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1- Landforms and Resources

I) Peninsulas and Islands


A) a peninsula is just a landmass surrounded on three sides by water
a) this means Europe itself is one large peninsula
B) Northern Peninsulas
a) major peninsulas in the north include the Scandinavian Peninsula and Jutland
Peninsula
(i) in Norway, glaciers once carved deep inlets (called fjords) that today are bordered
by many small peninsulas
C) Southern Peninsulas
a) the Iberian Peninsula includes Spain and Portugal
b) the Italian (or Apennine) Peninsula is the boot shape
c) the Balkan Peninsula includes Greece
(i) also part of the Balkan Peninsula is the Peloponnesian Peninsula
D) Islands
a) larger islands include Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, and Greenland
b) other major islands in the Mediterranean are Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Crete, and
Cyprus
II) Mountains and Uplands
A) mountains form natural barriers between people, trade, and have presented obstacles in
the transfer of ideas
a) in many cases this has led to a separation between languages and ethnicities, which
has historically caused many tensions (wars)
B) Mountain Chains
a) most famous is the Alps that cross France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and
part of the Balkan Peninsula
b) the Pyrenees separate the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) from France
c) the Apennine Mountains run down Italy and separate it between east and west
d) the Balkan Mountains block the Balkan Peninsula from the rest of Europe
C) Uplands
a) uplands include areas that have a high altitude, but are not mountains
(i) sometimes these are ancient mountains that have been worn down
b) these include the Scottish highlands, the Central Uplands of Germany, and the Meseta
of Spain
III) Rivers: Europe’s Links
A) rivers are widely used for quick transportation, primarily of goods between countries
a) the largest and most important are the Danube and Rhine
B) historically, rivers helped people migrate and helped to spread ideas
IV) Fertile Plains: Europe’s Bounty
A) widely used for agriculture
a) the most fertile area stretches across France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany,
Denmark, and Poland
B) these areas historically are the locations of massive troop movements during various wars
because they’re easy to traverse
V) Resources Shape Europe’s Economy
A) Natural Resources
a) two most popular are coal and iron ore
(i) as these are non-renewable, they are valuable, but will run out
(ii) the two together make steel, allowing the region to industrialize quickly and
cheaply
1 areas with the highest deposits were the first to industrialize and continue to
be the most advanced
b) other resources include fish, silver, copper, etc
B) Energy
a) oil and natural gas allowed Europe to remain relevant as those resources gained value
b) France doesn’t have much oil and gas, so they are very dependent on nuclear energy
(i) use more nuclear energy than any other nation on earth
C) Agriculture
a) a large part (about 33%) of Europe’s land has very healthy soil, allowing many areas
to nearly be self-sufficient and trade only for luxury foods
VI) Resources Shape Life
A) because resources aren’t evenly distributed, the region has complex trade
a) Poland developed mining, and trade for food and other resources
B) some areas learned to live without certain resources
a) Ireland, for instance, collects peat to burn as fuel instead of oil or coal
(i) peat is partially decayed plant matter found in bogs

pg. 277 (1, 3ab) R (1, 3) H

2- Climate and Vegetation

I) Westerly Winds Warm Europe


A) much of Europe is a marine west coast climate
a) despite the latitude of Europe, the climate is surprisingly comfortable
(i) much of this is caused by the North Atlantic Drift (Gulf Coast Stream) that brings
warm water across the Atlantic Ocean
(ii) wind then carries warm air from the warm water to heat up much of Europe
1 this also brings moisture, which in part is why much of the soil is healthy
(iii) since the wind comes from the northwest, most of Europe is affected because
there are no barriers blocking the wind
B) much of Europe used to be covered in thick forests, but over the years the area was
stripped to allow for farms to expand
II) Harsher Conditions Inland
A) those who are far from the northern winds are much colder
a) these areas include Sweden, Finland, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania
b) most vegetation in the region tends to be coniferous, which can more easily survive in
colder climates
III) The Sunny Mediterranean
A) the Mediterranean climate covers southern Spain and France, and covers all of Italy,
Greece, and much of the Balkan Peninsula
a) hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters
b) the climate is able to remain in the area without drifting north due to the many
mountain ranges that help to contain wind and rain
B) Special Winds
a) an exception to this pattern is the mistral, a cold dry wind in France in an area
unprotected by mountains
b) most countries have the sirocco, a hot steady wind from North Africa
C) Tourists
a) due to the natural beauty of the vegetation of the Mediterranean coupled with the
warm, dry summers, the area is able to gain lots of money from tourism
b) the climate also means certain crops, like citrus fruits, olives, grapes, etc, are
available, which the region is famous for
IV) Land of the Midnight Sun
A) northern Scandinavia has a tundra climate, and much of it is frozen throughout the year
a) very little grows there and they must import most of their food
b) due to the latitude, the area receives lots of sun during the summer (months of it) and
no sun during the winter
(i) because of this, it is often called the Land of the Midnight Sun

pg. 280 (1, 3a)

3- Human-Environment Interaction

I) Polders: Land from the Sea


A) the Dutch needed more farmland, and ended up draining a swampy area
a) this area is Holland today
B) Seaworks
a) the Dutch erected seaworks to control the sea
(i) these include dikes (dams) and terpen (high platforms made of dirt)
b) this has been happening for centuries, and the Dutch have added to the structures until
the area is quite safe
(i) to clear the water, pumps were installed run by windmills
1 today they are electric
C) Transforming the Sea
a) the Dutch also blocked an area of the North Sea and created a lake, which eventually
lost the salt and became freshwater
(i) the area around it was drained, leaving even more farmland
II) Waterways for Commerce: Venice’s Canals
A) Venice is made up of 118 islands mostly linked together
a) the largest two are San Marco and Rialto
b) everything in the city must be brought by boat
B) An Island City Grows
a) Venice was started by people looking for a safe place to live in a time when outside
attacks were frequent
(i) some islands were natural, and others were constructed with large trees placed in
the water that support the land- these are now petrified and as hard as rock
1 the buildings are too heavy, so Venice is slowly sinking
2 the number of tourists each year also helps to sink it
C) Problems Today
a) sewage, industrial waste, and saltwater eat away at the foundations and damage the
buildings themselves
b) flooding has damaged many historic buildings and artwork
c) a special algae grows easily, which uses up the oxygen in the water, which leads to
dead fish, which leads to bugs and bad smells
III) A Centuries-Old Problem: Deforestation
A) forests have been being cleared for hundreds of years to provide lumber, clear space for
farms, and burn for fuel
B) Acid Rain
a) in the 1960s people began to notice many trees were becoming discolored and dying
(i) scientists found this was due to acid rain, a byproduct of extreme industrialization

pg. 285 (1, 3c) R (1, 3) H