., an experimental environment with 38 fluorescent technology testing office, then created an intelligent light-
lights and 39 illuminance sensors was created in a work ing system using the light fixtures. In this paper we present
space of approximately 235 m^ in the Second Bureau in the the features of the system and the benefits of using it and
Otemachi Building, and a verification experiment was per- propose an intelligent lighting system as a method for
formed [9]. making the most of what LED lighting has to offer.
Verification experiments related to convergence to
the target illuminance, the energy conservation effect, and
the preferred color temperature were performed. The results 2. What Is Intelligent Lighting?
confirmed a reduction of between 30 and 40% in power
consumption for lighting. Because the lighting system rep- In the past the goal for office heating, air condition-
resents approximately 20% of the energy consumption of ing, and lighting was to achieve a uniform environment, and
the entire building [10], the reduction due to individual work content or individual preferences were not addressed.
control of lighting is substantial. In addition, there is a trend However, in these offices, increased convenience and com-
in the values selected for the illuminance and the color fort of the people who work in the office, and achievement
temperature, and it became clear that the values selected by of an individually disparate and environmentally optimized
the workers varied. For the illuminance, a range between space that emphasizes intellectual productivity and creativ-
200 and 800 lux was found, and for the color temperature, ity are important issues. Such a space must be adaptively
a range between 2800 and 5000 K was found. This con- optimized from the point of view of not only tbe content of
firmed the need for precise control to satisfy worker pref- the work but also the sensibilities and mental health of each
erences as well as the effectiveness of an intelligent lighting individual. Improving the functionality of the lighting sys-
system for providing such control. tem, making it intelligent, and creating a highly functional
The verification experiments revealed a strong ten- office environment that could not be achieved in the past
dency for workers to prefer an illuminance less than 750 through connections with other electrical and electronic
lux at an office desk surface in an ordinary office. Power equipment are vital [2, 6].

Power Line
trolling illuminance and color temperature using fluores-
cent lighting, an illuminance range and a color temperature
range that can be adjusted must be set up. When using
„•"»^ ^
fluorescent lighting, control of both can be performed by
using fluorescent lights with different color temperatures.
,^ >-Ä>^ Lamp In general, when the light source is a fluorescent light,
there is the benefit that at high output, the fixture efficiency
is good. However, the fixture efficiency is not linear when
adjusting light levels. Furthermore, the lower limit for
! Illiimmaticc Sensor dimming is typically 20 to 30%, representing a narrow
range for the illuminance and color temperature.
Thus, by using two FL tubes, one at 3000 K and the
other at 5000 K, the fluorescent lighting widely used in
corporations and universities, we performed an experiment
Fig. 1. Intelligent lighting system. [Color figure can be to determine the illuminance and color temperature that can
viewed in the online issue, which is available at be achieved. Figure 2 shows the results. In the figure the
wileyonlinelibrary.com.] horizontal axis represents the color temperature and the
vertical axis represents the illuminance. The values are at a
location I m in the vertical direction from the center of the
lighting. The diagonal lines in the figure represent the
Based on this point of view, we proposed an intelli- region that can be controlled.
gent lighting system [7, 8] that realizes target illuminance As is clear from these results, the range of lighting
levels that vary hy location. As can be seen in Fig. 1, this that can be achieved at 4000 K is broad. Because the two
system is composed of light fixtures each of which has an tubes at different color temperatures provide lighting at an
embedded microprocessor and is connected to a network, approximately one-to-one ratio at 4000 K, a high level of
illuminance sensors that can send the target illuminance, lighting can be realized. Furthermore, because both tubes
the current illuminance, and other data over the network, can be illuminated at a minimum lighting level, low lighting
and a power meter that can measure power consumption in can also be achieved. For lighting with one tube at 3000 or
the lighting and pass that value to the network. In the 5000 K, high lighting levels cannot be achieved. The range
intelligent lighting system, the intensity and brightness of for dimming at 3300 or 4600 K is very limited. When
each light are controlled autonomously by the embedded emitting white light and an electric bulb color at a ratio of
microprocessor and artificial intelligence software, and the one-to-one, either fluorescent light can be operated at close
illuminance at a location with illuminance and color sensors to 100%. However, for lighting at a ratio of, say, one-to-
set up approaches the taiget value. Further, even at the same four, the lluorescent lighting with light-buIb color can be
illuminance, the perception of brightness varies depending operated at 100% for a maximum lighting pattern, but the
on the color temperature. As a result, in the intelligent white light can only reach 25%. On the other hand, because
lighting system, adjustment of the color temperature of the
lighting is also performed, and users can change the lighting
to their preferred color. Because a range of control for the
color temperature has been created, the specified color 1800
temperature can be achieved by changing the emission ratio 1400
of the light source by means of two light sources with
different color temperatures. 1000

600 .
3. The Need to Use LED Lighting
Providing a range over which workers can select their 3000 3S00 4000 4500 5000
desired illuminance and color temperature and using light- Color Temperature [K]
ing that has a good emission efficiency when adjusting the
lighting so as to reduce power consumption are important Fig. 2. Relationship between color temperature and
for the intelligent lighting system. dimming range of illuminance (fluorescent light fixture).
The intelligent lighting system has been subjected to [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is
experiments using fluorescent lighting [7, 8]. When con- available at wileyonlinelibrai'y.com.]

a minimum lighting level exists for a fluorescent light, if
the minimum lighting level is assumed to be 20%, then the
fluorescent light with light-bulb color can be operated at
80% and the white light at 20% for the minimum lighting
pattern, which represents a narrow range of the intensity
150 200 J50 300
that can be controlled. It can be seen that the range of
illuminance that can be achieved by using color temperature (a) Control range of illuminance (b) Electric power consumption
in tbis way is significant.
When using LEDs, because dimming can be adjusted Fig. 3. Performance of LEDs (company A).
from 0 to 100%, this kind of control range limit does not
exist. An intelligent lighting system that uses LEDs is
essential in addressing the wide-ranging needs of users.
order to measure the brightness of the lighting, a total light
flux measurement device is required. Because we did not
4. Performance of LED Lighting for a Correlated
have such a device, this information was acquired by the
Color Temperature Variable Grid following method. The horizontal axis shows the signal
value and the vertical axis shows the illuminance and power
We developed LED lighting fixtures for a grid with consumption. The lighting is controlled by using PWM,
variable color temperature that can be adjusted from 0 to with 256 levels of adjustment.
100% with the cooperation of two leading lighting equip-
We performed a comparison with the lighting using
ment manufacturers (companies A and B) as a part of the
fluorescent tubes commonly utilized in offices and univer-
development of Ecozzeria. When using an LED with vari-
sities. Figure 5 shows the results. Based on these results, it
able color temperature, the range of adjustment is from 0 to
is clear that the equipment efficiency is good when the
100%, and the achievable ranges of variation of the illumi-
illuminance value is low for LED lighting. Illuminance and
nance and color temperature are substantial.
power consumption are correlated, as shown in the above
In order to create the basic reference illuminance for results. On the other hand, at low illuminance, power con-
an office with grid LED lighting equipment, two methods, sumption drops. In an intelligent lighting system, lighting
one using power LEDs and the other using spot LEDs, can is controlled so as to satisfy the requirements of both
be considered. Power LEDs are a strong light source and workers who prefer high illuminance and workers who
are highly energy efficient. On the other band, when using prefer low illuminance. Prior verification experiments have
spot LEDs, glare and other discomlbrt is minimal because shown that there are more workers who want low illumi-
tbe light source cannot be seen. However, the number of nance, and thus the introduction of LEDs with good equip-
components is large, and the costs are high. We used two ment efficiency at a low illuminance is likely to be
different types, with company A developing lighting equip- extremely important.
ment using power LEDs, and company B developing light-
Furthermore, when the minimum illuminance levels
ing equipment using spot LEDs.
of fluorescent lighting and LED lighting are compared,
In order to set up the control range for the color
fluorescent lighting cannot be implemented below 300 lux
temperature in the lighting equipment, two light sources, a
for any color. In contrast, because LED lighting can be
light bulb-colored LED and a white-light LED, were used.
adjusted from 0 to 100%, the range over which the illumi-
Table 1 lists the color temperature range and colorrendering
nance can be controlled for a set color temperature is
index (/?„) that can be achieved and were found through
broader. Thus, LED lighting can be considered ideal for
experiments. Based on Fig. 3, Fig. 4 shows the illuminance
intelligent lighting because the emission efficiency is high
at a point I m above tbe ground directly below the center
of the lighting together with the power consumption. In

Table I. Control range for the color temperature

5 JO

Company A Company B
Daylight{K) 4600 5700 150 200 250 300 50 10O l]0 200 250 300

Neutral - white(K) 3000 2900

(a) Control range of illuminance (b) Electric power consumption
Ra 70 70(5700K)
80(2900K) Fig. 4. Performance of LEDs (company B).

200 350 ÎO0

(a)Control range of illuminance (b) Electric power consumption

Fig. 5. Performance of fluorescent light fixtures. v

H"~ "
Fig. 6. Configuration. [Color figure can be viewed in
for low illuminance values and the controllable ranges of the online issue, which is available at
the color temperature and the illuminance are large. wileyonlinelibrary.com.]
When comparing the LED lighting manufactured by
company A and the LED lighting manufactured by com-
pany B, company A used power LEDs, which have few
components and are highly energy efficient [13]. However, therefore used a control PC and optimized the intensity of
company B had wide light distribution angles and low the lighting there.
illuminance values immediately below the lighting, and
1280 spot white lights and light bulb-colored LEDs were 5.1 Control of color temperatnre
arranged in alternation. As a result, the discomfort level
when looking at the lighting was low, and the color render- We controlled the color temperature by using soft
ing index /?„ had a high value. With respect to the color white and daylight-white LEDs. Table 2 lists the light ratios
temperature, the range that can be achieved is different, as for the white light and soft white light at the color tempera-
shown in Table 1, and the two types of ceiling LED lighting tures found and achieved in the experiments. The lighting
equipment with different specifications were created suc- equipment from company A involved two types: soft-white
cessfully. Lighting suitable for a system based on emission color at 3000 K and daylight color at 5000 K. Thus, the two
efficiency, controllable light temperature, and color render- types of LEDs produced additive light ratios and achieved
ing index can be selected. a color temperature between these values. For instance, in
order to reach 3800 Kelvin, the soft-white and daylight
devices were operated at a ratio of one-to-one. On the other
hand, the lighting equipment from company B involved
5. Creation of an Intelligent Lighting System Using LEDs at 2900 K and 5700 K. Thus, the light ratio was the
LED Lighting light percentage given in Table 2.

The benefits of using LED lighting were shown in the

previous section. We created an intelligent lighting system
using this lighting. An illuminance sensor was placed above
the desk of each worker, and each worker set the target
illuminance individually using a user interface on their own Table 2. Color temperature ratio
computers. The lighting fixtures could be selected, and the
Color Temp. (K) Light ratio(%) Light ratio(%)
color temperature could be set individually. Figure 6 shows
Company A Company B
the configuration of the system used in the verification White Lamp White Lamp
experiments. The experiments were performed with 11 2800 - - 0 100
subjects using a total of 24 lights, 8 LED lights from 3000 0 100 1 9
company A and 16 LED lights from company B, and 13 3200 2 15 1 5
3400 3 10 1 3
sensors. The range over which the lighting could be set was
3600 4 7 1 2
from 300 to 900 lux, and the color temperature was variable 3800 1 1 2 3
from 2800 to 5000 K. For the optimization software to 4000 3 2 6 7
control the lighting, we considered creating a PC version 4200 9 4 18 17
and incorporating it into the lighting. However, in the 4400 4 1 4 3
4G00 9 1 5 3
verification experiments, verification including improve-
.'inoo - - 3 1
ments to the optimization software was performed, and we

6. Performance Evaluation

Figures 7 and 8 show the locations of the lighting and

the sensors. In the experiments reported here, we used 24
LED lights and 13 illuminance sensors. The numbers in the
figure are the number of the light and the number of the
sensor. The LED lights from company B were assigned to
0 to 15, and the LED lights from company A were assigned
to 16 to 23. The illuminance sensors were set on the tops of
the desks.

6.1 Content of the experiment

We introduced the intelligent lighting system in Oc-

tober 2009 at the Shinmaru Building Ecozzeria. Based on
the log data for the operating conditions after introduction,
we undertook a performance evaluation of the trends in Fig. 8. Locations of sensors. [Color figure can be
worker illuminance preference, color temperature selec- viewed in the online issue, which is available at
tion, and power consumption. Because this was a real work
space, an experiment limiting use to a set illuminance or a
set color temperature was not performed. Veriflcation was
performed for the effects when workers used intelligent
6.2 Results of the experiment
lighting freely.
For the log data acquired during the operation of the Based on the color temperature history for the light-
intelligent lighting system, time data (year, month, day, ing in a given month, the current illuminance and target
hour, minute), the intensity of each light, the current illu- illuminance history for the illuminance sensors, and the
minance for each illuminance sensor, the target illuminance power consumption history, we made a performance evalu-
for each illuminance sensor, whether workers were at their ation of the intelligent lighting system using LED lighting.
desks or away, and the power consumption levels were Figure 9 shows the history for the color temperature. Fig.
output every minute. 10 shows the history for the target illuminance. Fig. II
shows the history for the current illuminance, and Fig. 12
shows the history for power consumption. The horizontal
axis represents the date, and the vertical axis shows the
color temperature, illuminance, and power consumption.

6000 Average Ma.x. (No. 18)-»- Variation Max. (No.9) -*-

Average MiiUNo.3) - » - Variation Min. (No.3) o


5' 4000
t J ' t=J o
" 3000


i 000
Fig. 7. Locations of lights. [Color figure can be viewed O0 10 15 20 25 ."iO
in the online issue, which is available at
wileyonlinelibrary.com.] Fig. 9. Color temperature history.

Average Max
f Averílge Min. (No.O) -^-f

1 Variation Max.(No.I) ..*./
800 1 Variation Min (No.01 . o /





10 15 20 25 30 10 15 20 25 30

Fig. 10. Target illuminance history. Fig. 12. Electric power consumption history.

The color temperature of the lighting is discussed Based on Fig. 10, the target illuminance was set to
here. In an office or other work environment, 5000 K 200 to 800 lux, indicating that the illuminance set by the
lighting is generally used. However, based on results of the workers varied. This shows that there is a range in which
experiments, it is clear that there is a range from 3000 to the illuminance is felt to be comfortable by workers, and
5500 K for the color temperature preferred. Even in prior that an intelligent lighting system that can be adjusted
verification experiments, results in which a color tempera- locally for each individual is effective.
ture from 3500 to 4000 K lighting was preferred were Based on the current illuminance history in Fig. 11,
obtained. Thus, there is a substantial range for the color it is clear thai the target illuminance is 150 to 400 lux with
temperature preferred by individuals, demonstrating the respect to 200 to 800 lux. In order to control the lighting so
effectiveness of using LED lighting that can control the that the difference between the illuminance level set by all
color temperature across a wide range. of the workers and the current illuminance level is mini-
Next, let us consider tbe illuminance bislory. There mized in the intelligent lighting system when requiring an
were 13 illuminance sensors used, but here, the discussion illuminance that is different for nearby workers, tbe differ-
is based on the following characteristic changes. The ence between the cuiTent illuminance level and the target
changes here consider the total in tbe change of the data for illuminance level has a strong tendency to converge on an
I minute compared to the data from the previous minute. illuminance in between. That the current illuminance level
Data in which large changes occurred frequently were converted on 200 to 600 lux shows that control that nearly
extracted. satisfied the needs of the workers could be achieved. More-
over, based on Fig. 9, it is clear that a color temperature
between white and light-bulb color was often selected.
However, because low illuminance levels cannot be
achieved with current lighting, the results of using the LED
Average Max. (No.l2) Varisüofi Mas. (No.lz) - *.. lighting, which can be adjusted from 0 to 100%, demon-
Average Min. (No.6) Variation Min. (No.4) a
strated that precise illuminance control could be under-
Finally, let us consider power consumption. Power
consumption is represented as a ratio, with the reference
power consumption calculated set to 100%. For the Shin-
maru Building Ecozzeria, the reference power level was
1560 W, and this represents 100%.
The results in Fig. 12 show that the power consump-
tion reached 20 to 40% due to the introduction of the
intelligent lighting system. Thus, a reduction of 60 to 80%
was achieved in comparison with the reference power. Days
with a power consumption level of 0% were holidays, on
Fig. 11. Current illuminance history. which there was no staff present. The reason for the sub-

stantial reduction in power consumption is the relation 2. Embrechts R, Van Bellegem C. Increased energy
between the reduction in illuminance described above, the savings by individual light control. Proc of Right
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7. Conclusions 4. Boyce PR, Eklund N, Simpson H. Individual lighting
control: Task performance, mood, and illuminance. J
We have developed new LED lighting equipment for Ilium Eng Soc 2000;Winter: 131-142.
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and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation as a part of the devel- surface illuminances and the benefits of individual
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nology testing office promoted hy Mitsubishi Estate Co., Annual Conference, p 101-113, Salt Lake City, 2002.
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1. Boyce PR, Eklund NH, Simpson SN. Individual

Lighting control: Task performance, mood and illu-
minance. J Ilium Eng Soc 2000:131-142.

AUTHORS (from left to right)

Keiko Ono (member) completed the M.E. program at the Graduate School of Engineering of Doshisha University in 2003
and completed her doctoral studies in 2007. She was a research faculty member (associate professor) at the Energy Conservation
Lighting Systems Research Center of the Research and Development Institute of Doshisha University in 2009. She became an
associate professor in tbe Department of Electronics and Informatics of the Faculty of Science of Ryukoku University in 2010.
She is engaged in research on parallel processing, optimization design, and evolutionary computing. She holds a D.Eng. degree,
and is a member of IPSJ, the Japanese Society for Evolutionary Computation, and the Architectural Institute of Japan.

Mitsunori Miki (member) completed the doctoral program at the Graduate School of Engineering of Osaka City University
in 1978. After becoming a reseai-cher at the Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute and subsequently an associate
professor at Kanazawa Institute of Technology, he became an associate professor in the Department of Aeronautics and
Aerospace Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Osaka Prefecture. He was appointed a professor in
the Faeulty of Engineering of Doshisha University in 1994, and is now a professor in the Graduate School of Informatics. His
fields of research include systems engineering, optimization, and parallel processing. Recently he has been engaged in research
and development on intelligent lighting systems, extending technology that combines parallel processing and optimization to
the field of office lighting. His publications include Adaptation, Intelligence, and Optimization Methods to Resolve Engineering
Problems (Gihodo Press), Evolving Artificial Materials (Ohmsha Publishing), and Technology for Smarter Intelligent Manu-
facturing (Chukei Press). He has been a director of the Society liir Massively Parallel Processing and a member of the Ministry
of Economy, Trade, and Industry Manufacturing Technology Investigation Committee. He holds a D.Eng. degree, and is a
member of IEEE, NASA, IPSJ, JSAI, ISCIE, JSME, the Japan Society for Computational Engineering and Science, and the
Japan Society fbr Aeronautical and Space Sciences.

Masato Yoshimi (nonmember) received a bachelor's degree from the Department of Informatics of Keio University in
2004 and completed the latter half of the doctoral program in environmental science at the Graduate School of Engineering in
2009. He was a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science postdoctoral fellow (DCI ) starting in 2006. He is now an associate
professor in the Faculty of Engineering of Doshisha University. He is engaged in research on reconfigurable systems, parallel
processing, and intelligent systems. He holds a D.Eng. degree, and is a member of IPSJ, IEICE, and JSAI.

Tatsuo Nishimoto (nonmember) received a bachelor's degree from the Department of Legal Studies of Keio University
in 1988 and joined Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. He was primarily engaged in supervision in the field of urban development,
working on the redevelopment of the Marunouchi area in Tokyo. He was involved in introducing environmental coexistence
technology from the city master plan to individual building development. He is now head of the City Planning Office, and
assistant director of the Building Assets Development Department.

Tetsuya Omi (nonmember) completed his studies in societal engineering at the Graduate School of Engineering of Tokyo
Institute of Technology in 1998. He was involved in facilities development for the Exhibition Pavilion and Otemachi Café, and
in regional strategy development for resource reuse by autonomous districts. He has been working on business development
for environmental coexistence urban development at Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. since 2007. He is assistant director of the
Ecozzeria Bureau.

A U T H O R S (continued) (from left to right)

Hiroshi Adachi (nonmember) received his graduate degree from the Graduate School of Engineering at Keio University
in 2000 and joined Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. He moved to Mitsubishi Jisho Sekkei, Inc. in 2001. He is primarily associated
with the Building Design Depaitment, working on the design and management of electrical systems lor buildings.

Masatoshi Akita (nonmember) received a bachelor's degree from the Department of Informatics in the Faculty of
Engineering at Doshisha University in 2009 and entered the M.E. program in the Graduate School of Engineering. He is now
engaged in research on new control methods for intelligent lighting systems. He is a member of IEEE.

Yoshihiro Kasahara (nonmember) received a bachelor's degree from the Department of Intelligent Informatics of Doshisha
University in 2010 and is now in the first stage of the doctoral program there. He is engaged in research on intelligent systems.

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